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U.S. In the Interwar Years: A Nation to Blame
The historical issue this paper will address is the role of the United States in the interwar period of the 1920s and 1930s. Some claim that the U.S. attempted to exert a positive influence on global affairs during this period, pointing out that ilson's rhetoric included talk of disarmament and free trade, and that Roosevelt issued similar terms on the world stage.
Others argue that behind the rhetoric was an opposite tendency by the U.S. To increase its arms, destabilize regions that threatened noncompliance with U.S. interests, and to act contrarily to peace proposals.
The claims for the first point may be supported by the fact that ilson and Roosevelt both employed rhetoric designed to give an impression of pacific aims and good will. Even in private, records exist showing that U.S. leaders did favor idealistic goals. However, the same records…
Boyce, Robert. The Great Interwar Crisis and the Collapse of Globalization. UK:
Palgrave Macmillan, 2009
Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. KY: Stellar Classics, 2013.
Ford, Henry. "The International Jew," The Dearborn Independent, 22 May 1920.
illy Mitchell and Airpower
During the interwar period a number people advocated major changes in military doctrine and organizations, particularly in the use of airpower. Three important airpower advocates were Giulio Douhet, Hugh Trenchard, and illy Mitchell, who all insisted that the air arm should be independent of the army and navy. Trenchard in fact was the commander of the first independent air force in the world, the Royal Air Force (RAF), while the United States Air Force (USAF) did not become fully independent of the Army until 1947. oth Douhet and Mitchell were sufficiently outspoken in their support of airpower that they made enemies among traditionalist generals, and both faced court-martials for their views. In the low-budget years of the 1920s and 1930s, Trenchard also had to battle the army and navy for scarce resources and to protect the survival of the independent air arm from the rival services.…
Brodie, Bernard. From Crossbow to H-Bomb: The Evolution of the Weapons and Tactics of Warfare. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1973.
Douhet, Giulio. "Aerial Warfare" in The Command of the Air. USAF Warrior Studies. Washington DC: Office of Air Force History, 1983.
Flugel, Raymond R. United States Air Power Doctrine: A Study of the Influence of William Mitchell and Giulio Douhet at the Air Corps Tacitical School, 1921-1935. Ann Arbor, MI University Microfilms International, 1985.
Lambeth, Benjamin S. The Transformation of American Airpower. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000.
Supremacist ideals apparently made it possible for people to ignore existential theories in wanting to adopt discriminatory attitudes against those who were considered to be part of a minority. Franco instructed people concerning the damage that the Spanish civilization was undergoing as a consequence of hosting a great deal of individuals who respected and even promoted ideals that challenged the stability of Spanish cultural values. The Franquist regime basically influenced people in thinking that democracy was bad for them because it destroyed everything that they stood for and because it would eventually bring the Spanish society to an end. The writers of this article are inclined to focus more on Franco than on the country's population. The fact that the Spanish were willing to support an unjust regime simply because it assisted their culture played a significant role in destroying Spain's chances of having a democratic future for several decades.…
Bermeo, Nancy Gina, "Ordinary People and the Breakdown of Democracy in Interwar Europe"
Capoccia, Giovanni, "Defending democracy: Reactions to political extremism in inter-war Europe" European Journal of Political Research 39: 431 -- 460, 2001.
Kitschelt, Herbert, "Political Regime Change: Structure and Process-Driven Explanations?," The American Political Science Review, 86: 1028-1034, 1992.
Richard, Gunther & Sani, Giacomo & Shabad, Goldie, "Spain after Franco: The Making of a Competitive System"
Mom. Can I interview you for my class?
Sure, but aren't you getting a little desperate if you're stuck with me?
Oh no. It fits the assignment. I have to interview my mother. So, first, where were your parents born?
My mother was born in San Francisco, and my father was born in Kansas City, Missouri
Ok, and where were you born?
San Rafael, California
All right. So what differences did you notice between your mother and yourself, generation wise and personality wise.
ow, differences between us were so numerous that you would think we were not related. I mean you think you and I are different, and we are, but we do like some of the same things, and have some of the same values. The likenesses between me and my parents were only skin deep. My mother was the youngest…
Women have acceptance in areas now that were forbidden twenty years ago. You saw women astronauts go into space. There are popular women politicians now. Female scientists are no longer portrayed with horned rimmed glasses and no make-up or hair-do. Women can become whatever they like now. Their horizons are unlimited, and their intelligence is acknowledged and valued. I guess that's what I would like to have had twenty years ago.
A got it from my husband, but nobody else. Women are often now valued for their capability, their brains, their talent, and not just their looks. They can become more than wives and mommies without losing those roles. Men could always be daddies and husbands and sill have a life outside the home. Women were often discriminated against in the work world because it was expected that they would quit once the children were born. Pregnancy itself was seen as some kind of infirmity. Women are now recognized as being whole people, not just half of a couple. More than this, women now have a voice that is heard and respected. We are no longer appendages of men.
Let me tell you a story: In 1990 I had a client at Co-op Concordia insist on speaking to a man because he thought I could not help him solve a simple problem with WordPerfect. I handed the phone to a young salesperson who repeated what I had told the gentleman, being careful to say it word for word. The gentleman thanked him for the advice. All the employees thought it was hilarious. I'm not certain it could happen now.
inflation that occurred in Germany in the early 1920s has been well documented and discussed. It has been blamed for the rise of the Nazi Party and the downfall of the Weimar Republic; yet, few understand how inflation in Germany developed so rapidly and how it was ultimately brought under control. he purpose of this paper will be to examine both the cause of this inflation and its eventual resolution.
In the year leading up to the hyperinflation that occurred there were some mild signs that the German economy may be trouble but the signs were mixed. Although food prices were increasing the price of purchasing American dollars was dropping as was the price of purchasing American products. his was seen as a stabilizing situation by most economic experts and there was minimal concern. his situation, however, changed dramatically as prices in Germany began to increase between mid-1921 and mid-1922.…
The results of this rapid inflation were varied but it truly redistributed the wealth in Germany. Inflation has different effects on different segments of society. Those purchasing products during inflationary times certainly feel the effect but, on the reverse side, the suppliers of the same products benefit greatly. The segments most heavily affected are the holders of debt instruments. For example, mortgage holders say the value of their interest in real estate wiped out entirely within a few short months. As is typical in cases of extreme inflation, it was the German middle class that suffered most severely. The poor had little to lose while the wealthy were able to transfer their assets to investment products that were less adversely affected by inflations such as gold or art.
Inflation occurs from time to time in all economies based on capitalism and for it to have occurred in Germany was not in itself unexpected but the degree to which it developed in 1920 Germany was highly unusual. During usual inflationary periods, there are those who benefit from such times and those who suffer but the hyperinflation that occurred in Germany caused significant changes in the German society (Rowley, 1994).
On a pragmatic level, workers found themselves being forced
Impression of the Interwar Years
Although with hindsight, it is possible to see how actions could have been taken to keep World War I from occurring, at that time the situation was like a dry forest that just needed a small flame to start the devastating fire. All the countries who were involved with World War I were completely on edge and only needed a small spark to have them make disastrous decisions. Once things were set in motion, they could not stop. Because of this, millions of people lost their lives and the countries, ironically, lost their Empires.
Why was it called the Age of Anxiety?
The war did not only destroy the Empires. It also destroyed many people's hopes and dreams. No longer could individuals rely on their government as a means of strength and support. In addition, a questioning of life's meaning and a loss of religion…
Many renowned military analysts argue that concentration or mass is the most important principle of war. This is primarily because the combat tactic involves the concentration of an extremely huge quantity of military manpower and material as well as the development of military power with complete superiority over the enemy in relation to quantity. This principle of war is regarded as superior to other tactical approaches in battle such as combination of inferior mass with tactical opportunities for victory. Generally, the concentration of soldiers entails the decisive, harmonized use of superior fighting power for victory over an enemy. Given the significance of this principle in war, there are arguments that the U.S. committed a strategic mistake through breaching this principle of war through dividing its forces between Southwest Pacific and Central Pacific battles against Japan between 1943 and 1944. An analysis of the approaches employed by the U.S. Army…
Handel, M.I. (2001). Masters of war: classical strategic thought. London: Cass.
Marston, D. (2005). The pacific war companion. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing.
Millett, A.R. (1996). Assault from the Sea: The Development of Amphibious Warfare between the Wars: The American, British, and Japanese Experiences. In Williamson Murray and Allan R. Millett, eds. Military innovation in the interwar period. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rosen, S.P. (1991). Winning the next war: innovation and the modern military (pp. 130-147).
The country of Poland has been one with a history of complex politics and a difficult time retaining independence from foreign invaders. During the 19th century, Poland was controlled by a series of other nations, earning this era of Polish history the moniker of "The Age of Partitions." hile the rest of the continent was expanding economically through the industrial revolution and from literature and scientific exploration during the Scientific Revolution, Poland was a perpetual battleground, constantly in flux between authoritarian governments and an attempt to regain autonomy. In a short 100 years, Poland had been occupied by the Russia, Prussia, and Austrian governments. Despite all this political upheaval and a constant fluctuation of power, the Polish people were able to keep a unified national identity.
Fighting against three very strong nations was an impossible task for the Polish nationals. However, that did not stop the people from…
Davies, Norman. God's Playground: a History of Poland. New York: Columbia UP, 1982. Print.
Sanford, George. Poland: The Conquest of History. OPA. 1999. Print.
Their main arguments are based on historical assumptions and on facts which have represented turning points for the evolution of the African-American society throughout the decades, and especially during the evolutionary War and the Civil War. In this regard, the Old Negro, and the one considered to be the traditional presence in the Harlem, is the result of history, and not of recent or contemporary events.
From the point-of-view of historical preconceptions and stereotypes, it would unwise to consider Harlem as being indeed a cancer in the heart of a city, taking into account the fact that there is no objective comparison being made. Locke points out the fact that the Negro of today be seen through other than the dusty spectacles of past controversy. The day of "aunties," "uncles" and "mammies" is equally gone. Uncle Tom and Sambo have passed on, and even the "Colonel" and "George" play barnstorm…
Anderson, Karen Tucker. "Last Hired, First Fired: Black Women Workers during World War II" in the Journal of American History, Vol. 69, No. 1. (Jun., 1982), pp. 82-97.
Barnes, Albert C. Negro Art and America. (accessed 2 December 2007) http://etext.virginia.edu/harlem/BarNegrF.html
Brown, Claude. Manchild in the Promised Land. New York: Touchstone, 1999.
Charles S. Johnson. Black Workers and the City. (accessed 2 December 2007) http://etext.virginia.edu/harlem/JohWorkF.html
He eventually triumphs in this endeavor, making it possible for Giosue to be extremely happy and taking his thoughts away from the unwelcoming landscape they are presented with during their stay in the labor camps.
Ferruccio's response to Guido's question regarding the reason for which the former is able to go to sleep even with the fact the latter is trying to influence him is essential in understanding Guido's attitude in wanting to entertain Dora and Giosue. "I am what I want to be" stands as motivation for everything Guido covers as a means to get to his wife and son. This statement initially assists him in declaring his love for Dora and in taking her away from what seemed to be her inevitable fate. Later on in the movie, it is partly because of Schopenhauer that Guido has little difficulties in making his son believe that the Holocaust is…
Benigni, Roberto. Life is Beautiful. Miramax Films, 1997.
S. Postal Systems 1775-1993). A third segment of this transcontinental route was established in 1920 and ran from Chicago to Omaha by way of Iowa City, with feeder lines to this primary route being provided from St. Louis and Minneapolis to Chicago (U.S. Postal Systems 1775-1993). The final transcontinental segment was established on September 8, 1920 and ran from Omaha to San Francisco by way of North Platte, Cheyenne, awlins, ock Springs, Salt Lake City, Elko, and eno (U.S. Postal Systems 1775-1993).
One of the more interesting aspects of this early transcontinental route was the need to remove all of the mail from airplanes at the end of the day and place it on trains for continuation of the service at night by trains since these early aircraft were unable to fly at night; despite this added contrast, though, the transcontinental route was truly a "Pony Express" of the era…
Boston, G. (2005, August 28). Historic site for aircraft; College Park Aviation Museum. The Washington Times, D04.
De Syon, G. (2004). Airlines and air mail: The Post Office and the birth of the commercial aviation industry. Air Power History, 51(1), 56/
Duke, J. & Torres, V. (2005). Multifactor productivity change in the air transportation industry: productivity increases in the U.S. airline industry -- the nation's primary intercity mass transportation system-have played a significant role in the industry's cost-containment efforts and its ability to accelerate growth. Monthly Labor Review, 128(3), 32-34.
Facts and figures about the Postal Service. (2008). U.S. Postal Service. [Online]. Available: http://www.usps.com/communications/newsroom/postalfacts.htm .
(Cha-Jua, 2001, at (http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm)
Another aspect of representation, however, concerns collective memory and the representation of a shared past. Through the context for dialogue they create, social movements facilitate the interweaving of individual stories and biographies into a collective, unified frame, a collective narrative. Part and parcel of the process of collective identity or will formation is the linking of diverse experiences into a unity, past as well as present. Social movements are central to this process, not only at the individual level, but also at the organizational or meso level of social interaction. Institutions like the black church and cultural artifacts like blues music may have embodied and passed on collective memories from generation to generation, but it was through social movements that even these diverse collective memories attained a more unified focus, linking individuals and collectives into a unified subject, with a common future as well as a…
Cashmore, E. (2003). Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. New York: Routledge.
Cha-Jua, S.K. (Summer 2001) "Slavery, Racist Violence, American Apartheid: The Case for Reparations" New Politics, 8:3. At http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm
Dubois, W.E.B., (1987) Writings, New York: Library of America.
Davis, A. (1999) Blues Legacies and Black Feminism, New York: Vintage.
The downward spiral of deflation, the collapse of countless banks and other financial institutions, and the unprecedented levels of unemployment all demanded that something be done.
The programs that constituted President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal were not entirely unknown in the pre-Depression world. Various European countries already possessed social welfare schemes to some extent, but in the United States this was largely new thinking. The changes wrought by the New Deal reflected as much the uniqueness of conditions during the Great Depression as they did the undercurrent of new attitudes and ideas that had gradually been taking hold among America's intellectuals.
FDR's planners acted in the context of changing values, an evolving set of institutions, shifting political and economic circumstances, and the ebb and flow of planning opportunities to create a distinctly national, American form of planning.... They were part of a wide-ranging national debate over how to create…
DUMMY CITATION #1 G.M., Blaauw, G.A., and Brooks, Jr., F.P. "Architecture of the IBM System/360," IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 44, No. 1/2, IBM, January/March 2000 [Reprint of IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1964.]
DUMMY CITATION #2 Anderson, Philip, and Michael L. Tushman. "Technological Discontinuities and Dominant Designs: A Cyclical Model of Technological Change." Administrative Science Quarterly 35.4 (1990): 604fl.
Gibbons, Jim. "Gibbons Tells Congressional Committee to Abolish Arbitrary FAA Retirement Age: Nevadan Calls Current Federal Rule, 'Blatant Age Discrimination.'" Press Release, (United States Congress, Washington D.C., 12 March, 2003).
Wilkening, Robin. "The Age 60 Rule: Age Discrimination in Civil Aviation." (No Date). URL: http://aeromedical.org/Articles/age60.html.
Joan Saab book: For Millions American Art Culture Between War
Joan Saab's book, For the Millions: American Art and Culture Between the Wars, captures and elucidates a vital component of American history, and that in regards to its visual art in particular. This manuscript chronicles a crucial shifting in the regard, usage, and conception of art in the early part of the 20th century between World Wars I and II. This historical epoch was crucial to the fostering of contemporary America and its art for a number of factors. The country was celebrating its victory in the Great War before it knelt to the pressure of the Great Depression, which was only alleviated by one of the most devastating martial encounters in the history of the man, the Second World War. This tumultuous time played a highly important part in the creation and usage of visual art, which was able…
Saab, A.J. For the Millions: American Art and Culture Between the Wars. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Global Organizations -- IMF
At the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944, that created the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, the Western capitalist nations sought to avoid a repetition of the events that led to the Great Depression and Second World War by establishing a stable international economic order that was not bound by the rigidity of the pre-1914 gold standard system. The interwar period of 1919-39 was one of economic and politic chaos, featuring deflationary devaluations, closed trading blocs, massive unemployment and the failure of the revived gold standard in 1925-31, which were key factors in the rise of the Nazi regime in Germany in 1933 and the fascist takeover of Japan that began in 1931. President Woodrow Wilson had been an early advocate of free trade and had warned against the nationalism and autarky in economic policies that became the norm in the 1920s and 1930s. Secretary of…
Bordo, M.D. "The Bretton Woods International Monetary System: A Historical Overview." pp. 3-108.
Boughton, J.M. 2001. Silent Revolution: The International Monetary Fund, 1979-1989. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.
Boughton, J.M. (2004). The IMF and the Force of History: Ten Events and Ten Ideas that Have Shaped the Institution. IMF Working Paper No. 04/75.
Kahler, M. (1990). The United States and the International Monetary Fund: Declining Influence or Declining Interest? Eds. Karns, M.P. And K.A. Mingst. The United States and Multilateral Institutions. Routledge, pp. 91-115.
8% as compared to the dollar in the start of the last year to January this year. The value of Yuan has improved even with the fall of other emerging economies. The loss of competitiveness that resulted can be best demonstrated by a ratio that has been calculated by the Hong Kong Monetary Authority, which makes a comparison of Yuan with the currency of the other emerging markets that are in competition with China. It is important to note here that the competitors of China are the countries that trade against it, and not necessarily the countries that trade with it. The index calculated by the authority demonstrates that Yuan has been rising over 13% in the year to January. As for January alone, the value of the Chinese currency has risen by 2.6%.
The authorities of China have not said that they had made a move in to weaken…
Hefeker, C., & Nabor, A. (2002). Yen or Yuan? China's role in the future of Asian monetary integration. HWWA Discussion Paper.
Kent, C. (2013). USD is dead: China caps its dollar holdings and plans crude oil futures priced in yuan. Hang The Bankers. Retrieved from http://www.hangthebankers.com/usd-is-dead-china-caps-its-dollar-holdings-plans-crude-oil-futures-priced-in-yuan/
Leising, M., & Li, F. (2013). China to Free Yuan in 5 Years, Says Hong Kong Exchanges' Li. Bloomberg. Retrieved from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-03-13/china-to-free-currency-in-5-years-says-hong-kong-exchanges-li.html
Mallaby, S., & Wethington, O. (2012). Future of the Yuan: China's Struggle to Internationalize Its Currency, The. Foreign Aff., 91, 135.
Fellowship Proposal: ussian Studies, Sovietology, and Orientalism
The motivation for this proposal is based on personal interest in the former ussian Empire. The proposed dissertation that will result from this research will consist of an introduction that will discuss the importance of this study, followed by three main chapters, and a conclusion that provides a summary of the research and important findings concerning the issues of interest. Each of the chapters will cover a specific historical period characterized by a different set of American views, studies, and assumptions about Central Asia prior to the end of the Cold War period. Ending the proposed dissertation with the early Cold War era is also apt because it was a pivotal moment in the formal establishment of Central Asian Studies, albeit as a sub-discipline within ussian and Soviet studies.
Prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia was comprised of five…
Baldwin, Kate A., Beyond the Color Line and the Iron Curtain: Reading Encounters between Black and Red, 1922-1963. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2002.
Bookwalter, John, Siberia and Central Asia. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1899.
Carew, Joy Gleason, Blacks, Reds, and Russians Sojourners in Search of the Soviet Promise. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2008.
Davis, Raymond and Andrew Steiger, Soviet Asia, Democracy's First Line of Defense. New York: the Dial Press, 1942.
Dow, Bayer and its other competitors (particularly Dow) in one specific area: chemicals. According to Strikwerda, "BASF has continually failed in lines outside of chemicals -- tape recorders, videocassetes, pharmaceuticals, and nuclear power. It succeeded only by re-focusing during the 1990s on its core business: chemicals, the construction of chemical plants, and chemical-based products such as plastics and fertilizers" (emphasis added) (1236).
Notwithstanding the potential positive outcomes that could be realized through the company's full range of business segments, it is clear that its chemicals segment will continue to drive the company's success in the future -- if the company's leadership can continue to focus on what the company does best and improve the company's image in Europe and North America. The economic potential of the chemicals industry in the near future is bright, as can be discerned from increasing trade figures between the European Union and the…
'BASF SE.' (2011). Yahoo! Finance. [online] available: http://biz.yahoo.com/ic/41/41755.html .
'BASF -- the Chemical.' (2011). Indeed. [online] available: http://www.indeed.com/cmp/Basf
Dando, Malcolm R Preventing Biological Warfare: The Failure of American Leadership. New York: Palgrave, 2002.
S. inflation in check, even during economic boom times.
The debate about increasing protectionism in the U.S. boils down to a clash of cultural values. In the natural course of international trade, there will be those who suffer and those who benefit. International markets are amoral. Trade is conducted between nations with the intent of raising the standard of living for both, but this is on aggregate, not universally. As a result, jobs losses in some sectors, particularly those where the U.S. does not have comparative advantage, are inevitable. To enact protectionist measures to stem those job losses will have three negative impacts.
The first is retaliatory trade measures. Tariffs and other protectionist measures tend to go hand in hand. If a country protects its industries, nations that trade with that country will do the same. This is the classic Smoot-Hawley scenario. To protect American jobs during the…
No author. (2009). Top ten countries with which the U.S. trades. Census.gov. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/top/dst/current/balance.html
No author. (2007). David Ricardo and comparative advantage. NetMBA.com. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.netmba.com/econ/micro/comparative-advantage/
US Department of State. (no date). Protectionism in the interwar period. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/id/17606.htm
Evenett, S. (2009). The G20's assault on world trade. VOX. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/4008
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
The U.S. Debate over Membership in the League of Nations
After the end of orld ar I, the world was weary of war and the ravages that it had taken on the European continent and it would seem reasonable to suggest that policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic would be eager to form some type of league to resolve future conflicts. According to Margulies (1998), "Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference in June 1919, where he played a major role in negotiating that treaty, which established the League of Nations, President oodrow ilson turned his attention to persuading the U.S. Senate to ratify the new treaty" (273). The Senate of the 66th Congress was almost equally divided between the Republican Party with 49 and the Democrats who fielded 47 senators (Marguilies). Although the president could rely on the majority of the Democrats…
Egerton, George W. Great Britain and the Creation of the League of Nations: Strategy, Politics,
and International Organization, 1914-1919. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North
Carolina Press, 1978.
Janas, Michael. 2006. "Woodrow Wilson's Western Tour: Rhetoric, Public Opinion and the League of Nations." Argumentation and Advocacy 42(4): 229.
The stability is evident in the statistics as well. Between 1880 and 1914, the golden age of the gold standard, inflation averaged 0.1%. Between 1946-2003, even with Bretton oods, inflation average 4.1% (Bardo, n.d.). Short-term price changes, however, could be highly unstable. This is a consequence of the fact that the gold standard ignores fundamental economic principles. Any system where the value of a good is established by artificial means is subject to such shocks. Another drawback to the gold standard is that it gives governments very little discretion over monetary policy. Another drawback is the cost of producing gold. The gold standard relies on having physical gold reserves. Thus, gold must be produced, and for that there is a cost (Ibid).
ith the decline of Bretton oods, the gold standard died. It was replaced by the modern foreign exchange system. At the core of this system are fiat currencies.…
Bordo, Michael D. (no date). The Gold Standard. Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Retrieved April 11, 2009 from http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/GoldStandard.html
Cohen, Benjamin. (no date). Bretton Woods System. University of California at Santa Barbara Retrieved April 11, 2009 from http://www.polsci.ucsb.edu/faculty/cohen/inpress/bretton.html
Also, gay characters have slowly become more prominent both on TV and in the movies.
In the 1990s, producers gave up on feeling that they had to challenge gender representations as models of masculinity and femininity had become less offensive and clearly defined. We can, for instance, refer to the hit sit-com Friends which presented three male characters, Ross, Chandler and Joey whose masculinity was placed within conventional models of masculinity without excluding qualities such as gentleness and sensitivity. imilarly, the female characters were clearly feminine but sufficiently intelligent in order to escape the housewife cliche. Furthermore, the context of the show was relatively innovative as the six main characters were linked by friendship as opposed to the more traditional family circle which had dominated the previous two decades. The model of equal genders appears in many shows from the 1990s onwards (Gauntlett 61).
Race is depicted in the media…
Coover, Gail E. "Television and Social Identity: Race Representation as "White" Accommodation." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 45, no. 3 (2001): 413.
Gauntlett, David. Media, Gender, and Identity: An Introduction. Routledge, 2002.
Gurevitch, Michael, Tony Bennett, James Curran, and Janet Woollacott, eds. Culture, Society, and the Media. London: Routledge, 1990.
Mantios, Gregory. "Making Class Invisible"
The creative ways in which the varied direct involvement aspect has been included by producers in the genre also has to do with technology. Programs where the audience participates in decision making, like when the audience chooses a winner in a program via voting on site or by cell phone text messages are common, as are other audience participation tactics, like on new themed game shows when the audience gives a hint to the contestant and the contestant can then view the percentages of answers. These are just a few examples of how the industry has answered the audience participation draw of the reality genre, though the same research derived study also found that voyeurism is a secondary and limited aspect of the draw to reality TV.
Papacharissi, and Mendelson 355)
Viewers valued the entertainment and habitual pass time motives over that of voyeurism, which was fairly surprising, considering that…
Davies, Maire Messenger. Fake, Fact, and Fantasy: Children's Interpretations of Television Reality. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997.
Hill, Annette. Reality TV: Audiences and Popular Factual Television. New York: Routledge, 2005.
Leone, Ron, Wendy Chapman Peek, and Kimberly L. Bissell. "Reality Television and Third-Person Perception." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 50.2 (2006): 253.
Papacharissi, Zizi, and Andrew L. Mendelson. "An Exploratory Study of Reality Appeal: Uses and Gratifications of Reality TV Shows." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 51.2 (2007): 355.
He liked to show of the luxury than by now he could afford at the expense of the robberies conducted by him and his men and his very influential position. A closer look to Goering's life of luxury shows that he was more than enjoying his success, his arrogance and extravagance being by now well-known.
Goering had good organizational skills and he was appointed in charge of so many different positions because he had the capability to follow the Nazi ideology with more belief than many others. Goering was truly dedicated to the Nazi cause, although not entirely unmotivated.
Goering was the man that stood behind the elimination of the Jewish community from German economic life, as he fined the German Jewish community a billion marks and order their exclusion from economy, their properties, even schools, parks, or forests. Goering was one of the leading figures that planned the "Aryanisation"…
Hermann Goering, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_G%C3%B6ring ;
Hermann Goering, Jewish Virtual Library, available at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/goering.html ;
Jagdgeschwader 1 (World War 1), available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jagdgeschwader_1_%28World_War_1%29 ;
Manvell, Roger and Franenkel, Heinrich, Goering, Greenhill Books, London UK, 2005;
Generally, the European economy was characterized by the following aspects:
The development of the economic activity's industrial side, not only in Western Europe but also in other countries previously considered to be exclusively agrarian. The industry and services presented the highest increases, and the gap between labor productivity in agriculture and the one in industry significantly increased
The Eastern and South-Eastern European countries' economic evolution suffered important transformations, with quantitative and qualitative restructurings
Maintaining the inequalities between European countries, given their distinct evolution
The heterogeneity of options regarding European development strategies
It is considered that the war delayed the European economy's evolution with approximately 8 years, which means that the 1929 production quantum might have been attained in 1921 if it had not been for the war and if the growth rates before 1913 would have been maintained (Kennedy, pp 361).
2.2. The Great Depression and European Economy's Post-crisis situation…
1. Perry, K. Modern European History. Made Simple. London, 1976.
2. Heaton, Herbert. Economic History of Europe. Harper & Row, London, 1966.
3. Kennedy, Paul. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000. London, 1989.
4. Kindleberger, C.P. The World Depression 1929-1939. University of California Press, 1973.
Fitzgerald wrote his novel during an era which clearly indicated that living in an unreasonable manner, making all sorts of abuses and excesses, recklessly without any kind of consideration has serious and in the same time damaging effects upon people's lives. Immediately after the First World War, the social and political climate reached an energetic climax during the roaring twenties. With a new focus on individualism and the pursuit of all sorts of pleasures and excitements, this period was filled with adventures that had serious negative consequences. The excess of pleasure and drinking which were the main causes that triggered the inevitable destruction of the characters in "Tender Is the Night" reflects Fitzgerald's sensitivity to the excesses of the Jazz Age prior to the Great Depression.
It could be said that in life we experience the phenomenon of rise and fall and that between the two of them there is…
The Odyssey" by Homer, translated by Samuel Butler
Robin Mitchell-Boyask, Temple University - "Study Guide for Homer's Odyssey" (updated 31 January 2002)
Romantic and Modern Design Styles
Comparing the Ornate and the Natural: A Study of Two Theories of Design
History often dictates societal mentality more so than current climate, yet in times of peace, it seems that the beautiful and the artful flourish. This very concept is debatable, especially in interior design, where the fashions of the time very often have a much-felt impact upon design theories and the way in which they are carried out. Yet it is in history that one finds inspiration, or the contradiction thereof. For instance, during the mid to late 19th century, it was against history that romanticism was born. Yet in the early 20th century, immediately following this period of romanticism, it was out of a societal need for simplicity prior to the two Great ars that a more natural aesthetic was born, expressed so perfectly by the architect Frank Lloyd right. The following…
1. Customer Notes -- Provided by Customer from Academic Notes and Books
2. Britannica Encyclopedia, (2012). Interior Design: The Romantic Movement and the Battle of the Styles. Retrieved from, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/290278/interior-design/74226/The-Romantic-movement-and-the-battle-of-the-styles-1835-1925
3. Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, (2012). Wright's Life and Work. Retrieved from, http://www.franklloydwright.org/web/Home.html
4. Pile, J. (1997). Color in Interior Design. McGraw-Hill: New York.
For example, the popular sitcoms Good Times and Sanford and Son showed working class neighborhoods and the problems of violence, crime, and social oppression, and yet how humor always finds its way into these character's lives.
The 1970s also brought about a new late night live comedy show, called Saturday Night Live. This show had its first run from 1975 to 1980, and made political humor the centerpiece of Saturday night television. The original cast consisted of Dan Aykroyd, John Belushi, Chevy Chase, George Coe, Jane Curtin, Garrett Morris, Laraine Newman, Michael O'Donoghue and Gilda Radner, a diverse mix of young comedians from around New York City. Saturday Night Live is famous for its portrayals of U.S. Presidents, from Gerald Ford to Barack Obama, and has helped to shape Americans impressions of how these presidents have reacted to events in the world. (Boskin, 46) Saturday Night Live created a demanding…
Boskin, J. (1997). Rebellious laughter: People's humor in american culture. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.
Dudden, a. (1989). American humor. (p. 184). New York: Oxford University Press.
First of all Titoism "included the eventual abandonment of agricultural collectivization, workers councils, and the centralization of economic and administrative controls. Generally Yugoslavs under Tito's rule possessed more freedoms and liberties than most others living in communist regimes" (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/yugo-hist2.htm).Another idea of Titoism was national particularity of Communism which meant that Communism in different states had different features which should be taken into consideration by the government. The main point if this statement was multinational structure of Yugoslav society which could not accept Soviet kind of Communism so the main problem of Tito's domestic policy was national issue. It is known that Kosovo and Croatia were the centers of nationalistic separatism in Yugoslavia so communism and federation were not popular among their population. Tito failed establishing ethnic peace and cooperation in these regions because both Albanians and Croats resisted his plans of strengthening the federation. As the matter of fact by…
1.Djilas, Milovan Tito: The Story from Inside Phoenix Press 2001
2. Tito's Yugoslavia, Article available at web-resource: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/yugo-hist2.htm
3. Sowards, Steven W. Twenty-Five Lectures on Modern Balkan History Lecture 20: The traditional regimes and the challenge of Communism: Patriotism vs. opportunism available at web-resource: http://www.lib.msu.edu/sowards/balkan/lect20.htm
4. Wilson, Duncan. Tito's Yugoslavia, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979
Recovery of the U.S. economy, accompanied by international aggression, eventually again sparked support for military spending. The Army, however, reportedly did not achieve large-scale modernization until France fell in 1940 (Odom 98). A 1935 Gallup poll reporting that Americans would support larger appropriations for military readiness was the first indication of shifting attitudes. Nevertheless, appropriations would not reflect slowly growing popular concern until 1938. (Odom 200)
TALE 2. Congressional Appropriations for Military Activity, 1925-1940 (dates adapted)
Fiscal Year Ending
Source: Data from U.S. Treasury Department, Digest of Appropriations (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1921-41).
During the time frame from 1925-1945, a soldier's duties could change in a moment. The closer a soldier came to combat, the greater his "physical hardihood" needed to be, General McNair contended. "Proximity to combat depended, not on type of job, but on type of unit. A cook or clerk, if in…
Army Study Guide. Retrieved on June 5, 2006 at http://www.ncocorps.net/more/short_history_of_the_army_nco.htm,2006 .
Bartlett, John. Familiar Quotations (Sixteenth Edition). Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1992.
Baron von Steuben." Retrieved on June 5, 2006 from www.ushistory.org/valleyforge/served/steuben.html,2006.
Henderson, William Darryl, and Charles Moskos. The Hollow Army: How the U.S. Army Is Oversold and Undermanned. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.
It has been an expected fact that the balance of payments is self adjusting under fixed exchange rates, at least to the point when monetary authorities interfere with it by sterilizing the variations in the money supply that determines the adjustment mechanism. Irrespective of the omission of a global unit of account, base for neutral nations and means of settlement, the important disadvantage and the significant threat to prosperity in the global system rests in the wild gyrations of major exchange rates as well as the risk of instability position of the dollar. Ever since the initiation of the floating, the world economy presented a pronounced dollar cycle. Two digit inflation, low real interests rates as well as rising gold and oil prices followed the weak dollar of the late 1970s, high real interest rates, reducing inflation, enhancing deficits and reducing gold and oil prices represented by the strong dollar…
Benjamin. J. Cohen. Bretton Woods System. Retrieved at http://www.polsci.ucsb.edu/faculty/cohen/inpress/bretton.html . Accessed 12 June, 2006
Bordo, Michael. D; Bayoumi, Tamim. Getting pegged: comparing the 1879 and 1925 gold resumptions. March, 1996. Retrieved at http://www.nber.org/papers/W5497Accessed 12 June, 2006
Bretton Woods System. Wikipedia. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bretton_Woods_systemAccessed 12 June, 2006
Dooley, Michael. P. An Essay on the Revived Bretton Woods System. Retrieved at http://www.nber.org/papers/w9971Accessed 12 June, 2006
" Military History. [online]
Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Snell, J.L. (1962). The Outbreak of the Second World War: Design or Blunder? Boston D.C.
Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education esearch, 6(1), p. 117.
Carr, p. 117.
Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hickman, K. (2012). "World War II Europe: The oad to War." Military History. [online] available: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm.
Hickman, p. 1.
Corum, J.S. (2004, Summer). "The Luftwaffe and Its Allied Air Forces in World War II: Parallel War and the Failure of Strategic and Economic Cooperation." Air Power History, 51(2), p. 4.
Corum, p. 4.
Corum, p. 5.
Bassett, .L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes:…
Bassett, R.L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes: The Clash of Religion and Politics, from the Great
War to the War on Terror." Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 28(3), 281-289.
Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic
Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research, 6(1), 117-121.
This report analyzes regionalism in several contexts as they pertain to the movie Snow Falling on Cedars. The movie is pervasively filled with considerations relating to regionalism, outsiders vs. insiders, how insiders and outsiders mesh and the very dicey results that can ensue, how all of this plays off of national and international situations and conflicts and so forth. This movie establishes that many unique and different things can influence who interacts with who, how and why and the things that impact all of this are not just limited to race and nationality.
Movie Setting & Synopsis
The year and country this film is set in has a ton to do with why people feel the way they do and why there is such a bred animosity towards Kabuo, to the point that his guilt is almost assumed and someone very important in the movie actually withholds information that…
"Old Regionalism, New Regionalism, And Envision Utah: Making Regionalism Work." Harvard
Law Review 118.7 (2005): 2291-2313. Academic Search Premier. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.
Goodfellow, Samuel. "Fascism And Regionalism In Interwar Alsace." National Identities 12.2
(2010): 133-145. Academic Search Premier. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.
Balancing Mortgage ates
Problems Faced While Balancing Mortgage ates
In general terms the monetary policies that contradict themselves mostly involve the process of changing the amount and level of the supply of money in a particular country. When it comes to talking about the expansionary monetary policy, it means that it expands and increases the flow and supply of money, then the impact it has on the monetary policies is that the flow or supply money decreases and hence so does the currency (Fisher, 1932).
Expansionary Monetary Policy
In the U.S., when the government wants to increase the supply of money, it can do so with a combination of three points.
By purchasing various securities from the open market which are also known as the open market operations
It can also be done by lowering the discount rate by the federal government.
It can also be done by lowering the…
Easton, B.H. (2011). Growth and Recessions of Economic Output: 1861-1939 (website tba)
Economic Committee (1932) Report.
Eggertsson, G.B. & Krugman, P. (2010). Debt, Deleveraging, and the Liquidity Trap: A Fisher-Minsky-Koo Approach
Eisner, Robert (1988). How real is the Federal Deficit? New York, The Free Press.
Philosophical and Literary epresentation of Capitalism
Progress & Technology in Capitalism
John Steinbeck wrote the social The Grapes of Wrath during the interwar years, just after the Great Depression harrowingly illustrated the power of unchecked capitalism. His novel takes the position that revolutionary change is needed, is inevitable, and that a just and non-exploitive society can only come about when capitalism is eliminated. Steinbeck is reported to have made clear his intentions as he prepared to write The Grapes of Wrath. In his words, "I want to put a tag of shame on the greedy bastards who are responsible for this" [the Great Depression and its widely destructive effects]." Steinbeck's collectivist-leaning voice at the time of his writing The Grapes of Wrath would become so altered over the course of three decades that it hardly seemed to belong to this writer who created on the very edge of moral fervor.…
Cunningham, C. (2002). Rethinking the politics of The Grapes of Wrath. [In Cultural Logic, ISSN 1097-3087].
Denning, M. (1996). The cultural front: The laboring of American cultural in the twentieth century. London and New York: Verso.
Hicks, G. (1939, May 2). "Steinbeck's Powerful New Novel." Review of The Grapes of Wrath. New Masses, 22-3.
Innis, H. (1930). The fur trade in Canada: An introduction to Canadian economic history. Revised and reprinted (1977). Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
Polish Companies Reacted to Ethical Issues and Changes in usiness Standards Since the Fall of Communism in 1989?
Poland's Economy Pre-Communism's Fall
Poland's Natural Resources
Minerals and Fuels
The Polish Economy Under Communism
The Centrally-Planned Economy
Establishing the Planning Formula
Retrenchment and Adjustment in the 1960s
Reliance on Technology in the 1970s
Reform Failure in the 1980s
Poland's Economy After the Fall of Communism
Poland After the Fall of Communism
Fall of Communism
Marketization and Stabilization
Required Short-Term Changes
Section 2.3.2. The Shock Strategy
Section 2.3.3. Initial Results
Section 2.3.4. Long-Term Requirements
Section 2.4. Macroeconomic Indicators for 1990-91
Section 2.4.1. Price Increases
Section 2.4.2. Impact on Productivity and Wages
Section 2.4.3. Statistical Distortions
Section 2.4.4. Agricultural Imbalances
Section 2.4.5. Causes of Decline
Section 2.5.The Polish Post-Communism Privatization Process
Section 2.6. Structure of Poland's Economy: Post-Communism
Section 2.6.1. Fuels and Energy
Bowie E. (1999) Business Ethics a Kantian Perspective Oxford: Blackwell
Ciszewska B. (1998) Unethical behaviour Warszawa: Rzeczpospolita
Cryssides G.D.; Kaler J.H. (1999) Introduction to the ethics of business. Warszawa: PWN
Davies W.F. (1997) Current issues in business ethics London: Routledge
Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is an integral part of military strategy. eferring to the interception and decoding of enemy communications, SIGINT is the topic of Peter Matthew's 2013 publication, SIGINT: The Secret History of Signals Intelligence 1914-1945. Matthew focuses on the history of SIGINT until the Cold War. What makes SIGINT: The Secret History of Signals Intelligence unique is that the author presents the Axis point-of-view on SIGINT. As Matthew (2013) puts it, the author's aim is "to tell the other side of the Bletchley Park story," (p. 16).
A brief introduction describes what SIGINT is and how it evolved through technological and strategic changes. SIGINT is related to cryptography, because it encompasses the decoding of encrypted messages. The author points out that the book will be emphasizing Bletchley Park and Ultra, which were instrumental in bringing about the Allied Victory in the Second World War. Moreover, the author is interested…
Matthews, P. (2013). SIGINT. Gloucestershire: The History Press.
The Great Depression
The Great Depression started in 1929 and lasted until the end of the Second World War, it was the most severe depression seen in the western world. The depression had far reaching economic, social, and political consequences. To understand the depression it is necessary to look at the event itself, underlying causes, the impacts and the way in which recovery took place.
The Great Depression may be argued as starting in August of 1929, when the countries GDP started to decline; but it is the cash of October 1929 that marks the official beginning of the crisis (obbins & Weidenbaum, 2009). The stock market crash of 1929 was a surprise for many; the previous decade had been one of growth and prosperity. On Black Tuesday 29th of October the bottom dropped out of the stock market, which resulted in panic selling loosing 40% of the paper…
Bernanke, BS, (1983), Nonmonetary Effects of the Financial Crisis in the Propagation of the Great Depression, The American Economic Review, 73(3), 257-276
Cecchetti, G, (1992). Sources of Output Fluctuations During the Interwar Period: Further Evidence on the Causes of the Great Depression, Working Paper No. 4049, National Bureau of Economic Research
Robbins, Lionel; Weidenbaum, Murray, (2009), The Great Depression, Transaction Publishers
This increases the cost of living and diminishes people's savings, where it leads to poverty gradually.
From 1890 to 1914, Britain may have gone through a similar situation. Although later allied with France for military purposes, Britain may have not had any trade agreement. This implies that Britain was a self sustaining unit but using resources of her colonies. Even at that time Britain had nearly 1/4 of land area which commercially benefitted her directly and indirectly5. New industries were taken over by Germany and USA (electronics). In the mean time, traditional industries such as the 'steel industry' were fallen back and had been newly taken over by Germans and Americans5. This in turn might have generated a population of unoccupied personal searching for opportunities. In 1904 regular work was not sufficient to protect families against poverty and confirms owntree's conclusion that low wages were an important cause of poverty…
History Man Website2001, Britain, viewed 18 September, 2009,
Termination of the Republican Government in Germany in 1933
The last years of the Weimar republic were marked by even more political instability than in the previous years. On March 29, 1930, finance expert Heinrich runing had been appointed the successor of Chancellor Muller by Paul von Hindenburg after months of political lobbying by General Kurt von Schleicher on behalf of the military. The new government was expected to lead a political shift towards conservatism, based on the emergency powers granted to the Reichsprasident by the constitution, since it had no majority support in the Reichstag. After an unpopular bill to help the Reich's finances had not found the support of the Reichstag, Hindenburg established the bill as an emergency decree based on Article 48 of the constitution. On July 18, 1930, the bill was again invalidated by a slim majority in the Reichstag with the support of the Sozialdemokratische…
By the time Bismarck had to leave the Chancellor's office in 1890, France and Russia were working to forge an alliance in both commercial and military terms. French capital markets were supplying Russian industrialization with the investment that was drying up, not least thanks to Bismarck's intervention, from the German side. The French arms industry looked to provide the Russian armies with modern equipment. Russian officers were lavishly entertained in Paris, and naval squadrons paid much-heralded visits to Le Havre and St. Petersburg. This was the "nightmare" that Bismarck had always feared, posing a threat to Germany's strategic borders in the west and to Austria's existence in the east.
Subsequent German foreign policy initiatives, notably the initiation of a large battle fleet under the naval laws of 1898 and 1900, drove Britain into diplomatic alignment (the Entente) with a Franco-Russian alliance already in the offing at the time of Bismarck's fall. "In 1912 Lord Haldane, then the British Secretary for War, hoped that, given the new correlation of forces, Germany might be willing to sign a naval agreement to limit numbers. In Berlin, however, Haldane met with stiff resistance from Tirpitz and the Kaiser: too much prestige and funds had been invested to retreat and acknowledge defeat. There was to be no arms control."
Intensified by the reign of the far more militaristic Kaiser Wilhelm II, Bismarck's legacy would contribute to the political culture in which Nazism found significant support-bases. As a result, in Germany, as in Japan and Italy, later attempts to extend democracy would succeed in establishing the unstable democracies of the Weimar Republic. Despite advances in industry and science under the Second Reich, Germany retained a despotic aspect to its character, due to
U.. Foreign Policies during 1920s and 1930s
The United tates was at a crucial point in its international relations after WWI. ome scholars say that the U.. pulled out of world affairs, that it didn't actively participate in post-war reconstruction of Europe, and that it failed to behave as a powerful nation should. They most often cite the enate's failure to ratify the treaty establishing the League of Nations as evidence of this unwillingness to participate in world affairs (Constitutional Rights Foundation 1).
Other scholars, however, say that in the post-war period "the U.. emerged as world's most respectable country," (Howard 1). They note that the U.. became more involved economically, that it joined in enforcing penalties against Axis powers and that it contributed immeasurable amounts of influence on world cultures.
One answer to this difference might be that the U.. did participate in world affairs, but that it did…
Hampton, Mary. The Wilsonian Impulse: U.S. Foreign Policy, the Alliance, and German Unification. Westport:Praeger, 1996.
Lake, David. Entangling Relations: American Foreign Policy in its Century. New Jersey:Princeton University Press, 1999.
No author, "The Evolution of U.S. Foreign Policy," Howard University AFROTC notes, Powerpoint, available online at http://www.howard.edu/howardlife/AFROTC/files/sld407_policy.ppt
No author, "War in Iraq," Constitutional Rights Foundation, 18 paragraphs, available online at http://www.crf-usa.org/Iraqwar_html/Iraqwar_foreignpolicy1.html
Beyond doubt, the world was in an anarchical state in the 1920s and 1930s, particularly as the Great Depression devastated the global economy and aggressive, fascist regimes took power in Germany and Japan. International organizations hardly existed at the time, and in economic policy most countries adopted strategies of nationalism, autarky and protectionism, while the 'revisionist' states like Germany, Japan and Italy made it perfectly clear that they intended to solve their economic problems through creating new empires and spheres on influence at the expense of older empires like Britain and France. Hitler made no secret of the fact that the chief goal of his Lebensraum policy would be conquest of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, which would become a source of raw materials, foodstuffs and slave labor for the Germans. He was also determined to exterminate the 'Jewish-Bolshevik worldview', as he always described Communism, and the…
D'Agostino, A. 2011. The Russian Revolution, 1917-1945. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Fleischhauer, L. 1990. Der Pakt: Hitler, Stalin und die Initiative der deutschen Diplomatie. Frankfurt.
Hildebrand, K. 1980. Deutscher Aussenpolitik, 1933-1945: Kalkuel oder Dogma?, Fourth Edition. Stuttgart.
Hillgruber, A. 1982. Der Zweite Weltkrieg, 1939-45: Kriegszide und Strategie der Grossen Maechte. Stuttgart.