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Understanding Organizations through the Modern and Symbolic-Interpretive Lenses
Events and phenomena that occur in people's everyday lives can be looked at and interpreted through different lenses. In the field of sociology, these 'lenses' are termed as "perspectives," which defines and describes a specific "worldview" through which people might interpret a specific event or phenomenon. These perspectives can be applied in different areas or domains of a person's life; perspectives being sociological in their nature, they are almost always reflective of realities experienced by people, even if they differ in cultural and social backgrounds. Among the well-known perspectives in understanding social events and phenomena are the modernist and symbolic-interpretive perspectives. The modernist perspective is, by extension, known to be the anti-thesis of critical theory, another well-known perspective in the field of sociology.
In the sections that follow, these perspectives will be discussed in-depth and in more detail, particularly when…
Cooper, R. (1989). "Modernism, post modernism and organizational analysis 3: the contribution of Jacques Derrida." Organization Studies, Vol. 10, No. 4.
Gibbs, J. (2009). "Culture as kaleidoscope: navigating cultural tensions in global collaboration." Association for Computing Machinery.
Jokinen, T. (Ed.). (2006). "Organizations and Management." In Estiem Vision of Cycles Seminar Proceedings. Oulu: Oulu University.
Mumby, D. (1997). "Modernism, postmodernism and communication studies: a rereading of an ongoing debate." Communication Theory, Vol. 7, No. 1.
So, the experiential tool kit for medieval dance must include some knowledge of the development of polyphonic music.
The prime function of lyric was to accompany dance. Churchmen many times attacked the practice of dance songs in the worship service as heretical. For instance, Gnostic churches loved dance in the religious service as a way to self-discovery and self-wisdom. The widespread condemnation of the practice would indicate how unstoppable it was and how popular it was. For this reason, we can readily explain why it was tolerated (Patterson 96).
The argument in 2 is most like response D. To begin with, there is a statement in which one thing can not happen if another is true. In the statement, Columbus and Akron cannot both be in Carly Simon's tour route. In a similar line of logic, Annabelle will not vote for Anastasia if Alexis does not run. In the…
Diehl, Daniel, and Mark Donnelly. Medieval celebrations. London: Stackpole Books,
"Medieval Dance." Shoshone. Web. 24 May 2010.
5%. Symptoms were prevelent enough to require the same kinds of injections one would get in high mountain climbing. The CO2, however, fluctuated daily probably because of a different manner in which drawdown during sunlight interacted with night respiration. The crew had to constantly monitor and tweak these levels, often by manipulating irrigation, cutting and storing biomass, and increasing or decreasing photosynthesis. Some thought that this unplanned fuxuation came about because of a series of microbial growth spurts in the soil (Marino and Odum, 1999).
The second stage of the experiment is what brought it to a close. It was scheduled to last from March 1994 to January 1995, but, because of a series of disputes between management, problems within the second crews dynamics, and members of the first crew violating the clsure rule, it was dissolved on September 6, 1994. Experts came into the facility and found that one…
Arenson, K. (2003, September 9). Columbia University Ends Its Association With Biosphere 2. Retrieved September 18, 2010, from The New York Times: http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C02E7D6173BF93AA3575AC0A9659C8B63
Broad, W. (1996, November 19). Paradise Lost: Biosphere Retooled as Atmospheric Nightmare. Retrieved September 18, 2010, from The New York Times: http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE2D9133AF93AA25752C1A960958260
Erickson, M. (2005). Science, Culture, and Society. Malden, MA: Polity Press.
Marino and Odum. (1999). Biosphere 2: Research Past and Present. Burlington, MA: Elsevier.
He dies on the beach as he is trying to rise out of his chair and go to meet the boy.
Mann's story is reflective of an artist who has come to realize that his art has been false since it has not come from a place of true emotion and passion. The story has parallels with Euripides' The Bachae, in which the hero Pentheus is repressed in his artistic approach to life until he comes to inject elements of Dionysian revelry into his life, whereupon he dresses up in youthful clothes (like the old man Aschenbach met on his journey), and throws himself into life. In a passage in which Aschenbach quotes Plato's Phaedras, he also makes his own realization that he has been repressed because he hasn't accepted the beauty of emotion and passion into his art. His attraction to the boy Tadzio has made him aware of…
Euripides. Three Plays of Euripides: Alcestis, Medea, The Bachae, Paul Roche, Trans., New York: WW Norton, 1974.
Mann, Thomas. Death in Venice. Stanley Applebaum, Trans., Mineola, NY: Dover, 1995.
Plato. Plato's Paedras. R. Hackforth, Trans., Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1972.
Ralph aldo Emerson's idealized and mesmerizing description of the role and life of the poet describes not only the particular calling and obligation of those who choose to follow the poetic muses but also -- because of Emerson's own influence on the writings of Americans who followed him -- proved to be a strongly proscriptive piece of advice for other poets and writers in the decades after Emerson helped to found the 19th-century artistic and philosophical movement called Transcendentalism. The Transcendentalists defined themselves by their belief in a highly idealistic and fundamentally coherent system of belief in the essential unity of all things on earth -- the connection of each thing to its neighbor -- as well as a belief in the absolute importance of personal experience and insight (as opposed to knowledge and beliefs gained through formal logic and formal education) and the essential goodness of humanity.
Many people know that they are not educated enough in the complicated technologies that are seen in cloud computing and insider threats. As such, it is often a general consensus of the people to not trust such technologies they cannot clearly define. Using a systems-oriented approach will allow the current research to dive into these opinions and help uncover what societal structures are leading to this general sense of mistrust and disapproval. A system-oriented approach will allow the research to understand what factors influence people to fear the topics so much, while others tend to see cloud computing as a new wave of the future. These can lead into assumptions regarding divisions in society that can account for very different viewpoints from a holistic approach.
This can be combined with the use of thick description as a way to get underneath some of the more shallow responses participants might provide.…
Schram. (2006). Clarifying your perspective.
Shank. (2006). Interpreting.
Hermeneutics (interpretive) paradigm
This is a more complex approach to the explanation of the social events live poverty. Basically it deals with a detailed interpretation of written/oral histories to explain current social order and the social happenings like poverty among other factors. There are varies backgrounds that people come from, an in each community or society or even culture, there is always the stories of people and how they lived with each other. Therein are the details of the people who were once rich within that society as well as those who were poor (Joe eichertz, 2012).
The historical poverty within a given group of people is a thing that is found among all religions and all cultural groupings. Even in the Bible, there are those who were historically known to be from the richer tribes and those from the poorer tribes. It is on the same vain that the…
Haralambos and Holborn. Sociology: Themes and Perspective. 5th Edition, page 11). Collins
Joe Reichertz, (2012). Objective Hermeneutics and Hermeneutic Sociology of Knowledge.
Retrieved February 27, 2012 form https://www.uni-due.de/imperia/md/content/kowi/hermeneutikenglisch.pdf
3. How does the author discuss the relationship between the individual and society?
Once again, interpretivism sees this relationship as a complex and intricate set of actions and interactions that are largely dependent on cultural and social context. In other words, there is no "correct "view of self but rather self and the individual's relationship with society is a result of interaction in different contexts. This view is contrasted with the more objective views of functionalism and Marxism, where the self is seen either in terms of its functional relation to the society or as an object of social repression.
4. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of human behavior?
As has been mentioned, the stress in this article is on the importance of context in the interpretivist view of the individual and society. It is this understanding of context that acts as the determining factor…
There are, of course, a number of theoretical approaches to social science -- and a number of sub-theories that construct a larger, more detailed template that helps us critique the differences between critical social science, and the positivist and interpretive views. eally, as noted, there are a number of means to an end. There are some fundamental questions that social scientists must answer that have been seminal questions for millennium -- namely; from where does knowledge arise -- how do we "know" what we know. We can be as basic as going back to Plato's ideas of forms being individual -- my red is not your red, etc. But really, what is the major question with which we must deal? It is, of course, using critical thinking to uncover more information so that we may act upon it in a professional manner.
Critical thinking is primarily a way…
Brown, M. And S. Keeley. (2009). Asking the Right Questions: A Guide to Critical
Thinking. 9th ed. New York: Prentice Hall.
Gilcken, M. (2010). Social Work in the 21st Century. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Utility of Political Inquiry Models: Scientific vs. Interpretive
Scientific methods of inquiry, also called empirical, positivist, or rational approaches, are used by the vast majority of researchers in the social sciences (deLeon, 1998). The scientific approach has largely relied on a behaviorist approach, which defines human behavior as following the laws of nature and therefore inherently predicable. The logical conclusion from this is that the goal of political research is being able to predict the behavior of humans as they engage in politics. As Douglas Torgerson stated in 1986, "… knowledge would replace politics" (as cited by deLeon, 1998, p. 148).
In contrast, the interpretive school of political inquiry advocates for a more nuanced approach, one that recognizes that human behavior, whether by individuals or groups, is far too complex to render it reducible to quantitative measures (deLeon, 1998). Rather than having a goal of being able to…
Coffield, C. Ditmar. "Welfare Reform in Indiana: The Political Economy of Restricting Access to Education and Training." Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 23.3 (2002): 261-284. Print.
Connolly, William. The Terms of Political Discourse, 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 1993. Print.
deLeon, Peter. "Models of Policy Discourse: Insights vs. Predictions." Policy Studies Journal, 26.1 (1998): 147-161. Print.
Manos, Steven S. "From Welfare to Work and Vice Versa." New York Times 30 June 1994: A22. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.
To prove either side of the argument, the sensitivity and impact needs to be assessed -- there is no blanket rule of everything being transparent, or everything being private; it is dependent upon the sensitivity and overall impact of the issue at hand.
3. ources: Hunold, C. And B. Peters. (2004). "Bureaucratic Discretion and Deliverative Democracy." Transformation in Governance. IGI Publishing; Holzer, M. And K. Yang. (April 1, 2005). "Administrative Discretion in a Turbulent Time: An Introduction. Public Administration Quarterly. Cited in: www.highbeamresearch.com.
4. How does a cost-benefit analysis used in the determination of due process?
Using, for example, Miranda v Arizona, a cost-benefit analysis is used to determine due-process in the sense of the decision's impact on law enforcement and the community needs to be taken into consideration before a ruling of using Miranda, 5th Amendment Rights, and basic procedures. The Rehnquist Court's decision in the idea of cost-benefit,…
Sources: Administrative Procedure Act of (1946); Federal Administrative Procedure Act, Cited in: http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/Courses/study_aids/adlaw/
4. Distinguish among the following three terms: procedural rules, interpretive rules, and substantive rules. Explain the meaning and use of each.
a. Procedural Rules are rules that govern how prosecutions are conducted. The rules, which may be Federal or State, and may also govern different types of legal proceeding, e.g. criminal, are designed as a guide or template for the manner in which the Court proceeds on a given matter -- what it hears, what happens, and in what manner are issues resolved. The rules are designed to protect due process and ensure a fair and consistent application across the board. Essentially, Procedural Rules outline a "means" of conducting a court action. Creation of law.
b. Interpretive Rules -- Used in various ways depending on Federal, State, or local, they are the Court's view of the specific rule and the interpretation of its meaning. Known sometimes as the "legal effect" test, sometimes interpretive rules suggest or even engender new law. At times, law is so complex in specific cases or events, that a greater "interpretation" of the intent
The theory sees human organizational behaviors and conceptions culturally bound, rather than natural, unlike advocates of systems theory. Systems theory has been more influenced by sociology and linguistics than the natural sciences.
Analyzing symbolic interpretations may be more useful in organizations serving diverse populations: if a public health organization wants to alleviate the prevalence of diabetes in an area, it is not enough to more effectively disseminate information through the existing channels of communication (as systems theory might suggest) or even change the environment to create healthy options for consumption. Rather the people being served may require counseling to change what they consider good foods, a healthy diet, and a positive body image, if their culture tends to reinforce unhealthy practices. An ideological overhaul is necessary to change some behaviors, like the decreased social acceptability of smoking, for example. Organizations are social as well as formal, and cultural in nature…
Hatch, Mary Jo. (1997). Organization theory: Modern, symbolic and postmodern perspectives.
Oxford University Press, 2nd edition.
For example, one may see that there are "various interpretations" of certain news stories in which the subtext of what is said suggests a different story than the main narrative. While I know that often such in-depth reading is confined to the academic realm, this is not a necessary confinement. I truly understand that few things in life or in literature have just one interpretation or level of understanding, and it is therefore important to pay attention to all the details.
5. Apply literary terms and interpretive techniques to read, discuss, and write about literature.
Obviously as a teacher and as a student I have had a great deal of experience using literary techniques to discuss literature. I understand that literature interpretation is as independent discipline and like all fields has specific terminology with which one must be familiar in order to function. I am familiar with and understand a…
Gorski, Paul and Covert, Bob. "Defining Multicultural Education" Multicultural Pavilion: Working Definitions. http://edchange.org/multicultural/initial.html
The Parts of an Argument." The Writing Center, University of Virginia Writing Program. http://www.engl.virginia.edu/writing/wctr/Parts.html
Barriers encountered in the Capstone project revolved around the idea that the staff felt it was not there job to read rhythm strips, and did not make the time to get off the floor for any continuing education. Good leadership can help eliminate these kinds of problems, as the problems have to be addressed from the standpoint of people who will insist that everyone does his or her job and makes the time to get involved with things like continuing education. As can be seen, there are generally a number of barriers that are encountered when trying to implement a change in practice. Even if that change will resolve a problem or address a concern, many people are still going to be resistant to it. The main barriers can include resistance to change from staff, lack of leadership, lack of resources (both financial and fiscal), environment, communication, and…
American Nurses Association. (2001). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements (Publication no. CEN21 10M 08/03). Washington, DC: Author.
Finkelman, A., & Kenner, C. (2010). Professional nursing concepts. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Funk, S.G., Tornquist, E., & Champagne, M.T. (1991). BARRIERS: The barriers to research utilizations scale. Applied Nursing Research, 4, 39-45.
Pexton, C. (2005). Overcoming the barriers to change in the healthcare system. Retrieved from http://healthcare.isixsigma.com/library/content/c050413a.asp
Alternatively, the person or group acknowledged as a legitimate representative may wish that the museum could continue to hold an object for the benefit of the other party." (oyd, nd; p. 196) in this instance there should be clarity in the "terms and responsibilities of such holding..." (oyd, nd; p.196) oyd relates that in a museum that is 'collection-based' deaccession is an issue that is "exceedingly contentious" (p. 196) in nature, and in fact "much more so than the decision to acquire." (p. 196)
IV. DEFINITION of a MUSEUM & REFINEMENT of COLLECTIONS
oyd relates that museums are "more than repositories; they are places where collections are interpreted for the public through exhibits and related educational programs." (oyd, nd; p.199) it is important to note the statement of oyd that the museums interpretation of their collections "changes over time with the emergence of new 'techniques, scholarship, and viewpoints.'" (oyd, nd;…
Coutoure, Carol (2005) Archival Appraisal: A Status Report. Archivaria 59.
McKemmish, Sue, Gilliland-Swetland, Anne, and Ketelaar, Eric (2005) Communities of Memory: Pluralizing Archival Research and Education Agendas. Archives & Manuscripts 33 no. 1. 2005.
Bunch, Lonnie G. (1995) Fighting the Good Fight: Museums in an Age of Uncertainty. Museum News (March/April 1995): 35.
Bowker, G.D. (2005) the Local Knowledge of a Globalizing Ethnos - in 'Memory practices in the Sciences' Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2005. 207.
For example, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Texas will need over 82,000 new teachers by 2008 (as noted in Justice & Espinoza, 2007). Many teachers are leaving the profession within five years of being employed. In order to reduce these numbers, schools are now looking more seriously at teacher preparation programs. In one study described by Justice and Espinoza (2007), 160 beginning teacher candidates were surveyed using the Emotional Skills Assessment Process. According to the Emotional Intelligence Scale, the candidates needed to strengthen skills in assertion, comfort, empathy, decision making, drive strength, time management, commitment ethic, self-esteem, stress management and deference. The skills leadership, aggression, and change orientation were current strengths. To face the challenges of a diverse classroom, teachers needed to develop or strengthen specific skills if they were going to have a longer teaching career.
Goleman (1995) is credited in Emotional Intelligence with encouraging many educators…
Calderhead, J. & Shorrock, S. (1997) Understanding Teacher Education. London: Falmer
Creswell, J.W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Dunlop, F. (1984) the Education of Feeling and Emotion. London: Allen & Unwin.
Management and Theory
Leadership and coaching go hand in many ways because to coach is to lead, and to lead is to coach others. Indeed, leaders and coaches, whatever the title is really theoretical mentoring within the context of a particular organization or activity. For centuries, scholars and philosophers alike have been trying to find a specific and complete definition for coaching and leadership, but have not had much success. True, leadership is, in part, decision making at the nth level; while coaching takes that decision making and often compartmentalizes it into split-second action. In the era of gloablization, theoretical decision making this has become even more critical now that there are so many divergent cultural opportunities that require new skills, approaches, and even that allow coaching to occur not just in the physical environment, but in the virtual as well, with no regard for geographic or political boundaries (Drucker,…
Alvesson, M., & Karreman, D. (2007). Constructing mystery: Empirical matters in theory development. Academy of Management Review, 32(4): 1265-1281.
Cortes, J. (2012). How Many Coaching Models Can You Find?, Retrieved from:
Drucker, P.F., et al. (2001), Harvard Business Review on Decision Making, Boston, MA:
theory about something, but not many people realize exactly what defines a theory. While there are as many definitions of a "theory," "generally speaking, a theory is an abstract system of concepts with indications of the relationships among these concepts that help us understand a phenomenon." ("SPC3210, Chapter 1") When discussing a theory, it is important to understand that the application of a theory is dependent upon the level of generality. For instance, a theory about communications can apply to the all humans in general, or a specific group of people, or just very specific people in specific circumstances. But whether the theory is "Grand," "Mid-Level," or "Narrow," it must contain a number of specific goals which "can include explanation, understanding, prediction, and social change…." ("SPC3210, Chapter 1") Theories attempt to explain certain phenomena, then based on patterns recognized by the theory, predict something, and finally can cause social change…
"SPC 3210: Contemporary Human Communication." McGraw Hill/Florida
State University. Retrieved from http://ezto.mhecloud.mcgraw-
customer's source] states that there are various types of qualitative approaches to research including the education filed approaches which includes the ecological psychology approach, the holistic ethnography approach, the cognitive anthropology approach, the ethnography of communication approach and symbolic interactionism. In the field of nursing, qualitative approaches to research are inclusive of phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and historical research. Also used in the field of education are anthropological perspectives, sociological perspectives, biological perspectives, case studies, personal accounts, cognitive studies and historical inquiries. In the field of sociology and nursing the grounded theory, ethnography, phenomenology, life histories, and conversational analysis are used. In the field of nursing used are phenomenology, ethnography, ethnoscience, and grounded theory. (Ibid, nd, p.7)
Research design that is qualitative is reported to begin with "philosophical assumptions that the inquirers make in deciding to undertake a qualitative study." (Ibid, nd, p.7) Researchers are reported to "bring their own…
According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) (2010), childhood obesity has more than tripled over the past 30 years. The frequency of obesity among children aged 6 to 11 years rose from 6.5% in 1980 to 19.6% in 2008, while among adolescents aged 12 to 19 years the obesity rate increased from 5.0% to 18.1% during the same period. Obesity results when more calories are consumed than expended, and is influenced by genetic, behavioral and environmental factors. Let us take a look at four paradigms associated with this phenomenon.
The functionalist perspective asserts obese are necessary in order to drive others to become healthy and learn what is making people obese. From this perspective the key is not to eliminate this condition, but to utilize this state to explore the psychological and emotional factors that make this situation possible.
Functionalists are concerned with the stability of society…
Center for Disease Control. "Childhood Obesity." CDC/Healthy Youth. 3 June 2010. Web. 28 April 2012.
Bible: 1 Samuel 17
The story of David and Goliath has become a classic parable of how the weak can defeat the strong, size doesn't matter, and that all things are possible through "the Lord Almighty" (New International Version, 1 Sam. 17.45). From a secular point-of-view, it can be read as a parable of how physical size matters little when set against courage, skill, and an iron will, which is why it is often taught within secular households as well as in Jewish and Christian households.
David and Goliath's widespread notoriety is merely one of the reasons I chose 1 Samuel 17 as my rewritten bible passage. Personally, the story has always resonated with me as a tale of how the combination of courage, willpower, and faith in the Almighty can accomplish all things. hile David's courage allowed him to wrestle lions and bears, teaching him to be unafraid of…
The New International Version (NIV) Bible. Ed. International Bible Society. Nashville: Broadman & Holeman, 1995. Print.
Klockare et al.'s "An interpretive phenomenological analysis of how professional dance teachers implement psychological skills training in practice." This article is beneficial to virtually anyone who is working as a dance instructor. Its area of focus is the psychological skills that are associated with dance (primarily implicitly). The original research conducted in the article attempts to determine what specific psychological skills dance teachers believe is important for their students to learn, and the desired outcomes that such skills engender.
The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with six different dance teachers to attain data to help them answer the aforementioned research question. Furthermore, the authors also analyzed these interviews through an interpretive phenomenological analysis method, which is "suitable for novel research areas" (Klockare et al., 2011). The results were extremely revealing. Firstly, they indicated that the instructors sought to implement psychological skills training at an organizational, and not necessarily individual, level. Granted,…
Ellinor Klockare, Henrik Gustafsson & Sanna M. Nordin-Bates (2011) An interpretative phenomenological analysis of how professional dance teachers implement psychological skills training in practice, Research in Dance Education, 12:3, 277-293, DOI: 10.1080/14647893.2011.614332
Brueggemann/Linafelt "The Introduction Prophets" Mckenzie's "Not Exactly It Happened" The Deuteronomistic History Compared Other Histories Its Time." In Mckenzie, read pp. 23-36, including "Etiology Genesis: Other Examples;" pp.
1. What's prophetic about "The Former Prophets"?
The prophetic aspect is the capability of re-interpreting the entire lived truth, including Israel's history as well as the known, Biblical-era Near East's power relations, based on the just as tangible reality (within this particular reading), of Yahweh's rule. The Former Prophets' established framing is achieved via a sound interpretative process, which typically rearranges literature in a canonical form, out of something that it earlier wasn't.
2. What does it mean that Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings are a single literary piece written from a single interpretive angle?
It was a bold suggestion by Noth, challenging scholars who viewed Joshua, Samuel, Kings, and Judges as a compilation of numerous sources, that the comprehensive "historical" chronicle…
" The phrase appears to assume that everyone refers to Jesus in this way, without reservation and without doubt. Although the many conflicts involving the Pharisees and adducees later in the book prove this not to be in fact the case, Matthew's certainty indicates the faith of Jesus' followers, and the faith required to enter the Kingdom of Christ.
The word "Messiah" is also linked to the Kingdom of God, which is a further recurring theme in the discourses displayed by Matthew. Christ frequently refers to this spiritual Kingdom as the ultimate destination of the faithful, and highly desirable as a reward for living a life of faith. This spiritual Kingdom is frequently juxtaposed with earthly riches throughout the book of Matthew. Jesus uses colorful language to demonstrate the necessity for the faithful to gather treasures in heaven rather than on earth. Earthly treasure, according to Matthew and Christ, serves…
Christian Inconnect. An Overview of the Gospel of Matthew. 2001. http://www.christianinconnect.com/matthew.htm
The New American Standard Bible. Retrieved from www.biblegateway.com
The author of "History or Teleology? Marx vs. eber" reviews common scholastic viewpoints regarding Marx and eber. eber is often lauded for his multifaceted and multidisciplinary explanation of human history. Unlike Marx, eber addressed a multitude of variables that affect sociological realities. Yet the author notes that eber can be criticized for his own brand of determinism and fatalism and also for his theoretical biases.
Central to both Marx and eber's arguments is the notion that history is linear and progressive. Human evolution is also progressing toward increasingly complex but also increasingly sensible social and economic systems. The central difference between Marx and eber's accounts of capitalism is in their methods and not necessarily in their conclusions. Both Marx and eber viewed capitalism as the culmination of millennia of human history and of the problematic social relationships that determined human history. Marx approached his analysis as a function of labor…
History or Teleology? Marx vs. Weber."
Lowy, Michael. "Marx, Weber, and the Critique of Capitalism."
Weber's Critique of the Materialist Conception of History."
The main Woolworth's store was already on strike, and the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees Union (HERE) was threatening to escalate the strike to all of the stores in Detroit." (Cobble, 2003)
Myra had been nicknamed the: "attling elle of Detroit" by media in the Detroit area because Myra is said to have:.." relished a good fight with employers, particularly over the issues close to her heart. A lifelong member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) she insisted, for example, on sending out racially integrated crews from the union's hiring hall, rejecting such standard employer requests as 'black waiters only, white gloves required." (Cobble, 2003) Myra was involved in many more organized protests and strikes and is stated to "consider herself a feminists...outspoken about her commitment to end sex discrimination...lobbied against the ERA until 1972...chaired the national committee against a repeal of women-only state labor…
Cobble, Dorothy Sue (2003) the Other Women's Movement: Workplace Justice and Social Rights in Modern America. Princeton University Press. Chapter One online available at http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/i7635.html
Gender, Class, Race, and Reform in the Progressive Era. By Noralee Frankel, Nancy S. Dye - Author(s) of Review: Nancy Folbre. The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 52, No. 4 (Dec., 1992),
Julie Novkov, Constituting Workers, Protecting Women: Gender, Law and Labor in the Progressive and New Deal Years (2001)
Louise Newman, White Women's Rights (1999)
For instance, Freud tells us that a king and queen represents one's parents; that small animals and vermin represent one's brothers and sisters; that female genitals are represented by receptacles of various kinds including jewel-boxes, and that gliding, sliding and pulling off a branch all represent masturbation. Strikingly, Freud gives us no evidence for such claims. Might it be possible to support these claims with evidence? If so, please offer a conjecture as to what sort of evidence might be sought in support of these claims. If not, please explain how we should respond to Freud's interpretive claims if they cannot be supported with evidence.
It seems to me extremely difficult if not impossible to support these claims with evidence. One way to do so may be by taking nay number of these claims e.g that jewel boxes resemble female genitals and by studying a certain population -- large enough…
One exercise that has helped both myself and my students to explore these skills has been to write critically about literature in essay format. Interpreting literature in written form is an excellent way to stay in touch with the deeper meaning of the language and to help the reader to focus on the author's choice of specific words and writing techniques. As a whole, the study groups I have participated in have gained the most insight through reading, discussing, and writing about literature in an open and constructivist setting that allows every person to take on the role of both teacher and student. In order to learn how to understand and utilize literary methods such as point-of-view, plot and structure, setting, themes, figurative language, and symbolism, it is important that one interprets a variety of literature. Throughout my life, I have applied interpretive techniques to the literature reviewed for school,…
A number of researchers think that qualitative and quantitative methodologies cannot be pooled because the assumptions fundamental to each tradition are so greatly different. "Other researchers think they can be used in combination only by alternating between methods: qualitative research is appropriate to answer certain kinds of questions in certain conditions and quantitative is right for others. And some researchers think that both qualitative and quantitative methods can be used simultaneously to answer a research question" (Barnes et al., 2005).
There are two sets of challenges that enfold the idea of frame and discourse analysis. The first takes place in the areas of data collection, analysis, and final presentation results. The challenge surrounds definitions and conceptualizations. Ideational concepts are intrinsically inaccurate and distinctions between frames, ideologies and discourses are often indistinct. Discourse and frames are connected and sometimes overlap. Cultural discourses can comprise frames. Ideologies frequently do the same things…
Barnes, B., Conrad, k., Demont-Heinrich, C., Graziano, M., Kowalski, D., Neufeld, J.,
Zamora, J. & Palmquist, M. (2005). Generalizability and Transferability. Retrieved from http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/gentrans/pop2f.cfm
Hathaway, R. (1995). Assumptions underlying quantitative and qualitative research:
Implications for institutional research. Research in higher education, 36 (5), p. 535-
Interpretive Analysis: A Day in the Life of a Great Leader
Baron Claude-Francois De Meneval in his work on Napoleon remembers the French leaders as seemingly "immortal," someone who was vigorous and struck down "by a terrible storm" and someone that was worthy of remembrance in many ways (p. Ix). De Meneval describes a day in the life of Napoleon shortly after a return from a trip to Egypt, where Bonaparte had been interested in spreading his influence. The author describes Napoleon as "gentlemanly" and suggest that he was an individual set on task and of clear mind, explaining to his colleagues among other things the plausible motives he might use to satisfy "the desire of the population" (De Meneval, 1894:9).
Further Napoleon is described as someone whose presence that particular day inspired warm enthusiasm from the population at large in part a testament to his "zeal and…
Claude-Francois De Meneval, B."Memoirs Illustrating the History of Napoleon I from
1802 to 1815 vol. 1" New York: D. Appleton & Co: 1894
Geyl, P.M. & Renier, O.M. "Napoleon: For and against." New Haven: Yale University
eligion in Human Transformation of the African-American topic with a focus on the African-American Christianity experience. The writer explores the transformation to Black Christianity and uncovers some of the underlying features of its existence. The writer examines the patterns and experiences of spirituality for the Black Christian experience in North America as well as the ways that the particular historical experiences of Blacks in the United States assisted in creating distinct forms of spirituality in the communities. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
The Christian movement in North America is a large one. Millions of Christians worship in churches across the continent each week and the numbers continue to climb. African-American Christians have a faith and spiritual path that is somewhat different than white Christians follow. The terms "black church" and "black Christian" can be heard periodically in theological discussions. From the music to the underlying beliefs,…
Fulop, Timothy. African-American Religion: Interpretive Essays in History and Culture
Routledge (February 1, 1997)
Rabateau, Albert. J. Slave Religion: The Invisible Institution in the Antebellum South (Galaxy Books).Oxford University Press; New Ed edition (March 1, 1980)
Murphy, Joseph. Working the Spirit: Ceremonies of the African Diaspora
This is the essence of Knowles' self-directed learning.
The last sentence of Stephen Brookfield's Chapter on "Adult Learning: An Overview" states "To understand adult learning we need to know it's connections of learning in childhood and adolescence and to the formation during these periods of interpretive filters, cognitive frames and cultural values."
Brookfield's assertion is somewhat at odds with Knowles concept of the difference between child and adult learning, although it is developmental in nature. One possible way of reconciling the difference between Brookfield and Knowles is to propose a stage theory of learning that shows progression from childhood to adolescence to adulthood, incorporating different theorist's ideas about the relationship between learner and teacher at different developmental, emotional, and experiential stages.
Stage 1: Childhood. Child is eager to learn but not certain of how to go about it. Learns to please self 'in the moment' of experience, but without…
Smith, M.K. (2002) 'Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction and anadragogy.' The encyclopedia of informal education, www.infed.org/thinkers/et-knowl.htm.
Learning that we all believe in one force, yet a force that is represented with different entities and faith demonstrated through various traditions and practices, I have learned to reconcile these differences by just believing in a force, without any subsistence to religious names and labels and traditions.
As what I have discussed earlier, what used to be my religion was the belief I was exposed to since birth. However, as I grew up and became exposed to different forms of religions and beliefs in my society, I have learned to adapt to the diversity of religious philosophies extant by creating my personal philosophy. This personal philosophy is one that believes in a 'general force,' which is formless and not bound with the traditional practices. This force enables me to confide with an entity without any fear or limitations on what I can say or ask of it. It has…
advertisements and emerging technology studies are focusing on increasing attention on advertising to children, this has been an issue of concern for decades now (Nurses Association, 2001). One of the main issues of contention is whether to researchers should direct their communication towards children or whether they should communicate with their parents directly. In this regard, the study has focused on utilitarian and deontology theories in putting this issue into perspective.
Concerning young kids, it is reasonable to direct research efforts of snack foods, toys and games to their parents because parents are the main buyers of such products. Nevertheless, researchers are aware that better results can be achieved through directing research messages to children, partly because children do not have the capability to analyze research findings and the underlying messages critically. Similarly, children would want the products regardless of the research findings. While pressuring parents, kids substantially force their…
Hill, T.E. (2009). Contemporary ethical theories. New York: Macmillan.
Vaughn, L. (2010). Bioethics: Principles, issues, and cases. New York: Oxford University Press
Cournoyer, B. (2011). The social work skills workbook. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage
groupings, answer steps outlined Duvall: pp. 100 -- 102. • Group 1: Romans 8:26-27 Duvall explains illustrates steps Interpretive Journey New Testament letters. Apply steps passage assigned group.
Romans 8:26 -- 27
The letter of Paul to the Romans was written when Paul was exercising his capacity as an apostle to the gentiles and still defining what it meant to be a Christian. Although Paul was Jewish, he did not believe that non-Jewish Christians needed to keep Mosaic Law to be holy and follow Christ. In this passage, Paul emphasizes the importance of the spirit, not the flesh. He stresses that the spirit will guide the new community of Christians to know what to do, even as they face persecution. The flesh or physical actions are less important than the spirit: Paul's reference to the flesh also invokes the suffering and persecution that the Christians were undergoing at the hands…
Personal Income Probabilities
Based on this sample, and clearly showing workings, appropriate graphics and your response to blank values in the data, calculate the following:
(a) the probability of randomly picking two men over 35 from the sample
The sample consists of both men and women, however the question does not delineate segmentation by gender in regard to men vs. women, but solely requests "from the sample" the possibility of selecting men over 35 years of age each draw. Therefore the equation is:
Men over 35 years of age total in the sample.
121 participants total in the sample
239 = P of men in sample
Percentage of men over 35 in the sample 23.9%
Each draw is discreet with a 23.9% chance that a man over 35 years of age will be selected on random selection each time.
For example of work in excel: Appendix
(b) given that we…
Based on your interpretation of "The Gorgias," what is the relationship between philosophy and politics, in a democracy? How does the debate between Callicles and Socrates inform your answer to this question?
In the dialogue entitled "Gorgias," the title character, a teacher of rhetoric, does rhetorical battle with the philosopher Socrates. Several individuals enter the dialogue, most notably Callicles, whom over the course of this dialogue emerges as a rather callous individual. His attitudes emerge as proof that although Gorgias calculatingly instructs individuals in the proper way to comport themselves to sway the masses, such sophistry is a false way to decide how best to govern and who is best to govern.
The ideas stressed in Callicles' philosophy of government are diametrically opposed to that of Socrates, the dialogue suggests, because Callicles simply wishes to win arguments, rather than to establish what is right and just. Socrates, on…
Plato. "Gorgias." Translated with introduction, notes, and interpretive essay by James H. Nichols.
Perceptual Constraints and Cerebral Organization Essay Exam
Discuss how perceptual constraints and cerebral organization influence how words are recognized during reading.
The act of reading text may appear to be a static action involving a minimal amount of activity, but every turn of the page requires the human brain to engage a veritable concert of cognitive processing. While seemingly instantaneous, reading just a single word combines the eye's ability to fixate and project visual information with the brain's interpretive power, enabling an experienced reader to synthesize wide swaths of textual data in the proverbial blink of an eye. As empirical psychological inquiry has revealed many of the mysteries hidden within the human brain, cognitive researchers have developed a more complete understanding of the perceptual and cerebral processes which are essential to man's unique ability to decipher meaning from an organization of symbols. Concurrently, the spectrum of anatomical knowledge has been…
Brysbaert, M. (2004). The importance of interhemispheric transfer for foveal vision: A factor that has been overlooked in theories of visual word recognition and object perception. Brain and Language, 88(3), 259-267.
Ellis, A.W., & Brysbaert, M. (2010). Split fovea theory and the role of the two cerebral hemispheres in reading: A review of the evidence. Neuropsychologia, 48(2), 353-365.
Harley, T.A. (2001). The psychology of language: From data to theory. Taylor & Francis.
Jordan, T.R., & Paterson, K.B. (2009). Re-evaluating split-fovea processing in word
An epic poem, Dante’s purgatory remains one of the poet’s most popular works. This second section of Inferno proceeds to recount Dante’s encounters as he ascends Mount Purgatory with Vigil as his companion. It is important to note that the ascent (and related experiences) effectively serves to culture Dante on the mercy of God and the life of a Christian so as to cleanse and therefore rid him of his sins as he continues with his journey to meet the Creator. This text concerns itself with an interpretive question around Dante’s Purgatory.
In Dante’s Purgatory, 9 levels of purgatory have been presented. These include “stubbornness, repentant, pride, envy, wrath, sloth, avarice (coupled with its counter-sin, prodigality), gluttony, and lust” (Mandelbaum, 1982, p. 110). Before selecting a circle of Purgatory that I have important questions about, it would be prudent to highlight each of the said stages in brief.…
Thee ae those that believe that qualitative eseach is the best fom of eseach, wheeas othes insist that only quantitative methods ae appopiate in a eseach envionment (CSU, 2004). Still othes ague that both appoaches ae useful and appopiate though one is often moe indicated than the othe depending on the exact phenomena being examined and the natue o intent of the eseach being conducted (Potte, 1996; Lee & Poynton, 2000).
Fed Kelinge once exclaimed that "thee is no such thing as qualitative data, eveything is eithe one o zeo," howeve his claim is counteed by anothe eseache, Campbell, who asseted that "all eseach ultimately has a qualitative gounding" (CSU, 2004).
Given the geat debate that exists, eseaches often find it difficult to detemine which stategy is best and which is most likely to be accepted by pees when pesenting a eseach pogam. Most eseaches would aggess howeve that qualitative…
Douglas, J. (1976). Investigative social research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publishing.
Firestone, W. (1987). "Meaning in method: The rhetoric of quantitative and qualitative research." Educational Researcher, 16: 16-21
Gall, Meredith, Gall, Joyce P., & Borg, Walter R. (2003). Educational
Research, 7th edition. New York, New York: A and B. Publishing.
The Impact of Using Professional Bilingual Interpreters
Elderly Hispanic patients experience numerous challenges when seeking for healthcare services since they are only eloquent in their native language and are classified as Limited English Proficient (LEP) patients. This paper examines patient-provider communication between these patients and healthcare providers. The evaluation is carried out to determine the role and significance of bilingual interpreters in promoting medication adherence among elderly Hispanic patients aged 50-75 years. The project will be implemented in an outpatient clinic and community center that provides care to different kinds of patients including elderly Hispanics. This project demonstrates that bilingual interpreters would help promote medication adherence and compliance with treatment among these patients.
Keywords: elderly Hispanics, patients, medication adherence, bilingual interpreters, treatment, patient-provider communication, healthcare providers.
Statement of the Problem
Hispanic population is one of the fastest growing groups of people in the United States, particularly among America’s elderly…
Husserl and Heidegger’s Phenomenology
Phenomenology refers both to philosophical framework and to epistemological orientation. As epistemology, phenomenology has had major implications for the social sciences, providing the fundamental tenets and methods for qualitative research. Originator of the phenomenological approach, Husserl proposed that human consciousness undergirds experience, but that both must be transcended, acknowledged, and set aside in order to reach the truth of any given phenomenon. Husserl therefore favored the use of descriptive methods, which aim for objectivity as much as possible. Husserl’s student Martin Heidegger rejected the notion that it was even possible at all to ascertain some objective understanding (Reiners, 2012). Instead, Heidegger celebrated what individual ascriptions of meaning had to offer when interpreting phenomena. Whereas Husserl’s epistemology is concerned with how and why people feel, think, or believe what they do, Heidegger’s ontological and hermeneutical methods are more concerned with discerning the nature of consciousness itself and…
Phenomenology and Hermeneutics
Aside from positivism or quantitative research paradigm, two other paradigms are considered essential in the conduct of research or simply, knowing and understanding a particular event or phenomenon using a particular 'lens'or paradigm / perspective. These two (2) paradigms are qualitative in nature, namely the interpretive and critical paradigms. Critical paradigm is closely associated with the Marxist, feminist, and psychoanalytic schools of thought, while interpretive or symbolic interactionism paradigm is linked with hermeneutics and phenomenology. The focus of the discussions that follow will be on this second paradigm, interpretive paradigm, particularly exploring the hermeneutic and phenomenological schools of thought (Fossey, 2002, p. 719).
In order to understand these schools of thought, it is important to also understand the tradition from which these ideas emerged. Under the interpretive paradigm, truth is considered subjective and variable. In truth-seeking, the researcher recognizes that there are many "truths," and these…
Fossey, E., C. Harvey, F. McDermott, and L. Davidson. (2002). "Understanding and evaluating qualitative research." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 36.
Laverty, S. (2003). "Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: a comparison of historical and methodological considerations." International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Vol. 2(3).
Interpretive sociology does not agree with the thought that behavior is related to society as effect is related to cause since this entire idea is dysfunctional with that which composes social life in reality. Interpretive sociology holds that understanding of our fellow man should be the pursuit of each day as sense is made of their individual societal existence. Seeking to understand is the concept held in interpretive sociology instead of the seeking of an explanation. Therefore it is understood that "structural" or that of Marxism and Functionalism (i.e. The interpretive/interactionist/social action sociologies) as well as Weber's interactionism, ethnomethodology and the Structural arguments in sociology that a "science of society" is likely. Therefore, there exists an agreement even among the interpretive sociologies. The natural science argument is based on "cause and effect" principles. That claim that the behavior of humans is the effect of some cause in society or class…
Townsend, Peter (1970) the Concept of Poverty. Heinemann Weber, Max (1958) the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
Gilbert (1999) Social Research Update No. 27 University of Surrey Department of Sociology
Marx, Karl (1970) first published 1870 capital Vol.1 Penguin.
Sanjeev Prakash is Director of the Environment, Technology and Institutional
globalization on entrepreneurship in UK small and medium scale businesses
Effects of Globalization on Small and Medium Scale Businesses in the UK
The research methodology employed in this study has been one of a qualitative nature. Qualitative research is objective and descriptive in nature and is appropriate for examining the effects of a phenomenon.
Qualitative research is noted in the work of Marshall and ossman (2010) to be of the nature that is "enacted in naturalistic settings" and of the nature that "draws on multiple methods that respect the humanity of the participants in the study…focuses on context…is emergent and evolving…and is fundamentally interpretive" in nature. Qualitative researchers are stated to "rely on complex reasoning that moves dialectically between deduction and induction." (Marshall and ossman, 2010) The researcher in qualitative research studies "uses an inductive mode, letting the data speak." (Ospina, 2004) The work of Neergaard and Ulhoi (2007) states…
McNamara, Carter, PhD. (1999) General Guidelines for Conducting Interviews. Minnesota, 1999 in: Valenzuela, D. And Shrivastava, P. (nd) Interview as a Method for Qualitative Research. Retrieved from: http://www.public.asu.edu/~kroel/www500/Interview%20Fri.pdf
Marshall, C. And Rossman, G.B. (2010) Designing Qualitative Research. SAGE 2010. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=RbqXGjKHALoC&dq=qualitative+research&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Ospina, S. (2004) Qualitative Research. Encyclopedia of Leadership / Eds (Goethals, G. an, Sorenson, G. And MacGregor, J. 2004 SAGE Publications. Retrieved from: http://wagner.nyu.edu/leadership/publications/files/Qualitative_Research.pdfQualitative
Research Methods: A Data Collector's Field Guide. Qualitative Research Methods Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.fhi.org/nr/rdonlyres/etl7vogszehu5s4stpzb3tyqlpp7rojv4waq37elpbyei3tgmc4ty6dunbccfzxtaj2rvbaubzmz4f/overview1.pdf
Logic and Biological Explanations of Human Behavior
What are the logic or biological explanations of human behavior? Why do sociologists argue that they are misguided/
Logical explanations of human behavior are common enough. For instance, in the society, it is always believed that it is natural for a woman and a man to fall in love, be married, and start a family. Equally, it is natural for this nuclear family to exist as a unit, with the parents going to work to provide for their children. The wife also devotes some of her time to looking after the kids and being a mother. As the family grows and becomes more independent, it is only logical for the kids to live at home with their parents at least until their late teen years. By this time, it is only logical for them to leave their parents' home and want to make…
PONV was not seen at 24 hours significantly lower rates of PONV at four and eight hours were found in the septoplasty group in which pharyngeal packing was not used
Habib, et al. (2010)
prospective, double-blind, randomized study
104 Patients undergoing craniotomy
Patients were randomized to receive oral aprepitant 40 mg (or matching placebo) 1 to 3 hours before induction of anesthesia or ondansetron 4 mg IV (or placebo) within 30 minutes of the end of surgery.
Data were collected at regular intervals by blinded personnel for 48 hours after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's ranked sum test and ?(2) test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
cumulative incidence of vomiting at 48 hours was 16% in the aprepitant group and 38% in the ondansetron group (P = 0.0149). The incidence of vomiting was also decreased in the aprepitant group at 2 hours…
These generally viewed race in terms of superior or inferior throughout history.
The time frame family studies explored involved biological and pathology theories dating from the 1899 through the twentieth century. Interestingly, these researchers found that in early history, race was more likely to negatively impact child education than socio-economic status, especially during times in history when most people were at a disadvantage economically (as in during the depression). As researchers moved into the twentieth century however, there seems to be a trend in research leaning toward less emphasis on race and minority status, with many researchers turning away from terms like "morons" or "inferior" or "degenerates" and more focusing on terms like "poverty" and "poor" or "welfare status" (Block, Balcazar & Keys, 2001, p. 18). Historical data gathering included a review of researchers and psychologist reports and collection as described in a comparison table which the researcher then reviewed…
Anderson, E. (1990). Streetwise: Race, class, and change in an urban community.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Block, P., Balcazar, F. & Keys, C. (2001). From pathology to power: Rethinking race, poverty and disability. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 12(1): 18.
Deyhle, D., Parker, L. & Villenas, S. (1999). Race is - Race isn't: Critical race theory and qualitative studies in education. Boulder: Westview Press.
The multiple interpretations of simple words and phrases used in modern haiku give the reader a more participatory role in their reading; instead of being literature alone, the haiku that inspires varied meanings becomes art and involves the reader in its interpretation.
Another instance of these multiple interpretations contributing to a deeper understanding of the haiku is seen in the aggregate definition of "mountain village." The term can be personified as "either the unbearable loneliness of a life lived in seclusion or the bliss of living at one's ease from the maddening crowd," (awamoto 714). These choices of interpretation allow the haiku to take on its own meaning, above nature, above literal interpretations of the words, and to resonate more deeply with the reader.
It is this concept of "blending" interpretations of haiku, Hiraga says, that allows the haiku to take on a deeper meaning than its literal interpretation may…
Kawamoto, Koji. "The use and disuse of tradition in Basho's haiku and imagist poetry," in Poetics Today 20:3, 1999, pp. 709-721.
Lindstrom, Kari. "Author, landscape, and communication in Estonian haiku," in Sign System Studies, 2002, 30:2, pp. 653-676.
Ueda, Shizuteru. "Silence and Word in Zen Buddhism," in Diogenes, Issue 170, Volume 43:2, 1999, pp. 1-21.
Factors that affect an organization's capacity and willingness to change need to be examined and exploited. Organizational culture, which is a set of shared values and assumptions that are followed by the members of an organization, plays an important role in affecting the attitude of an organization to change. If an organizational history has been unwelcome to change in the past, it is highly unlikely that an organization will be willing to accept change in the future. Sometimes, core competency can assist in the process of change (Porter, 1980).
Lastly, at the individual level, the process of change is completed when it is implemented within a company. The task of the general manager then becomes of envisioning the future of the change and of facilitating cooperation among the workforce. He is also responsible for implementing change at various levels of production, development and distribution. In particular, what needs to be…
Saunders, M., Lewis, P. And Thornhill, A (2003). Research methods for business students. 3rd Ed. London: Prentice Hall.
Seaman, C.H.C. (1987). Research Methods: Principles, Practice, and Theory for Nursing. (pp. 174) Appleton & Lange.
Sudman, S. And Bradburn, N.M. (1982). Asking Questions: a Practical Guide to Questionnaire Design. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc.
Taylor, Aex III (October 12, 2009) Fortune: "Can GM Survive?" 60 (7), 60. Retrieved October 31, 2009, Proquest, ISSN: 00158259
Professional Nursing Ethics
It is not a good idea, but it is possible to become a nurse today without knowing what the Nightingale Pledge is and more important, what it represents. The reason it is not a good idea is simple; nursing is a field that carries with it a great social, moral and ethical responsibility. This accountability is now guided by the Code of Ethics with Interpretive Statements; however, the original blueprint was the Nightingale Pledge. We could consider that original pledge as nursing's equivalent to the physicians' Hippocratic Oath. In other words, the modern version of the Nightingale Pledge, the Code of Ethics with Interpretive Statements, is a thorough guide that helps both new and old nurse's alike carry out their responsibilities in a way that also meets all ethical duties required by the profession. The Nightingale Pledge has evolved for more than a century…
An area where being a nurse can become difficult in regard to ethics is in the area of personal values vs. professional ethics. Nurses must maintain their competence even if they do not live by the same values of their patients. A client's race, sex, or religion, for example, must not interfere with the understood obligations of the nursing community. Everyone should be treated equally. What comes to mind about this ethical obligation is the poor judgment that was shown by some healthcare workers throughout the nation immediately following September 11, 2001. This date is famous for the terrorist attacks that were perpetrated on the nation by individuals of the Muslim faith and of Middle Eastern decent.
For several weeks after that tragic day, however, many Muslim and Middle Eastern families, and anyone who looked like they could be of Middle Eastern decent, became the victims of blatant profiling and racism. What was worst about this news is that in some of these cases of obvious hate crimes, the racism was performed by hospital emergency room staffs because they refused to treat potential terrorists (as they were considered). When performing nursing duties, nurses must have a blind eye to the differences of the client's life values. A homosexual male should not be treated poorly because of his sexual orientation. A black woman who has been raped must not be judged to be immoral anymore than a white woman. Nurses must exercise sound ethical judgment and accept the responsibilities of the profession.
Nurses provide services that include respect for human dignity and they should not change their responsibility to the patient because of some social or economic status, personal attributes, or the nature of the medical condition. This scenario of personal values and professional ethics then can also be tested when it comes to working in an extremely hazardous environment. Nurses are exposed to communicable diseases on a daily basis and there are often patients who are violent or show other ideals of noncompliance. "It was an opportunity to learn about the challenges nurses encounter in their everyday practice -- health and social inequalities, HIV / AIDS, TB, poverty and compromised
At times, even though the research may be complicated by varying definitions of homelessness, researchers are establishing methods for estimating the size of the homeless population, which includes people who have nowhere to go; at risk of losing housing through eviction or institutional discharge (Drury, 2008).
Case Study Methodology
In the case study methodology, a form of qualitative descriptive research, according to M. Dereshiwsky (1999) in "Electronic Textbook - Let Us Count the Ways: Strategies for Doing Qualitative esearch," the researcher using the case study methodology does not focus on discovering a universal, generalizable truth, nor do the researcher generally search for cause-effect relationships. Instead, the researcher emphasizes the exploring and describing process. As the researcher examines one individual or small participant pool, he/she then draws conclusions only about that one particular participant or group; only in the designated, specific context Case Studies 2008).
In considering or defining the case…
Andrade, A.D. (2009). Interpretive research aiming at theory building: Adopting and adapting the case study design. The Qualitative Report. Nova Southeastern
Inc. Retrieved May 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Arellano, M.A. (2005). Translation and ethnography: The anthropological challenge of intercultural understanding. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 11(1), 165. Retrieved May 26, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009119378
For countries such as the U.S. And France, these needs can be reasonably expected to relate to the respective national cultures involved. For instance, in their book, Education in France, Corbett and Moon (1996) report, "An education system needs to justify itself constantly by reference to the values which underpin a nation's culture. In a democracy it is expected to transmit a range of intellectual, aesthetic and moral values which permeate the curriculum and approaches to teaching and learning" (p. 323).
Just as the United States has been confronted with a number of challenges in recent decades in identifying the best approach to providing educational services for an increasingly multicultural society, France has experienced its fair share of obstacles in this regard as well. According to Corbett and Moon, "In societies forced to come to terms with change, values are always challenged. French society, like others, had to adapt to…
Atkinson, R.D. (2006, May-June). Building a more-humane economy. The Futurist, 40(3), 44.
Blanchard, E. & Frasson, C. (2005). Making intelligent tutoring systems culturally aware: The use of Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Montreal, Quebec Canada: Computer Science Department, HERON Laboratory.
Bryant, S.M., Kahle, J.B. & Schafer, B.A. (2005). Distance education: A review of the contemporary literature. Issues in Accounting Education, 20(3), 255.
Calder, J. (1993). Disaffection and diversity: Overcoming barriers for adult learners. London: Falmer Press.
The more that your questions are descriptive or explanatory the more that the case study method will be relevant;
How should I select the case to be studied?": According to Yin: "you need sufficient access to the potential data, whether involving people to be interviewed documents or records to be reviewed, or observations to be made in the 'field'. Given such access to more than a single candidate, you should choose the one(s) that best illuminate(s) your research questions. Absent such access, you should consider changing your research questions, hopefully leading to new candidates to which you do have access."
I am studying a school. What is my case: Is it the teachers? The reading program? The whole school?: Yin states: "The specific definition of your case again depends upon your research question(s). The least desirable question is to want to know "everything that happened." Your literature review should help…
Audet, Michael (2005) Teacher Professional Growth Plans: A Case Study of the Chilliwack School District. 21 April 2005. Online available at http://ir.lib.sfu.ca/retrieve/2221/etd1914.pdf
Creswell, J.W. (1998) Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Lenz, Pamela A. (2005) Perceived Influence on School Effectiveness: Chapters I-III. January 2005. Online available at http://www.education.duq.edu/pdf/Talking_Paper-Lenz.pdf
Yin R.K. 1994: Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Second Edition, Sage Publications London
Hermeneutic or Phenomenological esearch
Hermeneutic and phenomenological research is qualitative measurement analysis tools. They focus on the understanding and interpretation and execution of theory. Both are becoming more and more popular with contemporary research methodologies (Fuchs 1993). Together, they embody the studying of social phenomenon external to the manipulation of the research. They aim to understand how we construct and gain knowledge from the external world around us. Thus, hermeneutic research "is interpretive and concentrated on historical meanings of experience and their development and cumulative effects on individual and social levels," (Laverty 2003 p 15). Phenomenological research is additionally very descriptive and thus examines the foundational structure of experience as a way of gaining knowledge (Fuchs 1993). One study, conducted by Ajjawi & Higgs (2007) embodies these elements within its methodological structure.
The study contains particular elements adhering to ontological, axiological, and epistemological assumptions. Ontology focuses on the categories of…
Ajjawi, Rola & Higgs, Joy. (2007). Using hermeneutic phenomenology to investigate how experienced practitioners learn to communicate clinical reasoning. The Qualitative Report, 12(4), 612-638.
Fuchs, Stephan. (1993). Three sociological epistemologies. Sociological Perspectives, 36(1), 23-44.
Laverty, Susann M. (2003). Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: A comparison of historical and methodological considerations. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2(3), 1-29. Web. http://www.ualberta.ca/~iiqm/backissues/2_3final/pdf/laverty.pdf
Immortality of the Soul in the Phaedo
Such dialogues as the Republic, the Phaedrus, and the Symposium make clear that Socrates has certainly reflected on the demonstrability of the immortality of the soul prior to his death day. And it is entirely possible that Socrates believes that one last attempt at a proof of immortality may yet result in an ironclad demonstration of this doctrine. But it is at least equally possible that Socrates suspects, if he does not know, that the search for such a proof will yield, as it does in the Phaedo, a less-than-certain foundation for this doctrine. Given the link between this doctrine and the availability of pure wisdom, such an outcome cannot help but cast doubt on the attainment of that wisdom . hy then does Socrates deliberately risk this outcome?
The rationale behind Socrates' guidance of the argument lies in the possibility that an…
Archer-Hind, R. (ed.). The "Phaedo" of Plato. London: Macmillan, 1894.
Bluck, R.S. Plato's "Phaedo." Translated with notes. Indianapolis: Library of Liberal Arts, 1982.
Brentlinger, John. "Incomplete Predicates and the Two-World Theory of the Phaedo," Phronesis (1972): 61-79.
Hyland, Drew. "Why Plato Wrote Dialogues," Philosophy and Rhetoric. 1 (1968): 38-50
service cost, Devices, and Cost per bed
Qualitative research design model
Secondary Data Collection
esearch Validity and eliability
Across the U.S., hospitals are overspending millions each year on mobile assets that are not utilized effectively. Despite more than adequate inventories, equipment often is not available when needed. As a result, more units are bought, leased, or rented. And those units, in turn, get lost in the system and therefore, underutilized. In fact, the number of mobile devices per U.S. hospital bed has increased 60% in the past 15 years while costs have doubled. Yet in most hospitals, the device utilization is approximately 45%. In the present study, the need for optimization and efficiency methods with clinical assets is investigated.
Hospitals in U.S. have to incur increased expenses for acquisition of medical equipment utilized for their normal operations. The cost of equipment purchased is high and hospitals are required to…
Baretich, M. (2004). Equipment Control and Asset Management. The Clinical Engineering Handbook, 1, 122.
Castro, L., Lefebvre, E., & Lefebvre, L.A. (2013). Adding Intelligence to Mobile Asset Management in Hospitals: The True Value of RFID. Journal of medical systems, 37(5), 1-17.
Christe, B., Rogers, R., & Cooney, E. (2010). Analysis of the impact of a radiofrequency identification asset-tracking system in the healthcare setting. Journal of Clinical Engineering, 35(1), 49-55.
DeGraff, B. (2013). As medical devices proliferate, asset management is key. Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology, 47(2), 123-7. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1363268371?accountid=34741
K-12 Curriculum and Instruction: Changing Paradigms in the 21st Century
This is not your grandfathers' economy or his educational paradigm however; today's curriculum still appears as such and therein lays a very significant and challenging problem that presents to today's educators and leaders. According to Sir Ken Robinson, "We have a system of education that is modeled on the interest of industrialism and in the image of it. Schools are still pretty much organized on factory lines -- ringing bells, separate facilities, specialized into separate subjects. We still educate children by batches." (rain Pickings, 2012) Make no mistake in the opinion of Robinson who believes that divergent thinking most emphatically is not "…the same thing as creativity" because according to Robinson in his work proposing a new educational paradigm. Indeed this is also spoken of in the work of Zeng-tian and Yu-Le in their work "Some Thoughts on Emergent Curriculum"…
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Verification of Interpretation -- Trustworthiness
Dependability and Confirmability
Advanced Qualitative esearch Methods
The role of research methods knowledge and its benefits for social research is an area of debate and confusion since the beginning of the profession's inception (Austin, 1983). Central to this understanding is the broader context of social research as new found study areas. In social research, the knowledge of research methods helps in selecting appropriate method for a particular area of research as well the knowledge of strengths and weaknesses of particular methods can lead a researcher to choose combine methods and adopt strategies to address the weaknesses of a particular method. In this research report the author intends to describe advanced qualitative research method, theory, practical implications, ethical consideration as well as types of advances research methods, the importance and significance of employing qualitative research methods, the sampling procedures and data collection and analysis…
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People often shift to other jobs when they feel unsatisfied. This is the case for nurses. Nurses have a high turnover rate in not just one country, but internationally. There is growing shortage of nurses because of lack of job satisfaction. Abualrub & Alghamdi performed a study back in 2012 determining whether leadership style had an impact on job satisfaction and retention rates. The article titled "The impact of leadership styles on nurses' satisfaction and intention to stay among Saudi nurses," pinned transactional leadership style against transformational leadership style, to see if one was more effective at creating higher job satisfaction in Saudi nurses. The authors used a myriad of tests for analysis, the response rate (slightly over half), generated a result that shows Saudi nurses favor transformational leadership style over transactional leadership style.
This essay is not only a critique of the article but it also examines it through…
Andrews, D., Richard, D., Robinson, P., Celano, P., & Hallaron, J. (2012). The influence of staff nurse perception of leadership style on satisfaction with leadership: A cross-sectional survey of pediatric nurses. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49(9), 1103-1111. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.03.007
Bhandari, S. (2014). The Ancient and Modern Thinking about Justice: An Appraisal of the Positive Paradigm and the Influence of International Law.Ritsumeikan Annual Review Of International Studies, 13, 1. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2550103
BROWN, P., FRASER, K., WONG, C., MUISE, M., & CUMMINGS, G. (2012). Factors influencing intentions to stay and retention of nurse managers: a systematic review. Journal of Nursing Management, 21(3), 459-472. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2012.01352.x
Hutchinson, M., & Jackson, D. (2012). Transformational leadership in nursing: towards a more critical interpretation. Nursing Inquiry, 20(1), 11-22. doi:10.1111/nin.12006