Iranian Revolution Essays (Examples)

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Iranian Youth the Emergence of

Words: 2418 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26635654

Subsequently there is a "...hunger for reforms, for more freedom and accommodation with the west." (Asghar a.)

This movement of the progressive youth as well other sectors of the population, such as women, was clearly seen in the 1999 unrest in Iran where mainly university students took to the streets of Tehran in order to express their dissatisfaction with the orthodox regime. There were more than 20,000 students who took part in this protest and the result was a slight reduction on conservatism form the regime.

The present state of affairs Iran shows that there are a number of issues that are in the forefront of the desire for progressive reforms. These include the need for freedom of thought and expression and a reduction of the strict censorship that characterizes government policy. Another issue that is central to the progressive agenda is international relationships. There is a consensus among the…… [Read More]


Asghar a. IRAN BETWEEN LIBERALISM and ORTHODOXY. Retrieved March 11, 2007 at

Iran's Youth Push Islamic Limits. Retrieved March 14, 2007, at

Judah T. Via TV and the net, Iran's youth plot social revolution. Retrieved March 11, 2007 at

Profile: Mohammad Khatami. Retrieved March 11, 2007, at
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Iranian Cinema After Revolution

Words: 1872 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51236311

Iranian Cinema After the evolution

An introduction to Iran:

Iran or Persia as it was previously known was founded more than 4,000 years ago and is thus one of the oldest surviving nations of the world. Iran had been primarily ruled by series of dynasties including such illustrious families as the Achaemenids (500-330 B.C.), the Sassanians (A.D. 226-650), and the Safavides (1500-1722). Iranian dynasties have been synonymous with victories and land acquisition but at the present Iran has s 1,648,195 square kilometers of Middle Eastern territory under its command. It is situated close to former ussia and two former Soviet republics (Azerbaijan and Tajikistan) are its close neighbors. Some other prominent neighbors include the Caspian Sea in the north, Turkey and Iraq in the west, and Afghanistan and Pakistan in the east. And in the south it has the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman as its neighbors. The…… [Read More]


1. Akrami J. ( 1987). "Persian cinema and politics in Iran." In J. DH Downing (Ed.), Film and politics in the Third World . New York: Praeger.

2. Akrami J. (1990). "Feature film in Persia." In Encyclopedia Iranica. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda.

3. Asadi A. & Mehrdad H. (1975). Nagsheh rasaneh-ha dar poshtibani toseaeh farhanghi [The role of media in support of cultural development]. Tehran: Iran Communication and Development Institute.

4. Gaffary F. (1990). "History of cinema in Iran." In Encyclopedia Iranica. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda.
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Iranian & Global Nuclear Realism Iran Has

Words: 1647 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23795416

Iranian & Global Nuclear Realism

Iran has made a choice, and that choice is to sustain a global stance of nuclear realism. And it has chosen to do this in no small part because its chief opponents who favor the new school of institutionalism are unable and unwilling to counterpunch. For right now, the major organizations of global collaboration are actually down if not out on the mats of the boxing ring, fearing, in reality, their own revival. If they arise and confront Iran, they would not only bring unwanted attention to a significant and potentially expensive conflict (which they cannot afford), they might also even have to acknowledge that they are able to unleash an entire new level of nuclear manipulation and confusion, one that would engage the destructive capabilities of cyberwarfare -- a potential blow to many elements of deterrence and power.

At this point, however, the match…… [Read More]


Boucek, C. And Sadjadpour, K. (2011) Rivals -- Iran vs. Saudi Arabia. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved from .

Hirsch, M. (2008). Iran's Great Game. The Daily Beast. Retrievable from

Jonsson, C. And Tallberg, J. (n.d). International Theory and International Relations. Retrievable from

Korab-Karpowicz, W. Julian, "Political Realism in International Relations," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .
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Iranian Immigration to the U S

Words: 1368 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64928703

It was this tumultuous political and religious environment that led this second wave of Iranian immigrants to the United States.

Because many of the supporters of the Shah's regime had relatives studying in the U.S. As a result of the first influx of Iranian immigrants, they sought asylum in that manner. Others made their pleas based on political and religious persecution issues. Others still, entered the country on student visas and managed to obtain permanent status later.

Assimilation is difficult for any migrating group, but the Iranians faced severe obstacles in the form of fierce discrimination and outright hatred by many Americans. With Americans being so ethnocentric it is extremely difficult for anyone to come from a different culture and fit in with the majority in the United States. With the prevailing sentiment towards Iranians after the Iranian Hostage Crisis, it was more than difficult, it was virtually impossible. Further,…… [Read More]


Bozorhmehr, M. (1998). "From Iranian studies to studies of Iranians in the United States."

Iranian Studies 31(1), 4-30.

Ghaemi, N. (2009, February 2). The psychology of Iranian-American relations. Retrieved December 11, 2011 from Psychology Today website:

Gillis, M. (2011). Iranian Americans. Retrieved December 11,2011 from Countries and Their
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Egypt the Revolution in Egypt of January

Words: 1851 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38516456


The revolution in Egypt of January and February 2011 led to the resignation of the nation's president, Hosni Mubarak. The revolution put the population in a state of potential chaos and some political commentators felt that it would be difficult for Egypt to become a functioning society in the near future. This was not the first time that the Middle Eastern region saw a political revolution within one of its nations, nor would it be the last. The recent public execution of Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi illustrates the fiery nature of the region and the continued likelihood of political unrest. Commentators made connections between the current situation and similar occurrences in the past without noting how these similarities could telegraph the potential successes of the revolution. The region, known for violence and quick temper, is unsurprisingly a location of frequent insurgency and revolution. History has a way of repeating…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Blunt, Wilfrid Scawen. The Secret History of the English Occupation of Egypt. Dublin: Nonsuch,

2007. Print.

Ibrahim, Tamer. "Egyptian Revolution of 1919." Egypt News. 2009. Print.

Shakry, Omnia El. "Egypt's Three Revolutions: The Force of History behind this Popular
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Azar Nafisi an Iranian Academic

Words: 406 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64579722

But the girls can read the text from Lolita's point-of-view. They can appreciate her powerlessness, as they are powerless in the context of a state, held in the force of an oppressive regime even if the book is not explicitly about Iran.

Nafisi defends her choice of European classics because they uphold the integrity of the individual, and the individual was given scant appreciation in Tehran at the time. A pro-Revolutionary Iranian might have suggested an uplifting, dull theological text as appropriate reading for the girls. An anti-Iranian activist might have suggested a political tract against the regime should have been the focus of the group's secret reading.

By stressing that an individual is important outside of politics, and his or her inner life is worthy of creative and varied interpretation, Nafisi states that she was committing the most radical choice of texts of all. This is Nafisi would defend…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Nafisi, Azar. Reading Lolita in Tehran. New York: Random House, 2003.
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Modernity the Discourse of Modernity

Words: 3436 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63570272

The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.

From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.

Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…… [Read More]

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World War II Also Marked

Words: 2272 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99236996

The demonstration in Tiananmen Square showed that there were alrge semgnets of the population that wanted change, but Deng's response was to crush the movement with violence and to assert the supremacy ofm centalzied rule once more..

These actions show some of the difficulties of independence and of developing a new political structure when many adhere to older political structures and ideas. One response is to try to wipe out the old with violence, but regimes tend to become reactionary about their own ideas as well and to crush any opposition, real of perceived.

9. Arab unity has not materialized for a number of historical reasons related to the different ways in which the countries of the region have developed so that the leaders of some of the states are wary of other leaders, because of differences in economic structures in the various countries, and because of different reactions to…… [Read More]

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September 11 and the New Emerging International

Words: 4078 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83500963

eptember 11 and the New Emerging International Order America and Europe in the New World Order

This is a paper that outlines the international order in American and Europe in the formation of New World Order. It has 11 sources.

As the War in Iraq takes place, and people hope for a quick end to all conflicts around them there is deep thought continuously being given to the emergence of a new world order. People aren't really sure in which direction military conflicts are going to talk them. Most people are afraid, and they are rightly so, because presently nothing is certain at all.

IT seems on one hand there is a dominant American nationalist move to take control gradually of all the weaker countries that it might be able to exploit. On the other hand it is hardly seems likely that Europe would stand by and watch the Americans…… [Read More]


Mcguire, Stryker. And Meyer, Michael. Is This the New World Order? Newsweek International. 2003.

The North Atlantic Treaty, 2002

Kant, Immanuel. Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch. 1795

Power and Weakness by Robert Kagan:
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Gillian Sarofim Prof Winstead the Veil in

Words: 1744 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45223683

Gillian Sarofim

Prof. instead The Veil

In Persepolis, Marjane Satrapi uses the veil to represent the changes that occurred as a result of the Islamic Revolution in Iran. In Satrapi's young mind, the veil acts as the only material and symbolic reality aspect of the revolution. The story unfolds with condensing, yet loaded images. Satrapi uses the playful images of young girls as a way of foreshadowing her later thoughts of the changing times in Iran. Satrapi's feelings towards the veil are similarly contrasting. Her upbringing allows her to think freely, yet her surroundings force her to think a certain way about religion. The new Iranian government attempts to use the veil as a representation of modesty, however, Satrapi indicates that the veil truly represents a government's oppression on her people. Looking through a veil, for instance, means that one sees only a limited picture of reality, and one is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Davis, R. "A Graphic Self." Prose Studies 27.3 (2005): 264-79. Print.

Devery, D. "The Rise of Totalitarian Regimes in the 20th Century." May 2008. Web. November 2013. .

Jones, R.A. "Durkheim's Suicide." June 1986. Web. November 2013. .

Satrapi, M. Persepolis. New York: Vintage, 2008. Print.
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Middle East Politics

Words: 1148 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4437808

surge of Islamic movements, revolutions and political life in the last fifty years, as well as some of the events of the last ten or fifteen years, culminating with the attack on September 11 and the fight against terrorism, have brought about a legitimate discussion around the causes and effects of political Islam, as well as on the main factors that have influenced it in the last half a century.

The first issue that needs to be taken into consideration is the element of extreme cohesion that the Islamic world has: the Qur'an. According to the Islamic world, the Qur'an is the "literal, hence absolutely true, word of God as revealed to the Prophet Mohammed"

In my opinion, the direct and most important implication, both in terms of internal politics and international relation, is the creation and practice of Islamic law, as one of the three fundamental systems of law…… [Read More]


1. Kepel, Gilles. JIHAD -- the Trial of Political Islam. The Belknap Press of Harvard Univeristy Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts. 2002. Chapter 3. Page 61.

2. Beinin, Joel; Stork, Joe. On the Modernity, Historical Specificity and International Context of Political Islam. 1998. Page 3.

Beinin, Joel; Stork, Joe. On the Modernity, Historical Specificity and International Context of Political Islam. 1998. Page 3.

Ibid. Page 9
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The Shiite Islamic Sect in Nigeria

Words: 6077 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90828462

Shi'ism in the World & the Shiite Islamic Sect in Nigeria

Shi'ism in the World

History, Objectives & General Outlook

Shiite Muslims make up the second biggest denomination of Islam, with the biggest numbers being represented by the Sunnis. The Shiite Muslims form about fifteen percent of Muslims. However, they are dominant in the nations of Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq and Bahrain. In addition, Muslims have a plurality in Yemen and Lebanon too (Cave, 2006). These two distinct groups within the Islam community first differed and deviated from each other following the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632. The divide arose from the fact that the followers were not able to come to an agreement as to whether it was right to select bloodline successors or able leaders most capable of following and propagating the tenets of the Muslim faith (Fuller and Francke, 2000).

The Shiite community commenced during the 650s,…… [Read More]


Akhavi, S. (1983). The ideology and praxis of Shi'ism in the Iranian revolution. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 25(02), 195-221.

Campbell, J. (2015). "Massacre" of Shia in Northern Nigeria an Opening for Iran. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from:

Cave, D. (2006). Telling Sunni from Shiite. The New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from:s

Center for Security Policy. (2014). Will Sunni-Shia tensions spread to Nigeria? Retrieved 5 January 2016 from:
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Government Economics and Business in

Words: 2319 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15479048

Poverty rose after the Islamic evolution, and so did unemployment, leaving Iran largely uncompetitive in the global marketplace. Their largest export is the sale of oil and gas, and Iran holds what is estimated to be 10% of the world's oil reserves, so their economy is growing again, and they are successfully paying off old debt that was restructured in the 1980s (Editors).

While Iran was sinking into a depression, Israel, on the other hand, was gaining ground in many areas of their economy. While they still have to import oil, and that continued during the 1975-1985 time period, their economy has modernized and gained much more ground and diversity than Iran's, at least today. However, from 1975 to 1985, the economy was a very different story. While Iran was undergoing a boom because of oil prices, Israel enjoyed no such luxury. In fact, their resources were depleted after the…… [Read More]


Coutsoukis, Photius. "Israel's Economy." 2004. 3 July 2008. 

Editors. "Iran's Economy." Iran Trade Association. 2008. 3 July 2008.

Kirshner, Sheldon. "Israel's Ties With Iran Have Been Mercurial." 21 February 2008. 3 July 2008.

Melman, Yossi. "How Israel Lost to the Iranians." Iran Press Service. 2006. 3 July 2008.
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Iran Has Suffered Enormously From Sanctions

Words: 3120 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95696358

Sanctions in the OPEC World

What sorts of sanctions and punishments should an OPEC nation -- whose petroleum production bring riches almost beyond imagination, and hence is a player on the world's economic battleground -- receive if it launches programs aimed at acquiring nuclear weapons? That is the central question for this paper to review and critique. The best example for what would happen to an OPEC nation that works towards building a nuclear weapon can be viewed by examining what has happened to Iran and its fledgling nuclear program. This paper delves into the sanctions against Iran, and reports the political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal consequences of the sanctions that are now being rescinded. This paper also projects what those painful economic and social / political realities would impose on other oil-producing nations planning a nuclear program. This narrative leads to a clear understanding of the question…… [Read More]


Aghazadeh, Mahdieh. 'A Historical Overview of Sanctions on Iran and Iran's Nuclear Program. Journal of Academic Studies. Vol. 56, 137-160, 2013.

Berliner, Uri. 'Crippled By Sanctions, Iran's Economy Key In Nuclear Deal." NPR. Recovered November 26, 2015, from 2013.

Byman, Daniel L. 'Iran's Support for Terrorism in the Middle East.' Brookings. Recovered November 25, 2015, from 2013.

Farshneshani, Beheshteh. 'In Iran, Sanctions Hurt the Wrong People.' The New York Times. Recovered November 26, 2015, from 2014.
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Imperialism in Iraq and Iran

Words: 4064 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87629388

Iran and Iraq

Analysis of the Impact of Imperialism on Iran and Iraq

The modern nation of Iraq was formed in 1932 when the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the United Kingdom. It had been placed under the authority of Great Britain as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia by the League of Nations in 1920. Prior to that, it was part of the Ottoman Empire. This delineates the history of imperialism in Iraq as beginning with the arrival of the Ottomans the 15th century, through independence from the Great Britain. These two stage of imperial rule had several different impacts on modern-day Iraq.

The first is the borders of the current state of Iraq were the direct result of British rule. The Ottomans had administered Iraq differently, with three main provinces. Under Ottoman rule, Baghdad, Mosul and Basra were all provinces within the Ottoman Empire. Iraq was not Iraq…… [Read More]


Butch, T. (2015). Why China will intervene in Iraq. Asia Times. Retrieved May11, 2016 from

CIA World Factbook (2016). People's Republic of China. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved May 11, 2016 from

Dawson, J. (2014). Why Britain created monarchies in the Middle East. New Statesman. Retrieved May 11, 2016 from

Dehghan, S. & Taylor, R. (2013). CIA admits role in 1953 Iranian coup. The Guardian. Retrieved May 11, 2016 from
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Women Education and Labor Enforcement

Words: 2901 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42773204

His proposals received a strong opposition from the side of the religious leaders who were dissatisfied both with the fact that women were given the right to vote and the land reforms (idem).

After Khomeini was sent into exile, the shah's leadership, greatly supported by the U.S., became dictatorial. By choosing to put the country under an authoritarian regime with little or no real opposition, Mohammad-Reza Shah, like his father, almost a quarter of a century ago, signed his own end as a leader of ran. Some of the reforms made during those years were restoring women's rights. The Family Protection Law, passed in 1967, brought women's issues related to marriage and divorce closer to the laws of the civilized world. but, the Shah was too much obsessed with building a huge military power, proving himself to the U.S. As the pillar of stabilization in the Middle East.

ranian women…… [Read More]

Iran. Role of Women. Source: U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved: Feb 17, 2009. Available at .

White, J.B. 2004. Money Makes Us Relatives: Women's Labor in Urban Turkey. Routledge.

The Republic of Turkey. Principles and General Objectives of Education. Retrieved: Feb 17, 2009. Available at
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Foreign Affairs

Words: 1484 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26807934

Clash of Civilizations?

Politics, ideology, and economics have been sources of conflict throughout modern humanity. All have played out in the rise and fall of every empire to date. Be it the oman, Ottoman, British, or American Empire; they have all gained influence by exerting these aspects of existence. Huntington (1993: 22) asserts future conflicts will not be of previous natures; rather conflict will be of cultural origins. To use his term, conflict will be among cultural fault lines. In other words, clashes of civilizations will dominate global politics, (Huntington 1993: 22)

This is a bold assertion on Huntington's behalf.

Conflicts have every thing to do with ideology, economy, and politics. Culture has every thing to do with ways of life, geography, and as Huntington states, most importantly religion. Here he wants to separate religion from ideology; this is short sighted, and contrary to the following argument. The battle of…… [Read More]


Blair, Tony Feb 2007, A Battle for Global Values, Viewed on March 19, 2011,

Bostom, Andrew G. July 2008, Shiite Iran's Genocidal Jew Hatred, Viewed on March 19,

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United States and Iran Demonize

Words: 1257 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30243587

" (Beeman 2005, p.6)

In addition to the way they saw the "other" was the manner in which they saw themselves and their action. The creation of correctness of their action complemented the myth of the evil inherent in the action of the other state. The actions that they engage in are considered as not simply retaliation but also as deserved retaliation. The success of these actions, like the revolution of 1978 was demonstrable evidence that this estern behemoth could be brought to heel. This allowed them to expand their ideology as liberators not only of their own people but also of all peoples who are victims of the est.

Both nations employ highly colorful and inflammatory language as part of the demonization strategy. Political leaders and religious leaders employ motifs out of the religious discourse designed to convey the message that each group is inherently evil. The use of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beeman, William. O. The Great Satan vs. The Mad Mullahs: How the United States

and Iran Demonize Each Other. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2005.

Wright, Robin, and Bakhash, S. The U.S. And Iran: An offer they can't refuse? Foreign

Policy 108, (1997): 24-137.
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Political Science Iraqi President Saddam

Words: 2492 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68598460

But the opportunity for a broader, regional conflict was still decades away in the Yom Kippur War and Six Day War.

Today, the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction makes the region in a more significant condition for war. With Syria and Iran attempting to build nuclear facilities capable of enriching uranium, and receiving support from North Korea in this endeavor, the opportunity for devastating warfare is made all too clear. Not only nuclear, but chemical and biological agents, perhaps carried by Iranian Shahab missiles, pose a grave security threat to not only Israel, but also to the Lebanese government, and moderate rab states such as Turkey. lso, the possibility of Pakistani nuclear weapons being controlled by Islamic hardliners, or falling into (intentionally or not) the hands of terrorist entities makes the possibility of war in this period more compelling. While stability in Iraq and Lebanon is in question,…… [Read More]

Also, although the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is worthy of considerable attention, it is important to remember that most other Arab nations in the Middle East actively discriminate against Palestinians. Although the Arab politicians often cite Palestinian mistreatment as a key reason for resentment against Israel, the real motivation underlying Arab militancy is concealed. It is simply a window-dressing for militant propaganda. The reality of the matter is that Palestinians in Israel are guaranteed the broadest freedoms, both religiously and politically, when compared to every other nation in the region. And although Palestinians' economic status is often lower than average Israelis, the same is true of Arab nations, which specifically target Palestinians for discrimination because of their status as a separate ethnic group. When it joined several other Arab states in expelling 400,000 Palestinian refugees since 1991, because of PLO support for the Iraq invasion, Kuwait became a good example of this discrimination. Egypt has also curtailed Palestinian settlement to the Gaza strip, where Palestinian militants continue to launch attacks on Israel,

Most revealing of all, however, is the Arab League's policy of refusing to grant Palestinians citizenship in any of its member states. Instead, Palestinians become international refugees in the region, living in camps by the thousands and growing more resentful all the time -- which is probably League's goal, as the displaced Palestinians then serve as proxy warriors against Israel.

The most effective appraoch is to pursue more aggressive action in preventing the Iranian state from acquiring WMDs, and in isolating Iran from its influential position as terrorist and militant financier and supporter. President Ahmedinejad has expressed very harshly and openly the intentions of the Iranian government to eliminate Israel and to pursue radical Islamic hegemony. This provides the international community with a dramatic glimpse of Iranian goals. In assessing the threat posed by Iran, the international community must realize that Iran will not easily be deterred by threats of sanction or isolation. Instead, it must be made absolutely clear to the Iranian regime that its current course will result in consequences. Also, the Iranian dissident movement must be supported and encouraged in order to undermine the support of the hard-line Iranian regime.
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Islamic Movements

Words: 1833 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83176190

Islamic movements come to dominate the political landscape of Iran and Saudi rabia in the last thirty years?

Why have democratic advances been so limited in these two countries? Is there any relationship between these two trends or are they independent of each other?

In both modern Iran and modern Saudi rabia, over the past thirty years, two fundamental forces have dominated the discourse of these nations -- that of Islamic Fundamentalism and a hatred of Western, specifically merican intrusions of 'modernity,' in cultural and political forms. In the absence of the ability to compete, technologically with the West, or culturally on a global level, these nations have turned inward, and some historians might say 'to their pasts' and attempted to create Islamic rather than secular renditions of modernity. However, because of the corresponding lack of democratic structures within these referenced traditional Islamic political modalities, and the association of the…… [Read More]

After the Islamic revolution in Iran the new political structures that were instated ensured that fundamentalist Islamic point-of-view became synonymous with the new Iran. For instance, in 1982 Khomeini insisted that Iran's courts discard all secular legal codes and base their decisions solely on Islamic regulations. (Cleveland 423) To oppose Islamic fundamentalism in Iran was not only to stand against the new regime, it was to engage in an act of heresy. Democracy was decadent, and Western, and to adopt the Western political mindset was to disastrously weaken the nation.

In this text, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam Gilles Kepel in Chapter 5 states that Iran, in the wake of the death of Khomeni, has since attempted to reform some of its strictures, instating democratic but still Islamic elections, for instance, that has created some semblance of what one might call 'democracy' in the nation. Even more recently, the arts have begun to be resurrected in Iran. There has even been a return to pre-Iranian cultural institutions, such as the presence of Western music and movies within the republic.

Likewise, nascent Saudi Arabian feminism has manifested itself as women have protested their inability to drive, or made use of mandatory 'all female' enclaves such as banks, to discuss and create sites of discussion and debate. The private/public dichotomy of female dress and both male and female behavior in both countries may hold the seeds of a kind of revolution or renegotiation of Islamic identity. But it will be a revolution on Islamic and Middle Eastern cultural terms, a negotiation rather than a revolution in the Western sense of uprooting the old entirely -- for what is Islamic in these nations is not really 'old' at all, as William Cleveland suggests. Rather, Islamic fundamentalism is more of a delicate negotiation, socially, politically, and economically, in both Saudi Arabia and Iran, in an effort for these nations to remain distinct in a world and even a region they see as increasingly dominated by American needs and influence.
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Iran Nuclear Deal Options

Words: 4296 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97182048

nuclear deal with Iran. A tentative agreement has recently been signed, and the final details need to be worked out by the end of June. The parties at the negotiating table have an interest in a negotiated agreement, even if some other stakeholders do not. Given that, while there still risks that the deal may be scuttled or delayed, in all likelihood the deal will pass. The trade-off for the U.S. will be that it gets some certainty with respect to the Iranian nuclear program in exchange for allowing Iran to have a civilian nuclear program for power generation, subject to strict controls. The paper analyzes the other options on the table and explains why a negotiated agreement with Iran is superior to the other potential alternatives that are available.


At the time of writing, Iran is engaged in talks with the United States and several other stakeholder nations…… [Read More]


ADL (2015). The Iranian nuclear deal: Why it matters. Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved April 23, 2015 from

Al-Ghoul, A. (2013). Hamas mixed on Iran nuclear deal. Retrieved April 23, 2015 from

Al Jazeera (2015). Why Saudi Arabia and Israel oppose Iran nuclear deal. Al Jazeera Retrieved April 23, 2015 from

Anishchuk, A. (2013). Iran's Rouhani says wants nuclear issue resolved, but draws lines. Reuters. Retrieved April 23, 2015 from
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Great War for Civilisation The

Words: 1969 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48624232

Both Palestine and Israel experienced serious losses as a result of the divergences between the two countries.

Chapter 13 focuses on a series of matters and particularly on media's influence on the world in regard to the Palestine-Israel conflict. The estern world stood indifferent as the two countries starting fighting for the territory and caused significant damage. In spite of the fact that society came to perceive Palestinians as terrorists as a result of their determination to recover their lost lands, their power grew in the recent years, most probably as a result of the fact that they developed a feeling of respect for their cause.

3. The Choirs of Kandahar is essentially a continuation of Chapter 2.

4. The Carpet-eavers begins with the United States' and Great Britain's successful overthrow of the democratically elected prime minister of Iran, Mohammed Mosaddeq. From there, it moves on to the events leading…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fisk, Robert, the Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East
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Policing Islamist Social Movements Many

Words: 3335 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2472427

The post-colonial state in Egypt was shaped by nationalism and nationbuilding, regionalism (pan-Arabism and pan-Islamism), contestations over legitimacy and interest-based and populist corporatism (Ayubi, 1991). More recently the focus shifted to discussions about civil society and democratization (Al-Sayyid, 1993; S. Ibrahim, 1995; S. Ibrahim (ed.), 1993; Norton (ed.), 1995; Zaki, 1995). In these works special attention has been given to Islamist organizations and their role in Egypt's 'civil society' associations (Kepel, 1985; Marty & Appleby (eds.), 1991; Stowasser (ed.), 1987; Zaki, 1995; Zubaida, 1992). Zaki, for example, contrasts the general weakness and political ineffectiveness that he attributes to the overwhelming majority of associations to the overall strength of Islamic associations (Al-Ali 2000:53)."

Feminist politics is somewhat subversive then, working through and against the state in a very candid way, but in a way that self-polices (54). That is to say in a way that remains respectful of Islamic law, which…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Al-Ali, Nadje. 2000. Secularism, Gender, and the State in the Middle East: The Egyptian Women's Movement. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Book online. Available from Questia, Accessed 5 May 2008. Ganji, Manouchehr. 2002. Defying the Iranian Revolution: From a Minister to the Shah to a Leader of Resistance / . Westport, CT: Praeger, Questia. 20 Nov. 2006

Gole, Nilufer. 2000. Snapshots of Islamic Modernities. Daedalus 129, no. 1: 91. Database online. Available from Questia, Accessed 5 May 2008.

Humphrey, Michael. 2000. Violence, Voice and Identity in Algeria. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 22, no. 1: 1. Database online. Available from Questia, Accessed 5 May 2008.
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U S Iran Relations and Iran

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8869033

In addition, he said there could be protocolsfor intrusive monitoring" (Isaacson 2007).


In the scenario of international pressure coupled with domestic forces that do not favor UN sanctions and economic hardships, some believe that Iran would agree to a plicy that only supports uranium enrichment for civilian energy production. The trouble on the other hand is U.S. stance that doubts that Iran would stick to a civilan program and would not use it for its weapons program. The Iran's stance from its weapons program to civilan prgram could be considered a compromise but how far is U.S. willing to go to accept Iran's situation remains to be seen. U.S. is already entagled in Iraq and pursuing a war in Iran does not seem to be a viable option. Mid term results in U.S. have also caused a blow in the Bush administration's position. The threats of sanctions and diplomatic…… [Read More]


Isaacson, W. March 2007. An offer on the Table.Time. 169(11):31

Macleod, S. March 2007. Iran's War Within. Time. 169(11):28

Hirsh, M. & Bihari, M. February 2007. Rumors of War. Newsweek.

Adas, J. April 2002. Revisiting U.S.-Iran Relations. Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. 21(3): 90
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All Wars Are Not Wrong

Words: 2011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66884346

deteriorating effects of wars. The line of reasoning follows the commonly used Taulmin's Model. The orks Cited four sources in MLA format.

All wars are not wrong?

The world that we live in is estimated to have the age of 5000 years plus. All wars throughout the history of the world have ended in terrible devastation and extensive destruction in terms of economic, social and political repercussions for the countries and their people (Sullivan- iley & Eisentein) [Sullivan-iley K. & Eisentein J. How are the effects of orld ar I similar to the effects of orld ar II. Retrieved February 08, 2003 at]

Different wars led to different end results. In some cases, the economies crashed such as the Great Depression in the United States of America after the orld ar 1 which reduced the value of the currency to mere its paper, cost of living escalated beyond human…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sullivan-Wiley K. & Eisentein J. How are the effects of World War I similar to the effects of World War II. Retrieved February 08, 2003 at

Koeller D. The World Wars: 1900- 1989. Retrieved February 08, 2003 from: Why World War II?. Last updated 29 Dec. 1999. The History Ring. 2 Mar. 2000.

Reynolds C. What is the Taulmin's Model? Retrieved February 08, 2003 at
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Stoning of Soraya M Stoning Is Not

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40470504

Stoning of Soraya M

Stoning is not prescribed in the current version of the Koran. Islamic law (Sharia) requires that adulterers be put to death, since it was the example set by Muhammad. In practice, the women are executed far more often, since they are presumed to bear the burden of sexual responsibility. ape victims are sometimes convicted if they speak out. eporting a rape means a confession of adultery under Sharia law if four male witnesses cannot be found to confirm the victim's claim. Numerous examples of stoning adulterers under Islamic law persist, from the Islamist frontier of Somalia to the modern state of Iran. In 2010, the Taliban planted a couple having unauthorized sex in the ground and brutally pelted them with stones only a few days after they flogged a pregnant woman 200 times and then shot her in the head. In "condemning" the killings, the "moderate"…… [Read More]


Cannon, C.M. (2010). Soraya M., stoned to death for being an "inconvenient wife." Politics Daily. The HuffPost Politics. Retrieved January 30, 2013, from

"Somali rape victom stoned to death was 13." (2009, February 11) From the Associated Press. Retrieved January 30, 2013, from

"Stoning adulterers." (NDI). Retrieved January 30, 2013, from
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Era of Women's Rights and

Words: 2510 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70306552

In Iran, the American-backed Shah had become increasingly unpopular throughout the 1970s. The Shah fled Iran in 1979, finding temporary refuge in the United States. Religious extremist Ayatollah Khomeni easily filled Iran's political and social need for a backlash against American interventionism.

Iran's 1979 Revolution had a major impact on its relationship with the United States and with the rest of the world. hereas the Shah had guaranteed a steady supply of oil to the United States in exchange for "economic and military aid," the Ayatollah Khomeni did not ("The Hostage Crisis in Iran"). The situation created a second oil crisis and subsequent inflation. Moreover, the Iranian Revolution soured American relations with the nation when on November of 1979, Iranian militants "stormed the United States Embassy in Tehran and took approximately seventy Americans captive," ("The Hostage Crisis in Iran"). The hostage scenario symbolized the rise of terrorism and specifically, anti-American…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The 1964 Civil Rights Act to the Present." Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at

Aberman, Samara. "The War on Drugs." PBS NewsHourExtra. 2001. Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at

Dirks, Tim. "Film History of the 1970s." The History of Film. Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at 

Halber, Deborah. Seventies oil crisis was a 'perfect storm' for U.S. MIT. March 23, 2007. Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at
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US and Muslim Nations Relations

Words: 2226 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91178309

Shia-Sunni Split

Many religions have different denominations and Islam is not an exception in this regard. The two primary denominations of Islam are Sunni Islam and Shia Islam. The majority of Muslims across the globe are Sunni, estimated to be roughly 85% to 90% of the Muslim population. The remaining smaller number of Muslims, say about 15%, are Shia. Further demarcations indicate that most Shias belong to the tradition known as Twelver with the rest of the Shia identifying with other traditions.

Twelver refers to the number of descendants of Muhammad that this sect of the Shia recognize. Another group is referred to as the Seveners, since they recognize only seven descendants who were official caliphs of Islam. This is further complicated by the concept of Occultation, which refers to a messianic figure, or Mahdi, who is born but goes into hiding (referred to as disappearing) in order to be…… [Read More]

References 8

Caliphate. (2015). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from

Hendawi, H., Abdul-Zahra, Q., and Yacoub, S.N. (2015, January 6). In Iraq's war against extremists, a quiet sectarian purge. AP. Retreived from

Hazeton, L. (2010) After the Prophet: The epic story of the Shia-Sunni split in Islam. Aylett, VA: Anchor. Retrieved from Hazleton-after-the-prophet-shia-sunni-split.pdf

Pollack, K.M. (2015, February 4). ISIS is losing in Iraq. But what happens next? The Opinion Pages. A25. The New York Times.
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Islamic Right and Left Any

Words: 2976 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96174777

More recently, reports have begun coming from the Middle East that women will no longer be "expected" to participate in the pilgrimage to Mecca, thereby eliminating women from the holiest rite associated with Islam. Having once done that, it would then be easy to keep women physically, mentally, emotionally isolated within any Muslim society.

Of equal concern is the way in which the Koran is interpreted to facilitate and carry acts of terrorism. The Koran does call for the defense of Islam, that should Islam be threatened, it is the responsibility of every Muslim - presumably, women too - to rise to the defense of Islam."Islamic rulings of warfare are complex, appear to be contradictory and require careful analysis. The simplistic visions of paradise for suicide preached by militant jihadist clerics defy over 1,400 years of Islamic history and wisdom. Yet those like Osama bin Laden, yman al Zawahiri, or…… [Read More]

Aboul-Enein, Y. And Zuhur, S., p. 18., Zahra Kazemi, found online at, retrieved 10 January 2007

Aboul-Enein, Y. And Zuhur, S., p. 19.
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Shulevitz Uri How I Learned

Words: 1272 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12827934

The Miracle Worker. New York: Bantam, 1960.

ISBN: 0553247786 9780553247787, 122 pages, play. Appropriate for all audiences, intended primarily for adults but of interest to early adolescents and up. High critical appraise and winner of the Tony Award for Best Play in 1960, the year following the script's debut on Broadway.

This play is based on the autobiography of Helen Keller, focusing on the character of Helen's teacher Anne Sullivan and the struggle and ultimate triumph of this woman's struggle to teach Helen how to communicate and understand the world around her. Dramatic action must serve as a substitute for more direct textual exposition, making a reading of the play somewhat lackluster in comparison with viewing a full performance of the script. The characters are fully realized and highly compelling, however, and though the plot is generally well-known amongst most readers of a certain age level, the details and lifelike…… [Read More]

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Exogenous Effects of Oil Price

Words: 2574 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93809198

This invariably means reducing the profit margin for the producers, which economists feel has long-term implications. That is the lack of smooth inflationary shock transmission leads not only to reduction in production output but also contributes to reduction in future investments. Thus, inflationary shocks due to oil price hikes are more long lasting in China. [Tang, 2009]

Sub-Saharan Countries

The impact of Oil price explosion is nowhere as pronounced as in sub-Saharan Africa and in particular the oil importing countries. Among the lower economies those that are oil intense such as the sub-Saharan countries are bound to suffer more -- as much as 3% of their GDP. Oil dependence has not change much with only 6% reduction between 1990 and 2005. This is because these countries have a total dependency on oil as their major source of energy compared with other developing countries in Asia. For instance, India and…… [Read More]


1) Jad Mouawad, 2009, 'Rising Fear of a Future Oil Shock', retrieved Nov 18th 2009, from,

2) Tom Doggett, (2009), 'U.S. Sees OPEC 2010 Oil Export Earnings at $750 Billion', retrieved Nov 18th 2009, from,

3) Christopher Johnson, (2009), 'OPEC Oil, Gas income tops 1 Trillion, Reserves Up', retrieved Nov 18th 2009, from,

4) OECD, 'Unemployment in OECD Countries to approach 10% in 2010, says OECD', retrieved Nov 19th 2009, from,,3343,en_2649_33927_43136377_1_1_1_1,00.html
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Terrorism Seems to Have Taken Over the

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1754710

Terrorism seems to have taken over the world. No matter how hard the industrialized countries try to find ways to achieve peace and stability in the world but somehow the opposite happens. Today's world is predominantly inhabited by hatred that is visible in the never-ending terror and fear produced by the attacks of September 11th and the military responses undertaken by Super powers. Wars apparently carried out in order to eradicate terrorism are seen by the affected countries as excuses to simply dominate more countries and establish and American hegemony or new colonialism all over the world.

The reasons for escalating terrorism are complex and more than often not understandable. However, some of the reasons are as follows: The growth in the number of terrorist groups is instigated largely by the religious imperative that is greatly funded by the state governments of the Islamic countries; the highly advanced technology and…… [Read More]

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Colleges Shower Their Students With

Words: 901 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32545281

On the other hand, some wars resulted in massive uprisings, mass destruction of property, indiscriminate killings of people, uprooting of the power base, widespread lawlessness through revolutions like the French Revolution, the Chinese Revolution and the Russian Revolution and most recently the Iranian Revolution. These revolutions have had far reaching repercussions for the countries in which these revolutions erupted as well as for the entire regions and the world at large. French Revolution over-turned the centuries-old monarchy and brought in republic governments, which in turn changed in quick succession until the end of the Second World War. The period between the end of monarchy and the establishment of stable republic government in France is a witness to the loss of French colonies. The Chinese Revolution turned around the people from a capitalistic economic system to socialist economic system under a new political system of communism expounded by Marx. The Chinese…… [Read More]

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Iran Iraq War

Words: 698 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89083940

U.S. Intervention in Middle East Conflicts:

Iran-Iraq Conflicts:

The relations between Iran and Iraq were hugely affected by Islamic Revolution as Iraq's president was worried that the emerging Shi'a regime in Iran would provoke uprisings in Iraq. Actually, Iraq became increasingly worried that the Islamic Revolution that emerged in Iran could spread to the country and topple the existing regime while replacing it with a theocracy. As Iraq's president was concerned that the Algiers Accord would be dismantled and not followed or obeyed because of the new Islamic Republic, he regarded this as a serious threat to the country's borders and sovereignty. Iraq became a more populist country several years before the emergence of the Islamic Revolution as the doors to trade liberalization were opened in the country. A war against Iran was considered as a suitable option by Saddam Hussein, Iraq's president, to build nationalist sentiments and spirit and…… [Read More]


Becker, Brian, "U.S. Conspiracy to Initiate the War Against Iraq," The Commission of Inquiry

for the International War Crimes Tribunal, last modified May 11, 1991, 

Jacek, Brian, "U.S. Role in the Iran-Iraq War and its Negative Implications on U.S.-Iran

Relations," Kulna: For All of Us, last modified March 23, 2011,
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Arabs Certain Words Must Be

Words: 1655 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80589979

S.-supported dictators.

Thus, while the term "Arab" is useful for describing a particular group of people with a shared language, culture, and history, one cannot readily assume that all Arabs subscribe to a pan-Arabist ideology, especially in light of the often overlapping "Muslim world," which many Arabs would identify themselves a part of (above and beyond any shared connection due to their Arab heritage). In reality, a shared linguistic and cultural background is really the only thing that unites Arabs, but because the world's largely white, Christian reigning powers have for so long actively disenfranchised and brutalized the Arab world, either through direct action or proxies, this shared linguistic and cultural background has been the only unifying feature which allows for any resistance. In many ways, one may see the emerging democratic movements of the Arab Spring as the successful replacement of both pan-Arabism and pan-Islamism, because the desire for…… [Read More]


Goldschmidt, A., & Davidson, L. (2006). A concise history of the middle east. Boulder:

Westview Press.

Kinninmont, J. (2008). The politics of chaos in the middle east. Middle East Policy, 15(4), 161-
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United States Policy Towards the Iran's Nuclear

Words: 699 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10809432

United States policy towards the Iran's nuclear program has been complicated by a variety of issues. Some of these issues include Iran's alleged sponsorship of terrorism, regional stability, hostility towards U.S. allies, and the complication of the peace process between Arabs and Israelis in the Middle East. The United States' approach in policy toward Iran's nuclear program has changed very little from the Bush administration to the current Obama Administration. A writer for time magazine cleverly stated, in regard to the United States' approach to Iran's nuclear program that Obama taking over the presidency "is more like taking over the controls of a train than getting behind the wheel of a car" (T. Karon). This analogy is appropriate because Obama's administration is following the foundation laid by the Bush Administration.

Both the Obama and Bush administrations recognized the potential global and regional danger that could surfaces as a result of…… [Read More]


Katzman, K. (2008). Iran: U.S. concerns and policy responses. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Obama's Foreign Policy Similar to Bush's at End of 2009 - TIME. (n.d.). Breaking News, Analysis, Politics, Blogs, News Photos, Video, Tech Reviews - Retrieved April 26, 2011, from,8599,1950827,00.html

Renshon, S.A. (2009). National Security in the Obama Administration: Reassessing the Bush doctrine.. Hoboken: Taylor & Francis.

Us Diplomacy With Iran - Clinton says U.S. diplomacy unlikely to end Iran nuclear program - Los Angeles Times. (n.d.). Featured Articles From The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 26, 2011, from
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Terrorist Organizations

Words: 6350 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80361872

Terrorist Organizations and the Media

Subsequent to the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the world did change. Prior to the attacks, the term 'terrorism' was not as frequently used by the media world over, the way we are used to it now. We have to bear in mind that it is the media that brings the world together, it is the Internet at best that allows us easy access to other areas of the globe, far from us -- and their peoples. Next, the television plays a chief role in spreading news, business reports, and propaganda.

Following the attacks on September 11 in New York City, the world got to learn of Al-Qaida, (the sole terrorist group) responsible with many other terrorist organizations to spread mischief across the globe. Osama Bin Laden was turned into a celebrity overnight because his videotapes detailing his agenda…… [Read More]


Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) a.k.a. Fatah Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Black September, and Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims. (2003. April 30). FAS. Available at[7 September 2003].

Abu Nidal, Terrorist Organizations. (2000). FORSNET. Available at[7 September 2003].

Ahmed, E. (2003. April). Defining Extremism. The Voice.

Al-Qa'ida (The Base), Qa'idat al-Jihad, Islamic Army for the Liberation of the Holy Places, World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Christians, Usama bin Laden Network. (2003. April 30). FAS. Available at[7 September 2003].
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Dangerous Mismanagement

Words: 6133 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99577375

Intelligence Failures

In an ever increasingly complex governmental infrastructure, the importance of communication, mission and strategy are of the utmost importance. The Department of Defense (DOD) and all of its law enforcement agencies are in a pervasive struggle to attain both accurate and actionable intelligence in order to perform their duties to the best of their capabilities and intentions.

The purpose of this research paper is to explore the failure of the intelligence process due to extraneous levels of bureaucratic organization. This essay will attempt to explain the many failures of the Department of Defense law enforcement entities as a result of this type of organization.

In order to understand this argument, this essay will first look at the problem itself and try to identify the root cause of these failures. Past failures of intelligence gathering will be examined to help contextualize the argument and give credence to the idea…… [Read More]


Chesney, R. (2011). Military-Intelligence Convergence and the Law of Title 10/Title 50 Debate. J. Nat'l Sec. L. & Pol'y, 5, 539.

Clapper, J. (2011). How 9/11 Transformed the Intelligence Community. The Wall Street Journal 7 Sep 2011. Retrieved from

Foust, J. (2013). Throwing the Intelligence Community Under the Bus. Beacon Journal 29 Oct 2013. Retrieved from

Gusterson, H. (2011). Atomic Escapism? American Scientist, Jan -- Feb 2011. Retrieved from
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Art Project

Words: 1587 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18259679

age of globalized images and new media, including social media, visual culture is universal. Even traditional news media, such as photojournalism, provides a window into multiple worlds and offers an opportunity for individuals from diverse backgrounds to offer unique social and political commentary. The result is a virtual and actual prism: and a prism may be rendered artistically in literal form as with facets of reflective substances like glass. A prism also conveys particular metaphorical qualities, providing a rich and multifaceted medium.

My art project builds upon the found objects of our visual culture culled mainly from The New York Times. The use of this particular newspaper is personal for me, as it is the medium I used to improve my English. Yet as an artist, I found myself drawn much more to the images and especially those of foreign correspondents and their photojournalistic portfolios. Photographs of suffering, such as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alessandrini, Anthony. "Foucault, Fanon, Intellectuals, Revolutions." Jadaliyya. 1 april, 2014. Retrieved online:

Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble. New York: Routledge, 1990.

Butler, Judith. "Precarious Life, Grievable Life." Introduction to Frames of War.

Carnevale, Fulvia and Kelsey, John. "Art of the Possible." Artforum.
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Counter-Terrorism Legislations on Societies and

Words: 758 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55201967

Even so, it has been argued that the limitation of liberties does not necessarily help the war on terror.

Given the nature of the legislation, which includes limitations on freedom of expression or transportation, the society is most of the times limited in its enthusiasm. In this sense, members of Parliaments throughout the world draw the attention on the fact that anti-terrorism laws have infringed the freedom of speech, the liberties of the societies, but most importantly they interfere in the right to privacy of the community (Conservative Home, 2010). Moreover, the right of the state to hold in custody without warrant suspects of terrorist acts is also one of the most important statements made against the Miranda rights and the rights of a suspect.

Academics and experts have consider the fight against terrorism to be important precisely for the protection of human rights, the most important being the right…… [Read More]


Conservative Home. Labour's increasingly draconian anti-terrorism laws questioned by cross-party parliamentary committee. 2010. Available at 

Mark Juergensmeyer. "Undestanding the New Terrorism." Current History (April 2000), pg 158-163.

Schmitt. Michael N. "Counter-Terrorism and the Use of Force in International Law." The Marshall Center Papers, No. 5. The George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies.

Wardlaw, Grant. Political terrorism: theory, tactics, and counter-measures. Press Syndicate University of Cambridge, 1989.
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Religion and Politics

Words: 3527 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61687506

eligion and Politics

All religions aim to provide a code of life for mankind. Apart from other tenets, this code establishes laws that govern all areas of man's life. Thus the laws established by the religion Islam are termed as Shariah. The term Shariah means all of the Islamic Laws and is derived from four basic sources. These sources are The Holy Quran, Sunnah, Ij'ma (consensus) of the Companions (Sahabah) and Qiyas or analogical deduction. These laws are not just limited to areas such as marriage or divorce; rather, the Islamic laws cover every action performed by an individual or a society. The term Shariah is also synonymous with Fiqh. However the term Fiqh means knowledge of all the Islamic Laws (Shariah). It can also be taken to mean the Knowledge of the sources from where the Islamic Laws (Shariah) have been extracted.

Shariah or Islamic Laws are divine ways…… [Read More]


S.Q. Fatimi, Islam Comes to Malaysia. Malaysian Sociological Research Institute, (MSRI), Singapore. 1963;

EDITH M. LEDERER, Associated Press Writer, U.N. Development Fund for Women protests stoning sentence against Nigerian woman., AP Worldstream, 08-28-2002.

Author not available, Mexico's president to fight death penalty in Nigeria., AP Worldstream, 08-28-2002.

D'ARCY DORAN, Associated Press Writer, Nigerian government 'totally opposed' to death by stoning sentence., AP Worldstream, 08-22-2002
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1973 Oil Embargo and International

Words: 1592 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61364919

9 times greater" than the daily average imported in 1973 ( The importation of oil is the "largest single component" in the U.S. annual trade deficit; the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, quoted by Ecologic Investor, points to the trade deficit for the first 8 months of 2008 -- $281.14 billion. That translates to $4.21 billion annually (estimated).

Saudi Arabia needless to say generates a majority of its revenue from the exporting of petroleum; and while the U.S. trade deficit grows based on oil imports, Saudi Arabia accumulates a surplus, based on oil exports. And meantime Saudi Arabia and fellow members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) have been attempting to "promote higher levels of trade between themselves by removing barriers to the free exchange of goods, services and capital," but their efforts are being challenged by the lack of a "common external tariff" (Nations Encyclopedia). That goes to indicate…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bundy, William P. "Elements of Power." Foreign Affairs, 56.1 (1977): 1-26.

Ecologic Investor. "35th Anniversary of 1973 Oil Embargo." Retrieved May 3, 2009,

From  (2008).

Hakes, Jay. "35 Years After the Arab Oil Embargo." Journal of Energy Security.
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Jordan Political Structure the Democratization

Words: 1638 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44504736

eference List

Yom, Sean L. Civil Society and Democratization in the Arab World (2005). MEIA - The Middle East eview of International Affairs. Volume 9, No.4, Article 2. etrieved December 11, 2006 at

Gilchrist, Alice N. Khalidi discuses Arab world (1991). The Tech. Volume 111, No.21. etrieved December 12, 2006 at

Arab-Israeli Conflict: ole of religion (2006). etrieved December 12, 2006 at

Schnabel, Albrecht. A rough journey: Nascent democratization in the Middle East. etrieved December 12, 2006 at

Morris, Benny. ighteous Victims (2001). etrieved December 12, 2006 at

Greenwood, Scott. Jordan, al-Aqsa intifada and America's "war on terror" (2003). etrieved December 12, 2006 at

Yom, Sean L. Civil Society and Democratization in the Arab World (2005). MEIA - The Middle East eview of International Affairs. Volume 9, No.4, Article 2. etrieved December 11, 2006 at

Gilchrist, Alice N. Khalidi discusses Arab world (1991).…… [Read More]

Reference List

Yom, Sean L. Civil Society and Democratization in the Arab World (2005). MERIA - The Middle East Review of International Affairs. Volume 9, No.4, Article 2. Retrieved December 11, 2006 at

Gilchrist, Alice N. Khalidi discuses Arab world (1991). The Tech. Volume 111, No.21. Retrieved December 12, 2006 at

Arab-Israeli Conflict: Role of religion (2006). Retrieved December 12, 2006 at .

Schnabel, Albrecht. A rough journey: Nascent democratization in the Middle East. Retrieved December 12, 2006 at
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European Muslims in the Aftermath

Words: 4555 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 647714

These have led to various problem areas which have had a dramatic affect on Muslim life. They include the increase in terror activities in Europe; the rise of anti-Semitism within the Muslim community and the increase in the prevalence of right - wing parties that are often violently opposed in their actions and rhetoric to Islamic fundamentalism.

A fundamental issue that should be considered in attempting to understand the impact of the events of 9/11 on Europe is that these attacks have an effect on the balance between security and civil liberties. In other words, whereas before 9/11 there had been a focus and effort to maintain equilibrium between issues of security and democratic rights for all, including Muslins; yet after 9/11 this balance was upset and the focus tended to move more towards security, with civil rights being neglected. This change in emphasis has had an effect on the…… [Read More]

Reference List

Al-Rawandi, I. (2002, Spring). Islam and Armageddon: Looking Behind the Myths. Free Inquiry, 22, 36+. Retrieved March 20, 2006, from Questia database:

Benthall, J. (2004). Islam in Europe. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 10(3), 733+. Retrieved March 20, 2006, from Questia database:

Gottlieb, S.F., Williams, K.J., Dale, L., Balch, M., Wile, F., Kupersmith, W., et al. (2005, March). Islam and Europe. Commentary, 119, 8+. Retrieved March 20, 2006, from Questia database:

Hunter, S.T. (Ed.). (2002). Islam, Europe's Second Religion: The New Social, Cultural, and Political Landscape / . Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved March 20, 2006, from Questia database:
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Social Networking Websites

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8682903

Social Networking

An Examination of the Purpose and Utilization of Social Networking Websites

Alexander Graham Bell's invention of the telephone in the late 1800s revolutionized civilization.

t was not until 100 years later, in the late 1970s, that another such discovery was made. This latter discovery was that of the nternet. Many argue, furthermore, that the discovery of the nternet involves an even greater advancement in human history than Bell's telephone, for nothing has touched so many, so quickly, and so deeply as the advent of the nternet, and with it, within a relatively short time, the culmination of social networking in a variety of websites, utilize worldwide. This paper will offer a quick examination of how such websites, including Facebook, MySpace, Twitter and Linkedn, have been utilized by individuals in the last decade to promote both personal and work-related interests.

People utilize social networking sites for many reasons but,…… [Read More]

It is thus difficult to single out the purpose for which a social networking site is being utilized. Though one can generalize, with different world events and a constant evolution of these sites, their purpose is constantly changing, and often times it includes the connection of more and more individuals worldwide, which is a phenomenon to be embraced.

Bellis, M. (2011). "The Invention of the Telephone." Retrieved December 24, 2011, from .

"LinkedIn: The World's Largest Professional Network." (2011). Retrieved December 24, 2011, from .
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Terrorism the Impact That Terrorism Has Had

Words: 925 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69444113


The impact that terrorism has had on the global community since September 11, 2001 has been profound to say the least. In this short essay, the author will address the intent of terrorists, their methods, the political objectives, and the global response. In addition, they will include a treatment and analysis of how terrorism has affected international cooperation and other relations. Unfortunately, it is the opinion of this author that the efforts of the United States since September 11, 2001 have only exacerbated the problem. The methods and the political objectives of the terrorists have been largely achieved due to the American mismanagement of the war on terrorism. hen one soberly reflects upon the present quagmires (one must use the plural form) that the U.S. finds itself in the Middle East, there are few other options but to review how we got where we are and how to extricate…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bin Laden, O. (2004, October 30). Bin ladin tape: transcript of osama bin laden's speech. Retrieved from

Morgan, M.J. (2004). The origins of the new terrorism. Parameters, 30-43.

U.S. State Department, Report of the Advisory Committee on Cultural Diplomacy.

(2005). Cultural diplomacy the linchpin of public diplomacy. Washington,
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Sayyid Qutb's Transformation From Pro-Western

Words: 2641 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83595100

e. greed, lust and jealousy). To do this, Qutb advocated using a by any means necessary approach, in preventing the status quo from imposing its will upon everyone. This meant that there will be some kind of armed struggle against these forces.

What impacts has he had on Islamic thought?

The biggest impact of Qutb's ideas is in Islamic philosophy. What happened was Qutb, became involved in the Muslim Brotherhood when he returned to Egypt in 1952. During this time, he was actively involved in supporting governments and individuals that challenged Western policies. This led to him being arrested twice.

When he was in jail the first time, he wrote a number of pieces that discusses his radical ideas and how Muslims should stand up to this oppression. After being released in 1965 (for a brief period), is when he would publish these ideas. This led to his re-arrest and…… [Read More]


"Sayyid Qutb Milestones."Gems of Islamism. Last modified 2005. 

Cook, David. Understanding Jihad. Berkley: University of California Press, 2001.

Euben, Roxanne. Enemy in the Mirror. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.

Khatab, Sayed. The Political Thought of Sayyid Qutb. New York: Taylor and Francis, 2006.
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Gender in the Collector and the Comfort of Strangers

Words: 4727 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13086527

Gender in Fowles and McEwan

[oman] is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her; she is the incidental, the inessential. He is the Subject, he is the Absolute -- she is the Other. -- Simone de Beauvoir.

Simone de Beauvoir's influential analysis of gender difference as somehow implying gender deference -- that the mere fact of defining male in opposition to female somehow implies placing one in an inferior or subaltern position -- becomes especially interesting when examining how fiction by male authors approaches questions of gender. I propose to examine in detail two British novels of the post-war period -- The Collector by John Fowles, published in 1963, and The Comfort of Strangers by Ian McEwan, published in 1981 -- and hope to demonstrate that, in point of fact, the existence of the feminist movement has managed to shift the portrayal of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cooper, Pamela. The Fictions of John Fowles: Power, Creativity, Femininity. Canada: University of Ottowa Press, 1991. Print.

Dwelle, Josh. "Ian McEwan." In Schlager, Neil and Lauer, Josh. (Editors). Contemporary Novelists. Seventh Edition. New York: Saint James Press, 2001. Print.

Fowles, John. The Collector. London: Jonathan Cape, 1963. Print.

Gindin, James. "John Fowles." In Schlager, Neil and Lauer, Josh. (Editors). Contemporary Novelists. Seventh Edition. New York: Saint James Press, 2001. Print.
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Crisis of Islam Holy War Unholy Terror

Words: 1184 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99637782

Lewis' the Crisis of Islam

On page 160 of The Crisis of Islam, Bernard Lewis states, "There is no doubt that the foundation of Al-Qa'ida and the consecutive declarations of war by Usama bin Ladin marked the beginning of a new and ominous phase in the history of both Islam and terrorism." Indeed, based on the historical outline of Islam that Lewis provides, the new and ominous phase applies equally to non-Muslim cultures. The Crisis of Islam examines the origins of Islamic fundamentalism and its deadly application as terrorism. The September 11 attacks made Americans more conscious than ever about the threat of anti-American sentiment, a threat that existed far before Al-Qa'ida. In his book, Lewis offers several insights into Islam's current social and political crisis. First, the author describes the flourishing of Islamic culture, noting in particular its theocratic foundations. The theocratic foundation of Islamic culture and religion allow…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lewis, Bernard. The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror. New York: The Modern Library, 2003.
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U S Iran Diplomatic Pre- and

Words: 3532 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54307642

S. foreign policy. Under this new approach, Carter would directly meet with only government officials that had favorable human rights records. The problem was that the United States' relationship with the Shah was the key for maintaining control in the region. This meant that he had to make official trips to the country, even though he did not support this policy.

As a result, Carter was indirectly endorsing activities of the Shah and the underlying amounts of brutality he was using to maintain power. Evidence of this can be seen by looking at the below table, which is illustrating the total amounts of abuse and torture that were conducted by the SAVAK

The Total Amounts of rutality of the SAVAK


Total Amounts



Death Related to SAVAK activities



These different elements are important, because they are showing how U.S. foreign policy changed when it came to…… [Read More]


"The 1953 Coup." 2011, U Toronto.  (accessed December 5, 2011)

"Background Iran." 2011. State Department. /r/pa/ei/bgn/5314.htm  (accessed December 5, 2011)

Iran." 2011. Enotes, (accessed December 5, 2011)

"Iran." 2011. CIA.  (accessed December 5, 2011)
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Foreign Immigrant Groups California Share Similar Struggles

Words: 1749 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99403578

foreign immigrant groups California share similar struggles quest American citizens

Following the development of western countries in the nineteenth century, there emerged a prolonged immigration of Asian communities into the American society. Iran had a shock in their culture. Individual personality such as language proficiency, learning level, and job skill influences their ability to adapt. Immigration is a key life challenge, although well thought-out to be stressful, particularly for women coming from environments with observance to traditional gender roles, through the exposure, organizations of these societies disintegrate.

Shared struggles of Iranian & Mexican immigrants

Economic factors like financial resources, loses and gains in social status intimidates the immigrants. The attitude of the host country with the level of similarity of the two cultures is also an influential factor. Individual factors such as character strength, decision-making skills, declaration of feeling of loss, and the ability to endure uncertainty about gender roles…… [Read More]

Work cited

Massey, Douglas S, Jorge Durand, and Nolan J. Malone. Beyond Smoke and Mirrors: Mexican

Immigration in an Era of Economic Integration. New York: Russell Sage Foundation,

2003. Print.

Borjas, George J. Mexican Immigration to the United States. Chicago [u.a.: Univ. Of Chicago
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International Politics the Threat of

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91834848

In all cases there is the perception of the U.S. interfering in issues that should be dealt with locally, interfering to protect their own interest and to enforce their own values; a situation which leads to resistance. Terrorism may be argued as an action undertaken when people feel that they cannot be heard in another way.

This resistance has been seen in terrorist attacks which may be directly related to the associated with the U.S. foreign policy actions in the Middle East. In 1979 there was the Iran Hostage Crisis, when the U.S. embassy in Tehran was seized by Iranian demonstrators, demonstrating against U.S. policies. 52 U.S. staff were taken hostage; in a crisis which lasted 444 days (Houghton 74). The well-known terrorist attacks of 9/11 may also be seen as relating to the actions and perceptions of the U.S. In the Middle East, with Al Qaeda objecting to the…… [Read More]

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Iran Edu Added Text in

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80262078

In Iran, the need for more robust information technologies in the classroom is apparent. he outmoded methods of education still practiced, ie. ones that do not ascribe to the Global Village concept, are reflective of the philosophy of Michel Foucault. Foucault argued that the modern education system had become too prison-like. We need to "understand the subtle, complex and harmful effects of power relations that shape and control educational institutions," (McDonough, 1993). A revolution in education is called for, one that maintains some of the essential social and political structures that define modern Iran while also incorporating liberalizing elements that bring Persian students into the era of globalization.

Foucault's analysis of the importance of power in the educational system is especially apt when applied to educational institutions in Iran. "Foucault was concerned mostly with power," as Cheshier (n.d.) points out. Yet the analysis is far deeper than that. It is…… [Read More]

The concept of the Global Village can only be made manifest with the infrastructure and policies that promote information technology in the classroom. Information technologies, especially access to the Internet, promote the Global Village in real and tangible ways. Students accessing the global wealth of knowledge will be able to think more critically about the concepts, facts, and ideas they assimilate in the classroom. In Iran, the need for more robust information technologies in the classroom is apparent. The outmoded methods of education still practiced, ie. ones that do not ascribe to the Global Village concept, are reflective of the philosophy of Michel Foucault. Foucault argued that the modern education system had become too prison-like. We need to "understand the subtle, complex and harmful effects of power relations that shape and control educational institutions," (McDonough, 1993). A revolution in education is called for, one that maintains some of the essential social and political structures that define modern Iran while also incorporating liberalizing elements that bring Persian students into the era of globalization.

Foucault's analysis of the importance of power in the educational system is especially apt when applied to educational institutions in Iran. "Foucault was concerned mostly with power," as Cheshier (n.d.) points out. Yet the analysis is far deeper than that. It is not power itself that is the problem but the ramifications of that power. Students are powerless in the classroom to guide and direct their own learning, when they do not have access to the Internet and other crucial types of information technologies. It will be impossible for Persian students to achieve high levels of social, economic, and academic success without having the same access to technologies that their counterparts in Europe and North America do. For this reason, an exploration of the specific features needed to revolutionize the Iranian education system is fruitful.

Jacques Derrida proposed an educational system that is firmly rooted in ethical responsibility. Education, like other social institutions, should be responsible to the needs of the people. Ideally, education improves society so that future generations are better off and so that the society as a whole prospers. Based on the critique of power that Foucault provides in his writings, and on the reminder that ethics are needed in modern schools, educators can develop a core set of ideals, goals, and tools. This research is based on the philosophies of Foucault, Derrida, Farmahini, Jiroux. Building on core educational philosophies and sociologies, this research will help to elucidate what educators need in order to perform their ethical duties to students. It is important to explore and to clarify the philosophical underpinnings of any change, especially change as dramatic as revamping the Iranian educational system. It is not enough to talk about what technologies are needed in the classroom. It is also important to speak of the principles upon which those technologies are based, and how those technologies serve students. Technology is not
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U S Foreign Policy and the

Words: 956 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42976300

8 billion. The Occupation authorities also helped the Japanese government overcome postwar economic chaos, especially rampant inflation, by balancing the government budget, raising taxes and imposing price and wage freezes, and resuming limited foreign trade" (Kesselman et al., 203). The U.S. aid not only helped to rebuild the country, but also ensured that Japan was stable enough so that renegade seedlings of Communism or comparable institutions didn't suddenly flourish. The United States should sue this wise historical strategy that it deftly employed to help the economies of poorer nations in the Middle East. hen people are living in poverty, this makes them ripe breeding grounds for terrorism to build and people to be brainwashed by doctrines which vilify the est. Furthermore the United States should invest money in developing educational programs in the Middle East, so that the citizens there can actually envision a real future for themselves, without having…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bryne, P.J. The Chinese Revolution: The Triumph of Communism. Minneapolis: Compass Point

Books, 2007.

Kesselman, M., Krieger, J. And Joseph, W. Introduction to Comparative Politics. Boston:

Wadsworth Learnign, 2013.
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Criminal Justice - Counterterrorism International

Words: 1481 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77410329

4. Explain each of Samuel Huntington's 8 cultural paradigms. What does this model for culture and civilization around the world have to do with terrorism? What are the implications for law enforcement if terrorism has deeper roots -- namely, rooted in a clash of civilizations? Also, what are the implications for American foreign policy in terms of our efforts to thwart terrorism?

First, the post-Cold War reorganization of nations causes conflicts between and among the resulting civilizations left after national fracturing. Second, the continued promotion by the West of quasi-Western values and political philosophy on the rest of the world antagonizes non-Western civilizations. Third, the deterioration of economic, military, and political power of the West facilitates increased resistance of other nations, such as in the Far and Middle Eastern societies (i.e. China and Islamic countries) to follow the international order established by the West in previous eras and to combine…… [Read More]

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Paul Wolfowitz Considered by Many

Words: 2317 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4377177

First of all, the U.S. should "actively deter nations from "aspiring to a larger regional or global role." Second of all, preemptive force should be used to prevent countries from developing weapons of mass destruction and, third of all, the United States should "act alone if necessary." Clearly, all of these correlated ideas have been implementing in Iraq. Further more, all of ideas would be laid out in the founding statement of principles for the Project of the New American Century.

Evaluating what exactly the neoconservatives that have are now in the highest positions of the U.S. administration is a difficult and dangers job. Consternating the need for an objective evaluation, it is best to present all points-of-view. The least radical of these seems to be the one referring to its goal to promote the United States towards global leadership.

On the other hand, less moderate approaches see the Project…… [Read More]


1. Shank, Duane. September 2003. The project for a New American Empire. On the Internet at

2. Paul Wolfowitz - Highlights and Quotes. On the Internet at

3. Project for the New American Century. On the Internet at

4. Harnden, Toby. March 2003. America's Dream for a New Middle East. News Telegraph. On the Internet at