Interwar Essays (Examples)

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Education How Was Imperialism One

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 244271



Impression of the Interwar Years

Although with hindsight, it is possible to see how actions could have been taken to keep World War I from occurring, at that time the situation was like a dry forest that just needed a small flame to start the devastating fire. All the countries who were involved with World War I were completely on edge and only needed a small spark to have them make disastrous decisions. Once things were set in motion, they could not stop. Because of this, millions of people lost their lives and the countries, ironically, lost their Empires.

Why was it called the Age of Anxiety?

The war did not only destroy the Empires. It also destroyed many people's hopes and dreams. No longer could individuals rely on their government as a means of strength and support. In addition, a questioning of life's meaning and a loss of religion…… [Read More]

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U S Force in the Pacific War

Words: 2619 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5118997

War

Many renowned military analysts argue that concentration or mass is the most important principle of war. This is primarily because the combat tactic involves the concentration of an extremely huge quantity of military manpower and material as well as the development of military power with complete superiority over the enemy in relation to quantity. This principle of war is regarded as superior to other tactical approaches in battle such as combination of inferior mass with tactical opportunities for victory. Generally, the concentration of soldiers entails the decisive, harmonized use of superior fighting power for victory over an enemy. Given the significance of this principle in war, there are arguments that the U.S. committed a strategic mistake through breaching this principle of war through dividing its forces between Southwest Pacific and Central Pacific battles against Japan between 1943 and 1944. An analysis of the approaches employed by the U.S. Army…… [Read More]

References

Handel, M.I. (2001). Masters of war: classical strategic thought. London: Cass.

Marston, D. (2005). The pacific war companion. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing.

Millett, A.R. (1996). Assault from the Sea: The Development of Amphibious Warfare between the Wars: The American, British, and Japanese Experiences. In Williamson Murray and Allan R. Millett, eds. Military innovation in the interwar period. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Rosen, S.P. (1991). Winning the next war: innovation and the modern military (pp. 130-147).
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Polish History

Words: 1855 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34822005

19th Century

The country of Poland has been one with a history of complex politics and a difficult time retaining independence from foreign invaders. During the 19th century, Poland was controlled by a series of other nations, earning this era of Polish history the moniker of "The Age of Partitions." While the rest of the continent was expanding economically through the industrial revolution and from literature and scientific exploration during the Scientific Revolution, Poland was a perpetual battleground, constantly in flux between authoritarian governments and an attempt to regain autonomy. In a short 100 years, Poland had been occupied by the Russia, Prussia, and Austrian governments. Despite all this political upheaval and a constant fluctuation of power, the Polish people were able to keep a unified national identity.

Fighting against three very strong nations was an impossible task for the Polish nationals. However, that did not stop the people from…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Davies, Norman. God's Playground: a History of Poland. New York: Columbia UP, 1982. Print.

Sanford, George. Poland: The Conquest of History. OPA. 1999. Print.
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Harlem 1920-1960 Culture of the

Words: 9936 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29403060

Their main arguments are based on historical assumptions and on facts which have represented turning points for the evolution of the African-American society throughout the decades, and especially during the Revolutionary War and the Civil War. In this regard, the Old Negro, and the one considered to be the traditional presence in the Harlem, is the result of history, and not of recent or contemporary events.

From the point-of-view of historical preconceptions and stereotypes, it would unwise to consider Harlem as being indeed a cancer in the heart of a city, taking into account the fact that there is no objective comparison being made. Locke points out the fact that the Negro of today be seen through other than the dusty spectacles of past controversy. The day of "aunties," "uncles" and "mammies" is equally gone. Uncle Tom and Sambo have passed on, and even the "Colonel" and "George" play barnstorm…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, Karen Tucker. "Last Hired, First Fired: Black Women Workers during World War II" in the Journal of American History, Vol. 69, No. 1. (Jun., 1982), pp. 82-97.

Barnes, Albert C. Negro Art and America. (accessed 2 December 2007) http://etext.virginia.edu/harlem/BarNegrF.html

Brown, Claude. Manchild in the Promised Land. New York: Touchstone, 1999.

Charles S. Johnson. Black Workers and the City. (accessed 2 December 2007) http://etext.virginia.edu/harlem/JohWorkF.html
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Life Is Beautiful Film Happiness

Words: 609 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56750552

He eventually triumphs in this endeavor, making it possible for Giosue to be extremely happy and taking his thoughts away from the unwelcoming landscape they are presented with during their stay in the labor camps.

Ferruccio's response to Guido's question regarding the reason for which the former is able to go to sleep even with the fact the latter is trying to influence him is essential in understanding Guido's attitude in wanting to entertain Dora and Giosue. "I am what I want to be" stands as motivation for everything Guido covers as a means to get to his wife and son. This statement initially assists him in declaring his love for Dora and in taking her away from what seemed to be her inevitable fate. Later on in the movie, it is partly because of Schopenhauer that Guido has little difficulties in making his son believe that the Holocaust is…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Benigni, Roberto. Life is Beautiful. Miramax Films, 1997.
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Airmail in the United States

Words: 5981 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68589230

S. Postal Systems 1775-1993). A third segment of this transcontinental route was established in 1920 and ran from Chicago to Omaha by way of Iowa City, with feeder lines to this primary route being provided from St. Louis and Minneapolis to Chicago (U.S. Postal Systems 1775-1993). The final transcontinental segment was established on September 8, 1920 and ran from Omaha to San Francisco by way of North Platte, Cheyenne, Rawlins, Rock Springs, Salt Lake City, Elko, and Reno (U.S. Postal Systems 1775-1993).

One of the more interesting aspects of this early transcontinental route was the need to remove all of the mail from airplanes at the end of the day and place it on trains for continuation of the service at night by trains since these early aircraft were unable to fly at night; despite this added contrast, though, the transcontinental route was truly a "Pony Express" of the era…… [Read More]

References

Boston, G. (2005, August 28). Historic site for aircraft; College Park Aviation Museum. The Washington Times, D04.

De Syon, G. (2004). Airlines and air mail: The Post Office and the birth of the commercial aviation industry. Air Power History, 51(1), 56/

Duke, J. & Torres, V. (2005). Multifactor productivity change in the air transportation industry: productivity increases in the U.S. airline industry -- the nation's primary intercity mass transportation system-have played a significant role in the industry's cost-containment efforts and its ability to accelerate growth. Monthly Labor Review, 128(3), 32-34.

Facts and figures about the Postal Service. (2008). U.S. Postal Service. [Online]. Available: http://www.usps.com/communications/newsroom/postalfacts.htm.
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Cultural Forms of Expression African-American

Words: 2857 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48259043

(Cha-Jua, 2001, at (http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm)

Another aspect of representation, however, concerns collective memory and the representation of a shared past. Through the context for dialogue they create, social movements facilitate the interweaving of individual stories and biographies into a collective, unified frame, a collective narrative. Part and parcel of the process of collective identity or will formation is the linking of diverse experiences into a unity, past as well as present. Social movements are central to this process, not only at the individual level, but also at the organizational or meso level of social interaction. Institutions like the black church and cultural artifacts like blues music may have embodied and passed on collective memories from generation to generation, but it was through social movements that even these diverse collective memories attained a more unified focus, linking individuals and collectives into a unified subject, with a common future as well as a…… [Read More]

Resources

Cashmore, E. (2003). Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. New York: Routledge.

Cha-Jua, S.K. (Summer 2001) "Slavery, Racist Violence, American Apartheid: The Case for Reparations" New Politics, 8:3. At http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm

Dubois, W.E.B., (1987) Writings, New York: Library of America.

Davis, A. (1999) Blues Legacies and Black Feminism, New York: Vintage.
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Economics the Great Depression Origins

Words: 3519 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42829294

The downward spiral of deflation, the collapse of countless banks and other financial institutions, and the unprecedented levels of unemployment all demanded that something be done.

The programs that constituted President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal were not entirely unknown in the pre-Depression world. Various European countries already possessed social welfare schemes to some extent, but in the United States this was largely new thinking. The changes wrought by the New Deal reflected as much the uniqueness of conditions during the Great Depression as they did the undercurrent of new attitudes and ideas that had gradually been taking hold among America's intellectuals.

FDR's planners acted in the context of changing values, an evolving set of institutions, shifting political and economic circumstances, and the ebb and flow of planning opportunities to create a distinctly national, American form of planning.... They were part of a wide-ranging national debate over how to create…… [Read More]

Works Cited

DUMMY CITATION #1 G.M., Blaauw, G.A., and Brooks, Jr., F.P. "Architecture of the IBM System/360," IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 44, No. 1/2, IBM, January/March 2000 [Reprint of IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1964.]

DUMMY CITATION #2 Anderson, Philip, and Michael L. Tushman. "Technological Discontinuities and Dominant Designs: A Cyclical Model of Technological Change." Administrative Science Quarterly 35.4 (1990): 604fl.

Gibbons, Jim. "Gibbons Tells Congressional Committee to Abolish Arbitrary FAA Retirement Age: Nevadan Calls Current Federal Rule, 'Blatant Age Discrimination.'" Press Release, (United States Congress, Washington D.C., 12 March, 2003).

Wilkening, Robin. "The Age 60 Rule: Age Discrimination in Civil Aviation." (No Date). URL: http://aeromedical.org/Articles/age60.html.
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Joan Saab Book For Millions American Art

Words: 1291 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77368524

Joan Saab book: For Millions American Art Culture Between War

Joan Saab's book, For the Millions: American Art and Culture Between the Wars, captures and elucidates a vital component of American history, and that in regards to its visual art in particular. This manuscript chronicles a crucial shifting in the regard, usage, and conception of art in the early part of the 20th century between World Wars I and II. This historical epoch was crucial to the fostering of contemporary America and its art for a number of factors. The country was celebrating its victory in the Great War before it knelt to the pressure of the Great Depression, which was only alleviated by one of the most devastating martial encounters in the history of the man, the Second World War. This tumultuous time played a highly important part in the creation and usage of visual art, which was able…… [Read More]

References

Saab, A.J. For the Millions: American Art and Culture Between the Wars. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
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Global Organizations -- IMF at the Bretton

Words: 2584 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64134719

Global Organizations -- IMF

At the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944, that created the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, the Western capitalist nations sought to avoid a repetition of the events that led to the Great Depression and Second World War by establishing a stable international economic order that was not bound by the rigidity of the pre-1914 gold standard system. The interwar period of 1919-39 was one of economic and politic chaos, featuring deflationary devaluations, closed trading blocs, massive unemployment and the failure of the revived gold standard in 1925-31, which were key factors in the rise of the Nazi regime in Germany in 1933 and the fascist takeover of Japan that began in 1931. President Woodrow Wilson had been an early advocate of free trade and had warned against the nationalism and autarky in economic policies that became the norm in the 1920s and 1930s. Secretary of…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Bordo, M.D. "The Bretton Woods International Monetary System: A Historical Overview." pp. 3-108.

Boughton, J.M. 2001. Silent Revolution: The International Monetary Fund, 1979-1989. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.

Boughton, J.M. (2004). The IMF and the Force of History: Ten Events and Ten Ideas that Have Shaped the Institution. IMF Working Paper No. 04/75.

Kahler, M. (1990). The United States and the International Monetary Fund: Declining Influence or Declining Interest? Eds. Karns, M.P. And K.A. Mingst. The United States and Multilateral Institutions. Routledge, pp. 91-115.
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Factors That Positively Affect the Yuan

Words: 3619 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77738730

8% as compared to the dollar in the start of the last year to January this year. The value of Yuan has improved even with the fall of other emerging economies. The loss of competitiveness that resulted can be best demonstrated by a ratio that has been calculated by the Hong Kong Monetary Authority, which makes a comparison of Yuan with the currency of the other emerging markets that are in competition with China. It is important to note here that the competitors of China are the countries that trade against it, and not necessarily the countries that trade with it. The index calculated by the authority demonstrates that Yuan has been rising over 13% in the year to January. As for January alone, the value of the Chinese currency has risen by 2.6%.

The authorities of China have not said that they had made a move in to weaken…… [Read More]

References

Hefeker, C., & Nabor, A. (2002). Yen or Yuan? China's role in the future of Asian monetary integration. HWWA Discussion Paper.

Kent, C. (2013). USD is dead: China caps its dollar holdings and plans crude oil futures priced in yuan. Hang The Bankers. Retrieved from  http://www.hangthebankers.com/usd-is-dead-china-caps-its-dollar-holdings-plans-crude-oil-futures-priced-in-yuan/ 

Leising, M., & Li, F. (2013). China to Free Yuan in 5 Years, Says Hong Kong Exchanges' Li. Bloomberg. Retrieved from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-03-13/china-to-free-currency-in-5-years-says-hong-kong-exchanges-li.html

Mallaby, S., & Wethington, O. (2012). Future of the Yuan: China's Struggle to Internationalize Its Currency, The. Foreign Aff., 91, 135.
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The Russian Empire Through the Eyes of the West

Words: 2091 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36898135

Fellowship Proposal: Russian Studies, Sovietology, and Orientalism

The motivation for this proposal is based on personal interest in the former Russian Empire. The proposed dissertation that will result from this research will consist of an introduction that will discuss the importance of this study, followed by three main chapters, and a conclusion that provides a summary of the research and important findings concerning the issues of interest. Each of the chapters will cover a specific historical period characterized by a different set of American views, studies, and assumptions about Central Asia prior to the end of the Cold War period. Ending the proposed dissertation with the early Cold War era is also apt because it was a pivotal moment in the formal establishment of Central Asian Studies, albeit as a sub-discipline within Russian and Soviet studies.

Prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia was comprised of five…… [Read More]

References

Baldwin, Kate A., Beyond the Color Line and the Iron Curtain: Reading Encounters between Black and Red, 1922-1963. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2002.

Bookwalter, John, Siberia and Central Asia. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1899.

Carew, Joy Gleason, Blacks, Reds, and Russians Sojourners in Search of the Soviet Promise. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2008.

Davis, Raymond and Andrew Steiger, Soviet Asia, Democracy's First Line of Defense. New York: the Dial Press, 1942.
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BASF Chemicals This Report Provides

Words: 1969 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61249343

Dow, Bayer and its other competitors (particularly Dow) in one specific area: chemicals. According to Strikwerda, "BASF has continually failed in lines outside of chemicals -- tape recorders, videocassetes, pharmaceuticals, and nuclear power. It succeeded only by re-focusing during the 1990s on its core business: chemicals, the construction of chemical plants, and chemical-based products such as plastics and fertilizers" (emphasis added) (1236).

External Environment

Notwithstanding the potential positive outcomes that could be realized through the company's full range of business segments, it is clear that its chemicals segment will continue to drive the company's success in the future -- if the company's leadership can continue to focus on what the company does best and improve the company's image in Europe and North America. The economic potential of the chemicals industry in the near future is bright, as can be discerned from increasing trade figures between the European Union and the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

'BASF SE.' (2011). Yahoo! Finance. [online] available: http://biz.yahoo.com/ic/41/41755.html.

'BASF -- the Chemical.' (2011). Indeed. [online] available: http://www.indeed.com/cmp/Basf

-the-Chemical.

Dando, Malcolm R Preventing Biological Warfare: The Failure of American Leadership. New York: Palgrave, 2002.
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International Trade & Finance China

Words: 1236 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37404028

S. inflation in check, even during economic boom times.

Cultural Values

The debate about increasing protectionism in the U.S. boils down to a clash of cultural values. In the natural course of international trade, there will be those who suffer and those who benefit. International markets are amoral. Trade is conducted between nations with the intent of raising the standard of living for both, but this is on aggregate, not universally. As a result, jobs losses in some sectors, particularly those where the U.S. does not have comparative advantage, are inevitable. To enact protectionist measures to stem those job losses will have three negative impacts.

The first is retaliatory trade measures. Tariffs and other protectionist measures tend to go hand in hand. If a country protects its industries, nations that trade with that country will do the same. This is the classic Smoot-Hawley scenario. To protect American jobs during the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

No author. (2009). Top ten countries with which the U.S. trades. Census.gov. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/top/dst/current/balance.html

No author. (2007). David Ricardo and comparative advantage. NetMBA.com. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from  http://www.netmba.com/econ/micro/comparative-advantage/ 

US Department of State. (no date). Protectionism in the interwar period. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/id/17606.htm

Evenett, S. (2009). The G20's assault on world trade. VOX. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/4008
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Delimitations Today Modern Business Systems

Words: 20751 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13650636

A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-

Jacobs at p. 237.
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America's Decision to Stay Out

Words: 5328 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99155591



The U.S. Debate over Membership in the League of Nations

After the end of World War I, the world was weary of war and the ravages that it had taken on the European continent and it would seem reasonable to suggest that policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic would be eager to form some type of league to resolve future conflicts. According to Margulies (1998), "Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference in June 1919, where he played a major role in negotiating that treaty, which established the League of Nations, President Woodrow Wilson turned his attention to persuading the U.S. Senate to ratify the new treaty" (273). The Senate of the 66th Congress was almost equally divided between the Republican Party with 49 and the Democrats who fielded 47 senators (Marguilies). Although the president could rely on the majority of the Democrats…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Egerton, George W. Great Britain and the Creation of the League of Nations: Strategy, Politics,

and International Organization, 1914-1919. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North

Carolina Press, 1978.

Janas, Michael. 2006. "Woodrow Wilson's Western Tour: Rhetoric, Public Opinion and the League of Nations." Argumentation and Advocacy 42(4): 229.
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F X Markets Today's Foreign Exchange

Words: 1262 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15245945

The stability is evident in the statistics as well. Between 1880 and 1914, the golden age of the gold standard, inflation averaged 0.1%. Between 1946-2003, even with Bretton Woods, inflation average 4.1% (Bardo, n.d.). Short-term price changes, however, could be highly unstable. This is a consequence of the fact that the gold standard ignores fundamental economic principles. Any system where the value of a good is established by artificial means is subject to such shocks. Another drawback to the gold standard is that it gives governments very little discretion over monetary policy. Another drawback is the cost of producing gold. The gold standard relies on having physical gold reserves. Thus, gold must be produced, and for that there is a cost (Ibid).

With the decline of Bretton Woods, the gold standard died. It was replaced by the modern foreign exchange system. At the core of this system are fiat currencies.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bordo, Michael D. (no date). The Gold Standard. Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Retrieved April 11, 2009 from  http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/GoldStandard.html 

Cohen, Benjamin. (no date). Bretton Woods System. University of California at Santa Barbara Retrieved April 11, 2009 from http://www.polsci.ucsb.edu/faculty/cohen/inpress/bretton.html
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Status and Power Mass Media

Words: 2561 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25075

Also, gay characters have slowly become more prominent both on TV and in the movies.

In the 1990s, producers gave up on feeling that they had to challenge gender representations as models of masculinity and femininity had become less offensive and clearly defined. We can, for instance, refer to the hit sit-com Friends which presented three male characters, Ross, Chandler and Joey whose masculinity was placed within conventional models of masculinity without excluding qualities such as gentleness and sensitivity. Similarly, the female characters were clearly feminine but sufficiently intelligent in order to escape the housewife cliche. Furthermore, the context of the show was relatively innovative as the six main characters were linked by friendship as opposed to the more traditional family circle which had dominated the previous two decades. The model of equal genders appears in many shows from the 1990s onwards (Gauntlett 61).

Race is depicted in the media…… [Read More]

Sources

Coover, Gail E. "Television and Social Identity: Race Representation as "White" Accommodation." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 45, no. 3 (2001): 413.

Gauntlett, David. Media, Gender, and Identity: An Introduction. Routledge, 2002.

Gurevitch, Michael, Tony Bennett, James Curran, and Janet Woollacott, eds. Culture, Society, and the Media. London: Routledge, 1990.

Mantios, Gregory. "Making Class Invisible"
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Reality Telivision Leading Expert of

Words: 1486 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13429802

The creative ways in which the varied direct involvement aspect has been included by producers in the genre also has to do with technology. Programs where the audience participates in decision making, like when the audience chooses a winner in a program via voting on site or by cell phone text messages are common, as are other audience participation tactics, like on new themed game shows when the audience gives a hint to the contestant and the contestant can then view the percentages of answers. These are just a few examples of how the industry has answered the audience participation draw of the reality genre, though the same research derived study also found that voyeurism is a secondary and limited aspect of the draw to reality TV.

Papacharissi, and Mendelson 355)

Viewers valued the entertainment and habitual pass time motives over that of voyeurism, which was fairly surprising, considering that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Davies, Maire Messenger. Fake, Fact, and Fantasy: Children's Interpretations of Television Reality. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997.

Hill, Annette. Reality TV: Audiences and Popular Factual Television. New York: Routledge, 2005.

Leone, Ron, Wendy Chapman Peek, and Kimberly L. Bissell. "Reality Television and Third-Person Perception." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 50.2 (2006): 253.

Papacharissi, Zizi, and Andrew L. Mendelson. "An Exploratory Study of Reality Appeal: Uses and Gratifications of Reality TV Shows." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 51.2 (2007): 355.
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International Capital Markets Capital Markets

Words: 5359 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25723755

Inappropriate exchange rates can spell disaster. A fixed exchange rate is ideal. There are sharp mismatches in the financial and the banking sectors of the countries. The national debts of countries have also become subjects of alarm and controversy. "The global economic upturn seems to be gathering pace -- it certainly is in Asia, now the world's fastest growing region. A period of economic growth offers a chance for governments to get their fiscal affairs in order, to reduce their debts burdens and so reduce the risk of pro-cyclical fiscal tightening later." (Krueger, 2003) the capital flow must be regulated but not restricted. There must be a level playing field for all countries. All these are absent in the modern international capital market. (Krueger, 2003)

International Capital Market - Analysis

The modern market is in crisis and is volatile. And after 1990 many nations have removed the restrictions on capital…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, Sarah. (1998, Dec) "International Financial Flows" edited by Tom Barry (IRC) and Martha Honey (IPS), Foreign Policy in Focus, Vol. 3, no. 41. Retrieved 27 February, 2008 at  http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/25/093.html 

Bordo, Michael D; Goldin, Claudia; White, Eugene N. (1999, May) "The Great Depression as a Watershed: International Capital Mobility over the Long Run" NBER Working Paper No. 5960. Retrieved 26 February, 2008 at http://www.nber.org/papers/w5960

Cowen, David. "Exchange Rate Regime Choice and Economic Performance in the Interwar

Years" the Journal of Economic History, Vol. 57, No. 2 (Jun., 1997), pp. 491-493. Retrieved 27 February, 2008 at (http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-0507(199706)57%3A2%3C491%3AERRCAE%3E2.0.CO%3B2-0
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League of Nations When the

Words: 1325 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68131307



No matter what efforts were attempted, the aggression of Germany in Europe and Japan in the Pacific Ocean and the then-American territory of Hawaii exploded into the official beginning of World War II in 1941. Strangely enough, it is fair to make the argument that one of the events which drove Hitler to push Germany deeper and deeper into war, despite being advised to the contrary, was the humiliation of having to cater to the peace movement that culminated after World War I and led to the birth of the League; this is not to say that the League actually caused additional war, however.

Upon the conclusion of World War II, after the death of Hitler and defeat of Germany and Japan respectively, the world once again in 1945 found itself repeating where it had been immediately after World War I. Whether the popular opinion that the League of Nations…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Grigorescu, Alexandru. "Mapping the UN-League of Nations Analogy: Are There Still Lessons to Be Learned from the League?." Global Governance 11.1 (2005): 25+.

Margulies, Herbert F. "The Moderates in the League of Nations Battle: An Overlooked Faction." The Historian 60.2 (1998): 273+.

Mazower, Mark. "Minorities and the League of Nations in Interwar Europe." Daedalus 126.2 (1997): 47+.

Northedge, F.S. The League of Nations: Its Life and Times, 1920-1946. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1986.
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Hermann Goering Was the Second

Words: 2910 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56766945

He liked to show of the luxury than by now he could afford at the expense of the robberies conducted by him and his men and his very influential position. A closer look to Goering's life of luxury shows that he was more than enjoying his success, his arrogance and extravagance being by now well-known.

Goering had good organizational skills and he was appointed in charge of so many different positions because he had the capability to follow the Nazi ideology with more belief than many others. Goering was truly dedicated to the Nazi cause, although not entirely unmotivated.

Goering was the man that stood behind the elimination of the Jewish community from German economic life, as he fined the German Jewish community a billion marks and order their exclusion from economy, their properties, even schools, parks, or forests. Goering was one of the leading figures that planned the "Aryanisation"…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hermann Goering, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_G%C3%B6ring;

Hermann Goering, Jewish Virtual Library, available at  http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/goering.html ;

Jagdgeschwader 1 (World War 1), available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jagdgeschwader_1_%28World_War_1%29;

Manvell, Roger and Franenkel, Heinrich, Goering, Greenhill Books, London UK, 2005;
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Existence of the Industrial Revolution

Words: 2112 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79232127



Generally, the European economy was characterized by the following aspects:

The development of the economic activity's industrial side, not only in Western Europe but also in other countries previously considered to be exclusively agrarian. The industry and services presented the highest increases, and the gap between labor productivity in agriculture and the one in industry significantly increased

The Eastern and South-Eastern European countries' economic evolution suffered important transformations, with quantitative and qualitative restructurings

Maintaining the inequalities between European countries, given their distinct evolution

The heterogeneity of options regarding European development strategies

It is considered that the war delayed the European economy's evolution with approximately 8 years, which means that the 1929 production quantum might have been attained in 1921 if it had not been for the war and if the growth rates before 1913 would have been maintained (Kennedy, pp 361).

2.2. The Great Depression and European Economy's Post-crisis situation…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Perry, K. Modern European History. Made Simple. London, 1976.

2. Heaton, Herbert. Economic History of Europe. Harper & Row, London, 1966.

3. Kennedy, Paul. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000. London, 1989.

4. Kindleberger, C.P. The World Depression 1929-1939. University of California Press, 1973.
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Scott Fitzgerald Tender Is the

Words: 1788 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86697417



Fitzgerald wrote his novel during an era which clearly indicated that living in an unreasonable manner, making all sorts of abuses and excesses, recklessly without any kind of consideration has serious and in the same time damaging effects upon people's lives. Immediately after the First World War, the social and political climate reached an energetic climax during the roaring twenties. With a new focus on individualism and the pursuit of all sorts of pleasures and excitements, this period was filled with adventures that had serious negative consequences. The excess of pleasure and drinking which were the main causes that triggered the inevitable destruction of the characters in "Tender Is the Night" reflects Fitzgerald's sensitivity to the excesses of the Jazz Age prior to the Great Depression.

It could be said that in life we experience the phenomenon of rise and fall and that between the two of them there is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

The Odyssey" by Homer, translated by Samuel Butler

http://classics.mit.edu/Homer/odyssey.html

Robin Mitchell-Boyask, Temple University - "Study Guide for Homer's Odyssey" (updated 31 January 2002)

http://www.temple.edu/classics/odysseyho.html
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Developing Countries Responded to Debt

Words: 963 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88259092

The states which had a diversified palette of export products managed to overcome the crisis in relatively short periods of time due to the advantages of diversification. But the countries which had smaller economies, strictly dependent on one or two export products faced more challenges in defeating the crisis. These countries include Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Uruguay, Panama and Paraguay (LaRosa, Mejia, 2006).

All in all, the approaches implemented by each country in the management of the Great Depression of the 1930s revealed both differences as well as similarities. The differences included diverse policy approaches, monetary decisions and the capitalization on the export advantages. The differences in the approach of the depression were given by a multitude of issues, most of them derived from the country-specific features. For instance, China, due to its currency pegging to the silver rather than the gold, faced little impediments in revival. The countries in…… [Read More]

References:

Bernanke, B.S., Money, gold and the Great Depression, Federal Reserve,  http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/speeches/2004/200403022/default.htm  last accessed on November 3, 2011

LaRosa, M.J., Mejia, G.R., 2006, An atlas and survey of Latin American history, M.E. Sharpe

Robinson, J.A., 2009, Good crises? Implications for developing countries Harvard University, http://scholar.harvard.edu/jrobinson/files/jr_wb_goodcrises.pdf last accessed on November 3, 2011

Saint-Etienne, C., 1984, The Great Depression, 19229-1938: Lessons for the 1980s, Hoover Press
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Classical Concert Review Bauhaus Bach

Words: 1076 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49700544

The fugues in particular, which are at once incredibly regular and mechanical in their construction -- scholars have noted the clean lines the many notes form on the printed page, for example -- yet achingly beautiful and religiously passionate embody many of the concepts of the Bauhaus philosophy and culture (Williams, 2007; James, 2006; Weber, 2009). With the newer orchestrations of Bach's works by these Bauhaus-affiliated composers, and with Feininger's own Bach-inspired fugue thrown in for good measure, the trajectory and relation of Bach's music to the Bauhaus school actually becomes quite clear, though the resultant sound is not necessarily the most impressive.

The Concert

All of the preparatory research completed before the concert definitely added to the anticipation this reviewer felt when leafing through the program and reading the extensive concert notes provided. The size of the hall and the crowd that filled it was somewhat intimidating, and added…… [Read More]

References

James, K. (2006). Bauhaus Culture. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Stapert, C. (2010) J.S. Bach. New York: Lion.

Weber, N. (2009). The Bauhaus Group. New York: Knopf.

Williams, P. (2007) J.S. Bach: A Life in Music. New York: Cambridge University Press.
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Romantic and Modern Design Styles Comparing the

Words: 1568 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95732441

Romantic and Modern Design Styles

Comparing the Ornate and the Natural: A Study of Two Theories of Design

History often dictates societal mentality more so than current climate, yet in times of peace, it seems that the beautiful and the artful flourish. This very concept is debatable, especially in interior design, where the fashions of the time very often have a much-felt impact upon design theories and the way in which they are carried out. Yet it is in history that one finds inspiration, or the contradiction thereof. For instance, during the mid to late 19th century, it was against history that romanticism was born. Yet in the early 20th century, immediately following this period of romanticism, it was out of a societal need for simplicity prior to the two Great Wars that a more natural aesthetic was born, expressed so perfectly by the architect Frank Lloyd Wright. The following…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

1. Customer Notes -- Provided by Customer from Academic Notes and Books

2. Britannica Encyclopedia, (2012). Interior Design: The Romantic Movement and the Battle of the Styles. Retrieved from, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/290278/interior-design/74226/The-Romantic-movement-and-the-battle-of-the-styles-1835-1925

3. Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, (2012). Wright's Life and Work. Retrieved from, http://www.franklloydwright.org/web/Home.html

4. Pile, J. (1997). Color in Interior Design. McGraw-Hill: New York.
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Humor in America Evolution of

Words: 2916 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97706464

For example, the popular sitcoms Good Times and Sanford and Son showed working class neighborhoods and the problems of violence, crime, and social oppression, and yet how humor always finds its way into these character's lives.

The 1970s also brought about a new late night live comedy show, called Saturday Night Live. This show had its first run from 1975 to 1980, and made political humor the centerpiece of Saturday night television. The original cast consisted of Dan Aykroyd, John Belushi, Chevy Chase, George Coe, Jane Curtin, Garrett Morris, Laraine Newman, Michael O'Donoghue and Gilda Radner, a diverse mix of young comedians from around New York City. Saturday Night Live is famous for its portrayals of U.S. Presidents, from Gerald Ford to Barack Obama, and has helped to shape Americans impressions of how these presidents have reacted to events in the world. (Boskin, 46) Saturday Night Live created a demanding…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boskin, J. (1997). Rebellious laughter: People's humor in american culture. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.

Dudden, a. (1989). American humor. (p. 184). New York: Oxford University Press.
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Marshal Tito Josip Broz Tito

Words: 856 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24991714

First of all Titoism "included the eventual abandonment of agricultural collectivization, workers councils, and the centralization of economic and administrative controls. Generally Yugoslavs under Tito's rule possessed more freedoms and liberties than most others living in communist regimes" (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/yugo-hist2.htm).Another idea of Titoism was national particularity of Communism which meant that Communism in different states had different features which should be taken into consideration by the government. The main point if this statement was multinational structure of Yugoslav society which could not accept Soviet kind of Communism so the main problem of Tito's domestic policy was national issue. It is known that Kosovo and Croatia were the centers of nationalistic separatism in Yugoslavia so communism and federation were not popular among their population. Tito failed establishing ethnic peace and cooperation in these regions because both Albanians and Croats resisted his plans of strengthening the federation. As the matter of fact by…… [Read More]

References

1.Djilas, Milovan Tito: The Story from Inside Phoenix Press 2001

2. Tito's Yugoslavia, Article available at web-resource:  http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/yugo-hist2.htm 

3. Sowards, Steven W. Twenty-Five Lectures on Modern Balkan History Lecture 20: The traditional regimes and the challenge of Communism: Patriotism vs. opportunism available at web-resource: http://www.lib.msu.edu/sowards/balkan/lect20.htm

4. Wilson, Duncan. Tito's Yugoslavia, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979
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Non-Commissioned Officers Nco in the

Words: 1226 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27993427

Recovery of the U.S. economy, accompanied by international aggression, eventually again sparked support for military spending. The Army, however, reportedly did not achieve large-scale modernization until France fell in 1940 (Odom 98). A 1935 Gallup poll reporting that Americans would support larger appropriations for military readiness was the first indication of shifting attitudes. Nevertheless, appropriations would not reflect slowly growing popular concern until 1938. (Odom 200)

TABLE 2. Congressional Appropriations for Military Activity, 1925-1940 (dates adapted)

Fiscal Year Ending

June 30

Appropriation ($)

Source: Data from U.S. Treasury Department, Digest of Appropriations (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1921-41).

Odom 82)

During the time frame from 1925-1945, a soldier's duties could change in a moment. The closer a soldier came to combat, the greater his "physical hardihood" needed to be, General McNair contended. "Proximity to combat depended, not on type of job, but on type of unit. A cook or clerk, if in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Army Study Guide. Retrieved on June 5, 2006 at http://www.ncocorps.net/more/short_history_of_the_army_nco.htm,2006.

Bartlett, John. Familiar Quotations (Sixteenth Edition). Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1992.

Baron von Steuben." Retrieved on June 5, 2006 from www.ushistory.org/valleyforge/served/steuben.html,2006.

Henderson, William Darryl, and Charles Moskos. The Hollow Army: How the U.S. Army Is Oversold and Undermanned. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.
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Gold Bretton Woods Gold Dollar Standard

Words: 2025 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50340500

It has been an expected fact that the balance of payments is self adjusting under fixed exchange rates, at least to the point when monetary authorities interfere with it by sterilizing the variations in the money supply that determines the adjustment mechanism. Irrespective of the omission of a global unit of account, base for neutral nations and means of settlement, the important disadvantage and the significant threat to prosperity in the global system rests in the wild gyrations of major exchange rates as well as the risk of instability position of the dollar. Ever since the initiation of the floating, the world economy presented a pronounced dollar cycle. Two digit inflation, low real interests rates as well as rising gold and oil prices followed the weak dollar of the late 1970s, high real interest rates, reducing inflation, enhancing deficits and reducing gold and oil prices represented by the strong dollar…… [Read More]

References

Benjamin. J. Cohen. Bretton Woods System. Retrieved at  http://www.polsci.ucsb.edu/faculty/cohen/inpress/bretton.html . Accessed 12 June, 2006

Bordo, Michael. D; Bayoumi, Tamim. Getting pegged: comparing the 1879 and 1925 gold resumptions. March, 1996. Retrieved at http://www.nber.org/papers/W5497Accessed 12 June, 2006

Bretton Woods System. Wikipedia. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bretton_Woods_systemAccessed 12 June, 2006

Dooley, Michael. P. An Essay on the Revived Bretton Woods System. Retrieved at http://www.nber.org/papers/w9971Accessed 12 June, 2006
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World War II Happen The

Words: 1724 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15911546

" Military History. [online]

available: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm.

Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook.

Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Snell, J.L. (1962). The Outbreak of the Second World War: Design or Blunder? Boston D.C.

Heath.

Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research, 6(1), p. 117.

Carr, p. 117.

Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hickman, K. (2012). "World War II Europe: The Road to War." Military History. [online] available: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm.

Hickman, p. 1.

Corum, J.S. (2004, Summer). "The Luftwaffe and Its Allied Air Forces in World War II: Parallel War and the Failure of Strategic and Economic Cooperation." Air Power History, 51(2), p. 4.

Corum, p. 4.

Corum, p. 5.

Bassett, R.L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes:…… [Read More]

References

Bassett, R.L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes: The Clash of Religion and Politics, from the Great

War to the War on Terror." Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 28(3), 281-289.

Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic

Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research, 6(1), 117-121.
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Regionalism This Report Analyzes Regionalism in Several

Words: 2886 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84786682

Regionalism

This report analyzes regionalism in several contexts as they pertain to the movie Snow Falling on Cedars. The movie is pervasively filled with considerations relating to regionalism, outsiders vs. insiders, how insiders and outsiders mesh and the very dicey results that can ensue, how all of this plays off of national and international situations and conflicts and so forth. This movie establishes that many unique and different things can influence who interacts with who, how and why and the things that impact all of this are not just limited to race and nationality.

Movie Setting & Synopsis

The year and country this film is set in has a ton to do with why people feel the way they do and why there is such a bred animosity towards Kabuo, to the point that his guilt is almost assumed and someone very important in the movie actually withholds information that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Old Regionalism, New Regionalism, And Envision Utah: Making Regionalism Work." Harvard

Law Review 118.7 (2005): 2291-2313. Academic Search Premier. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.

Goodfellow, Samuel. "Fascism And Regionalism In Interwar Alsace." National Identities 12.2

(2010): 133-145. Academic Search Premier. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.
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Franz Kafka the Trial

Words: 1440 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76889613

Franz Kafka "The Trial"

Franz Kafka's possibly unfinished novel, "The Trial," is one of the great mysteries of modernist literature. It was at once an astute, even prescient critique of modern power structures as well as a novel that does not quite make sense from a literary perspective. Left on the shelf by Kafka in 1915, the book was published in 1925 during the tense interwar period, which was, not coincidentally, the heyday of Modernist literature. Like most Modernist writers, Kafka used his art to express his sense of alienation and powerlessness in an increasingly hostile, meaningless, and dehumanized world. Thesis: "The Trial" is a critique of the bureaucratized nature of power in modern society and its effect on the modern individual's will. K.'s attempts to understand the purpose of the power structure persecuting him are frustrated because the power structure has no actual meaning or purpose, existing instead for…… [Read More]

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Balancing Mortgage Rates Problems Faced While Balancing

Words: 1608 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14969412

Balancing Mortgage Rates

Problems Faced While Balancing Mortgage Rates

In general terms the monetary policies that contradict themselves mostly involve the process of changing the amount and level of the supply of money in a particular country. When it comes to talking about the expansionary monetary policy, it means that it expands and increases the flow and supply of money, then the impact it has on the monetary policies is that the flow or supply money decreases and hence so does the currency (Fisher, 1932).

Expansionary Monetary Policy

In the U.S., when the government wants to increase the supply of money, it can do so with a combination of three points.

By purchasing various securities from the open market which are also known as the open market operations

It can also be done by lowering the discount rate by the federal government.

It can also be done by lowering the…… [Read More]

References

Easton, B.H. (2011). Growth and Recessions of Economic Output: 1861-1939 (website tba)

Economic Committee (1932) Report.

Eggertsson, G.B. & Krugman, P. (2010). Debt, Deleveraging, and the Liquidity Trap: A Fisher-Minsky-Koo Approach

Eisner, Robert (1988). How real is the Federal Deficit? New York, The Free Press.
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Progress and Technology

Words: 1464 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87844581

Philosophical and Literary Representation of Capitalism

Progress & Technology in Capitalism

John Steinbeck wrote the social The Grapes of Wrath during the interwar years, just after the Great Depression harrowingly illustrated the power of unchecked capitalism. His novel takes the position that revolutionary change is needed, is inevitable, and that a just and non-exploitive society can only come about when capitalism is eliminated. Steinbeck is reported to have made clear his intentions as he prepared to write The Grapes of Wrath. In his words, "I want to put a tag of shame on the greedy bastards who are responsible for this" [the Great Depression and its widely destructive effects]." Steinbeck's collectivist-leaning voice at the time of his writing The Grapes of Wrath would become so altered over the course of three decades that it hardly seemed to belong to this writer who created on the very edge of moral fervor.…… [Read More]

References

Cunningham, C. (2002). Rethinking the politics of The Grapes of Wrath. [In Cultural Logic, ISSN 1097-3087].

Denning, M. (1996). The cultural front: The laboring of American cultural in the twentieth century. London and New York: Verso.

Hicks, G. (1939, May 2). "Steinbeck's Powerful New Novel." Review of The Grapes of Wrath. New Masses, 22-3.

Innis, H. (1930). The fur trade in Canada: An introduction to Canadian economic history. Revised and reprinted (1977). Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
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U S Reliance of the National Guard During WWII

Words: 3787 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6513059

U.S. Reliance of the National Guard

The National Guard is a private army (militia) of the United States of America. The United States' Constitution has authorized this militia and has also specified the different functions and roles of the National Guard in the federal and state governments. According to the Article 1 of the Section 8 in the United States' Constitution, the Congress has been granted the authority "to call forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions" ("National Guard," 2013). The power to organize, arm and discipline the militia was handed over to the Congress. However, it was the responsibility of the states to appoint the officers and train the militia. The second Amendment consisted of further provisions regarding the regulation of militia ("National Guard," 2013).

In general, the National Guard is answerable to the state jurisdiction when there is peace. The…… [Read More]

References

Bunting, J. (2005, Nov. - Dec.). George Marshall: An American for All Seasons.Humanities, 26, 22+. Retrieved October 25, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-1063012361/george-marshall-an-american-for-all-seasons

Cooper, J. (1997). The Rise of the National Guard: The Evolution of the American Militia, 1865-1920. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Doubler, M.D. (2001, Summer). The National Guard at War. Joint Force Quarterly, 1, 63+. Retrieved October 23, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-84544982/the-national-guard-at-war

Doubler, M.D. (2003). Civilian in Peace, Soldier in War: The Army National Guard, 1636-2000. Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas.
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Polish Companies Reacted to Ethical Issues and

Words: 22311 Length: 76 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1609303

Polish Companies Reacted to Ethical Issues and Changes in Business Standards Since the Fall of Communism in 1989?

Poland's Economy Pre-Communism's Fall

Poland's Natural Resources

Minerals and Fuels

Agricultural Resources

Labor Force

The Polish Economy Under Communism

System Structure

Development Strategy

The Centrally-Planned Economy

Establishing the Planning Formula

Retrenchment and Adjustment in the 1960s

Reliance on Technology in the 1970s

Reform Failure in the 1980s

Poland's Economy After the Fall of Communism

Poland After the Fall of Communism

Fall of Communism

Marketization and Stabilization

Required Short-Term Changes

Section 2.3.2. The Shock Strategy

Section 2.3.3. Initial Results

Section 2.3.4. Long-Term Requirements

Section 2.4. Macroeconomic Indicators for 1990-91

Section 2.4.1. Price Increases

Section 2.4.2. Impact on Productivity and Wages

Section 2.4.3. Statistical Distortions

Section 2.4.4. Agricultural Imbalances

Section 2.4.5. Causes of Decline

Section 2.5.The Polish Post-Communism Privatization Process

Section 2.6. Structure of Poland's Economy: Post-Communism

Section 2.6.1. Fuels and Energy

Section 2.6.2.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bowie E. (1999) Business Ethics a Kantian Perspective Oxford: Blackwell

Ciszewska B. (1998) Unethical behaviour Warszawa: Rzeczpospolita

Cryssides G.D.; Kaler J.H. (1999) Introduction to the ethics of business. Warszawa: PWN

Davies W.F. (1997) Current issues in business ethics London: Routledge
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Non-Traditional Security Threats and the EU

Words: 8197 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84723317

Non-Traditional Security Threats and the EU

Theoretical Study

Terrorism

Weapons of Mass Destruction and Nuclear Threat

Regional Conflict

Organized Crime

Environmental Degradation

Non-Traditional Security Threats and the EU

Due to the discontentment with the conventional concepts of security, the research schedule based on these conventional concepts, associated theoretical debates and their impact on policy, have given rise to the idea of non-traditional security. In the present era, it is universally acknowledged that security possesses multifaceted characteristics. Growing from the components of military and political units of the days of the Cold War, it has presently come to achieve new magnitude i.e. which is composed of economic, social, environmental based and educational oriented. These are not brought together under the military characteristics of security and they encompass a whole lot, ranging from macroeconomic equilibrium to environmental based.

Non-traditional security risks like extremism or terrorist activities, weapons which lead to mass destruction,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Burgess, John. (2004) EU Taking Up Terrorism Issues: Security Officials Try to Forge Europe-Wide Response After Attacks. Washington Post Foreign Service. March 20; p. A13

Black, Ian. (2004) EU faces Nuclear Terror Threat. The Guardian. May 5. p.5

Buzan, Barry. (1991) People, States and Fear: National Security Problem in International Relations. Longman Publishers.

Desertification/Land degradation. European Environment Agency, 2001
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20th Century Intelligence Operations

Words: 877 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3308925

Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is an integral part of military strategy. Referring to the interception and decoding of enemy communications, SIGINT is the topic of Peter Matthew's 2013 publication, SIGINT: The Secret History of Signals Intelligence 1914-1945. Matthew focuses on the history of SIGINT until the Cold War. What makes SIGINT: The Secret History of Signals Intelligence unique is that the author presents the Axis point-of-view on SIGINT. As Matthew (2013) puts it, the author's aim is "to tell the other side of the Bletchley Park story," (p. 16).

A brief introduction describes what SIGINT is and how it evolved through technological and strategic changes. SIGINT is related to cryptography, because it encompasses the decoding of encrypted messages. The author points out that the book will be emphasizing Bletchley Park and Ultra, which were instrumental in bringing about the Allied Victory in the Second World War. Moreover, the author is interested…… [Read More]

References

Matthews, P. (2013). SIGINT. Gloucestershire: The History Press.
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Cause and Effects of the Great Depression

Words: 1043 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84123661

Economics

The Great Depression

The Great Depression started in 1929 and lasted until the end of the Second World War, it was the most severe depression seen in the western world. The depression had far reaching economic, social, and political consequences. To understand the depression it is necessary to look at the event itself, underlying causes, the impacts and the way in which recovery took place.

The Great Depression may be argued as starting in August of 1929, when the countries GDP started to decline; but it is the cash of October 1929 that marks the official beginning of the crisis (Robbins & Weidenbaum, 2009). The stock market crash of 1929 was a surprise for many; the previous decade had been one of growth and prosperity. On Black Tuesday 29th of October the bottom dropped out of the stock market, which resulted in panic selling loosing 40% of the paper…… [Read More]

References

Bernanke, BS, (1983), Nonmonetary Effects of the Financial Crisis in the Propagation of the Great Depression, The American Economic Review, 73(3), 257-276

Cecchetti, G, (1992). Sources of Output Fluctuations During the Interwar Period: Further Evidence on the Causes of the Great Depression, Working Paper No. 4049, National Bureau of Economic Research

Robbins, Lionel; Weidenbaum, Murray, (2009), The Great Depression, Transaction Publishers
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Causes of Poverty in Britain

Words: 536 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64835263

This increases the cost of living and diminishes people's savings, where it leads to poverty gradually.

From 1890 to 1914, Britain may have gone through a similar situation. Although later allied with France for military purposes, Britain may have not had any trade agreement. This implies that Britain was a self sustaining unit but using resources of her colonies. Even at that time Britain had nearly 1/4 of land area which commercially benefitted her directly and indirectly5. New industries were taken over by Germany and USA (electronics). In the mean time, traditional industries such as the 'steel industry' were fallen back and had been newly taken over by Germans and Americans5. This in turn might have generated a population of unoccupied personal searching for opportunities. In 1904 regular work was not sufficient to protect families against poverty and confirms Rowntree's conclusion that low wages were an important cause of poverty…… [Read More]

References

History Man Website2001, Britain, viewed 18 September, 2009, <.historyman.co.uk/ww1/Europe1890-1914.html

2 History Man Website2001, Britain, viewed 18 September, 2009, <.historyman.co.uk/ww1/Europe1890-1914.html

3 Gazeley, I & Newell, a 2007, POVERTY in BRITAIN in 1904: AN EARLY SOCIAL SURVEY

REDISCOVERED, PRUS Working Paper no. 38, p. 2.
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Poverty in Britain 1890-1914 Main

Words: 599 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66878536



While urbanization is identified as the main cause of poverty in Britain during the Industrial Revolution period, social problems related to health, education, and employment led the nation to poverty. As a result of increasing growth of population in the cities, poor living conditions became rampant, resulting to illnesses in urban areas. As a result, the government needed not only to provide help for people whose health has suffered, but it also had to bear the economic downturn that resulted from lack of workers in its industries due to low number of workers working its industries and factories.

In addition to community health problems, Britain also faced the challenge of negotiating with workers' unions in order to keep the economy running. The government's failure to address this social problem efficiently led to a slowdown in its economic activities, hurting its growth in the long run.

Lastly, education as a 'sub-cause'…… [Read More]

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Democratic Stability in Britain and

Words: 1446 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70064927

Therefore, unlike the British the French could rarely fully identify themselves with the idea of a monarch. These cases did occur however especially during Louis 14th in particular. The actions undergone by the "Roi Soleil" created for the French the identity of their cultural heritage and this is obvious in the current day society which still evokes the French culture as the cornerstone of major artistic revolutions. However, the kings at the time were the driving force for the creation of such an identity. Yet, there can be little talk about the French monarchy having created the democratic spirit of the French culture.

Thirdly, the historical background also influenced the way in which the monarchy gave the way to the installation of the French Republic. The French Revolution of 1789 was one of the most important elements that influenced the way in which the rule would be later on developed…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994.

Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses, 1998.

British Parlament. "Parliament: The political institution." Parliament.uk. 2007. 21 March 2008 http://www.parliament.uk/about/history/institution.cfm

Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
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Termination of the Republican Government in Germany

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16188984

Termination of the Republican Government in Germany in 1933

The last years of the Weimar republic were marked by even more political instability than in the previous years. On March 29, 1930, finance expert Heinrich Bruning had been appointed the successor of Chancellor Muller by Paul von Hindenburg after months of political lobbying by General Kurt von Schleicher on behalf of the military. The new government was expected to lead a political shift towards conservatism, based on the emergency powers granted to the Reichsprasident by the constitution, since it had no majority support in the Reichstag. After an unpopular bill to help the Reich's finances had not found the support of the Reichstag, Hindenburg established the bill as an emergency decree based on Article 48 of the constitution. On July 18, 1930, the bill was again invalidated by a slim majority in the Reichstag with the support of the Sozialdemokratische…… [Read More]

By the time Bismarck had to leave the Chancellor's office in 1890, France and Russia were working to forge an alliance in both commercial and military terms. French capital markets were supplying Russian industrialization with the investment that was drying up, not least thanks to Bismarck's intervention, from the German side. The French arms industry looked to provide the Russian armies with modern equipment. Russian officers were lavishly entertained in Paris, and naval squadrons paid much-heralded visits to Le Havre and St. Petersburg. This was the "nightmare" that Bismarck had always feared, posing a threat to Germany's strategic borders in the west and to Austria's existence in the east.

Subsequent German foreign policy initiatives, notably the initiation of a large battle fleet under the naval laws of 1898 and 1900, drove Britain into diplomatic alignment (the Entente) with a Franco-Russian alliance already in the offing at the time of Bismarck's fall. "In 1912 Lord Haldane, then the British Secretary for War, hoped that, given the new correlation of forces, Germany might be willing to sign a naval agreement to limit numbers. In Berlin, however, Haldane met with stiff resistance from Tirpitz and the Kaiser: too much prestige and funds had been invested to retreat and acknowledge defeat. There was to be no arms control."

Intensified by the reign of the far more militaristic Kaiser Wilhelm II, Bismarck's legacy would contribute to the political culture in which Nazism found significant support-bases. As a result, in Germany, as in Japan and Italy, later attempts to extend democracy would succeed in establishing the unstable democracies of the Weimar Republic. Despite advances in industry and science under the Second Reich, Germany retained a despotic aspect to its character, due to
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US Foreign Policies During 1920's and 1930's

Words: 381 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5551719

U.S. Foreign Policies during 1920s and 1930s

The United States was at a crucial point in its international relations after WWI. Some scholars say that the U.S. pulled out of world affairs, that it didn't actively participate in post-war reconstruction of Europe, and that it failed to behave as a powerful nation should. They most often cite the Senate's failure to ratify the treaty establishing the League of Nations as evidence of this unwillingness to participate in world affairs (Constitutional Rights Foundation 1).

Other scholars, however, say that in the post-war period "the U.S. emerged as world's most respectable country," (Howard 1). They note that the U.S. became more involved economically, that it joined in enforcing penalties against Axis powers and that it contributed immeasurable amounts of influence on world cultures.

One answer to this difference might be that the U.S. did participate in world affairs, but that it did…… [Read More]

Sources

Hampton, Mary. The Wilsonian Impulse: U.S. Foreign Policy, the Alliance, and German Unification. Westport:Praeger, 1996.

Lake, David. Entangling Relations: American Foreign Policy in its Century. New Jersey:Princeton University Press, 1999.

No author, "The Evolution of U.S. Foreign Policy," Howard University AFROTC notes, Powerpoint, available online at http://www.howard.edu/howardlife/AFROTC/files/sld407_policy.ppt

No author, "War in Iraq," Constitutional Rights Foundation, 18 paragraphs, available online at http://www.crf-usa.org/Iraqwar_html/Iraqwar_foreignpolicy1.html
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Minimum Sources Research 1920 Sport Write

Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64917481

minimum sources... research 1920 sport write ... A thesis, attention catcher, topic sentence?

Nationalism: What were its effects in the 20th century?

Nationalism is characterized by a belief in the uniqueness and integrity of one's nation and culture. It is a form of 'national pride,' which, if taken to an extreme, can result in the sentiment that one's own nation is 'better' than other nations. Over the course of the 19th century, a number of the relatively loose confederacies of states in Italy and Prussia were consolidated to become distinct, unified nations. "Nationalism taught that people were defined by their membership in a nation and that nation deserved their loyalty" (Shubert & Goldstein 2012: 1.3). Nationalism did not replace the old ties to religion, clans, and professions that had existed previously, rather it intensified them. During World War I, nationalism was a critical component in how Germany enforced authority over…… [Read More]

Reference

Shubert, Adrian & Goldstein, Robin Justin. (2012). Twentieth-Century Europe. San Diego, CA:

Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
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Hitler-Stalin Pact Beyond Doubt the World Was

Words: 2881 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27781557

Hitler-Stalin Pact

Beyond doubt, the world was in an anarchical state in the 1920s and 1930s, particularly as the Great Depression devastated the global economy and aggressive, fascist regimes took power in Germany and Japan. International organizations hardly existed at the time, and in economic policy most countries adopted strategies of nationalism, autarky and protectionism, while the 'revisionist' states like Germany, Japan and Italy made it perfectly clear that they intended to solve their economic problems through creating new empires and spheres on influence at the expense of older empires like Britain and France. Hitler made no secret of the fact that the chief goal of his Lebensraum policy would be conquest of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, which would become a source of raw materials, foodstuffs and slave labor for the Germans. He was also determined to exterminate the 'Jewish-Bolshevik worldview', as he always described Communism, and the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

D'Agostino, A. 2011. The Russian Revolution, 1917-1945. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Fleischhauer, L. 1990. Der Pakt: Hitler, Stalin und die Initiative der deutschen Diplomatie. Frankfurt.

Hildebrand, K. 1980. Deutscher Aussenpolitik, 1933-1945: Kalkuel oder Dogma?, Fourth Edition. Stuttgart.

Hillgruber, A. 1982. Der Zweite Weltkrieg, 1939-45: Kriegszide und Strategie der Grossen Maechte. Stuttgart.