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It became apparent that we have a serious problem in this country and that this problem could undermine attempts to build bridges between different cultural groups. It became an issue at the forefront of law enforcement management.
The Roots of Racial Profiling
Police officers used to be trained to view people of different cultural background as potential suspects for deportation. It went so far that in 1972 taxi drivers in California were ordered to report any suspected illegal aliens to the police (McDonald, 2003). Orders such as these led to the definition that being "American" meant having the same skin color and speaking English as a primary language. The civil rights movement empowered immigrants to voice their opinions based on their racial differences (McDonald, 2003). In 1983 police departments reversed its position and officially announced that they would no longer cooperate with the INS with the removal of the legal…
Coderoni, G. (2002).The relationship between multicultural training for police and effective law enforcement - Perspective.
FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, the, http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2194/is_11_71 " Nov, 2002: 1-3
Criminal Justice Reform Project. (2003). Wrong Then, Wrong Now: Racial Profiling Before and After September 11, 2001. Leadership Conference on Civil Rights. Leadership Conference on Civil Rights Education Fund, Criminal Justice Reform Project, February 27, 2003.
Dabney, D., Dugan, L., Topalli, V., and Hollinger, R. (2006). The Impact of Implicit Stereotyping on Offender Profiling. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 33 (5): 646-674.
(Frederickson, 2000, p. 3) Police forces became the fodder for systematic research on the need for and development of improved minority representation in public service as well as a frequently attached public entity with regard to minority status in the community. (Frederickson, 2000, p. 3) As early as the 1960s and 70s police forces all over the nation began to be scrutinized for limiting their hiring pool to white males and began to make changes to support the reduction of this reality. (Broadnax, 2000, p. xx)
The development of police forces within the guidelines of public scrutiny as one of the most significant and public hiring authorities in the public sector has created a hiring protocol that though variant to some degree is similar in most agencies and is reflective of public demand for diversity in representation. Many would likely call the last frontier of this more egalitarian hiring process…
Broadnax, W.D. (Ed.). (2000). Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Frederickson, H.G. (2000). Part One Representative Bureaucracy and Equal Employment Opportunity. In Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service, Broadnax, W.D. (Ed.) (pp. 1-4). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Hahn, H., & Jeffries, J.L. (2003). Urban America and Its Police: From the Postcolonial Era through the Turbulent 1960s. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.
Kogut, C.A., & Short, L.E. (2007). Affirmative Action in Federal Employment: Good Intentions Run Amuck?. Public Personnel Management, 36(3), 197.
The author of this report has been asked to conduct two interviews of police officers with six basic questions being the crux of both interviews. To protect the anonymity of the officers as well as a way to get the most honest and complete answers, the identity of the officers as well as the departments they have or do work for will not be identified in any way, shape or form. The answers garnered were insightful, honest and illuminating. The perspective they offer is perhaps not nearly as known as it should be given the reporting going on as it relates to the incidents in Ferguson and other places where cops have been shot or allegedly unarmed and/or innocent people on the street have endured the same. While there are two sides to each story, both the police and the people have the right to have their voice…
Cooper, H. (2009, July 22). Obama Criticizes Arrest Of a Harvard Professor. The New
York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com /2009/07/23/us/politics/23gates.html?_r=0
Reyes, D. (1994, November 2). Only One Drunk Driver in 500 Is Caught: Enforcement:
Even with tough Highway Patrol policy, probability of arrest in California is small.
Throughout history, police management has experienced numerous changes because of the various significant changes that have continued to occur in the society. The emerging trends have contributed to the development of new policing governance, which has had considerable implications for police management. Towards the end of the 20th Century, the governmental police reforms have contributed to an end to public policing, a claim that is regarded as extrapolated towards a certain extreme. However, in light of the changes that have occurred in the recent past, it's evident that public policing has not come to an end but that the monopoly of public policing has come to an end. As a result, the dominance of public policing that characterized the 19th and 20th centuries is no longer a characteristic of the modern era. Actually, the emerging diverse totality of public policing is a reflection of the so-called post-modern period.…
Cope, S., Leishman, F. & Starie, P. (1997). Globalization, New Public Management and the Enabling State: Futures of Police Management. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 10(6), 444-460.
"Cooperation Agreement between the Government of Canada and the European Police Office."
(n.d.). Europol. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from https://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/flags/canada.pdf
Forcese, D. (2002). Police: current issues in Canadian law enforcement. Kemptville, Ontario:
There various technological measures that have been used to enhance the effectiveness of police officers include crime laboratories and finger printing. The other technological measures used in policing include the two-way radio used in police cars to help the officers to multiply their productivity in responding to and dealing with incidents. Police agencies across the nation are obtaining new technology that is developed to lessen response time and speed of information dissemination. The use of these efforts has helped in improving patrol function and capitalizes on the impact of community policing programs.
Homeland Security and Law Enforcement elationships:
The relationships between intelligence, law enforcement, and homeland security organizations at the federal, state, and local level have continued to experience a revolution since the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Before these terrorist attacks, the Department of Homeland Security created the wall at the federal level between law enforcement and intelligence. Furthermore, none of…
Foster, R.E. (n.d.). History of Police Technology. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.police-technology.net/id59.html
Johns, C. (n.d.). Police Use of Less-than-lethal Weapons. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.cjjohns.com/lawpowerandjustice/commentaries/llethal.html
Schmidt, M.S. & Goldstein, J. (2012, April 9). The Dangers of Police Work. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.professionalsecurityarkansas.com/cms/the-dangers-of-police-work/
Steiner, J.E. (2009, October 28). Improving Homeland Security at the State Level. Center for the Study of Intelligence, 53(3). Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol.-53-no.-3/improving-homeland-security-at-the-state-level.html
In addition, today's police officer faces different challenges from police officers of even two decades ago. One of these 21st century problems facing law enforcement is terrorism. Almost every community across the nation has some building or government location that could be considered a target of terrorism, and large metropolitan areas have many of these targets within their boundaries. Because of this, police models may have to change to be more involved in preventing terrorism from occurring, rather than responding once a terrorist act has been committed. Community policing can aid in this by allowing community police officers to become familiar with their neighborhoods and citizens, and knowing exactly what targets lay in their area. To create better police officers, training in terrorism and how to recognize typical terrorism suspects must be stepped up and addressed in all communities.
Perhaps the biggest challenge facing many officers is the use of…
Bucqueroux, B. (2007). Community criminal justice: What community policing teaches. Retrieved from the Policing.com Web site: http://www.policing.com/articles/ccj.html26 March 2007.
Gianakis, G.A., & Davis, G.J. (1998). Reinventing or repackaging public services? The case of community-oriented policing. Public Administration Review, 58(6), 485.
Glenn, R.W., Panitch, B.R., Barnes-Proby, D., Williams, E., Christian, J., Lewis, M.W., et al. (2003). Training the 21st century police officer: Redefining police professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / . Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Leuci, R. (1999). 13 the enemies within: Reflections on institutionalized corruption. In Police and policing: Contemporary issues, Kenney, D.J. & McNamara, R.P. (Eds.) (2nd ed., pp. 216-219). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Bell was unarmed, yet the officers fired more than 50 shots into his car" (2007, p. 46). Following a grand jury investigation of the incident, three of the five detectives who were involved were charged for the shooting (Mayer, 2007). ccording to Mayer, "The incident is reminiscent of a similar situation in New York in 1999, in which a West frican street vendor, madou Diallo, was killed when police shot at him 41 times. Diallo was also unarmed" (2007, p. 46). The fact that these events occurred almost a decade apart and were unrelated was not the primary focus of the media coverage that attended them, and it is reasonable to assume that sensationalized media coverage of these and other instances of police brutality simply reinforce the perception in the minds of the merican public that the police are out of control.
ll of this is not to say, of…
All of this is not to say, of course, that police officers never engage in acts of brutality and the use of excessive force, but it is to say that little attention is paid to the millions of police-citizen encounters that take place every year in the United States where law enforcement authorities would be justified in using force -- even deadly force -- but refrain from doing so at their own personal risk based on their high regard for citizens' rights and the sanctity of human life. This precise point is made by Elicker (2008) who emphasizes that the statistics bear out just how restrained the police departments across the country are in their use of force at all. According to Elicker, "Despite the way mass media presents the subject of police brutality, the occurrences of police use of force cases are not all that common" (2008, p. 33).
Citing the results of a 1999 study sponsored by the United States Department of Justice based on the statistics from more than seven thousand arrests made by six different law enforcement agencies in urban settings wherein statistics had been collected concerning the use of force by and against police officers, Elicker reports that, "There were only 52 cases (or .07%) where police officers used weapons in the arrest. The use of weapons includes stick, knife, handgun, chemical agent, rifle/shotgun, motor vehicle, canine, and other" (2008, p. 34). The results of the Department of Justice study also showed that police officers used one or a combination of weaponless tactics to effect the arrest in 15.8% of the cases (Elicker, 2008). According to Elicker, "Weaponless tactics include grabbing, arm twisting, wrestling, pushing/shoving, hitting, kicking, biting/scratching, use of pressure hold, carotid hold, control hold, and other tactics. Grabbing was, by a vast margin, the most used weaponless tactic (12.7% or 954 cases), followed by arm twisting (3.7% or 281 cases), and wrestling (3.1% or 233 cases)" (2008, p. 34).
While some observers might suggest that there is no place in modern law enforcement for "biting/scratching" or the other weaponless tactics used by the police in the Department of Justice study, the fact that they were used at all when other, more harmful methods were readily available makes it clear that even when their lives are on the line, police officers can and do resort to using their training and discipline rather than simply pulling out a gun and shooting a criminal suspect. In this regard, Elicker concludes that, "To some, these statistics could be shocking. They
In places such as Richmond, that have an already checkered past in their relationship with the public, the public perception is further damaged by the rise in crime. This is true of the police department in the rest of the country as well. The rise in crime affects the perception of the public with regard to the police department, and not the government. In actions such as racism and extralegal searches the police department and not President Bush is implicated. Many of the harmful effects of current police actions and policies are the result of government policies. The police has thus become somewhat of a scapegoat as a result of the latest government policies.
The profile of violent crimes has also changed dramatically and dangerously. Fewer police officers mean more violent criminals, which raises the crime rate.
Government policy, rising crime rates, and police actions have therefore combined into a…
Barbash, Fred (2005, June 28). Court Backs Town In Lawsuit Over Domestic Violence. In Washington Post online (Washingtonpost.com).
Lucas, Scott (2001, April 23). Good cop, bad cop - police violence against African-Americans - police in movies and TV - Timothy Thomas. In New Statesman.
Maclin, Tracey. (1998, Summer). Terry v Ohio's fourth amendment legacy: Black men and police discretion. In St. John's Law Review.
Seron, Carroll (2004, Dec). Judging Police Misconduct: "Street-Level" versus Professional Policing. Law & Society Review, Blackwell Publishers.
Though women constitute only 12.7% of the sworn police force they are implicated in only 5% of the total cases registered against the use of excessive force. Statistics further indicate that women officers account for only 6% of the total dollars paid out for court settlements for The Use of Police Force 4
police abuse related cases. [DR. Kim Lonsway, 2002] It is clear that a women police officer is less likely to resort to excessive force use compared with a male police officer and this presents a clear case for more representation of women in the police force. Inducting more women would therefore be a positive step.
Another study by the University of California compared the effects of race, gender, and experience of the officer and the link to the possibility of the officer being investigated by Internal affairs for the use of excessive force. For the study, the…
1) Amnesty International, (2008) ' Less than Lethal'? The use of Stun weapons in U.S. Law Enforcement', Accessed 14th July 2009, Available at, http://www.amnestyusa.org/uploads/LessThanLethal.pdf
2) Anthony J. Micucci & Ian M. Gomme (Oct 2005), 'American Police and Subcultural Support for the use of Excessive Force', Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol 33, Issue 5
3) BJS, (June 25, 2006) 'Citizens Complained more than 26,000 times in 2002 about Excessive Police Force', Available at, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/press/ccpufpr.htm
4) DR. Kim Lonsway, Michelle Wood & Megan Fickling et.al (2002), ' Men, Women and Police Excessive Force: A Tale of two Genders', Accessed July 13th 2009, Available at, http://www.womenandpolicing.org/PDF/2002_Excessive_Force.pdf
Policy Analysis Essay on Police Killings
The recent police killings and other forms of abuse of authority by law enforcers in the US reinforce the critical and long-demanded need for policy reforms in the nation, a need that has too frequently been disregarded. While some attempts, on the part of authorities, at dealing with these issues have enjoyed a certain degree of success, others have proven unsuccessful. The issue of poor law enforcement relations with communities and police abuse of authority continues to acutely plague several communities in the country. The incidents at Baltimore and Baton Rouge highlight the urgent need to tackle this problem. Though all cases (Ferguson, New York, Baltimore, Baton Rouge, and Minneapolis, to name a few) are unique, they are characterized by one highly disturbing similarity – implicit racial prejudice and unwarranted use of official force against Black Americans, especially male Black Americans. The incidents…
Corrections / Police / Criminal Justice
ould I lie to a suspect to get a confession even it was legal to do so?
Legal or not, lying to get a confession creates a moral black hole for an officer. To wit, how would an officer who was otherwise a good Christian later feel about getting a conviction albeit he obtained that conviction through deception? That is the question here. Chances are he would feel guilty; and it's possible that his wife, if she knew he used lies to tease a confession out of a suspect, would confront him. He would have had no place to hide from his sin in his earthly world and certainly spiritually he would live with a sense of guilt. Looked at a different way, when a good officer who was not a Christian but has always practiced ethical values is told by his superiors in…
Jones, J.R. (2006). Reputable Conduct: Ethical Issues in Policing and Corrections. Don Mills,
Ontario: Pearson Canada.
Perez-Pena. R. (2012). Studies Find More Students Cheating, With High Achievers No
Exception. The New York Times. Retrieved June 30, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Police Brutality and Race
Police Violence and African Americans
When Does the Use of Force Become Police Brutality?
Police Brutality and the Black Lives Matter Movement
Police Brutality and the Blue Lives Matter Movement
The Use of Violence: Is there a Limit to the Amount of Force Police Officers Should Use on a Suspect?
Why Just Comply Is Not the Answer to Police Brutality
Are Minorities the Victims of Higher Rates of Police Violence?
Police Brutality: Is there a War on Cops or a War by Cops?
I. Introduction - Definition
B. Racial Disparity in American Criminal Justice
C. The Black Lives Matter Movement
D. Subsequent Killings
E. Delrawn Small on July 4, 2016
F. Alton Sterling on July 5, 2016
G. Philando Castile on July 6, 2016
H. Blue Lives Matter
I. Police Brutality and Attacks on the Police are…
Policing Policies Analysis
This study seeks to strengthen the practice of policing by demonstrating the effectiveness of the problem-oriented policing. The information provided herein is useful to practitioners as it compares problem-oriented policing against community-oriented policing. Practitioners will be able to create much robust policing intervention when addressing real life situations within the field by grasping the theoretical mechanisms (Hess & Orthmann, 2011). In addition, by linking academic theories to policing, this review helps theoretical criminologists ponder about the most useful concepts for practical police level.
Zero tolerance Policing
Zero-tolerance policing lacks a specific definition; it can be understood in various ways. The recent definition entails non-discretional and strict enforcement of law regardless of the magnitude or circumstances of the crime. While this approach involves positive police actions, it does not equate to automatic arrests of trivial crimes. This is the most aggressive policing approach and cannot be equated to…
Wakefield, A., & Fleming, J. (2008). The SAGE Dictionary of Policing. London: Sage Publications.
Palmiotto, M. (2009). Community policing: A policing strategy for the 21st century. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen.
Do-lling, D. (2013). Community policing: Comparative aspects of community oriented police work. Holzkirchen/Obb: Felix.
Ikerd, T.E. (2007). Examining the institutionalization of problem-oriented policing: The Charlotte-Mecklenburg police department as a case study.
Hidden Dangers, Real Weapons, and Potential Technologies
Police officers are, undoubtedly, society's primary protectors. These individuals undertake assignments knowing that they could be placed in lethal danger, and do so in order to help complete strangers and keep a community safe. For this reason, police officers ought to be very much admired. Despite the personal and professional satisfaction that comes with being a great police officer, these individuals are also well aware that, as mentioned above, there are various aspects affecting their daily professional routines, many of which are not present in other careers, and many of which involve great risks. Yet despite knowing this, many police officers absolutely love their job. The paragraphs below will thus discuss policing operations in detail in order to better understand this particular and very important field of work. The essay will be separated into five sections focusing on the dangers of…
Shreeve, J.L. (2012). CSI Foils Felons. Police Technology. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .
Scheider, M. & Chapman, R. (2003). Community Policing and Terrorism. Homeland Security Wesite. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .
Simon, S. (2011). Former LAPD Chief Bill Bratton Predicts the Future of Policing. National Public Radio (NPR.com). Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .
Policing Services and Programs:
Even as policing services and programs are being restructured across the globe, understanding this change in customary terms is rather difficult. In these new policing services and programs, the difference between public and private domains of policing is also problematic. However, understanding the ongoing changes is dependent on distinguishing between the authorization of policing and the way these services are provided. This is because of the fact that those who authorize policing services and programs may differ from those who provide these services (Bayley & Shearing, 2001). The restructuring of policing incorporates the weaknesses of the public police and is due to increases in crime, social structure, ideas and culture, character of government and the nature of economic systems. Due to the ongoing restructuring of policing, the role of the public police is significantly changing adopting a governmental rather than individual agenda. Furthermore, policing services and…
Bayley, DH & Shearing, C.D. (2001, July). The New Structure of Policing: Description,
Conceptualization and Research Agenda. Retrieved from National Institute of Justice -- U.S. Department of Justice website: http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/nij/187083.txt
Cohen, B. & Leinen, S.H. (2009). Research On Criminal Justice Organizations: The Sentencing
Process. Retrieved May 4, 2011, from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reports/2009/R2018.pdf
Not only doe s this approach include the participation of the community it also incorporates organizational change. Both community involvement and organizational change is necessary if policing efforts are going to be effective. This approach also emphasizes the importance of trust between the police and the community. The community oriented approach to policing is the most effective in the solving and reducing of crime within a community.
For the purposes of this discussion: Two police officers are arguing about the policies of community-oriented and problem-oriented policing as opposed to zero-tolerance policing. The research analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches to policing. Both approaches seek to understand crime. However, both approaches had disadvantages related to the boundaries of community residents and the time required to solve crime using a problem oriented approach. The investigation also explained the ideologies that support these policy perspectives. The research will also…
"Community Policing Defined." http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/default.asp?item=36
G Cordner, EP Biebel. Problem-Oriented Policing in Practice. Criminology & Public Policy, Volume 4, Issue 2 (p 155-180)
Lum, C. 2009 Community Policing or Zero Tolerance. British Journal of Criminology. http://bjc.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/azp039v1
Maguire, M. 2004. 'The Crime Reduction Programme in England and Wales: Reflections on the Vision and the Reality', Criminal Justice 4(3): 213 -- 37.
Just like every other institution in the country, American policing system went through a long period of evolution to finally achieve the shape that it has today. And similar to other laws and institutions in America, even police recruitment methods were heavily borrowed from Britain. In the 19th century or at least for most part of it, American police was shaped after the British policing laws (O'Keefe, 2004). However the one important difference lied in the separation of national and local police bodies. Since in most western countries, police was under the direct control of the national government, it was easier to manage them from one central location and their development was also almost simultaneous. However that was not the case in the United States where every county and state had its own local police department, which is why development of sporadic and departments were created at different…
1) Miller, Wilbur R. (1999) Cops and Bobbies: Police Authority in New York and London, 1830-1870. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
2) Wadman, Robert C. And William Thomas Allison (2004) To Protect And Serve: A History Of Police In America. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey
3) James O'Keefe. (2004) Protecting the Republic: The education and training of American police officers. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Challenges to policing in the 21st century
Policing has taken a different dimension from the traditional policing habits of maintaining law and order and combating the usual crimes to handling new forms of crime, which can be termed as white collar crimes. The society is faced with criminal activities which are as a result of the advanced level of technology use across the globe. The 21st century criminals are not the hardcore type law breakers but very intelligent individuals who are well informed and highly educated, they use very sophisticated systems to execute several crimes in different parts of the world as more people are embracing the use of technology in their day-to-day life (Interpol, 2012). This is an era where the criminals are technologically savvy and use this as a tool to commit crimes without the use of force or inflicting any bodily harm to the victims…
Patricia Linn, (1999). what are the five types of Crimes. Retrieved April 3, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/list_7245606_five-types-crime_.html.
Interpol, (2012). Cyber Crimes. Retrieved April 3, 2012 fromhttp://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Cybercrime/Cybercrime.
Management, irrespective of the particular industry, has a profound effect on organizational effectiveness. For one, management has the ability to drive results through proper motivation and incentives. A manager must also effective lead through his or her ability to inspire action on the part of subordinates. These broad requirements of management demands various skill sets. Many of these skill sets including leadership, time managements, the ability to inspire, financial acumen, and so forth are acquired over time. Through a broad array of experiences, management is better equipped to handle varying and often conflicting circumstances. The law enforcement arena is no different in this regard. Management, particular those in law enforcement must be cognizant of a litany of behaviors and activities. Policing management, has undergone extensive change due primarily to the changing societal demographics prevailing in the world today. Cultures are now becoming more profound in America. The Hispanic…
1) Seabrooks, T.J. "Why Are so Many Felons Repeat Offenders?" Geek Politics. Web. 02 Apr. 2012. .
2) Blake, R.; Mouton, J. (1964). The Managerial Grid: The Key to Leadership Excellence. Houston: Gulf Publishing Co...
3) Carlyle, Thomas (1841). On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic History. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 1-4069-4419-X.
4) Fiedler, Fred E. (1967). A theory of leadership effectiveness. McGraw-Hill: Harper and Row Publishers Inc.
The police adapting to rapid changes in technology is felt in two ways -- primarily in using the technology that comes with new inventions for the police like better weapons, communication networks and so on for which they have to be thoroughly trained. The specialist has also to be trained in many issues like cyber crimes, and use of sophisticated computers and machines for crime. Police with an up-to-date mass communication system can be easily mobilized and can have faster response to events. The negative aspects of technology cannot be wished away and there must be research done to overcome these defects in communication with the public and also reliance must be placed on more robust methods of data access.
Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal
Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.
Couldry, Nick; Mccarthy, Anna. (2004) "Mediaspace: Place, Scale, and Culture in…
Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal
Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.
Couldry, Nick; Mccarthy, Anna. (2004) "Mediaspace: Place, Scale, and Culture in a Media
Age." Routledge: New York.
Police Abuse/Problems with Guilty Pleas
From time to time, the media highlights stories about police abuse that can best be described as disturbing. It is unfortunate that some police officers do turn against the same people they have sworn to keep safe. Indeed, most victims of police brutality are left feeling frightened, betrayed and helpless. Further, police abuse triggers a cycle of mistrust in which case the community gradually loses confidence in those they rely on for safety and protection. Though a majority of police officers in the community I come from are dedicated and act within the confines of the law; there are a few bad elements (based on previous incidences of police brutality) who soil the otherwise warm relations the community shares with the police.
It is important to note that only a fraction of the total incidences of police abuse are reported by the media.…
What is the role of police in society? What would happen if the role of the police were lessened as it applies to the theory and practice of community policing?
Generally, the most important roles that police play in civilized society are that of criminal deterrence (Schmalleger, 2009). More specifically, the public awareness of the presence and authority of law enforcement deters most members of the population from criminal conduct that they might otherwise consider if there were no negative consequences. In community policing, police serve a much wider role than criminal deterrence, prevention, and response (Schmalleger, 2009). Modern police also play important roles in ensuring public order and public safety, as well as in addressing contemporary counterterrorism (Schmalleger, 2009). They maximize opportunities to work with proactive members of the community to establish and maintain positive and mutually beneficial relationships (Ellison, 2006). If the role of police were…
Ellison, J. "Community Policing: Implementation Issues." Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 75, No. 4 (Apr/06).
Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Video cameras on police cars
Before the mounting of the in-car cameras for the police, there used t be several unresolved or wrongly resolved issues in the process of their duty. One advantage that came with the cameras is the possibility of verification of the racial profiling while doing their normal checks along the highways which was a major complain heard in courts across the U.S.A. In various cases in the courts, the defendants will try to skew facts in order to walk with crimes and this was a rampant happening especially in police arrest cases along the highway. With the recording of happenings between a person arrested and the police, the evidence stands out in the event the accused tries to twist facts. A clear instance is as depicted by ICAP Staff (2013);
"An officer was responding to a major incident requiring immediate police assistance. As he…
IACP Staff, (2013). The Impact of Video Evidence in Modern Policing. Retrieved October 8, 2013 from http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Publications/video_evidence.pdf
Identify the different domains police psychologists work in, and discuss some of the roles psychologists might assume when working in different domains.
A police psychologist will work primarily in the assessment domain. In many instances, police officers must be properly screened and evaluated prior to duty. In other instances, officers will be evaluating during duty to proper access their ability to fully protect society. As such, psychologists have the primary function or determining the adequacy of a police officers skill set relative to predetermined metrics of success. Through periodic evaluation, the psychologist has the distinct role of assessing the skills and abilities of current and prospective police officers.
Psychologists also operate within the intervention domain. This domain is particularly important due to the nature of police officer work. Law enforcement officers are unique to many professions, as their job requires exposure to very contentious issues. Particularly troubling, is…
1) Kitaeff. JackHandbook of Police Psychology, 2011. Bookshelf. Web. 07 November 2013
2) Walker, Samuel (2005). The New World of Police Accountability. Sage. p. 5. ISBN 0-534-58158-7.
In addition we have made, and continue to make, efforts to employ people of all backgrounds for Jupiter's police force so that people of all backgrounds see people from their cultures in law enforcement.
People, no matter where they are from, tend to fear the unknown (Carter, 1995), so we feel that a policy of community policing -- getting the officers into the various neighborhoods of Jupiter in positive ways -- is important. One of the things we have done to accomplish that is to put our officers in the vicinity of school crosswalks when children are traveling to and from school. This allows them to interact positively with children from an early age as well as allow the parents to see police officers in their most important role -- protecting all of Jupiter's inhabitants. I hope these comments will put any concerns to rest.
Carter, Ronnie A. 1995.…
Carter, Ronnie A. 1995. "Improving minority relations." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, December.
Police Systems and Practices Question Set
Discuss how temperament can impair communication?
The ability control one's temperament at all times while working as a police officer is crucial to the performance of daily duties, because there are many instances when law enforcement personnel may be provoked to reaction in a purposeful manner. If an officer is unable to refrain from responding to insults in kind, or begins to yell or otherwise express anger, the course of an investigation or civilian interaction will become irrevocably altered. Simply put, ordinary people are less willing to cooperate with police officers and other authority figures who are openly frustrated, angry, spiteful, impatient, or otherwise perturbed -- so it is imperative that maintaining an even-keeled temperament become both a departmental and personal priority.
Discuss how failure of supervisors to act can impede future communication from subordinates.
A police officer's locker room is like any other…
Can text I uploaded a file a reference. BIBLIOGAPHY: Stuckey, G., oberson, C., & Wallace, H. (2006). Procedures justice system (8th Ed.). Upper Saddle iver, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Discuss police encounters individuals required level police suspicion needed justify encounters.
Discuss police encounters with individuals and the required level of police suspicion needed to justify these encounters. We will learn about consensual encounters, traffic stops, Terry stops, and arrests. You will take a look at the factors used to determine when a person is under arrest as well as the appropriateness of any searches performed during these encounter
Protection from unreasonable searches and seizures is accorded to all citizens of the United States by the Constitution. Determining precisely what constitutes an unreasonable search or seizure, however, has been an issue of continued debate amongst law enforcement throughout the history of the United States. "Until 1967, a search was an…
Stuckey, G., Roberson, C., & Wallace, H. (2006). Procedures in the justice system. (8th Ed.).
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
That female officers -- or any officers for that matter -- would feel uncomfortable approaching their chief or any other superior shows that our department is not doing enough to ensure the well-being of our employees. No matter that the men in question are becoming solid, reliable officers of the law. All members of our team are highly qualified and all personnel must be treated with dignity and respect. Any behavior that harms another officer or impedes their ability to perform duties as part of a cohesive team should be taken seriously.
2. Anonymous complaints and unproven allegations of slashed tires are not enough to warrant any punishment. However, the officers in question can indeed be watched closely and carefully for any misogynistic behavior. Female officers must be encouraged to complain freely and without fear of retribution. It would be wise to arrange an informal consultation with any officers concerned…
Stress Associated with Policing
A look at some of the stresses that are associated with police fulfilling their job duties in the line of fire
Stress on the Job 4
The police profession is a highly stressful endeavor that often places officers in highly stressful situations on a regular basis. Police work is one of the few jobs out there where the employees must deal with murders, accidents, and the constant threat of personal injury. The effects of this environment can be cumulative and build up over time. Furthermore, many police officers are resistant to finding suitable outlets to deal with the effects of stress in a clinical setting or through counseling. There are many common objections for officers seeking help for the psychological issues that can emerge through the course of service. These include items such as it is not consistent with the image of masculinity that…
Anderson, B. (N.d.). Confidentiality in Counseling: What Police Officers Need To Know . Retrieved from PTSD Resources for Survivors and Caregivers: http://www.giftfromwithin.org/pdf/confide.pdf
Glass, I. (2010, September 10). Transcript. Retrieved from This American Life: http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/414/transcript
University of Buffalo. (2008, September 29). Impact Of Stress On Police Officers. Retrieved from Physical and Mental Health: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080926105029.htm
Vogel, D., Wester, S., & Larson, L. (2007). Avoidance of Counseling: Psychological Factors That Inhibit Seeking Help. Journal of Counseling and Development, 411-422. Retrieved from Iowa State.
Police: History, Structure, and Functions
The policing system's development in Britain was closely followed by a similar development in America. Policing by the initial colonizers assumed two forms: "The Big Stick" (for-profit, private agency policing) and the "Watch" (communal as well as informal) (Spitzer, 1979). Community volunteers primarily charged with warning citizens of imminent danger made up the latter system. The night watch was first implemented in the year 1636 in Boston. New York and Philadelphia implemented night watch system in the years 1658 and 1700, respectively. This system did not prove particularly successful in controlling crime. Supplementing the "watch" mode of policing was a group of official law enforcers, labeled "constables," who were often salaried by a fee system, based on number of warrants served by them. Policing's informal procedure continued for several years following the 1765-83 American evolution. Only in the 1830s did the U.S. first introduce a…
Davis, Rowenna. (2009). Policing the police, The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/libertycentral/2009/feb/28/convention-modern-liberty-police on October 5, 2016.
Lewis, M.A. (2011). "Perspective: Peel's Legacy," FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. The FBI. Retrieved from https://leb.fbi.gov/2011/december/perspective-peels-legacy on October 5, 2016.
Lundman, Robert J. (1980). Police and Policing: An Introduction, New York, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Spitzer, Stephen, (1979). The Rationalization of Crime Control in Capitalist Society, Contemporary Crises 3, no. 1.
Patrol crafts would be deployed along the coastal areas waiting to act upon any information provided to confiscate drugs and arrest drug traffickers. For this purpose, the city police would be armoured with 2 well-equipped fast patrol crafts. Communication services between the stations and the patrol crafts would be state of the art including GPS systems and radar networks to facilitate identifying and tracking down of suspicious activity in the coastal waters. Further, the use of latest thermal imaging and laser optics tools would provide effective supervision at nights.
The police department has immense responsibility in maintaining law and order and providing safety and security would necessitate a strong police force based on a clear and sound organizational philosophy. As a coastal city with its growing population, the urban city of Metropolis is faced with numerous problems, in particular the high drug trade activity along the coastal regions. The…
NCWC, " Police in Society," Accessed 16th Apr 2007, Available online at, http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/205/205lects.htm
Author not Available, "Community Policing," Accessed 15th Apr 2007, available at http://law.jrank.org/pages/1648/Police-Community-Policing-Definition-community-policing.html
James T. Quinlivan, Burden of Victory: The Painful Arithmetic of Stability Operations, Available Online at, http://www.rand.org/publications/randreview/issues/summer2003/burden.html
City of Phoenix, 'Police Officer Processing Procedures', Accessed Apr 16th 2007, available at http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/POLICE/pdjob3.html
II. Performance Management in England and Wales:
In Wales and England the National Policing Plan 2004-2007 was published in November 2003 with the stated aim of the plan being to: "Deliver policing to high national standards and for communities to be increasing engaged in the policing of their area." The stated plan is inclusive of a "framework for local police planning in England and Wales over the next three years." Within the scope of the plan are 'five key priorities' for the police service' which are: Provision of a 'citizen focused service to the public'
Tackling anti-social behavior and disorder as well as continuing to bring a reduction to 'burglary, vehicle crime, robbery and drug related crime' are said to be in line with the Government's Public Service Agreement targets Stated as the Performance Police Authority Role is the holding together of the police force on behalf of…
Eigerman, M.R. 1988, "Who should be responsible for business strategy?" Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 9, no. 6, p. 40.
Gummer, B. 1992, "Ready, fire, aim! Current perspectives on strategic planning,"
Administration in Social Work, vol. 16, no. 1, p. 89.
Cross, K.F. & Lynch, R.L. 1992, "For good measure," CMA Magazine, vol. 66, no. 3,
Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil
A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).
The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…
Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.
Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.
Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.
Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.
Law enforcement agencies, or the police force, operate on several jurisdictional platforms within the United States. In general, their primary mandate is to help maintain societal order and the rule of law by assisting subjects with legal compliance, protecting property, helping to keep citizens and property safe and secure, and for assistance in extraordinary events. The police force is part of the social order of society and mediates public events, pre-empts anti-social behaviors, helps mitigate potential dangers at large events, works with other agencies in general search and rescue, crowd control, regulations, education and awareness campaigns, and to support the rule of law (Cole, 2004). Under the rubric of law enforcement, there are three major categories of police: Federal, Local and State.
Local law enforcement provides routine and micro-policing to the communities within their jurisdiction. This may include traffic enforcement, criminal investigations, local laboratory or forensic investigation, certain types…
The Difference Between Federal and State Law. (2010). Retrieved from The Leadership Conference - Civilrights.org: http://www.civilrights.org/judiciary/courts/difference-federal-local-courts.html
Cole, G. a. (2004). The American System of Criminal Justice. New York: Wadsworth.
Dempsey and Forst. (2009). An Introduction to Policing. Florence, KY: Delmar Cenage Learning.
Hedgpeth, D. (2008, September 17). Congress Says DHX Oversaw $15 Billion in Failed Contracts. Retrieved from The Washington Post.com: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/16/AR2008091603200.html
One of the major things that management can do is increase traffic control. From the Department of Motor Vehicles, which screens people before issuing identification, to officers in routine traffic stops and roadblocks that look for suspected terrorist activity, management can change policies in a manner aimed at increasing detection. (Riebling, p.8). The more routine contact that the police have with members of society; the more likely they are to uncover possible terrorist activity.
Finally, the community at large faces new challenges in the wake of 9-11. Americans have a tremendous amount of civil rights, which generally exceed those that have received constitutional protection. Prior to 9-11, the majority of community members who avoided criminal activity would be able to avoid interactions with the police. However, now that law enforcement has had to broaden its emphasis and take a closer look at the community, the average citizen can anticipate greater…
Connors, Timothy and Georgia Pellegrini, Ed. Hard Won Lessons: Policing Terrorism in the United States. New York City: Manhattan Institute, 2006.
Riebling, Mark, Ed. Hard Won Lessons: The New Paradigm- Merging Law Enforcement and Counterterrorism Strategies. New York City: Manhattan Institute, 2006.
Sheriffs usually have smaller staffs, and so they may have more duties and responsibilities than a police chief, who has a larger staff to handle some of his or her responsibilities, such as training or PR.
Often, sheriffs are responsible for county jails, which take in prisoners and suspects from the surrounding area, and transfer them to county courts when the time for trial comes. The sheriff is responsible for his officers and their patrols, which may entail covering outlying areas that are farther away from the main station. Sheriff's officers are called deputies. Many sheriffs' departments have disappeared as state and county police take over the duties of sheriffs.
If the sheriff is responsible for the county jail, he or she is also responsible for providing officers to transport prisoners, guard the county courts, and serving warrants and other legal documents. Usually, the sheriff and city police do not…
Police officers are authorized to use force when necessary, a policy that is generally used to protect innocent people from violence and abuse, and protect the general public from harm. However, the authorization to use force can be easily abused. Police abuse of power in the form of police brutality is an ethical problem because it constitutes abuse of power, and also leads to mistrust of law enforcement. Mistrust of law enforcement in turn undermines the authority and legitimacy of the police and prevents cooperative measures of stopping crime like community policing models. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (2015), 44 million people on average each year in the United States have some kind of face-to-face contact with police and of those 44 million, just under two percent experience use of threatening or nonfatal force. While this number may seem small, on the ground the high rate of police…
These people often lack familiarity with public safety operations. Campus chiefs of police and directors of security are often challenged by the opposing interests of their chief executive officers. Informing campus leaders about importance of public safety is vital to its success. Nonetheless, time constraints and other challenges and priorities imposed on these leaders make it difficult for them to devote any time to security and safety matters before the problems arise (National Summit of Campus Public Safety, 2005).
The look and feel of security on college and university campuses has changed dramatically since September 11th. Colleges and universities have implemented the following:
- updated their campus emergency management plans to include response protocols for an active shooter on campus, bomb threat, evacuation, lockdown and other high probability incidents that might occur.
- registered their campus emergency management plans with their local municipal police departments and county offices of emergency…
Canas, Richard. (2008). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from The New York Times Web site:
National Summit of Campus Public Safety. (2005). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from U.S.
Department of Justice Web site:
Regardless of the fact that no serious criminal activity transpired in most cases, it detracted from the quality of life of some residents of buildings immediately adjacent to such congregations (Conlon, 2004).
In other situations, such as peaceful gatherings of small groups of students outside bars every weekend night, residents of buildings overlooking the bars were subjected to loud conversations, cigarette smoke, music from vehicles until well after typical closing times of 4:00AM every weekend night, at a minimum. Giuliani's zero-tolerance approach to "unlawful assembly" of the type previously and ordinarily ignored as a technical violation not worth enforcing prohibited these gatherings for the benefit of residents who wished not to be disturbed all night long three or four nights a week in many "trendy" neighborhoods. Furthermore, the broken windows analogy also applied to those situations, by virtue of the frequency with which altercations and brawls break out in conjunction…
Conlon, E. (2004) Blue Blood. Riverhead, NY: Bantam
Nolan, J., Conti, N, McDevitt, J. Situational Policing. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 74 No. 11 (Nov/05).
Schmalleger, F. (2001) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
viewing the function of policing. It increases understanding of the policing function at different levels hence minimizes conflict and confusion over issues in policing. It is obvious the levels of policing discussed herein are very dependable on each other. Policing like other professions obtains knowledge through experience. It follows that modern police officers look for effective policing strategies through the guidance of the police history lessons (Conser, Paynich & Gingerich, 2013). The challenges confirm that police history is incoherent, and the lessons are hard to learn. Such histories are generated by thousands of police departments in response to local conditions and the pursuit for their visions. While varied policing perspectives are a viable source of lessons, few trends shaping the function of policing at the local, state, and federal levels exist. In this case, interpretation is imperative.
Perspectives of the policing function
In the U.S., policing is civilian, extremely…
Conser, J.A., Paynich, R., & Gingerich, T. (2013). Law enforcement in the United States. Burlington, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Dantzker, M.L. (2009). Police organization and management: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Langworthy, R.H., & Travis, L.F. (2013). Policing in America: A balance of forces. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.
11. What is community policing? How does it differ from traditional policing?
Community policing emphasizes positive situational contacts between police personnel and the general public and de-emphasizes enforcement-based approaches to policing. It differs from traditional policing mainly in that it is a means of reducing crime through enhanced public involvement in communities and in that it strongly promotes the initiation of police-civilian contacts outside of the enforcement realm (Caruso & Nirode, 2001).
12. What is the nature of the drug problem in the United States? Is today's drug problem any different or worse than the drug problem in the past?
The most important drug problem today is the questionable value of criminalizing private recreational drug use, particularly in relation to marijuana, which cannot be justified or logically distinguished from the permissive approach to cigarette and alcohol consumption. Evidence from Europe suggests that even enforcement of criminal laws prohibiting the use…
Schmalleger F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
There is generally a concept that police respond only after a crime is committed. However, now police do have opportunities to be proactive. Today proactive policing has emerged as the key to a booming future in crime prevention and control. Now police uncompromisingly carries out required investigation and works with citizens and social service groups in order to contain crime-breeding conditions and decrease the rate of street crime.
Proactive/community policing stresses on clarification, forecast and avoidance of crime occurrence. This is done through the investigation of fundamental issues of offenses and chaos and through proactive problem solving for problems that are anticipated to culminate into criminal / anti-social activism, if not controlled at the initial stage.
Outline of the Paper
The article discusses police practices towards controlling crime. Its main emphasis is on analyzing proactive practices adopted in the police systems over the years, translating from the early…
Angell, J. Towards an Alternative to the Classic Police Organizational Arrangement: A Demographic Model. Criminology 8. 1971
Bennett, T. Evaluating Neighborhood Watch. Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing, 1990.
Brodeur, Jean-Paul. High Policing and Low Policing: Remarks about the Policing of Political
Activities. Social Problems. 1983.
Disadvantages of police discretion
The blanket use of discretion can result in repressive tactics being utilized against suspected criminals. If the police department refrains from guiding and controlling the use of this authority, abuses as well as extreme disparities can occur. Where, various individuals could become corrupted from the large amounts of authority they are given. As they could begin seeking out special favors (bribes / kickbacks) or they could use severe tactics when dealing with suspects. This is because police officials often operate in environments, where they are mostly alone. While at the same time, they are in contact with people in who live in different social / economic conditions. (Goldstein 1977) When you put these various elements together, this means that the use of discretion must be limited (due to the fact that possible abuses could occur).
Factors that influence an officer's decision-making process
There are a number…
Goldstein, H. (1977). Categorizing and structuring discretion. Policing in a Free society (pp. 93-130). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Company.
Livingston, D. (1997) Police Discretion and the Quality of Life in Public Places: Courts, Communities, and the New Policing. Columbia Law Review 97 (3), 551-672.
Remington, F. (1965). Police in a Democratic Society. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science (1965): 361.
Wilson, James Q. (1968). Varieties of Police Behavior, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
The charges were quietly dropped against the suspect and an Internal Affairs investigation cleared them of all wrong doing. (Terruso, 2011)
Explain the outcomes of the cases. Did you agree with the outcomes? Why or why not?
The situation involving the New York City police officers is still in the court system. So far I agree with the outcome. This is because they were deliberately breaking the law by selling automatic weapons to criminal elements. Moreover, they were also working with organized crime to sell cigarettes that were stolen from the police evidence room. This can erode the confidence of the general public in the department's ability to objectively enforce the law. When this happens, it will affect investigations and their outcomes. As a result, they had to be stopped before the situation became worse. (ashbaum, 2011)
While the case in Elizabeth, resulted in the suspect suing the department for…
2010 NPMSRP. (2010), Police Misconduct. Retrieved from: http://www.policemisconduct.net/2010-q2-npmsrp-national-police-misconduct-statistical-report/
Johnson, K. (2007). Police Brutality Cases on the Rise. USA Today. Retrieved from: http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-12-17-Copmisconduct_N.htm
Rashbaum, W. (2011). 8 Officers Charged with Gun Trafficking. City Room. Retrieved from: http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/10/25/officers-accused-of-smuggling-guns-in-federal-corruption-case/
Terruso, J. (2011). Elizabeth Police Brutality. Star Ledger. Retrieved from: http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2011/11/elizabeth_police_brutality_cas.html
J. Simpson or John Gotti. In both cases, the defendants are entitled to the presumption of innocence only in court; but there is no such "presumption" in the intellectual "court" of one's mind.
A lawyer with integrity would refuse to represent any defendant he believed was probably guilty of horrendous crimes and simply let that defendant be represented by a court-appointed attorney who is obligated by law to represent any defendant who cannot afford a private attorney. If all criminal defense lawyers had high personal ethical standards, the Simpsons and Gottis of the world would find it impossible to retain any defense counsel other than those obligated by law to take their cases.
4. Define and briefly explain ethical dilemma. Of the four categories of dilemmas: discretion, duty, honesty and loyalty, which one applies best to the following situations? Explain your rationale. Also, explain how an officer might analyze the…
The field is generally that of social control, informal and formal, and it sits in a surround, the larger political forces in a city or a nation (Manning 2008, p. 87).
The most prominent of these political pressures is a public, at least in the United States, that is ostensibly averse to constant monitoring as well as the continued militarization of the police force though the deployment of technologies such as those used in special operations. In their editorial regarding intersection cameras and automatic license plate scanners, the editors of McClatchy propose that, "somehow there has to be a way to take into consideration the uncomfortable feeling people get when they believe they are being spied on with the justifiable methods of making law enforcement more efficient" (McClatchy 2010). They suggest the place to start is the database where recorded video and license plate data is kept anywhere from a…
Editorial: balance public concerns, police technology. (2010, December 30). McClatchy
Tribune Business News.
Manning, P.K. (2008). The technology of policing: crime mapping, information technology, and the rationality of crime control. New York, NY: New York University Press, 87-88.
Moriarty, L.J. (2005). Criminal justice in the 21st century. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas
One of the authors in the review, in fact details a reporting system that effectively makes the use of force scene an investigated crime scene, where forensic and other evidence, physical and testimonial, is collected to develop a clear understanding of the events as they unfolded. (2005) Some would argue that this sort of method smacks of the police policing the police, and yet the OSCE Guidebook and many experts would argue that this sort of transparency is necessary for public trust and the insurance of reduced opportunity for corruption at every level. (2006) This emphasis on transparency is relatively new to policing, but in my opinion is demonstrative of positive social change and the eventual development of a much clearer sense on the part of the police, their governing agencies and the public of the nature and definitions of justifiable.
Suspect Coercion by Force or Threat of Force:
Buker, H. (2005) Book Reviews, International Journal of Police Science and Management 7: 3 pp. 208-312
Carty, K. (2006) "Guidebook of Democratic Policing Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe" Vienna
Council of Europe Committee of Ministers (COECM) "Recommendation Rec (2001)10 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the European Code of Police Ethics" 19 September 2001, Retrieved, November 15, 2007, at http://www.legislationline.org/legislation.php?tid=155&lid=4886
Evans, M.D., & Morgan, R. (1998). Preventing Torture: A Study of the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Define the Concept and Create Measures
This study will use the survey method in order to measure officers’ perception of the effectiveness of body cameras in reducing tension in everyday situations in which police are at work. For the purpose of this study, tension is defined as a feeling in which insecurities, uneasiness, paranoia, anxiety, or other feeling of pressure is heightened (Ariel, Farrar & Sutherland, 2015). The body camera program recently adopted by the metropolitan police force is meant to encourage and promote accountability and verifiability while simultaneously helping to de-escalate situations through the knowledge of the fact that every engagement of an officer with a citizen is being recorded. This study aims to use the quantitative survey method in order to assess the extent to which officers find the body cameras to be effective in achieving the policy aims.
The survey will consist of a series of 5-10…
The middle of the decade of the 1980's was witness to the creation of the Technology Assessment Program Information Center and the Technology Program Advisory Agency. Their functions were as follows:
Technology Assessment Program Information Center: Picked up laboratories for testing equipment, supervised the testing process, published reports concerning the results that the lab released after testing.
Technology Program Advisory Agency: This was a large advisory body of senior local and federal law enforcement officials which are the predecessors to that which exists today
Important in the advancement of police protection was the creation and application in use of pepper spray.
VI. The Role of the National Institute for Justice in the Development of Law Enforcement technology:
The National Institute of Justice issued a "mandate in its capacity as the criminal research and development arms of the U.S. Department of Justice was to improve and strengthen the nations' system of…
Are U.S. Police Agencies Being Outpaced in Technology-policeone.com 09-28-04 [Online] available at http://www.policeone.come/policeone/frtonend/parser.cfm?object+Product Categories&te
Visteon Provides the Latest in Law Enforcement Technology to Alkland County Sheriff Bouchard PR Newswire 10-29-05 [Online] available at http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?ctrlInfo+Round9a%AProd%ADOC%AP11-10-04
Satellite Technology Boosts Officer Safety 26 Jan 2004 [Online] available at http: www.staffordshire.police.uk/news306.htm
NIJ: Autoloading Pistols for Police Officers: NIJ STandard Series: Law Enforcement and Corrections Standard and Testing [Online] available at http://wwwlncjrs.org/txtfiles1/173943.txt
suspension of the Miami, Florida police chief. The suspension was the result of a political dispute between the police chief and the Miami mayor. The mayor and police chief had been involved in a dispute over suspected illegal gambling that the police chief believed that the mayor was supporting. The chief's actions will be reviewed by a special commission. The question as to the level of involvement by the mayor in the gambling operation is still unresolved as well. The chief has requested that the FBI investigate the mayor's involvement and the chief has requested whistle blower status under the federal statutes. The City Council has expressed concerns that the dispute between the mayor and police chief has resulted in dysfunction in the operation of the Miami police force. The circumstances of this situation are such that minimizing or eliminating the politics would be difficult. Although the nature of the…
Baker, A. (2011, August 13). Effort to Fight Misconduct by City Police is Imperiled. New York Times, p. A20.
Don Van Natta, J. (2011, September 7). In Miami, Long and Bitter Feud with Mayor Pushes Police Chief Close to Dismissal. New York Times, p. A16.
Eligon, J. (2011, August 11). Second Ex-Officer in Rape Case Receives a Two-Month Jail Term. New York Times, p. A20.
The law enforcement system's need of pursuing suspected lawbreakers has, perhaps, existed ever since the very first laws to tackle crime have been written. Right from the era of human traveling on foot to horse-riding to today's motorized transport, it is highly evident that police pursuits may be highly dangerous. The year 2003 witnessed approximately 35,000 pursuits of criminals across America, with 14,000 (i.e. almost 40% of these pursuits) ending in car crashes. No less than 50% of these 14,000 crashes gave rise to injuries. Furthermore, fatalities linked to police pursuits amounted to about 350. The technique and manner of suspect capture, particularly with regard to automobile pursuits, has remained a matter of conflict and criticism among a large number of analysts (O'Connor and Norse). Some, for example, raise questions regarding the reason behind pursuit, stating that an exceedingly large number of administrators and officers cannot state what…
Memo: The need to increase our members of the city police force
ecently, there has been a heated debate in the city council regarding crime rates. epresentative Brown has alleged that crime rates are skyrocketing and says that increased members of the police are necessary to engage in effective policing. Although members of our force have taken umbrage at these allegations that we are not performing our duties in an effective manner, I would contend that this is a critical juncture for law enforcement in our town. Although the actual crime rates have not been going up, there is still a vital need to increase members of our force. Our city is changing, and the police force must change with it likewise.
Our city is classified as a mid-sized metropolis of approximately 75,000 residents. However, for the past several years we have been steadily expanding at…
Broken windows theory. (2012). Google. Retrieved:
Answer the following questions for each video in paragraph form. Also for each video, provide a thought provoking question of your own for discussion and attempt to provide a response to it.
Video one: Bill of Rights Overview
Which amendment do YOU value most?
I consider Amendment I the most crucial aspect of the Constitution's Bill of Rights.
Amendment I safeguards the five most fundamental freedoms: speech, religion, assembly, press and the right of petitioning governmental bodies for righting any wrongs. The above safeguards were missed most by Antifederalists within the novel Constitution (Feinberg, 1987).
Is our justice system better or worse than other systems around the world today?
Accessible reports and scholarly works reveal that the American justice system is neither the most effective nor the most unsuccessful justice system of all. Some nations (e.g., Scandinavian nations) enjoy a more superior system while others (e.g., Middle Eastern…
Militarization of Police
The 21st century has provided in a very short time, major changes to the way society interacts and operates. Governmental structures and institutional principles have also greatly swayed in recent decades. It is apparent that the world is drastically changing and evolving into a new form of culture and society that presents many problems and issues, especially in cases of the law and law enforcement.
The law is changing rapidly and the requirements that are placed on law enforcement professionals in this extremely turbulent time in history have grown and expanded to many different areas of responsibility. Terrorisms and the threat of massive societal upheaval are potential threats to the current and accepted way of life and the burden to protect society from these threats often falls I the hands of law enforcement professionals.
The purpose of this essay is to explain the gradual and sustained militarization…
Baker, A. (2011). When the Police Go Military. The New York Times, 3 Dec 2011. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com /2011/12/04/sunday-review/have-american-police-become-militarized.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Balko, R. (2013). Too Many Cops Are Told They're Soldiers Fighting a War. How Did We Get Here? ACLU, 9 July 2013. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/blog/criminal-law-reform-free-speech-technology-and-liberty/too-many-cops-are-told-theyre-soldiers
Bernick, E. (2013). It's Past Time to Scaled Back Police Militarization. The Washington Times, 18 Sep 2013. Retrieved from http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/sep/18/bernick-its-past-time-to-scale-back-police-militar/
Clark, J.P. (1972). The functions of the police in modern society. Contemporary Sociology, 1(3), 243 -- 244.
Police Programs and Strategies between New York and Los Angeles Police Department
For the past decade, the prevalence of deaths caused by crimes and other crime-related activities in the society has increased. Especially with the increasing development of weaponry, strategies, and prevalence of drug addiction, the occurrence of crime in the America society has been one of the primary concerns of most police enforcers and the government in the present time. New York and Los Angeles are examples of cities wherein the occurrence of crime and other offenses against the law and society are prevalent. This paper will discuss the police programs and strategies and crime statistics of the New York and Los Angeles Police Departments, and analyze each department's effectiveness in combating crime an offenses caused by the criminals and delinquents of the society. In relation to the analyses of both departments' police programs, this paper will also study…
police forces are run, and Thibault et al. take examine some of the important issues that have prompted these changes. Their work on police management, and the research that they have pursued on the ways in which police departments are constituted, have helped to created the kinds of community-based, progressive forms of policing that are becoming more and more widely used - even if they are still in the minority overall in this country.
In the preface to their work, the authors argue for three elements to be included in every progressive police department:
First, we believe that sound management is management based on a combination of theory and practice. Practice without analysis will cause us to repeat the mistakes of history, so our theoretical analysis must be directed toward the practical for implementation into the day-to-day rigors of operating a police department.
Second, we reject complete adherence to the…
Block, R. (1971). "Fear of Crime and Fear of the Police." Social Problems 19: 91-100.
Davis, M. (1998). Community policing: How to get started. Denver: Anderson Publishing.
Harris, D. (1997). "Driving While Black' and All Other Offenses: The Supreme Court and Pretextual Traffic Stops." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 87: 544-582.
Thibault, E., Lynch, L. & McBride, B. (2000). Proactive Police Management. (5th ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.
Police Accept Gratuities?
In the United States, some lower-paid professions such as waitresses or pizza delivery drivers rely on gratuities from their customers in return for good service as an important part of their overall earnings, while other professions such as doctors and lawyers, rarely or never receive gratuities since they are deemed adequately compensated for their services from the outset no matter how well they perform. When it comes to law enforcement, though, the issue of gratuities becomes murkier, with the iconic image of the police officer on the beat accepting an apple from a smiling vendor being contrasted more recently by high-profile cases of police officers who have accepted much larger cash "gratuities" in return for looking the other way or providing advance notice of police raids. Because these cases adversely affect the entire law enforcement community, it is therefore important to determine the propriety of police officers…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Ellison, J. (2006). Community policing: Implementation issues. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
Ivkovic, S.K. (2005). Fallen blue knights: Controlling police corruption. New York: Oxford
Recent fatal attacks by police against unarmed citizens -- in particular African-American males -- have been portrayed as insensitive, illegal, and unnecessary violence by cable news programs over the past few years. And those televised reports (shown over and over) have caused angry citizens to participate in large demonstrations in American city streets. Fairly or unfairly, these incidents have caused citizens to turn against police departments -- albeit most police departments do not train their officers to shoot unarmed suspects. Because everyone with a smart phone can take video of police actions, and share videos with news organizations, this has become a negative for law enforcement. In response to these incidents, some police departments are offering rewards to officers that show restraint in the line of duty. This paper presents examples of those strategies by police departments.
The Philadelphia & Los Angeles Police Departments
In Philadelphia, the police department rewards…
The data compiled pointed to some interesting conclusions, and they were not what many people would imagine causes police stops. This is not what most readers would expect, and it seems that while racial profiling may take place initially, it is not always the final aspect of behavior that causes an office to actually pull over a car or confront a citizen. The authors concede there are many variables in their research, and that they do not "address the question of police fairness" (Alpert, Macdonald and Dunham 427). Their data was presented completely and in detail, and was still easy enough to understand that most laymen would understand the issue and the results.
The value of this paper was twofold. The data the authors finally compiled was quite useful in really understanding just what causes an officer to find something unusual - unusual enough to make a stop or confront…
Alpert, Geoffrey P., Macdonald, John M. And Dunham, Roger G. "Police Suspicion and Discretionary Decision Making During Citizen Stops." Criminology, Vol. 42, Number 2, May 2005. 407-page numbers
First, family violence is rarely the only problem in a home. On the contrary, the vast majority of homes with family violence have at least one co-existing problem, such as drug or alcohol abuse, some type of mental problem, stress, unemployment, or poor parenting. In fact, though battered women's advocates may argue against this statement, it seems accurate to conclude that any parent, whether victim or abuser, who keeps their children in a home with violence, should be presumptively declared unfit as a parent, until they can prove such worth. After all, the research clearly establishes that children who witness inter-parent violence experience the same degree and type of emotional turmoil as children who are actually victims of child abuse. Therefore, removing the primary aggressor from the home is only the first-step in moving a family out of the cycle of violence.
In addition, removing an abusing parent from the…