1000+ documents containing “issues in policing”.
It became apparent that we have a serious problem in this country and that this problem could undermine attempts to build bridges between different cultural groups. It became an issue at the forefront of law enforcement management.
The Roots of Racial Profiling
Police officers used to be trained to view people of different cultural background as potential suspects for deportation. It went so far that in 1972 taxi drivers in California were ordered to report any suspected illegal aliens to the police (McDonald, 2003). Orders such as these led to the definition that being "American" meant having the same skin color and speaking English as a primary language. The civil rights movement empowered immigrants to voice their opinions based on their racial differences (McDonald, 2003). In 1983 police departments reversed its position and officially announced that they would no longer cooperate with the INS with the removal of the legal aliens….
Coderoni, G. (2002).The relationship between multicultural training for police and effective law enforcement - Perspective.
FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, the, http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2194/is_11_71 " Nov, 2002: 1-3
Criminal Justice Reform Project. (2003). Wrong Then, Wrong Now: Racial Profiling Before and After September 11, 2001. Leadership Conference on Civil Rights. Leadership Conference on Civil Rights Education Fund, Criminal Justice Reform Project, February 27, 2003.
Dabney, D., Dugan, L., Topalli, V., and Hollinger, R. (2006). The Impact of Implicit Stereotyping on Offender Profiling. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 33 (5): 646-674.
(Frederickson, 2000, p. 3) Police forces became the fodder for systematic research on the need for and development of improved minority representation in public service as well as a frequently attached public entity with regard to minority status in the community. (Frederickson, 2000, p. 3) As early as the 1960s and 70s police forces all over the nation began to be scrutinized for limiting their hiring pool to white males and began to make changes to support the reduction of this reality. (Broadnax, 2000, p. xx)
The development of police forces within the guidelines of public scrutiny as one of the most significant and public hiring authorities in the public sector has created a hiring protocol that though variant to some degree is similar in most agencies and is reflective of public demand for diversity in representation. Many would likely call the last frontier of this more egalitarian hiring process….
Broadnax, W.D. (Ed.). (2000). Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Frederickson, H.G. (2000). Part One Representative Bureaucracy and Equal Employment Opportunity. In Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service, Broadnax, W.D. (Ed.) (pp. 1-4). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Hahn, H., & Jeffries, J.L. (2003). Urban America and Its Police: From the Postcolonial Era through the Turbulent 1960s. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.
Kogut, C.A., & Short, L.E. (2007). Affirmative Action in Federal Employment: Good Intentions Run Amuck?. Public Personnel Management, 36(3), 197.
The author of this report has been asked to conduct two interviews of police officers with six basic questions being the crux of both interviews. To protect the anonymity of the officers as well as a way to get the most honest and complete answers, the identity of the officers as well as the departments they have or do work for will not be identified in any way, shape or form. The answers garnered were insightful, honest and illuminating. The perspective they offer is perhaps not nearly as known as it should be given the reporting going on as it relates to the incidents in Ferguson and other places where cops have been shot or allegedly unarmed and/or innocent people on the street have endured the same. While there are two sides to each story, both the police and the people have the right to have their voice heard….
Cooper, H. (2009, July 22). Obama Criticizes Arrest Of a Harvard Professor. The New
York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com /2009/07/23/us/politics/23gates.html?_r=0
Reyes, D. (1994, November 2). Only One Drunk Driver in 500 Is Caught: Enforcement:
Even with tough Highway Patrol policy, probability of arrest in California is small.
Throughout history, police management has experienced numerous changes because of the various significant changes that have continued to occur in the society. The emerging trends have contributed to the development of new policing governance, which has had considerable implications for police management. Towards the end of the 20th Century, the governmental police reforms have contributed to an end to public policing, a claim that is regarded as extrapolated towards a certain extreme. However, in light of the changes that have occurred in the recent past, it's evident that public policing has not come to an end but that the monopoly of public policing has come to an end. As a result, the dominance of public policing that characterized the 19th and 20th centuries is no longer a characteristic of the modern era. Actually, the emerging diverse totality of public policing is a reflection of the so-called post-modern period.
Cope, S., Leishman, F. & Starie, P. (1997). Globalization, New Public Management and the Enabling State: Futures of Police Management. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 10(6), 444-460.
"Cooperation Agreement between the Government of Canada and the European Police Office."
(n.d.). Europol. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from https://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/flags/canada.pdf
Forcese, D. (2002). Police: current issues in Canadian law enforcement. Kemptville, Ontario:
There various technological measures that have been used to enhance the effectiveness of police officers include crime laboratories and finger printing. The other technological measures used in policing include the two-way radio used in police cars to help the officers to multiply their productivity in responding to and dealing with incidents. Police agencies across the nation are obtaining new technology that is developed to lessen response time and speed of information dissemination. The use of these efforts has helped in improving patrol function and capitalizes on the impact of community policing programs.
Homeland Security and Law Enforcement elationships:
The relationships between intelligence, law enforcement, and homeland security organizations at the federal, state, and local level have continued to experience a revolution since the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Before these terrorist attacks, the Department of Homeland Security created the wall at the federal level between law enforcement and intelligence. Furthermore, none of the states….
Foster, R.E. (n.d.). History of Police Technology. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.police-technology.net/id59.html
Johns, C. (n.d.). Police Use of Less-than-lethal Weapons. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.cjjohns.com/lawpowerandjustice/commentaries/llethal.html
Schmidt, M.S. & Goldstein, J. (2012, April 9). The Dangers of Police Work. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.professionalsecurityarkansas.com/cms/the-dangers-of-police-work/
Steiner, J.E. (2009, October 28). Improving Homeland Security at the State Level. Center for the Study of Intelligence, 53(3). Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol.-53-no.-3/improving-homeland-security-at-the-state-level.html
In addition, today's police officer faces different challenges from police officers of even two decades ago. One of these 21st century problems facing law enforcement is terrorism. Almost every community across the nation has some building or government location that could be considered a target of terrorism, and large metropolitan areas have many of these targets within their boundaries. Because of this, police models may have to change to be more involved in preventing terrorism from occurring, rather than responding once a terrorist act has been committed. Community policing can aid in this by allowing community police officers to become familiar with their neighborhoods and citizens, and knowing exactly what targets lay in their area. To create better police officers, training in terrorism and how to recognize typical terrorism suspects must be stepped up and addressed in all communities.
Perhaps the biggest challenge facing many officers is the use of deadly….
Bucqueroux, B. (2007). Community criminal justice: What community policing teaches. Retrieved from the Policing.com Web site: http://www.policing.com/articles/ccj.html26 March 2007.
Gianakis, G.A., & Davis, G.J. (1998). Reinventing or repackaging public services? The case of community-oriented policing. Public Administration Review, 58(6), 485.
Glenn, R.W., Panitch, B.R., Barnes-Proby, D., Williams, E., Christian, J., Lewis, M.W., et al. (2003). Training the 21st century police officer: Redefining police professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / . Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Leuci, R. (1999). 13 the enemies within: Reflections on institutionalized corruption. In Police and policing: Contemporary issues, Kenney, D.J. & McNamara, R.P. (Eds.) (2nd ed., pp. 216-219). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Bell was unarmed, yet the officers fired more than 50 shots into his car" (2007, p. 46). Following a grand jury investigation of the incident, three of the five detectives who were involved were charged for the shooting (Mayer, 2007). ccording to Mayer, "The incident is reminiscent of a similar situation in New York in 1999, in which a West frican street vendor, madou Diallo, was killed when police shot at him 41 times. Diallo was also unarmed" (2007, p. 46). The fact that these events occurred almost a decade apart and were unrelated was not the primary focus of the media coverage that attended them, and it is reasonable to assume that sensationalized media coverage of these and other instances of police brutality simply reinforce the perception in the minds of the merican public that the police are out of control.
ll of this is not to say, of….
All of this is not to say, of course, that police officers never engage in acts of brutality and the use of excessive force, but it is to say that little attention is paid to the millions of police-citizen encounters that take place every year in the United States where law enforcement authorities would be justified in using force -- even deadly force -- but refrain from doing so at their own personal risk based on their high regard for citizens' rights and the sanctity of human life. This precise point is made by Elicker (2008) who emphasizes that the statistics bear out just how restrained the police departments across the country are in their use of force at all. According to Elicker, "Despite the way mass media presents the subject of police brutality, the occurrences of police use of force cases are not all that common" (2008, p. 33).
Citing the results of a 1999 study sponsored by the United States Department of Justice based on the statistics from more than seven thousand arrests made by six different law enforcement agencies in urban settings wherein statistics had been collected concerning the use of force by and against police officers, Elicker reports that, "There were only 52 cases (or .07%) where police officers used weapons in the arrest. The use of weapons includes stick, knife, handgun, chemical agent, rifle/shotgun, motor vehicle, canine, and other" (2008, p. 34). The results of the Department of Justice study also showed that police officers used one or a combination of weaponless tactics to effect the arrest in 15.8% of the cases (Elicker, 2008). According to Elicker, "Weaponless tactics include grabbing, arm twisting, wrestling, pushing/shoving, hitting, kicking, biting/scratching, use of pressure hold, carotid hold, control hold, and other tactics. Grabbing was, by a vast margin, the most used weaponless tactic (12.7% or 954 cases), followed by arm twisting (3.7% or 281 cases), and wrestling (3.1% or 233 cases)" (2008, p. 34).
While some observers might suggest that there is no place in modern law enforcement for "biting/scratching" or the other weaponless tactics used by the police in the Department of Justice study, the fact that they were used at all when other, more harmful methods were readily available makes it clear that even when their lives are on the line, police officers can and do resort to using their training and discipline rather than simply pulling out a gun and shooting a criminal suspect. In this regard, Elicker concludes that, "To some, these statistics could be shocking. They
In places such as Richmond, that have an already checkered past in their relationship with the public, the public perception is further damaged by the rise in crime. This is true of the police department in the rest of the country as well. The rise in crime affects the perception of the public with regard to the police department, and not the government. In actions such as racism and extralegal searches the police department and not President Bush is implicated. Many of the harmful effects of current police actions and policies are the result of government policies. The police has thus become somewhat of a scapegoat as a result of the latest government policies.
The profile of violent crimes has also changed dramatically and dangerously. Fewer police officers mean more violent criminals, which raises the crime rate.
Government policy, rising crime rates, and police actions have therefore combined into a cycle….
Barbash, Fred (2005, June 28). Court Backs Town In Lawsuit Over Domestic Violence. In Washington Post online (Washingtonpost.com).
Lucas, Scott (2001, April 23). Good cop, bad cop - police violence against African-Americans - police in movies and TV - Timothy Thomas. In New Statesman.
Maclin, Tracey. (1998, Summer). Terry v Ohio's fourth amendment legacy: Black men and police discretion. In St. John's Law Review.
Seron, Carroll (2004, Dec). Judging Police Misconduct: "Street-Level" versus Professional Policing. Law & Society Review, Blackwell Publishers.
Though women constitute only 12.7% of the sworn police force they are implicated in only 5% of the total cases registered against the use of excessive force. Statistics further indicate that women officers account for only 6% of the total dollars paid out for court settlements for The Use of Police Force 4
police abuse related cases. [DR. Kim Lonsway, 2002] It is clear that a women police officer is less likely to resort to excessive force use compared with a male police officer and this presents a clear case for more representation of women in the police force. Inducting more women would therefore be a positive step.
Another study by the University of California compared the effects of race, gender, and experience of the officer and the link to the possibility of the officer being investigated by Internal affairs for the use of excessive force. For the study, the researchers….
1) Amnesty International, (2008) ' Less than Lethal'? The use of Stun weapons in U.S. Law Enforcement', Accessed 14th July 2009, Available at, http://www.amnestyusa.org/uploads/LessThanLethal.pdf
2) Anthony J. Micucci & Ian M. Gomme (Oct 2005), 'American Police and Subcultural Support for the use of Excessive Force', Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol 33, Issue 5
3) BJS, (June 25, 2006) 'Citizens Complained more than 26,000 times in 2002 about Excessive Police Force', Available at, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/press/ccpufpr.htm
4) DR. Kim Lonsway, Michelle Wood & Megan Fickling et.al (2002), ' Men, Women and Police Excessive Force: A Tale of two Genders', Accessed July 13th 2009, Available at, http://www.womenandpolicing.org/PDF/2002_Excessive_Force.pdf
Policy Analysis Essay on Police Killings
The recent police killings and other forms of abuse of authority by law enforcers in the US reinforce the critical and long-demanded need for policy reforms in the nation, a need that has too frequently been disregarded. While some attempts, on the part of authorities, at dealing with these issues have enjoyed a certain degree of success, others have proven unsuccessful. The issue of poor law enforcement relations with communities and police abuse of authority continues to acutely plague several communities in the country. The incidents at Baltimore and Baton Rouge highlight the urgent need to tackle this problem. Though all cases (Ferguson, New York, Baltimore, Baton Rouge, and Minneapolis, to name a few) are unique, they are characterized by one highly disturbing similarity – implicit racial prejudice and unwarranted use of official force against Black Americans, especially male Black Americans. The incidents underline the….
Corrections / Police / Criminal Justice
ould I lie to a suspect to get a confession even it was legal to do so?
Legal or not, lying to get a confession creates a moral black hole for an officer. To wit, how would an officer who was otherwise a good Christian later feel about getting a conviction albeit he obtained that conviction through deception? That is the question here. Chances are he would feel guilty; and it's possible that his wife, if she knew he used lies to tease a confession out of a suspect, would confront him. He would have had no place to hide from his sin in his earthly world and certainly spiritually he would live with a sense of guilt. Looked at a different way, when a good officer who was not a Christian but has always practiced ethical values is told by his superiors in the State….
Jones, J.R. (2006). Reputable Conduct: Ethical Issues in Policing and Corrections. Don Mills,
Ontario: Pearson Canada.
Perez-Pena. R. (2012). Studies Find More Students Cheating, With High Achievers No
Exception. The New York Times. Retrieved June 30, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Police Brutality and Race
Police Violence and African Americans
When Does the Use of Force Become Police Brutality?
Police Brutality and the Black Lives Matter Movement
Police Brutality and the Blue Lives Matter Movement
The Use of Violence: Is there a Limit to the Amount of Force Police Officers Should Use on a Suspect?
Why Just Comply Is Not the Answer to Police Brutality
Are Minorities the Victims of Higher Rates of Police Violence?
Police Brutality: Is there a War on Cops or a War by Cops?
I. Introduction - Definition
B. Racial Disparity in American Criminal Justice
C. The Black Lives Matter Movement
D. Subsequent Killings
E. Delrawn Small on July 4, 2016
F. Alton Sterling on July 5, 2016
G. Philando Castile on July 6, 2016
H. Blue Lives Matter
I. Police Brutality and Attacks on the Police are Separate Issues
III. Conclusion - Proposed Solution
This essayexamines the topic of police brutality through the lens of disproportionate violence against unarmed African Americans.….
Professional Development Trends in Policing OrganizationsProfessional development trends in criminal justice organizations, particularly policing, tend to focus on promoting long-term behavior change and performance improvement. They also try to focus on organizational culture and leadership. Police department culture has been shown to play a significant role in officer behavior and in order to improve police department culture, some organizations have implemented policies that promote transparency and accountability, provide opportunities for constructive feedback, and encourage community engagement to achieve those ends. At the same time, professional development programs that seek to improve organizational culture often focus on developing positive relationships between police and the community. These programs typically involve training on conflict resolution and de-escalation techniques, as well as community policing strategies. While there is still much room for improvement, these changes in professional development practices, which can be found across federal, state, and local levels, suggest a shift towards more….
Policing Policies Analysis
This study seeks to strengthen the practice of policing by demonstrating the effectiveness of the problem-oriented policing. The information provided herein is useful to practitioners as it compares problem-oriented policing against community-oriented policing. Practitioners will be able to create much robust policing intervention when addressing real life situations within the field by grasping the theoretical mechanisms (Hess & Orthmann, 2011). In addition, by linking academic theories to policing, this review helps theoretical criminologists ponder about the most useful concepts for practical police level.
Zero tolerance Policing
Zero-tolerance policing lacks a specific definition; it can be understood in various ways. The recent definition entails non-discretional and strict enforcement of law regardless of the magnitude or circumstances of the crime. While this approach involves positive police actions, it does not equate to automatic arrests of trivial crimes. This is the most aggressive policing approach and cannot be equated to emerging approaches such….
Wakefield, A., & Fleming, J. (2008). The SAGE Dictionary of Policing. London: Sage Publications.
Palmiotto, M. (2009). Community policing: A policing strategy for the 21st century. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen.
Do-lling, D. (2013). Community policing: Comparative aspects of community oriented police work. Holzkirchen/Obb: Felix.
Ikerd, T.E. (2007). Examining the institutionalization of problem-oriented policing: The Charlotte-Mecklenburg police department as a case study.
Hidden Dangers, Real Weapons, and Potential Technologies
Police officers are, undoubtedly, society's primary protectors. These individuals undertake assignments knowing that they could be placed in lethal danger, and do so in order to help complete strangers and keep a community safe. For this reason, police officers ought to be very much admired. Despite the personal and professional satisfaction that comes with being a great police officer, these individuals are also well aware that, as mentioned above, there are various aspects affecting their daily professional routines, many of which are not present in other careers, and many of which involve great risks. Yet despite knowing this, many police officers absolutely love their job. The paragraphs below will thus discuss policing operations in detail in order to better understand this particular and very important field of work. The essay will be separated into five sections focusing on the dangers of policing, various….
Shreeve, J.L. (2012). CSI Foils Felons. Police Technology. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .
Scheider, M. & Chapman, R. (2003). Community Policing and Terrorism. Homeland Security Wesite. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .
Simon, S. (2011). Former LAPD Chief Bill Bratton Predicts the Future of Policing. National Public Radio (NPR.com). Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .
It became apparent that we have a serious problem in this country and that this problem could undermine attempts to build bridges between different cultural groups. It became…Read Full Paper ❯
(Frederickson, 2000, p. 3) Police forces became the fodder for systematic research on the need for and development of improved minority representation in public service as well as…Read Full Paper ❯
Police Interviews The author of this report has been asked to conduct two interviews of police officers with six basic questions being the crux of both interviews. To protect the…Read Full Paper ❯
Police Management: Throughout history, police management has experienced numerous changes because of the various significant changes that have continued to occur in the society. The emerging trends have contributed…Read Full Paper ❯
There various technological measures that have been used to enhance the effectiveness of police officers include crime laboratories and finger printing. The other technological measures used in policing include…Read Full Paper ❯
In addition, today's police officer faces different challenges from police officers of even two decades ago. One of these 21st century problems facing law enforcement is terrorism. Almost every…Read Full Paper ❯
Bell was unarmed, yet the officers fired more than 50 shots into his car" (2007, p. 46). Following a grand jury investigation of the incident, three of the…Read Full Paper ❯
In places such as Richmond, that have an already checkered past in their relationship with the public, the public perception is further damaged by the rise in crime.…Read Full Paper ❯
Though women constitute only 12.7% of the sworn police force they are implicated in only 5% of the total cases registered against the use of excessive force. Statistics…Read Full Paper ❯
Policy Analysis Essay on Police Killings Introduction The recent police killings and other forms of abuse of authority by law enforcers in the US reinforce the critical and long-demanded need for…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
Corrections / Police / Criminal Justice ould I lie to a suspect to get a confession even it was legal to do so? Legal or not, lying to get a confession…Read Full Paper ❯
Potential Topics: Police Brutality and Race Police Violence and African Americans When Does the Use of Force Become Police Brutality? Police Brutality and the Black Lives Matter Movement Police Brutality and the Blue Lives…Read Full Paper ❯
Professional Development Trends in Policing OrganizationsProfessional development trends in criminal justice organizations, particularly policing, tend to focus on promoting long-term behavior change and performance improvement. They also try to…Read Full Paper ❯
Policing Policies Analysis This study seeks to strengthen the practice of policing by demonstrating the effectiveness of the problem-oriented policing. The information provided herein is useful to practitioners as it…Read Full Paper ❯
Policing Operations: Hidden Dangers, Real Weapons, and Potential Technologies Police officers are, undoubtedly, society's primary protectors. These individuals undertake assignments knowing that they could be placed in lethal danger, and do…Read Full Paper ❯