The demonstration in Tiananmen Square showed that there were alrge semgnets of the population that wanted change, but Deng's response was to crush the movement with violence and to assert the supremacy ofm centalzied rule once more..
These actions show some of the difficulties of independence and of developing a new political structure when many adhere to older political structures and ideas. One response is to try to wipe out the old with violence, but regimes tend to become reactionary about their own ideas as well and to crush any opposition, real of perceived.
9. Arab unity has not materialized for a number of historical reasons related to the different ways in which the countries of the region have developed so that the leaders of some of the states are wary of other leaders, because of differences in economic structures in the various countries, and because of different reactions to the formation of Israel and to what sort of policy should be pursued to eliminate that state. Religious differences are also part of the mix, and some of the ancient antagonisms relate to conflicts such as those between the Sunni and the Sufi Muslim groups.
In addition, new conflicts develop as changes are made in the modern period. Alliances with the U.S., real or perceived, and with the former Soviet Union also have created divisions in the region. Westerners tend to see the different groups as one and the same, but they are not and do have strong differences that keep them from joining together effectively. The Iranian Revolution saw the ascension of one faction of Islam, and the Iran-Iraq war that followed showed how rivalries between factions and nations alike keep many of these countries from cooperating.
10. Apartheid was a policy of racial division. After 1948, the policy of apartheid was developed and increasingly separated the races and sought to prevent blacks from gaining any political or economic power. Between 1948 and 1991, South Africa developed a complex and expensive mechanism to administer apartheid. Among the reasons for this complexity was the number of overlapping jurisdictions and the duplication of authorities in South Africa.
Much of this had been developed over the years and was now inherited by the new regime, but much more was new, following old patterns but developed to administer the current realities of the national situation. One reason the apartheid policy could be developed and instituted was that it emanated from the central government, and any program offered by this entity could be opposed only regionally form councils that were controlled by non-Nationalist groups. The ruling party simply was in control of most of the country at every level, and city and town councils did not take a strong stand against the central government or its policies. The policy was long opposed by most of the world and ended when South African political leaders saw the need to end it in order to rejoin the world economically.
11. Independence for the Belgian Congo developed from the forces of nationalism and movements created to promote nationalism in the 1950s. these movements pressured for the creation of a self-governing state, which Belgium largely dismissed until a plan for independence was drawn up and captured the approval of the Catholic Church. Riots ensued in the early 1960s, brining even more pressure on Belgium to grant independence.
The early period of independence was marked by revolts, but these were put down with help from Belgian troops. Mobutu seized power to create a one-party state, and the country was renamed Zaire. Later, an attempt was made to introduce multiparty rule, and the country was again renamed, this time as the Democratic Republic of Congo.
12. The major positive outcome of independence movements in the twentieth century was to achieve independence, and in spite of problems following the granting of independence, this actually gives greater potential for these countries to achieve economic change and democratic reforms. The granting of independence also aided ther European powers that had formerly been responsible for everything that happened in these countries, enabling greater international cooperation to address these problems rather than leaving it to each colonial power to do on its own.
The problems associated with independence are easier to see because they include the internal violence that marks many of these countries and the added cross-border conflicts that have developed in some regions. Most of these countries have failed to develop the democratic systems desired and have also failed to improve their economies…