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Under huge amounts of political pressure, and suffering from cancer, the Shah left Iran on January 16, 1979, and on February 1 Khomeini arrived at the airport in Tehran where an estimated "three million people lined the streets" to welcome the religious leader, DeFronzo continued. Shortly, the Iranian military pledged loyalty to Khomeini
The debate over what form of government would replace the Shah's fascist state did not last very long, as Khomeini selected a group of clergy to form the "Islamic Revolutionary Council" -- overseeing policy until a referendum could be held. In the end, the fundamentalists held sway over the wording of the Islamic constitution, and Khomeini was securely in power (DeFronzo, 321).
That sense of enthusiasm from the revolution that tossed the Shah out of the country continued on November 4, 1979, as over four hundred "young militants stormed the [U.S.] embassy and managed to confiscate quickly…… [Read More]
Although they have failed to put an end to Iran's terrorist acts, U.S. sanctions applied to Iran since the revolution of 1979 have influenced Iran considerably. The main tool of foreign policy that the U.S. has used in the case of Iran has been financial pressure, especially through blocking International Monetary Fund and World ank funding to Iran, which has greatly enhanced the country's debt crisis. Also, the U.S. has managed to weaken Iran's oil infrastructure through discouraging foreign investment in the area. Along with these sanctions, Iran's war with Iraq (1980-1988) and bad political management have generated the country's current crisis, but have also enhanced Iran's hostility towards the U.S. (yman: 12)
yman, Daniel. Iran, Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction. Sep. 2005. Available online at: http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:QrgkpRJE-WsJ:cpass.georgetown.edu/Articles/Dan%27s%2520testimony.pdf+iran+terrorism&hl=ro&ct=clnk&cd=9&gl=ro&client=firefox-a
Katzman, Kenneth. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses. (Updated Nov. 2006). Congressional Research Service. The Library of Congress. Available online at:…… [Read More]
Iran and Islamic Fundamentalism
For the past three decades, Iran has developed as an Islamic fundamentalist state that has constantly subdued dissent. While the various leaders have tried to establish secularization of Iran in the recent past, these attempts have always been repressed since they promote dissenting views and liberalize people's lifestyles. The development of Iran as an Islamic fundamentalist state has largely been influenced by Islamic fundamentalism during the Iranian Revolution. Islamic fundamentalism not only played a significant role in the Iranian Revolution but also demonstrated how religion can be utilized as a tool for political mobilization. Islamic fundamentalism was characterized by the use of various strategies by Ayatollah Khomeini, which contributed to overthrow of the then Iranian leadership.
ackground of the Iranian Revolution
The Iranian Revolution, which is commonly known as the Islamic Revolution, is a term that refers to incidents and events that contributed to the overthrow…… [Read More]
Thus while Khomeini wanted to establish an Islamic Revolution, the hia and the unni viewed his as a man wanting to attain power through the exploitation of the religious disputes between the two. At the same time however, there were strong religious hias that considered the Ayatollah as the divine presence on Earth and they obeyed him. Even so, the religious aspect played a major role in the conflicts that continued to arise between the hia and the unnis.
Finally, in terms of the colonial issues involved, the Revolution set the issue clear related to the possibility of intervention of foreign actors. In this sense, its relations with the Americans negatively changed, while with the rest of the Europeans whey were based on necessity only.
At the moment, there are several opportunities to be taken into account. On the one hand, there is the availability of the Iranian president that…… [Read More]
Subsequently there is a "...hunger for reforms, for more freedom and accommodation with the west." (Asghar a.)
This movement of the progressive youth as well other sectors of the population, such as women, was clearly seen in the 1999 unrest in Iran where mainly university students took to the streets of Tehran in order to express their dissatisfaction with the orthodox regime. There were more than 20,000 students who took part in this protest and the result was a slight reduction on conservatism form the regime.
The present state of affairs Iran shows that there are a number of issues that are in the forefront of the desire for progressive reforms. These include the need for freedom of thought and expression and a reduction of the strict censorship that characterizes government policy. Another issue that is central to the progressive agenda is international relationships. There is a consensus among the…… [Read More]
Iranian Cinema After the evolution
An introduction to Iran:
Iran or Persia as it was previously known was founded more than 4,000 years ago and is thus one of the oldest surviving nations of the world. Iran had been primarily ruled by series of dynasties including such illustrious families as the Achaemenids (500-330 B.C.), the Sassanians (A.D. 226-650), and the Safavides (1500-1722). Iranian dynasties have been synonymous with victories and land acquisition but at the present Iran has s 1,648,195 square kilometers of Middle Eastern territory under its command. It is situated close to former ussia and two former Soviet republics (Azerbaijan and Tajikistan) are its close neighbors. Some other prominent neighbors include the Caspian Sea in the north, Turkey and Iraq in the west, and Afghanistan and Pakistan in the east. And in the south it has the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman as its neighbors. The…… [Read More]
Iranian & Global Nuclear Realism
Iran has made a choice, and that choice is to sustain a global stance of nuclear realism. And it has chosen to do this in no small part because its chief opponents who favor the new school of institutionalism are unable and unwilling to counterpunch. For right now, the major organizations of global collaboration are actually down if not out on the mats of the boxing ring, fearing, in reality, their own revival. If they arise and confront Iran, they would not only bring unwanted attention to a significant and potentially expensive conflict (which they cannot afford), they might also even have to acknowledge that they are able to unleash an entire new level of nuclear manipulation and confusion, one that would engage the destructive capabilities of cyberwarfare -- a potential blow to many elements of deterrence and power.
At this point, however, the match…… [Read More]
It was this tumultuous political and religious environment that led this second wave of Iranian immigrants to the United States.
Because many of the supporters of the Shah's regime had relatives studying in the U.S. As a result of the first influx of Iranian immigrants, they sought asylum in that manner. Others made their pleas based on political and religious persecution issues. Others still, entered the country on student visas and managed to obtain permanent status later.
Assimilation is difficult for any migrating group, but the Iranians faced severe obstacles in the form of fierce discrimination and outright hatred by many Americans. With Americans being so ethnocentric it is extremely difficult for anyone to come from a different culture and fit in with the majority in the United States. With the prevailing sentiment towards Iranians after the Iranian Hostage Crisis, it was more than difficult, it was virtually impossible. Further,…… [Read More]
But the girls can read the text from Lolita's point-of-view. They can appreciate her powerlessness, as they are powerless in the context of a state, held in the force of an oppressive regime even if the book is not explicitly about Iran.
Nafisi defends her choice of European classics because they uphold the integrity of the individual, and the individual was given scant appreciation in Tehran at the time. A pro-Revolutionary Iranian might have suggested an uplifting, dull theological text as appropriate reading for the girls. An anti-Iranian activist might have suggested a political tract against the regime should have been the focus of the group's secret reading.
By stressing that an individual is important outside of politics, and his or her inner life is worthy of creative and varied interpretation, Nafisi states that she was committing the most radical choice of texts of all. This is Nafisi would defend…… [Read More]
The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.
From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.
Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…… [Read More]
The demonstration in Tiananmen Square showed that there were alrge semgnets of the population that wanted change, but Deng's response was to crush the movement with violence and to assert the supremacy ofm centalzied rule once more..
These actions show some of the difficulties of independence and of developing a new political structure when many adhere to older political structures and ideas. One response is to try to wipe out the old with violence, but regimes tend to become reactionary about their own ideas as well and to crush any opposition, real of perceived.
9. Arab unity has not materialized for a number of historical reasons related to the different ways in which the countries of the region have developed so that the leaders of some of the states are wary of other leaders, because of differences in economic structures in the various countries, and because of different reactions to…… [Read More]
eptember 11 and the New Emerging International Order America and Europe in the New World Order
This is a paper that outlines the international order in American and Europe in the formation of New World Order. It has 11 sources.
As the War in Iraq takes place, and people hope for a quick end to all conflicts around them there is deep thought continuously being given to the emergence of a new world order. People aren't really sure in which direction military conflicts are going to talk them. Most people are afraid, and they are rightly so, because presently nothing is certain at all.
IT seems on one hand there is a dominant American nationalist move to take control gradually of all the weaker countries that it might be able to exploit. On the other hand it is hardly seems likely that Europe would stand by and watch the Americans…… [Read More]
Prof. instead The Veil
In Persepolis, Marjane Satrapi uses the veil to represent the changes that occurred as a result of the Islamic Revolution in Iran. In Satrapi's young mind, the veil acts as the only material and symbolic reality aspect of the revolution. The story unfolds with condensing, yet loaded images. Satrapi uses the playful images of young girls as a way of foreshadowing her later thoughts of the changing times in Iran. Satrapi's feelings towards the veil are similarly contrasting. Her upbringing allows her to think freely, yet her surroundings force her to think a certain way about religion. The new Iranian government attempts to use the veil as a representation of modesty, however, Satrapi indicates that the veil truly represents a government's oppression on her people. Looking through a veil, for instance, means that one sees only a limited picture of reality, and one is…… [Read More]
surge of Islamic movements, revolutions and political life in the last fifty years, as well as some of the events of the last ten or fifteen years, culminating with the attack on September 11 and the fight against terrorism, have brought about a legitimate discussion around the causes and effects of political Islam, as well as on the main factors that have influenced it in the last half a century.
The first issue that needs to be taken into consideration is the element of extreme cohesion that the Islamic world has: the Qur'an. According to the Islamic world, the Qur'an is the "literal, hence absolutely true, word of God as revealed to the Prophet Mohammed"
In my opinion, the direct and most important implication, both in terms of internal politics and international relation, is the creation and practice of Islamic law, as one of the three fundamental systems of law…… [Read More]
Shi'ism in the World & the Shiite Islamic Sect in Nigeria
Shi'ism in the World
History, Objectives & General Outlook
Shiite Muslims make up the second biggest denomination of Islam, with the biggest numbers being represented by the Sunnis. The Shiite Muslims form about fifteen percent of Muslims. However, they are dominant in the nations of Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq and Bahrain. In addition, Muslims have a plurality in Yemen and Lebanon too (Cave, 2006). These two distinct groups within the Islam community first differed and deviated from each other following the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632. The divide arose from the fact that the followers were not able to come to an agreement as to whether it was right to select bloodline successors or able leaders most capable of following and propagating the tenets of the Muslim faith (Fuller and Francke, 2000).
The Shiite community commenced during the 650s,…… [Read More]
Poverty rose after the Islamic evolution, and so did unemployment, leaving Iran largely uncompetitive in the global marketplace. Their largest export is the sale of oil and gas, and Iran holds what is estimated to be 10% of the world's oil reserves, so their economy is growing again, and they are successfully paying off old debt that was restructured in the 1980s (Editors).
While Iran was sinking into a depression, Israel, on the other hand, was gaining ground in many areas of their economy. While they still have to import oil, and that continued during the 1975-1985 time period, their economy has modernized and gained much more ground and diversity than Iran's, at least today. However, from 1975 to 1985, the economy was a very different story. While Iran was undergoing a boom because of oil prices, Israel enjoyed no such luxury. In fact, their resources were depleted after the…… [Read More]
Sanctions in the OPEC World
What sorts of sanctions and punishments should an OPEC nation -- whose petroleum production bring riches almost beyond imagination, and hence is a player on the world's economic battleground -- receive if it launches programs aimed at acquiring nuclear weapons? That is the central question for this paper to review and critique. The best example for what would happen to an OPEC nation that works towards building a nuclear weapon can be viewed by examining what has happened to Iran and its fledgling nuclear program. This paper delves into the sanctions against Iran, and reports the political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal consequences of the sanctions that are now being rescinded. This paper also projects what those painful economic and social / political realities would impose on other oil-producing nations planning a nuclear program. This narrative leads to a clear understanding of the question…… [Read More]
Iran and Iraq
Analysis of the Impact of Imperialism on Iran and Iraq
The modern nation of Iraq was formed in 1932 when the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the United Kingdom. It had been placed under the authority of Great Britain as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia by the League of Nations in 1920. Prior to that, it was part of the Ottoman Empire. This delineates the history of imperialism in Iraq as beginning with the arrival of the Ottomans the 15th century, through independence from the Great Britain. These two stage of imperial rule had several different impacts on modern-day Iraq.
The first is the borders of the current state of Iraq were the direct result of British rule. The Ottomans had administered Iraq differently, with three main provinces. Under Ottoman rule, Baghdad, Mosul and Basra were all provinces within the Ottoman Empire. Iraq was not Iraq…… [Read More]
His proposals received a strong opposition from the side of the religious leaders who were dissatisfied both with the fact that women were given the right to vote and the land reforms (idem).
After Khomeini was sent into exile, the shah's leadership, greatly supported by the U.S., became dictatorial. By choosing to put the country under an authoritarian regime with little or no real opposition, Mohammad-Reza Shah, like his father, almost a quarter of a century ago, signed his own end as a leader of ran. Some of the reforms made during those years were restoring women's rights. The Family Protection Law, passed in 1967, brought women's issues related to marriage and divorce closer to the laws of the civilized world. but, the Shah was too much obsessed with building a huge military power, proving himself to the U.S. As the pillar of stabilization in the Middle East.
ranian women…… [Read More]
Clash of Civilizations?
Politics, ideology, and economics have been sources of conflict throughout modern humanity. All have played out in the rise and fall of every empire to date. Be it the oman, Ottoman, British, or American Empire; they have all gained influence by exerting these aspects of existence. Huntington (1993: 22) asserts future conflicts will not be of previous natures; rather conflict will be of cultural origins. To use his term, conflict will be among cultural fault lines. In other words, clashes of civilizations will dominate global politics, (Huntington 1993: 22)
This is a bold assertion on Huntington's behalf.
Conflicts have every thing to do with ideology, economy, and politics. Culture has every thing to do with ways of life, geography, and as Huntington states, most importantly religion. Here he wants to separate religion from ideology; this is short sighted, and contrary to the following argument. The battle of…… [Read More]
" (Beeman 2005, p.6)
In addition to the way they saw the "other" was the manner in which they saw themselves and their action. The creation of correctness of their action complemented the myth of the evil inherent in the action of the other state. The actions that they engage in are considered as not simply retaliation but also as deserved retaliation. The success of these actions, like the revolution of 1978 was demonstrable evidence that this estern behemoth could be brought to heel. This allowed them to expand their ideology as liberators not only of their own people but also of all peoples who are victims of the est.
Both nations employ highly colorful and inflammatory language as part of the demonization strategy. Political leaders and religious leaders employ motifs out of the religious discourse designed to convey the message that each group is inherently evil. The use of…… [Read More]
But the opportunity for a broader, regional conflict was still decades away in the Yom Kippur War and Six Day War.
Today, the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction makes the region in a more significant condition for war. With Syria and Iran attempting to build nuclear facilities capable of enriching uranium, and receiving support from North Korea in this endeavor, the opportunity for devastating warfare is made all too clear. Not only nuclear, but chemical and biological agents, perhaps carried by Iranian Shahab missiles, pose a grave security threat to not only Israel, but also to the Lebanese government, and moderate rab states such as Turkey. lso, the possibility of Pakistani nuclear weapons being controlled by Islamic hardliners, or falling into (intentionally or not) the hands of terrorist entities makes the possibility of war in this period more compelling. While stability in Iraq and Lebanon is in question,…… [Read More]
Islamic movements come to dominate the political landscape of Iran and Saudi rabia in the last thirty years?
Why have democratic advances been so limited in these two countries? Is there any relationship between these two trends or are they independent of each other?
In both modern Iran and modern Saudi rabia, over the past thirty years, two fundamental forces have dominated the discourse of these nations -- that of Islamic Fundamentalism and a hatred of Western, specifically merican intrusions of 'modernity,' in cultural and political forms. In the absence of the ability to compete, technologically with the West, or culturally on a global level, these nations have turned inward, and some historians might say 'to their pasts' and attempted to create Islamic rather than secular renditions of modernity. However, because of the corresponding lack of democratic structures within these referenced traditional Islamic political modalities, and the association of the…… [Read More]
nuclear deal with Iran. A tentative agreement has recently been signed, and the final details need to be worked out by the end of June. The parties at the negotiating table have an interest in a negotiated agreement, even if some other stakeholders do not. Given that, while there still risks that the deal may be scuttled or delayed, in all likelihood the deal will pass. The trade-off for the U.S. will be that it gets some certainty with respect to the Iranian nuclear program in exchange for allowing Iran to have a civilian nuclear program for power generation, subject to strict controls. The paper analyzes the other options on the table and explains why a negotiated agreement with Iran is superior to the other potential alternatives that are available.
At the time of writing, Iran is engaged in talks with the United States and several other stakeholder nations…… [Read More]
Both Palestine and Israel experienced serious losses as a result of the divergences between the two countries.
Chapter 13 focuses on a series of matters and particularly on media's influence on the world in regard to the Palestine-Israel conflict. The estern world stood indifferent as the two countries starting fighting for the territory and caused significant damage. In spite of the fact that society came to perceive Palestinians as terrorists as a result of their determination to recover their lost lands, their power grew in the recent years, most probably as a result of the fact that they developed a feeling of respect for their cause.
3. The Choirs of Kandahar is essentially a continuation of Chapter 2.
4. The Carpet-eavers begins with the United States' and Great Britain's successful overthrow of the democratically elected prime minister of Iran, Mohammed Mosaddeq. From there, it moves on to the events leading…… [Read More]
In addition, he said there could be protocolsfor intrusive monitoring" (Isaacson 2007).
In the scenario of international pressure coupled with domestic forces that do not favor UN sanctions and economic hardships, some believe that Iran would agree to a plicy that only supports uranium enrichment for civilian energy production. The trouble on the other hand is U.S. stance that doubts that Iran would stick to a civilan program and would not use it for its weapons program. The Iran's stance from its weapons program to civilan prgram could be considered a compromise but how far is U.S. willing to go to accept Iran's situation remains to be seen. U.S. is already entagled in Iraq and pursuing a war in Iran does not seem to be a viable option. Mid term results in U.S. have also caused a blow in the Bush administration's position. The threats of sanctions and diplomatic…… [Read More]
deteriorating effects of wars. The line of reasoning follows the commonly used Taulmin's Model. The orks Cited four sources in MLA format.
All wars are not wrong?
The world that we live in is estimated to have the age of 5000 years plus. All wars throughout the history of the world have ended in terrible devastation and extensive destruction in terms of economic, social and political repercussions for the countries and their people (Sullivan- iley & Eisentein) [Sullivan-iley K. & Eisentein J. How are the effects of orld ar I similar to the effects of orld ar II. Retrieved February 08, 2003 at http://www.pomperaug.com/bass/a_block/kirajess/kirajess.html]
Different wars led to different end results. In some cases, the economies crashed such as the Great Depression in the United States of America after the orld ar 1 which reduced the value of the currency to mere its paper, cost of living escalated beyond human…… [Read More]
Stoning of Soraya M
Stoning is not prescribed in the current version of the Koran. Islamic law (Sharia) requires that adulterers be put to death, since it was the example set by Muhammad. In practice, the women are executed far more often, since they are presumed to bear the burden of sexual responsibility. ape victims are sometimes convicted if they speak out. eporting a rape means a confession of adultery under Sharia law if four male witnesses cannot be found to confirm the victim's claim. Numerous examples of stoning adulterers under Islamic law persist, from the Islamist frontier of Somalia to the modern state of Iran. In 2010, the Taliban planted a couple having unauthorized sex in the ground and brutally pelted them with stones only a few days after they flogged a pregnant woman 200 times and then shot her in the head. In "condemning" the killings, the "moderate"…… [Read More]
In Iran, the American-backed Shah had become increasingly unpopular throughout the 1970s. The Shah fled Iran in 1979, finding temporary refuge in the United States. Religious extremist Ayatollah Khomeni easily filled Iran's political and social need for a backlash against American interventionism.
Iran's 1979 Revolution had a major impact on its relationship with the United States and with the rest of the world. hereas the Shah had guaranteed a steady supply of oil to the United States in exchange for "economic and military aid," the Ayatollah Khomeni did not ("The Hostage Crisis in Iran"). The situation created a second oil crisis and subsequent inflation. Moreover, the Iranian Revolution soured American relations with the nation when on November of 1979, Iranian militants "stormed the United States Embassy in Tehran and took approximately seventy Americans captive," ("The Hostage Crisis in Iran"). The hostage scenario symbolized the rise of terrorism and specifically, anti-American…… [Read More]
Many religions have different denominations and Islam is not an exception in this regard. The two primary denominations of Islam are Sunni Islam and Shia Islam. The majority of Muslims across the globe are Sunni, estimated to be roughly 85% to 90% of the Muslim population. The remaining smaller number of Muslims, say about 15%, are Shia. Further demarcations indicate that most Shias belong to the tradition known as Twelver with the rest of the Shia identifying with other traditions.
Twelver refers to the number of descendants of Muhammad that this sect of the Shia recognize. Another group is referred to as the Seveners, since they recognize only seven descendants who were official caliphs of Islam. This is further complicated by the concept of Occultation, which refers to a messianic figure, or Mahdi, who is born but goes into hiding (referred to as disappearing) in order to be…… [Read More]
More recently, reports have begun coming from the Middle East that women will no longer be "expected" to participate in the pilgrimage to Mecca, thereby eliminating women from the holiest rite associated with Islam. Having once done that, it would then be easy to keep women physically, mentally, emotionally isolated within any Muslim society.
Of equal concern is the way in which the Koran is interpreted to facilitate and carry acts of terrorism. The Koran does call for the defense of Islam, that should Islam be threatened, it is the responsibility of every Muslim - presumably, women too - to rise to the defense of Islam."Islamic rulings of warfare are complex, appear to be contradictory and require careful analysis. The simplistic visions of paradise for suicide preached by militant jihadist clerics defy over 1,400 years of Islamic history and wisdom. Yet those like Osama bin Laden, yman al Zawahiri, or…… [Read More]
The Miracle Worker. New York: Bantam, 1960.
ISBN: 0553247786 9780553247787, 122 pages, play. Appropriate for all audiences, intended primarily for adults but of interest to early adolescents and up. High critical appraise and winner of the Tony Award for Best Play in 1960, the year following the script's debut on Broadway.
This play is based on the autobiography of Helen Keller, focusing on the character of Helen's teacher Anne Sullivan and the struggle and ultimate triumph of this woman's struggle to teach Helen how to communicate and understand the world around her. Dramatic action must serve as a substitute for more direct textual exposition, making a reading of the play somewhat lackluster in comparison with viewing a full performance of the script. The characters are fully realized and highly compelling, however, and though the plot is generally well-known amongst most readers of a certain age level, the details and lifelike…… [Read More]
This invariably means reducing the profit margin for the producers, which economists feel has long-term implications. That is the lack of smooth inflationary shock transmission leads not only to reduction in production output but also contributes to reduction in future investments. Thus, inflationary shocks due to oil price hikes are more long lasting in China. [Tang et.al, 2009]
The impact of Oil price explosion is nowhere as pronounced as in sub-Saharan Africa and in particular the oil importing countries. Among the lower economies those that are oil intense such as the sub-Saharan countries are bound to suffer more -- as much as 3% of their GDP. Oil dependence has not change much with only 6% reduction between 1990 and 2005. This is because these countries have a total dependency on oil as their major source of energy compared with other developing countries in Asia. For instance, India and…… [Read More]
Terrorism seems to have taken over the world. No matter how hard the industrialized countries try to find ways to achieve peace and stability in the world but somehow the opposite happens. Today's world is predominantly inhabited by hatred that is visible in the never-ending terror and fear produced by the attacks of September 11th and the military responses undertaken by Super powers. Wars apparently carried out in order to eradicate terrorism are seen by the affected countries as excuses to simply dominate more countries and establish and American hegemony or new colonialism all over the world.
The reasons for escalating terrorism are complex and more than often not understandable. However, some of the reasons are as follows: The growth in the number of terrorist groups is instigated largely by the religious imperative that is greatly funded by the state governments of the Islamic countries; the highly advanced technology and…… [Read More]
Islamic Terrorism: The Radicalization of Religion
This essayfocuses on radical Islamic terrorism, from its roots in the Shia rebellion that led to the Iranian Revolution to the modern day terrorist group Daesh/ISIL/ISIS/IS. It discusses how 9-11 introduced many Westerners to the idea of radical Islamic terrorism and the self-proclaimed holy warriors who carry out these acts as a form of jihad. In order to help explain modern terrorism, the paper discusses the roots of the Sunni/Shia split and the lingering impact that split has on the modern geopolitical environment. The foundation of modern terrorist groups that can be traced to the radicalization of Sunni students is traced through Al Qaeda and back to the Taliban.
For people in the United States, radical Islamic terrorism became a real threat on 9-11, when terrorists from a group known as Al-Qaeda used box knives to take over airplanes and…… [Read More]
On the other hand, some wars resulted in massive uprisings, mass destruction of property, indiscriminate killings of people, uprooting of the power base, widespread lawlessness through revolutions like the French Revolution, the Chinese Revolution and the Russian Revolution and most recently the Iranian Revolution. These revolutions have had far reaching repercussions for the countries in which these revolutions erupted as well as for the entire regions and the world at large. French Revolution over-turned the centuries-old monarchy and brought in republic governments, which in turn changed in quick succession until the end of the Second World War. The period between the end of monarchy and the establishment of stable republic government in France is a witness to the loss of French colonies. The Chinese Revolution turned around the people from a capitalistic economic system to socialist economic system under a new political system of communism expounded by Marx. The Chinese…… [Read More]
U.S. Intervention in Middle East Conflicts:
The relations between Iran and Iraq were hugely affected by Islamic Revolution as Iraq's president was worried that the emerging Shi'a regime in Iran would provoke uprisings in Iraq. Actually, Iraq became increasingly worried that the Islamic Revolution that emerged in Iran could spread to the country and topple the existing regime while replacing it with a theocracy. As Iraq's president was concerned that the Algiers Accord would be dismantled and not followed or obeyed because of the new Islamic Republic, he regarded this as a serious threat to the country's borders and sovereignty. Iraq became a more populist country several years before the emergence of the Islamic Revolution as the doors to trade liberalization were opened in the country. A war against Iran was considered as a suitable option by Saddam Hussein, Iraq's president, to build nationalist sentiments and spirit and…… [Read More]
Thus, while the term "Arab" is useful for describing a particular group of people with a shared language, culture, and history, one cannot readily assume that all Arabs subscribe to a pan-Arabist ideology, especially in light of the often overlapping "Muslim world," which many Arabs would identify themselves a part of (above and beyond any shared connection due to their Arab heritage). In reality, a shared linguistic and cultural background is really the only thing that unites Arabs, but because the world's largely white, Christian reigning powers have for so long actively disenfranchised and brutalized the Arab world, either through direct action or proxies, this shared linguistic and cultural background has been the only unifying feature which allows for any resistance. In many ways, one may see the emerging democratic movements of the Arab Spring as the successful replacement of both pan-Arabism and pan-Islamism, because the desire for…… [Read More]
United States policy towards the Iran's nuclear program has been complicated by a variety of issues. Some of these issues include Iran's alleged sponsorship of terrorism, regional stability, hostility towards U.S. allies, and the complication of the peace process between Arabs and Israelis in the Middle East. The United States' approach in policy toward Iran's nuclear program has changed very little from the Bush administration to the current Obama Administration. A writer for time magazine cleverly stated, in regard to the United States' approach to Iran's nuclear program that Obama taking over the presidency "is more like taking over the controls of a train than getting behind the wheel of a car" (T. Karon). This analogy is appropriate because Obama's administration is following the foundation laid by the Bush Administration.
Both the Obama and Bush administrations recognized the potential global and regional danger that could surfaces as a result of…… [Read More]
Terrorist Organizations and the Media
Subsequent to the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the world did change. Prior to the attacks, the term 'terrorism' was not as frequently used by the media world over, the way we are used to it now. We have to bear in mind that it is the media that brings the world together, it is the Internet at best that allows us easy access to other areas of the globe, far from us -- and their peoples. Next, the television plays a chief role in spreading news, business reports, and propaganda.
Following the attacks on September 11 in New York City, the world got to learn of Al-Qaida, (the sole terrorist group) responsible with many other terrorist organizations to spread mischief across the globe. Osama Bin Laden was turned into a celebrity overnight because his videotapes detailing his agenda…… [Read More]
In an ever increasingly complex governmental infrastructure, the importance of communication, mission and strategy are of the utmost importance. The Department of Defense (DOD) and all of its law enforcement agencies are in a pervasive struggle to attain both accurate and actionable intelligence in order to perform their duties to the best of their capabilities and intentions.
The purpose of this research paper is to explore the failure of the intelligence process due to extraneous levels of bureaucratic organization. This essay will attempt to explain the many failures of the Department of Defense law enforcement entities as a result of this type of organization.
In order to understand this argument, this essay will first look at the problem itself and try to identify the root cause of these failures. Past failures of intelligence gathering will be examined to help contextualize the argument and give credence to the idea…… [Read More]
age of globalized images and new media, including social media, visual culture is universal. Even traditional news media, such as photojournalism, provides a window into multiple worlds and offers an opportunity for individuals from diverse backgrounds to offer unique social and political commentary. The result is a virtual and actual prism: and a prism may be rendered artistically in literal form as with facets of reflective substances like glass. A prism also conveys particular metaphorical qualities, providing a rich and multifaceted medium.
My art project builds upon the found objects of our visual culture culled mainly from The New York Times. The use of this particular newspaper is personal for me, as it is the medium I used to improve my English. Yet as an artist, I found myself drawn much more to the images and especially those of foreign correspondents and their photojournalistic portfolios. Photographs of suffering, such as…… [Read More]
Even so, it has been argued that the limitation of liberties does not necessarily help the war on terror.
Given the nature of the legislation, which includes limitations on freedom of expression or transportation, the society is most of the times limited in its enthusiasm. In this sense, members of Parliaments throughout the world draw the attention on the fact that anti-terrorism laws have infringed the freedom of speech, the liberties of the societies, but most importantly they interfere in the right to privacy of the community (Conservative Home, 2010). Moreover, the right of the state to hold in custody without warrant suspects of terrorist acts is also one of the most important statements made against the Miranda rights and the rights of a suspect.
Academics and experts have consider the fight against terrorism to be important precisely for the protection of human rights, the most important being the right…… [Read More]
eligion and Politics
All religions aim to provide a code of life for mankind. Apart from other tenets, this code establishes laws that govern all areas of man's life. Thus the laws established by the religion Islam are termed as Shariah. The term Shariah means all of the Islamic Laws and is derived from four basic sources. These sources are The Holy Quran, Sunnah, Ij'ma (consensus) of the Companions (Sahabah) and Qiyas or analogical deduction. These laws are not just limited to areas such as marriage or divorce; rather, the Islamic laws cover every action performed by an individual or a society. The term Shariah is also synonymous with Fiqh. However the term Fiqh means knowledge of all the Islamic Laws (Shariah). It can also be taken to mean the Knowledge of the sources from where the Islamic Laws (Shariah) have been extracted.
Shariah or Islamic Laws are divine ways…… [Read More]
9 times greater" than the daily average imported in 1973 (www.ecologicinvestor.com). The importation of oil is the "largest single component" in the U.S. annual trade deficit; the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, quoted by Ecologic Investor, points to the trade deficit for the first 8 months of 2008 -- $281.14 billion. That translates to $4.21 billion annually (estimated).
Saudi Arabia needless to say generates a majority of its revenue from the exporting of petroleum; and while the U.S. trade deficit grows based on oil imports, Saudi Arabia accumulates a surplus, based on oil exports. And meantime Saudi Arabia and fellow members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) have been attempting to "promote higher levels of trade between themselves by removing barriers to the free exchange of goods, services and capital," but their efforts are being challenged by the lack of a "common external tariff" (Nations Encyclopedia). That goes to indicate…… [Read More]
Yom, Sean L. Civil Society and Democratization in the Arab World (2005). MEIA - The Middle East eview of International Affairs. Volume 9, No.4, Article 2. etrieved December 11, 2006 at http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2005/issue4/jv9no4a2.html.
Gilchrist, Alice N. Khalidi discuses Arab world (1991). The Tech. Volume 111, No.21. etrieved December 12, 2006 at http://www-tech.mit.edu/V111/N21/mideas.21n.html.
Arab-Israeli Conflict: ole of religion (2006). etrieved December 12, 2006 at http://www.science.co.il/Arab-Israeli-conflict-2.asp#Intra-Arab.
Schnabel, Albrecht. A rough journey: Nascent democratization in the Middle East. etrieved December 12, 2006 at http://www.unu.edu/unupress/sample-chapters/Democratization-ME.pdf.
Morris, Benny. ighteous Victims (2001). etrieved December 12, 2006 at http://www.israelipalestinianprocon.org/bin/procon/procon.cgi?database=5-F-Subs-Q02.db&command=viewone&op=t&id=3&rnd=629.2625213895783.
Greenwood, Scott. Jordan, al-Aqsa intifada and America's "war on terror" (2003). etrieved December 12, 2006 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go1651/is_200309/ai_n9154518.
Yom, Sean L. Civil Society and Democratization in the Arab World (2005). MEIA - The Middle East eview of International Affairs. Volume 9, No.4, Article 2. etrieved December 11, 2006 at http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2005/issue4/jv9no4a2.html.
Gilchrist, Alice N. Khalidi discusses Arab world (1991).…… [Read More]
These have led to various problem areas which have had a dramatic affect on Muslim life. They include the increase in terror activities in Europe; the rise of anti-Semitism within the Muslim community and the increase in the prevalence of right - wing parties that are often violently opposed in their actions and rhetoric to Islamic fundamentalism.
A fundamental issue that should be considered in attempting to understand the impact of the events of 9/11 on Europe is that these attacks have an effect on the balance between security and civil liberties. In other words, whereas before 9/11 there had been a focus and effort to maintain equilibrium between issues of security and democratic rights for all, including Muslins; yet after 9/11 this balance was upset and the focus tended to move more towards security, with civil rights being neglected. This change in emphasis has had an effect on the…… [Read More]
An Examination of the Purpose and Utilization of Social Networking Websites
Alexander Graham Bell's invention of the telephone in the late 1800s revolutionized civilization.
t was not until 100 years later, in the late 1970s, that another such discovery was made. This latter discovery was that of the nternet. Many argue, furthermore, that the discovery of the nternet involves an even greater advancement in human history than Bell's telephone, for nothing has touched so many, so quickly, and so deeply as the advent of the nternet, and with it, within a relatively short time, the culmination of social networking in a variety of websites, utilize worldwide. This paper will offer a quick examination of how such websites, including Facebook, MySpace, Twitter and Linkedn, have been utilized by individuals in the last decade to promote both personal and work-related interests.
People utilize social networking sites for many reasons but,…… [Read More]
The impact that terrorism has had on the global community since September 11, 2001 has been profound to say the least. In this short essay, the author will address the intent of terrorists, their methods, the political objectives, and the global response. In addition, they will include a treatment and analysis of how terrorism has affected international cooperation and other relations. Unfortunately, it is the opinion of this author that the efforts of the United States since September 11, 2001 have only exacerbated the problem. The methods and the political objectives of the terrorists have been largely achieved due to the American mismanagement of the war on terrorism. hen one soberly reflects upon the present quagmires (one must use the plural form) that the U.S. finds itself in the Middle East, there are few other options but to review how we got where we are and how to extricate…… [Read More]
e. greed, lust and jealousy). To do this, Qutb advocated using a by any means necessary approach, in preventing the status quo from imposing its will upon everyone. This meant that there will be some kind of armed struggle against these forces.
What impacts has he had on Islamic thought?
The biggest impact of Qutb's ideas is in Islamic philosophy. What happened was Qutb, became involved in the Muslim Brotherhood when he returned to Egypt in 1952. During this time, he was actively involved in supporting governments and individuals that challenged Western policies. This led to him being arrested twice.
When he was in jail the first time, he wrote a number of pieces that discusses his radical ideas and how Muslims should stand up to this oppression. After being released in 1965 (for a brief period), is when he would publish these ideas. This led to his re-arrest and…… [Read More]
Gender in Fowles and McEwan
[oman] is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her; she is the incidental, the inessential. He is the Subject, he is the Absolute -- she is the Other. -- Simone de Beauvoir.
Simone de Beauvoir's influential analysis of gender difference as somehow implying gender deference -- that the mere fact of defining male in opposition to female somehow implies placing one in an inferior or subaltern position -- becomes especially interesting when examining how fiction by male authors approaches questions of gender. I propose to examine in detail two British novels of the post-war period -- The Collector by John Fowles, published in 1963, and The Comfort of Strangers by Ian McEwan, published in 1981 -- and hope to demonstrate that, in point of fact, the existence of the feminist movement has managed to shift the portrayal of…… [Read More]
Lewis' the Crisis of Islam
On page 160 of The Crisis of Islam, Bernard Lewis states, "There is no doubt that the foundation of Al-Qa'ida and the consecutive declarations of war by Usama bin Ladin marked the beginning of a new and ominous phase in the history of both Islam and terrorism." Indeed, based on the historical outline of Islam that Lewis provides, the new and ominous phase applies equally to non-Muslim cultures. The Crisis of Islam examines the origins of Islamic fundamentalism and its deadly application as terrorism. The September 11 attacks made Americans more conscious than ever about the threat of anti-American sentiment, a threat that existed far before Al-Qa'ida. In his book, Lewis offers several insights into Islam's current social and political crisis. First, the author describes the flourishing of Islamic culture, noting in particular its theocratic foundations. The theocratic foundation of Islamic culture and religion allow…… [Read More]
Table of Contents
III. Related Topics
VI. Essay Hook
VII. Thesis Statement
C. Sunni/Shia Split
D. Relationship between AL Qaeda and Isis
E. ISIS attacks on the United States
X. Works Cited
In this essay about ISIS attacks in America, we examine attacks by the terrorist organization ISIS, which have occurred on U.S. soil. Because of the structure of ISIS/ISIL, which operate in cells, it can be extremely difficult to determine whether a terrorist attack carried out by someone claiming to be working on behalf of ISIS was actually directed by ISIS. Therefore, for the purposes of this essay, we are working on the assumption that attacks by people who appear to be radicalized Muslims and claim a personal affiliation with ISIS are, indeed, ISIS attacks. This essay will give some…… [Read More]
S. foreign policy. Under this new approach, Carter would directly meet with only government officials that had favorable human rights records. The problem was that the United States' relationship with the Shah was the key for maintaining control in the region. This meant that he had to make official trips to the country, even though he did not support this policy.
As a result, Carter was indirectly endorsing activities of the Shah and the underlying amounts of brutality he was using to maintain power. Evidence of this can be seen by looking at the below table, which is illustrating the total amounts of abuse and torture that were conducted by the SAVAK
The Total Amounts of rutality of the SAVAK
Death Related to SAVAK activities
These different elements are important, because they are showing how U.S. foreign policy changed when it came to…… [Read More]
foreign immigrant groups California share similar struggles quest American citizens
Following the development of western countries in the nineteenth century, there emerged a prolonged immigration of Asian communities into the American society. Iran had a shock in their culture. Individual personality such as language proficiency, learning level, and job skill influences their ability to adapt. Immigration is a key life challenge, although well thought-out to be stressful, particularly for women coming from environments with observance to traditional gender roles, through the exposure, organizations of these societies disintegrate.
Shared struggles of Iranian & Mexican immigrants
Economic factors like financial resources, loses and gains in social status intimidates the immigrants. The attitude of the host country with the level of similarity of the two cultures is also an influential factor. Individual factors such as character strength, decision-making skills, declaration of feeling of loss, and the ability to endure uncertainty about gender roles…… [Read More]
In Iran, the need for more robust information technologies in the classroom is apparent. he outmoded methods of education still practiced, ie. ones that do not ascribe to the Global Village concept, are reflective of the philosophy of Michel Foucault. Foucault argued that the modern education system had become too prison-like. We need to "understand the subtle, complex and harmful effects of power relations that shape and control educational institutions," (McDonough, 1993). A revolution in education is called for, one that maintains some of the essential social and political structures that define modern Iran while also incorporating liberalizing elements that bring Persian students into the era of globalization.
Foucault's analysis of the importance of power in the educational system is especially apt when applied to educational institutions in Iran. "Foucault was concerned mostly with power," as Cheshier (n.d.) points out. Yet the analysis is far deeper than that. It is…… [Read More]
8 billion. The Occupation authorities also helped the Japanese government overcome postwar economic chaos, especially rampant inflation, by balancing the government budget, raising taxes and imposing price and wage freezes, and resuming limited foreign trade" (Kesselman et al., 203). The U.S. aid not only helped to rebuild the country, but also ensured that Japan was stable enough so that renegade seedlings of Communism or comparable institutions didn't suddenly flourish. The United States should sue this wise historical strategy that it deftly employed to help the economies of poorer nations in the Middle East. hen people are living in poverty, this makes them ripe breeding grounds for terrorism to build and people to be brainwashed by doctrines which vilify the est. Furthermore the United States should invest money in developing educational programs in the Middle East, so that the citizens there can actually envision a real future for themselves, without having…… [Read More]
4. Explain each of Samuel Huntington's 8 cultural paradigms. What does this model for culture and civilization around the world have to do with terrorism? What are the implications for law enforcement if terrorism has deeper roots -- namely, rooted in a clash of civilizations? Also, what are the implications for American foreign policy in terms of our efforts to thwart terrorism?
First, the post-Cold War reorganization of nations causes conflicts between and among the resulting civilizations left after national fracturing. Second, the continued promotion by the West of quasi-Western values and political philosophy on the rest of the world antagonizes non-Western civilizations. Third, the deterioration of economic, military, and political power of the West facilitates increased resistance of other nations, such as in the Far and Middle Eastern societies (i.e. China and Islamic countries) to follow the international order established by the West in previous eras and to combine…… [Read More]
First of all, the U.S. should "actively deter nations from "aspiring to a larger regional or global role." Second of all, preemptive force should be used to prevent countries from developing weapons of mass destruction and, third of all, the United States should "act alone if necessary." Clearly, all of these correlated ideas have been implementing in Iraq. Further more, all of ideas would be laid out in the founding statement of principles for the Project of the New American Century.
Evaluating what exactly the neoconservatives that have are now in the highest positions of the U.S. administration is a difficult and dangers job. Consternating the need for an objective evaluation, it is best to present all points-of-view. The least radical of these seems to be the one referring to its goal to promote the United States towards global leadership.
On the other hand, less moderate approaches see the Project…… [Read More]
As recent events in the Middle East have clearly demonstrated, Facebook is more on the side of the politically disadvantaged and the poor as they have increasingly embraced Facebook and other social media while the governments in the region tried to ban them. Many governments such as that of China do not allow Facebook primarily because they want to avert scenarios they have seen in the Middle East.
It was in the wake of 2008 when Oscar Morales, a young man in Columbia, decided that he had had enough of FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), a Marxist group which routinely kidnaps people, keeping them as hostages for months or years, while many of the hostages die in captivity. Angry and depressed by the actions of FARC, one night he turned to Facebook which he had been using to connect with his friends and high school classmates. He…… [Read More]