Issues In Policing Essays (Examples)

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Police Recruitment and Hiring Has

Words: 1415 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38794168

(Frederickson, 2000, p. 3) Police forces became the fodder for systematic research on the need for and development of improved minority representation in public service as well as a frequently attached public entity with regard to minority status in the community. (Frederickson, 2000, p. 3) As early as the 1960s and 70s police forces all over the nation began to be scrutinized for limiting their hiring pool to white males and began to make changes to support the reduction of this reality. (Broadnax, 2000, p. xx)

The development of police forces within the guidelines of public scrutiny as one of the most significant and public hiring authorities in the public sector has created a hiring protocol that though variant to some degree is similar in most agencies and is reflective of public demand for diversity in representation. Many would likely call the last frontier of this more egalitarian hiring process…… [Read More]

References

Broadnax, W.D. (Ed.). (2000). Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Frederickson, H.G. (2000). Part One Representative Bureaucracy and Equal Employment Opportunity. In Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service, Broadnax, W.D. (Ed.) (pp. 1-4). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Hahn, H., & Jeffries, J.L. (2003). Urban America and Its Police: From the Postcolonial Era through the Turbulent 1960s. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.

Kogut, C.A., & Short, L.E. (2007). Affirmative Action in Federal Employment: Good Intentions Run Amuck?. Public Personnel Management, 36(3), 197.
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Police vs Public

Words: 3513 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28298945

Police Interviews

The author of this report has been asked to conduct two interviews of police officers with six basic questions being the crux of both interviews. To protect the anonymity of the officers as well as a way to get the most honest and complete answers, the identity of the officers as well as the departments they have or do work for will not be identified in any way, shape or form. The answers garnered were insightful, honest and illuminating. The perspective they offer is perhaps not nearly as known as it should be given the reporting going on as it relates to the incidents in Ferguson and other places where cops have been shot or allegedly unarmed and/or innocent people on the street have endured the same. While there are two sides to each story, both the police and the people have the right to have their voice…… [Read More]

References

Cooper, H. (2009, July 22). Obama Criticizes Arrest Of a Harvard Professor. The New

York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2014, from  http://www.nytimes.com /2009/07/23/us/politics/23gates.html?_r=0

Reyes, D. (1994, November 2). Only One Drunk Driver in 500 Is Caught: Enforcement:

Even with tough Highway Patrol policy, probability of arrest in California is small.
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Policing The 21st Century Has

Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12616969



There various technological measures that have been used to enhance the effectiveness of police officers include crime laboratories and finger printing. The other technological measures used in policing include the two-way radio used in police cars to help the officers to multiply their productivity in responding to and dealing with incidents. Police agencies across the nation are obtaining new technology that is developed to lessen response time and speed of information dissemination. The use of these efforts has helped in improving patrol function and capitalizes on the impact of community policing programs.

Homeland Security and Law Enforcement elationships:

The relationships between intelligence, law enforcement, and homeland security organizations at the federal, state, and local level have continued to experience a revolution since the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Before these terrorist attacks, the Department of Homeland Security created the wall at the federal level between law enforcement and intelligence. Furthermore, none of…… [Read More]

References:

Foster, R.E. (n.d.). History of Police Technology. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from  http://www.police-technology.net/id59.html 

Johns, C. (n.d.). Police Use of Less-than-lethal Weapons. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from  http://www.cjjohns.com/lawpowerandjustice/commentaries/llethal.html 

Schmidt, M.S. & Goldstein, J. (2012, April 9). The Dangers of Police Work. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.professionalsecurityarkansas.com/cms/the-dangers-of-police-work/

Steiner, J.E. (2009, October 28). Improving Homeland Security at the State Level. Center for the Study of Intelligence, 53(3). Retrieved from  https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol.-53-no.-3/improving-homeland-security-at-the-state-level.html
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Police Management Throughout History Police Management Has

Words: 5721 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39703152

Police Management:

Throughout history, police management has experienced numerous changes because of the various significant changes that have continued to occur in the society. The emerging trends have contributed to the development of new policing governance, which has had considerable implications for police management. Towards the end of the 20th Century, the governmental police reforms have contributed to an end to public policing, a claim that is regarded as extrapolated towards a certain extreme. However, in light of the changes that have occurred in the recent past, it's evident that public policing has not come to an end but that the monopoly of public policing has come to an end. As a result, the dominance of public policing that characterized the 19th and 20th centuries is no longer a characteristic of the modern era. Actually, the emerging diverse totality of public policing is a reflection of the so-called post-modern period.…… [Read More]

References:

Cope, S., Leishman, F. & Starie, P. (1997). Globalization, New Public Management and the Enabling State: Futures of Police Management. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 10(6), 444-460.

"Cooperation Agreement between the Government of Canada and the European Police Office."

(n.d.). Europol. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from  https://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/flags/canada.pdf 

Forcese, D. (2002). Police: current issues in Canadian law enforcement. Kemptville, Ontario:
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Policing Through Community-Oriented Police Techniques

Words: 2484 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19790162



In addition, today's police officer faces different challenges from police officers of even two decades ago. One of these 21st century problems facing law enforcement is terrorism. Almost every community across the nation has some building or government location that could be considered a target of terrorism, and large metropolitan areas have many of these targets within their boundaries. Because of this, police models may have to change to be more involved in preventing terrorism from occurring, rather than responding once a terrorist act has been committed. Community policing can aid in this by allowing community police officers to become familiar with their neighborhoods and citizens, and knowing exactly what targets lay in their area. To create better police officers, training in terrorism and how to recognize typical terrorism suspects must be stepped up and addressed in all communities.

Perhaps the biggest challenge facing many officers is the use of…… [Read More]

References

Bucqueroux, B. (2007). Community criminal justice: What community policing teaches. Retrieved from the Policing.com Web site: http://www.policing.com/articles/ccj.html26 March 2007.

Gianakis, G.A., & Davis, G.J. (1998). Reinventing or repackaging public services? The case of community-oriented policing. Public Administration Review, 58(6), 485.

Glenn, R.W., Panitch, B.R., Barnes-Proby, D., Williams, E., Christian, J., Lewis, M.W., et al. (2003). Training the 21st century police officer: Redefining police professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / . Santa Monica, CA: Rand.

Leuci, R. (1999). 13 the enemies within: Reflections on institutionalized corruption. In Police and policing: Contemporary issues, Kenney, D.J. & McNamara, R.P. (Eds.) (2nd ed., pp. 216-219). Westport, CT: Praeger.
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Police Officers Are Faced With

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9418985

Bell was unarmed, yet the officers fired more than 50 shots into his car" (2007, p. 46). Following a grand jury investigation of the incident, three of the five detectives who were involved were charged for the shooting (Mayer, 2007). ccording to Mayer, "The incident is reminiscent of a similar situation in New York in 1999, in which a West frican street vendor, madou Diallo, was killed when police shot at him 41 times. Diallo was also unarmed" (2007, p. 46). The fact that these events occurred almost a decade apart and were unrelated was not the primary focus of the media coverage that attended them, and it is reasonable to assume that sensationalized media coverage of these and other instances of police brutality simply reinforce the perception in the minds of the merican public that the police are out of control.

ll of this is not to say, of…… [Read More]

All of this is not to say, of course, that police officers never engage in acts of brutality and the use of excessive force, but it is to say that little attention is paid to the millions of police-citizen encounters that take place every year in the United States where law enforcement authorities would be justified in using force -- even deadly force -- but refrain from doing so at their own personal risk based on their high regard for citizens' rights and the sanctity of human life. This precise point is made by Elicker (2008) who emphasizes that the statistics bear out just how restrained the police departments across the country are in their use of force at all. According to Elicker, "Despite the way mass media presents the subject of police brutality, the occurrences of police use of force cases are not all that common" (2008, p. 33).

Citing the results of a 1999 study sponsored by the United States Department of Justice based on the statistics from more than seven thousand arrests made by six different law enforcement agencies in urban settings wherein statistics had been collected concerning the use of force by and against police officers, Elicker reports that, "There were only 52 cases (or .07%) where police officers used weapons in the arrest. The use of weapons includes stick, knife, handgun, chemical agent, rifle/shotgun, motor vehicle, canine, and other" (2008, p. 34). The results of the Department of Justice study also showed that police officers used one or a combination of weaponless tactics to effect the arrest in 15.8% of the cases (Elicker, 2008). According to Elicker, "Weaponless tactics include grabbing, arm twisting, wrestling, pushing/shoving, hitting, kicking, biting/scratching, use of pressure hold, carotid hold, control hold, and other tactics. Grabbing was, by a vast margin, the most used weaponless tactic (12.7% or 954 cases), followed by arm twisting (3.7% or 281 cases), and wrestling (3.1% or 233 cases)" (2008, p. 34).

While some observers might suggest that there is no place in modern law enforcement for "biting/scratching" or the other weaponless tactics used by the police in the Department of Justice study, the fact that they were used at all when other, more harmful methods were readily available makes it clear that even when their lives are on the line, police officers can and do resort to using their training and discipline rather than simply pulling out a gun and shooting a criminal suspect. In this regard, Elicker concludes that, "To some, these statistics could be shocking. They
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Police Officer Might Be One

Words: 2028 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35790299

In places such as Richmond, that have an already checkered past in their relationship with the public, the public perception is further damaged by the rise in crime. This is true of the police department in the rest of the country as well. The rise in crime affects the perception of the public with regard to the police department, and not the government. In actions such as racism and extralegal searches the police department and not President Bush is implicated. Many of the harmful effects of current police actions and policies are the result of government policies. The police has thus become somewhat of a scapegoat as a result of the latest government policies.

The profile of violent crimes has also changed dramatically and dangerously. Fewer police officers mean more violent criminals, which raises the crime rate.

Government policy, rising crime rates, and police actions have therefore combined into a…… [Read More]

Sources

Barbash, Fred (2005, June 28). Court Backs Town In Lawsuit Over Domestic Violence. In Washington Post online (Washingtonpost.com).

Lucas, Scott (2001, April 23). Good cop, bad cop - police violence against African-Americans - police in movies and TV - Timothy Thomas. In New Statesman.

Maclin, Tracey. (1998, Summer). Terry v Ohio's fourth amendment legacy: Black men and police discretion. In St. John's Law Review.

Seron, Carroll (2004, Dec). Judging Police Misconduct: "Street-Level" versus Professional Policing. Law & Society Review, Blackwell Publishers.
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Police Force to Diffuse Tense

Words: 2390 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45966480

Though women constitute only 12.7% of the sworn police force they are implicated in only 5% of the total cases registered against the use of excessive force. Statistics further indicate that women officers account for only 6% of the total dollars paid out for court settlements for The Use of Police Force 4

police abuse related cases. [DR. Kim Lonsway, 2002] It is clear that a women police officer is less likely to resort to excessive force use compared with a male police officer and this presents a clear case for more representation of women in the police force. Inducting more women would therefore be a positive step.

Another study by the University of California compared the effects of race, gender, and experience of the officer and the link to the possibility of the officer being investigated by Internal affairs for the use of excessive force. For the study, the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Amnesty International, (2008) ' Less than Lethal'? The use of Stun weapons in U.S. Law Enforcement', Accessed 14th July 2009, Available at, http://www.amnestyusa.org/uploads/LessThanLethal.pdf

2) Anthony J. Micucci & Ian M. Gomme (Oct 2005), 'American Police and Subcultural Support for the use of Excessive Force', Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol 33, Issue 5

3) BJS, (June 25, 2006) 'Citizens Complained more than 26,000 times in 2002 about Excessive Police Force', Available at, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/press/ccpufpr.htm

4) DR. Kim Lonsway, Michelle Wood & Megan Fickling et.al (2002), ' Men, Women and Police Excessive Force: A Tale of two Genders', Accessed July 13th 2009, Available at,  http://www.womenandpolicing.org/PDF/2002_Excessive_Force.pdf
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Police Killings

Words: 2264 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70578666

Policy Analysis Essay on Police Killings

Introduction

The recent police killings and other forms of abuse of authority by law enforcers in the US reinforce the critical and long-demanded need for policy reforms in the nation, a need that has too frequently been disregarded. While some attempts, on the part of authorities, at dealing with these issues have enjoyed a certain degree of success, others have proven unsuccessful. The issue of poor law enforcement relations with communities and police abuse of authority continues to acutely plague several communities in the country. The incidents at Baltimore and Baton Rouge highlight the urgent need to tackle this problem. Though all cases (Ferguson, New York, Baltimore, Baton Rouge, and Minneapolis, to name a few) are unique, they are characterized by one highly disturbing similarity – implicit racial prejudice and unwarranted use of official force against Black Americans, especially male Black Americans. The incidents…… [Read More]

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Police Values What Is Right and What Is Wrong

Words: 928 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32623227

Corrections / Police / Criminal Justice

ould I lie to a suspect to get a confession even it was legal to do so?

Legal or not, lying to get a confession creates a moral black hole for an officer. To wit, how would an officer who was otherwise a good Christian later feel about getting a conviction albeit he obtained that conviction through deception? That is the question here. Chances are he would feel guilty; and it's possible that his wife, if she knew he used lies to tease a confession out of a suspect, would confront him. He would have had no place to hide from his sin in his earthly world and certainly spiritually he would live with a sense of guilt. Looked at a different way, when a good officer who was not a Christian but has always practiced ethical values is told by his superiors in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Jones, J.R. (2006). Reputable Conduct: Ethical Issues in Policing and Corrections. Don Mills,

Ontario: Pearson Canada.

Perez-Pena. R. (2012). Studies Find More Students Cheating, With High Achievers No

Exception. The New York Times. Retrieved June 30, 2014, from  http://www.nytimes.com .
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Police Brutality Essay

Words: 2564 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

Potential Topics:
Police Brutality and Race

Police Violence and African Americans

When Does the Use of Force Become Police Brutality?

Police Brutality and the Black Lives Matter Movement

Police Brutality and the Blue Lives Matter Movement
Alternate Titles:
The Use of Violence: Is there a Limit to the Amount of Force Police Officers Should Use on a Suspect?

Why Just Comply Is Not the Answer to Police Brutality

Are Minorities the Victims of Higher Rates of Police Violence?

Police Brutality: Is there a War on Cops or a War by Cops?
Outline:
I. Introduction - Definition

II. Body
A. Definition
B. Racial Disparity in American Criminal Justice
C. The Black Lives Matter Movement
D. Subsequent Killings
E. Delrawn Small on July 4, 2016
F. Alton Sterling on July 5, 2016
G. Philando Castile on July 6, 2016
H. Blue Lives Matter
I. Police Brutality and Attacks on the Police are…… [Read More]

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Policing Policies Analysis This Study Seeks to

Words: 1831 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50058097

Policing Policies Analysis

This study seeks to strengthen the practice of policing by demonstrating the effectiveness of the problem-oriented policing. The information provided herein is useful to practitioners as it compares problem-oriented policing against community-oriented policing. Practitioners will be able to create much robust policing intervention when addressing real life situations within the field by grasping the theoretical mechanisms (Hess & Orthmann, 2011). In addition, by linking academic theories to policing, this review helps theoretical criminologists ponder about the most useful concepts for practical police level.

Zero tolerance Policing

Zero-tolerance policing lacks a specific definition; it can be understood in various ways. The recent definition entails non-discretional and strict enforcement of law regardless of the magnitude or circumstances of the crime. While this approach involves positive police actions, it does not equate to automatic arrests of trivial crimes. This is the most aggressive policing approach and cannot be equated to…… [Read More]

References

Wakefield, A., & Fleming, J. (2008). The SAGE Dictionary of Policing. London: Sage Publications.

Palmiotto, M. (2009). Community policing: A policing strategy for the 21st century. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen.

Do-lling, D. (2013). Community policing: Comparative aspects of community oriented police work. Holzkirchen/Obb: Felix.

Ikerd, T.E. (2007). Examining the institutionalization of problem-oriented policing: The Charlotte-Mecklenburg police department as a case study.
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Policing Operations Hidden Dangers Real Weapons and

Words: 1323 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54409918

Policing Operations:

Hidden Dangers, Real Weapons, and Potential Technologies

Police officers are, undoubtedly, society's primary protectors. These individuals undertake assignments knowing that they could be placed in lethal danger, and do so in order to help complete strangers and keep a community safe. For this reason, police officers ought to be very much admired. Despite the personal and professional satisfaction that comes with being a great police officer, these individuals are also well aware that, as mentioned above, there are various aspects affecting their daily professional routines, many of which are not present in other careers, and many of which involve great risks. Yet despite knowing this, many police officers absolutely love their job. The paragraphs below will thus discuss policing operations in detail in order to better understand this particular and very important field of work. The essay will be separated into five sections focusing on the dangers of…… [Read More]

Shreeve, J.L. (2012). CSI Foils Felons. Police Technology. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .

Scheider, M. & Chapman, R. (2003). Community Policing and Terrorism. Homeland Security Wesite. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .

Simon, S. (2011). Former LAPD Chief Bill Bratton Predicts the Future of Policing. National Public Radio (NPR.com). Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .
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Policing Services and Programs Even as Policing

Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89219509

Policing Services and Programs:

Even as policing services and programs are being restructured across the globe, understanding this change in customary terms is rather difficult. In these new policing services and programs, the difference between public and private domains of policing is also problematic. However, understanding the ongoing changes is dependent on distinguishing between the authorization of policing and the way these services are provided. This is because of the fact that those who authorize policing services and programs may differ from those who provide these services (Bayley & Shearing, 2001). The restructuring of policing incorporates the weaknesses of the public police and is due to increases in crime, social structure, ideas and culture, character of government and the nature of economic systems. Due to the ongoing restructuring of policing, the role of the public police is significantly changing adopting a governmental rather than individual agenda. Furthermore, policing services and…… [Read More]

References:

Bayley, DH & Shearing, C.D. (2001, July). The New Structure of Policing: Description,

Conceptualization and Research Agenda. Retrieved from National Institute of Justice -- U.S. Department of Justice website: http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/nij/187083.txt

Cohen, B. & Leinen, S.H. (2009). Research On Criminal Justice Organizations: The Sentencing

Process. Retrieved May 4, 2011, from  http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reports/2009/R2018.pdf
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Policing Challenges to Policing in the 21st

Words: 888 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92231395

Policing Challenges

Challenges to policing in the 21st century

Policing has taken a different dimension from the traditional policing habits of maintaining law and order and combating the usual crimes to handling new forms of crime, which can be termed as white collar crimes. The society is faced with criminal activities which are as a result of the advanced level of technology use across the globe. The 21st century criminals are not the hardcore type law breakers but very intelligent individuals who are well informed and highly educated, they use very sophisticated systems to execute several crimes in different parts of the world as more people are embracing the use of technology in their day-to-day life (Interpol, 2012). This is an era where the criminals are technologically savvy and use this as a tool to commit crimes without the use of force or inflicting any bodily harm to the victims…… [Read More]

References

Patricia Linn, (1999). what are the five types of Crimes. Retrieved April 3, 2012 from  http://www.ehow.com/list_7245606_five-types-crime_.html .

Interpol, (2012). Cyber Crimes. Retrieved April 3, 2012 fromhttp://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Cybercrime/Cybercrime.
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Police Management Management Irrespective of the Particular

Words: 2681 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30878429

Police Management

Management, irrespective of the particular industry, has a profound effect on organizational effectiveness. For one, management has the ability to drive results through proper motivation and incentives. A manager must also effective lead through his or her ability to inspire action on the part of subordinates. These broad requirements of management demands various skill sets. Many of these skill sets including leadership, time managements, the ability to inspire, financial acumen, and so forth are acquired over time. Through a broad array of experiences, management is better equipped to handle varying and often conflicting circumstances. The law enforcement arena is no different in this regard. Management, particular those in law enforcement must be cognizant of a litany of behaviors and activities. Policing management, has undergone extensive change due primarily to the changing societal demographics prevailing in the world today. Cultures are now becoming more profound in America. The Hispanic…… [Read More]

References:

1) Seabrooks, T.J. "Why Are so Many Felons Repeat Offenders?" Geek Politics. Web. 02 Apr. 2012. .

2) Blake, R.; Mouton, J. (1964). The Managerial Grid: The Key to Leadership Excellence. Houston: Gulf Publishing Co...

3) Carlyle, Thomas (1841). On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic History. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 1-4069-4419-X.

4) Fiedler, Fred E. (1967). A theory of leadership effectiveness. McGraw-Hill: Harper and Row Publishers Inc.
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Police Communication Technology the Need

Words: 1786 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27318766



Conclusion:

The police adapting to rapid changes in technology is felt in two ways -- primarily in using the technology that comes with new inventions for the police like better weapons, communication networks and so on for which they have to be thoroughly trained. The specialist has also to be trained in many issues like cyber crimes, and use of sophisticated computers and machines for crime. Police with an up-to-date mass communication system can be easily mobilized and can have faster response to events. The negative aspects of technology cannot be wished away and there must be research done to overcome these defects in communication with the public and also reliance must be placed on more robust methods of data access.

eferences

Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal

Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.

Couldry, Nick; Mccarthy, Anna. (2004) "Mediaspace: Place, Scale, and Culture in…… [Read More]

References

Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal

Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.

Couldry, Nick; Mccarthy, Anna. (2004) "Mediaspace: Place, Scale, and Culture in a Media

Age." Routledge: New York.
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Policing Is an Essential Issue

Words: 1592 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34544021

Not only doe s this approach include the participation of the community it also incorporates organizational change. Both community involvement and organizational change is necessary if policing efforts are going to be effective. This approach also emphasizes the importance of trust between the police and the community. The community oriented approach to policing is the most effective in the solving and reducing of crime within a community.

Conclusion

For the purposes of this discussion: Two police officers are arguing about the policies of community-oriented and problem-oriented policing as opposed to zero-tolerance policing. The research analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches to policing. Both approaches seek to understand crime. However, both approaches had disadvantages related to the boundaries of community residents and the time required to solve crime using a problem oriented approach. The investigation also explained the ideologies that support these policy perspectives. The research will also…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Community Policing Defined."  http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/default.asp?item=36 

G Cordner, EP Biebel. Problem-Oriented Policing in Practice. Criminology & Public Policy, Volume 4, Issue 2 (p 155-180)

Lum, C. 2009 Community Policing or Zero Tolerance. British Journal of Criminology. http://bjc.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/azp039v1

Maguire, M. 2004. 'The Crime Reduction Programme in England and Wales: Reflections on the Vision and the Reality', Criminal Justice 4(3): 213 -- 37.
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Police Recruiting

Words: 1018 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82018761

Police ecruiting

Just like every other institution in the country, American policing system went through a long period of evolution to finally achieve the shape that it has today. And similar to other laws and institutions in America, even police recruitment methods were heavily borrowed from Britain. In the 19th century or at least for most part of it, American police was shaped after the British policing laws (O'Keefe, 2004). However the one important difference lied in the separation of national and local police bodies. Since in most western countries, police was under the direct control of the national government, it was easier to manage them from one central location and their development was also almost simultaneous. However that was not the case in the United States where every county and state had its own local police department, which is why development of sporadic and departments were created at different…… [Read More]

References

1) Miller, Wilbur R. (1999) Cops and Bobbies: Police Authority in New York and London, 1830-1870. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.

2) Wadman, Robert C. And William Thomas Allison (2004) To Protect And Serve: A History Of Police In America. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey

3) James O'Keefe. (2004) Protecting the Republic: The education and training of American police officers. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
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Police Technology

Words: 613 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56803792

Police Technology

Video cameras on police cars

Before the mounting of the in-car cameras for the police, there used t be several unresolved or wrongly resolved issues in the process of their duty. One advantage that came with the cameras is the possibility of verification of the racial profiling while doing their normal checks along the highways which was a major complain heard in courts across the U.S.A. In various cases in the courts, the defendants will try to skew facts in order to walk with crimes and this was a rampant happening especially in police arrest cases along the highway. With the recording of happenings between a person arrested and the police, the evidence stands out in the event the accused tries to twist facts. A clear instance is as depicted by ICAP Staff (2013);

"An officer was responding to a major incident requiring immediate police assistance. As he…… [Read More]

Reference

IACP Staff, (2013). The Impact of Video Evidence in Modern Policing. Retrieved October 8, 2013 from  http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Publications/video_evidence.pdf
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Police Abuse Problems With Guilty Pleas

Words: 661 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11580751

Police Abuse/Problems with Guilty Pleas

Police Abuse

From time to time, the media highlights stories about police abuse that can best be described as disturbing. It is unfortunate that some police officers do turn against the same people they have sworn to keep safe. Indeed, most victims of police brutality are left feeling frightened, betrayed and helpless. Further, police abuse triggers a cycle of mistrust in which case the community gradually loses confidence in those they rely on for safety and protection. Though a majority of police officers in the community I come from are dedicated and act within the confines of the law; there are a few bad elements (based on previous incidences of police brutality) who soil the otherwise warm relations the community shares with the police.

It is important to note that only a fraction of the total incidences of police abuse are reported by the media.…… [Read More]

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Police on Jupiter Madame Council

Words: 318 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73779958

In addition we have made, and continue to make, efforts to employ people of all backgrounds for Jupiter's police force so that people of all backgrounds see people from their cultures in law enforcement.

People, no matter where they are from, tend to fear the unknown (Carter, 1995), so we feel that a policy of community policing -- getting the officers into the various neighborhoods of Jupiter in positive ways -- is important. One of the things we have done to accomplish that is to put our officers in the vicinity of school crosswalks when children are traveling to and from school. This allows them to interact positively with children from an early age as well as allow the parents to see police officers in their most important role -- protecting all of Jupiter's inhabitants. I hope these comments will put any concerns to rest.

ibliography

Carter, Ronnie A. 1995.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Carter, Ronnie A. 1995. "Improving minority relations." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, December.
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Policing Roles What Is the Role of

Words: 372 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14372003

Policing oles

What is the role of police in society? What would happen if the role of the police were lessened as it applies to the theory and practice of community policing?

Generally, the most important roles that police play in civilized society are that of criminal deterrence (Schmalleger, 2009). More specifically, the public awareness of the presence and authority of law enforcement deters most members of the population from criminal conduct that they might otherwise consider if there were no negative consequences. In community policing, police serve a much wider role than criminal deterrence, prevention, and response (Schmalleger, 2009). Modern police also play important roles in ensuring public order and public safety, as well as in addressing contemporary counterterrorism (Schmalleger, 2009). They maximize opportunities to work with proactive members of the community to establish and maintain positive and mutually beneficial relationships (Ellison, 2006). If the role of police were…… [Read More]

References

Ellison, J. "Community Policing: Implementation Issues." Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 75, No. 4 (Apr/06).

Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st

Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Police Psychology Identify the Different Domains Police

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12354204

Police Psychology

Identify the different domains police psychologists work in, and discuss some of the roles psychologists might assume when working in different domains.

A police psychologist will work primarily in the assessment domain. In many instances, police officers must be properly screened and evaluated prior to duty. In other instances, officers will be evaluating during duty to proper access their ability to fully protect society. As such, psychologists have the primary function or determining the adequacy of a police officers skill set relative to predetermined metrics of success. Through periodic evaluation, the psychologist has the distinct role of assessing the skills and abilities of current and prospective police officers.

Psychologists also operate within the intervention domain. This domain is particularly important due to the nature of police officer work. Law enforcement officers are unique to many professions, as their job requires exposure to very contentious issues. Particularly troubling, is…… [Read More]

Reference:

1) Kitaeff. JackHandbook of Police Psychology, 2011. Bookshelf. Web. 07 November 2013

2) Walker, Samuel (2005). The New World of Police Accountability. Sage. p. 5. ISBN 0-534-58158-7.
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Police Systems and Practices Question Set Discuss

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Police Systems and Practices Question Set

Discuss how temperament can impair communication?

The ability control one's temperament at all times while working as a police officer is crucial to the performance of daily duties, because there are many instances when law enforcement personnel may be provoked to reaction in a purposeful manner. If an officer is unable to refrain from responding to insults in kind, or begins to yell or otherwise express anger, the course of an investigation or civilian interaction will become irrevocably altered. Simply put, ordinary people are less willing to cooperate with police officers and other authority figures who are openly frustrated, angry, spiteful, impatient, or otherwise perturbed -- so it is imperative that maintaining an even-keeled temperament become both a departmental and personal priority.

Discuss how failure of supervisors to act can impede future communication from subordinates.

A police officer's locker room is like any other…… [Read More]

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Police Suspicion Can Text I Uploaded a

Words: 785 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61135289

Police Suspicion

Can text I uploaded a file a reference. BIBLIOGAPHY: Stuckey, G., oberson, C., & Wallace, H. (2006). Procedures justice system (8th Ed.). Upper Saddle iver, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Discuss police encounters individuals required level police suspicion needed justify encounters.

Discuss police encounters with individuals and the required level of police suspicion needed to justify these encounters. We will learn about consensual encounters, traffic stops, Terry stops, and arrests. You will take a look at the factors used to determine when a person is under arrest as well as the appropriateness of any searches performed during these encounter

Protection from unreasonable searches and seizures is accorded to all citizens of the United States by the Constitution. Determining precisely what constitutes an unreasonable search or seizure, however, has been an issue of continued debate amongst law enforcement throughout the history of the United States. "Until 1967, a search was an…… [Read More]

References

Stuckey, G., Roberson, C., & Wallace, H. (2006). Procedures in the justice system. (8th Ed.).

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
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Policing Social Control and Prison

Words: 1962 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78804299



Many unintended consequences have resulted from this "war." esearch on legitimate medical uses of banned substances, such as marijuana, have been hampered by legal road blocks. Violence stemming from drug-trade disputes has become an international problem. The onset of the AIDS in the 1980s hit addicts who injected illegal drugs particularity hard since the virus it passed through bodily fluids. Some governments were moved to initiate needle exchange programs in part because "slowing the spread of a fatal disease for which no cure exists was the greater moral imperative" (Nadelmann, 1998, p. 115).

Practically speaking the cost of exchanging needles is considerably less than the expense of treating patients with the AIDS virus. Nonetheless, exchange programs in this country have been held back by political issues and moral judgments.

Conclusion

If we were to muster the political and moral courage to reexamine this issue in another light many of the…… [Read More]

References

Drug War Chronicle. (2005, October 28). Feature: Drug war prisoner count over half a million, U.S. population at all time high. Drug reform coordination network. Retrieved May 4, 2012, from  http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle-old/409/toohigh.shtml 

Micucci, a.J. & Gomme, I.M. (2005, September/October). American police and subculture support fot the use of excesive force. Journal of criminal justice. Vol. 33, Issue 5, 487-500. Retrieved May 4, 2012, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/results?sid=c58a1da27a12-4795-bf9b-7b85bef0ad30%40sessionmgr12&vid=2&hid=7&bquery=American+police+and+subcultural+support+for+the+use+of+excessive+force&bdata=JmRiPWFwaCZ0eXBlPTAmc2l0ZT1laG9zdC1saXZl

Nadelmann, E.A. (1998, January/February) Commonsense drug policy. Foreign affairs, Vol. 77, Issue 1. 111-126. Retrieved April 4, 2012, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=193d35d7-25d7-4473-a347-540e2acb7f16%40sessionmgr11&vid=5&hid=24

Pager, D. (2003, March). The mark of a criminal record. American journal of sociology, Vol. 108, No. 5. 937-975. Retrieved April 4, 2012, from http://www.princeton.edu/~pager/pager_ajs.pdf
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Police Jennifer Lee's Decision to

Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52413225

That female officers -- or any officers for that matter -- would feel uncomfortable approaching their chief or any other superior shows that our department is not doing enough to ensure the well-being of our employees. No matter that the men in question are becoming solid, reliable officers of the law. All members of our team are highly qualified and all personnel must be treated with dignity and respect. Any behavior that harms another officer or impedes their ability to perform duties as part of a cohesive team should be taken seriously.

2. Anonymous complaints and unproven allegations of slashed tires are not enough to warrant any punishment. However, the officers in question can indeed be watched closely and carefully for any misogynistic behavior. Female officers must be encouraged to complain freely and without fear of retribution. It would be wise to arrange an informal consultation with any officers concerned…… [Read More]

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Police Stressors

Words: 1191 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51506847

Police Stress

Stress Associated with Policing

A look at some of the stresses that are associated with police fulfilling their job duties in the line of fire

Stress on the Job 4

The police profession is a highly stressful endeavor that often places officers in highly stressful situations on a regular basis. Police work is one of the few jobs out there where the employees must deal with murders, accidents, and the constant threat of personal injury. The effects of this environment can be cumulative and build up over time. Furthermore, many police officers are resistant to finding suitable outlets to deal with the effects of stress in a clinical setting or through counseling. There are many common objections for officers seeking help for the psychological issues that can emerge through the course of service. These include items such as it is not consistent with the image of masculinity that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, B. (N.d.). Confidentiality in Counseling: What Police Officers Need To Know . Retrieved from PTSD Resources for Survivors and Caregivers:  http://www.giftfromwithin.org/pdf/confide.pdf 

Glass, I. (2010, September 10). Transcript. Retrieved from This American Life: http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/414/transcript

University of Buffalo. (2008, September 29). Impact Of Stress On Police Officers. Retrieved from Physical and Mental Health: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080926105029.htm

Vogel, D., Wester, S., & Larson, L. (2007). Avoidance of Counseling: Psychological Factors That Inhibit Seeking Help. Journal of Counseling and Development, 411-422. Retrieved from Iowa State.
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Police in Society Organizational Structure

Words: 1975 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24317557

Patrol crafts would be deployed along the coastal areas waiting to act upon any information provided to confiscate drugs and arrest drug traffickers. For this purpose, the city police would be armoured with 2 well-equipped fast patrol crafts. Communication services between the stations and the patrol crafts would be state of the art including GPS systems and radar networks to facilitate identifying and tracking down of suspicious activity in the coastal waters. Further, the use of latest thermal imaging and laser optics tools would provide effective supervision at nights.

Conclusion

The police department has immense responsibility in maintaining law and order and providing safety and security would necessitate a strong police force based on a clear and sound organizational philosophy. As a coastal city with its growing population, the urban city of Metropolis is faced with numerous problems, in particular the high drug trade activity along the coastal regions. The…… [Read More]

Bibliography

NCWC, " Police in Society," Accessed 16th Apr 2007, Available online at, http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/205/205lects.htm

Author not Available, "Community Policing," Accessed 15th Apr 2007, available at  http://law.jrank.org/pages/1648/Police-Community-Policing-Definition-community-policing.html 

James T. Quinlivan, Burden of Victory: The Painful Arithmetic of Stability Operations, Available Online at, http://www.rand.org/publications/randreview/issues/summer2003/burden.html

City of Phoenix, 'Police Officer Processing Procedures', Accessed Apr 16th 2007, available at http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/POLICE/pdjob3.html
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Police Reform in Post Authoritarian Brazil

Words: 12011 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41646569

Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil

A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).

The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…… [Read More]

References

Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.

Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.

Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.

Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.
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Police History Structure and Functions

Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71182572

Police: History, Structure, and Functions

The policing system's development in Britain was closely followed by a similar development in America. Policing by the initial colonizers assumed two forms: "The Big Stick" (for-profit, private agency policing) and the "Watch" (communal as well as informal) (Spitzer, 1979). Community volunteers primarily charged with warning citizens of imminent danger made up the latter system. The night watch was first implemented in the year 1636 in Boston. New York and Philadelphia implemented night watch system in the years 1658 and 1700, respectively. This system did not prove particularly successful in controlling crime. Supplementing the "watch" mode of policing was a group of official law enforcers, labeled "constables," who were often salaried by a fee system, based on number of warrants served by them. Policing's informal procedure continued for several years following the 1765-83 American evolution. Only in the 1830s did the U.S. first introduce a…… [Read More]

References

Davis, Rowenna. (2009). Policing the police, The Guardian. Retrieved from  https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/libertycentral/2009/feb/28/convention-modern-liberty-police  on October 5, 2016.

Lewis, M.A. (2011). "Perspective: Peel's Legacy," FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. The FBI. Retrieved from https://leb.fbi.gov/2011/december/perspective-peels-legacy on October 5, 2016.

Lundman, Robert J. (1980). Police and Policing: An Introduction, New York, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Spitzer, Stephen, (1979). The Rationalization of Crime Control in Capitalist Society, Contemporary Crises 3, no. 1.
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Policing Islamist Social Movements Many

Words: 3335 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2472427



The post-colonial state in Egypt was shaped by nationalism and nationbuilding, regionalism (pan-Arabism and pan-Islamism), contestations over legitimacy and interest-based and populist corporatism (Ayubi, 1991). More recently the focus shifted to discussions about civil society and democratization (Al-Sayyid, 1993; S. Ibrahim, 1995; S. Ibrahim (ed.), 1993; Norton (ed.), 1995; Zaki, 1995). In these works special attention has been given to Islamist organizations and their role in Egypt's 'civil society' associations (Kepel, 1985; Marty & Appleby (eds.), 1991; Stowasser (ed.), 1987; Zaki, 1995; Zubaida, 1992). Zaki, for example, contrasts the general weakness and political ineffectiveness that he attributes to the overwhelming majority of associations to the overall strength of Islamic associations (Al-Ali 2000:53)."

Feminist politics is somewhat subversive then, working through and against the state in a very candid way, but in a way that self-polices (54). That is to say in a way that remains respectful of Islamic law, which…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105452619

Al-Ali, Nadje. 2000. Secularism, Gender, and the State in the Middle East: The Egyptian Women's Movement. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105452622.Internet. Accessed 5 May 2008. Ganji, Manouchehr. 2002. Defying the Iranian Revolution: From a Minister to the Shah to a Leader of Resistance / . Westport, CT: Praeger, Questia. 20 Nov. 2006 http://questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102106483. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001188974

Gole, Nilufer. 2000. Snapshots of Islamic Modernities. Daedalus 129, no. 1: 91. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001188974.Internet. Accessed 5 May 2008. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001228850

Humphrey, Michael. 2000. Violence, Voice and Identity in Algeria. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 22, no. 1: 1. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001228850.Internet. Accessed 5 May 2008. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102504005
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Police Management Performance Management Comparison

Words: 1374 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79206236

(NCPP 2004)

II. Performance Management in England and Wales:

In Wales and England the National Policing Plan 2004-2007 was published in November 2003 with the stated aim of the plan being to: "Deliver policing to high national standards and for communities to be increasing engaged in the policing of their area." The stated plan is inclusive of a "framework for local police planning in England and Wales over the next three years." Within the scope of the plan are 'five key priorities' for the police service' which are: Provision of a 'citizen focused service to the public'

Tackling anti-social behavior and disorder as well as continuing to bring a reduction to 'burglary, vehicle crime, robbery and drug related crime' are said to be in line with the Government's Public Service Agreement targets Stated as the Performance Police Authority Role is the holding together of the police force on behalf of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Eigerman, M.R. 1988, "Who should be responsible for business strategy?" Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 9, no. 6, p. 40.

Gummer, B. 1992, "Ready, fire, aim! Current perspectives on strategic planning,"

Administration in Social Work, vol. 16, no. 1, p. 89.

Cross, K.F. & Lynch, R.L. 1992, "For good measure," CMA Magazine, vol. 66, no. 3,
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Police Law Enforcement Agencies or the Police

Words: 780 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19893591

Police

Law enforcement agencies, or the police force, operate on several jurisdictional platforms within the United States. In general, their primary mandate is to help maintain societal order and the rule of law by assisting subjects with legal compliance, protecting property, helping to keep citizens and property safe and secure, and for assistance in extraordinary events. The police force is part of the social order of society and mediates public events, pre-empts anti-social behaviors, helps mitigate potential dangers at large events, works with other agencies in general search and rescue, crowd control, regulations, education and awareness campaigns, and to support the rule of law (Cole, 2004). Under the rubric of law enforcement, there are three major categories of police: Federal, Local and State.

Local law enforcement provides routine and micro-policing to the communities within their jurisdiction. This may include traffic enforcement, criminal investigations, local laboratory or forensic investigation, certain types…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

The Difference Between Federal and State Law. (2010). Retrieved from The Leadership Conference - Civilrights.org:  http://www.civilrights.org/judiciary/courts/difference-federal-local-courts.html 

Cole, G. a. (2004). The American System of Criminal Justice. New York: Wadsworth.

Dempsey and Forst. (2009). An Introduction to Policing. Florence, KY: Delmar Cenage Learning.

Hedgpeth, D. (2008, September 17). Congress Says DHX Oversaw $15 Billion in Failed Contracts. Retrieved from The Washington Post.com:  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/16/AR2008091603200.html
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Police Chiefs vs Sheriffs Police

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80623779

Sheriffs usually have smaller staffs, and so they may have more duties and responsibilities than a police chief, who has a larger staff to handle some of his or her responsibilities, such as training or PR.

Often, sheriffs are responsible for county jails, which take in prisoners and suspects from the surrounding area, and transfer them to county courts when the time for trial comes. The sheriff is responsible for his officers and their patrols, which may entail covering outlying areas that are farther away from the main station. Sheriff's officers are called deputies. Many sheriffs' departments have disappeared as state and county police take over the duties of sheriffs.

If the sheriff is responsible for the county jail, he or she is also responsible for providing officers to transport prisoners, guard the county courts, and serving warrants and other legal documents. Usually, the sheriff and city police do not…… [Read More]

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Policing in the Future One

Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93963499

One of the major things that management can do is increase traffic control. From the Department of Motor Vehicles, which screens people before issuing identification, to officers in routine traffic stops and roadblocks that look for suspected terrorist activity, management can change policies in a manner aimed at increasing detection. (Riebling, p.8). The more routine contact that the police have with members of society; the more likely they are to uncover possible terrorist activity.

Finally, the community at large faces new challenges in the wake of 9-11. Americans have a tremendous amount of civil rights, which generally exceed those that have received constitutional protection. Prior to 9-11, the majority of community members who avoided criminal activity would be able to avoid interactions with the police. However, now that law enforcement has had to broaden its emphasis and take a closer look at the community, the average citizen can anticipate greater…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Connors, Timothy and Georgia Pellegrini, Ed. Hard Won Lessons: Policing Terrorism in the United States. New York City: Manhattan Institute, 2006.

Riebling, Mark, Ed. Hard Won Lessons: The New Paradigm- Merging Law Enforcement and Counterterrorism Strategies. New York City: Manhattan Institute, 2006.
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police brutality and behaviorism

Words: 1826 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71293747

Police officers are authorized to use force when necessary, a policy that is generally used to protect innocent people from violence and abuse, and protect the general public from harm. However, the authorization to use force can be easily abused. Police abuse of power in the form of police brutality is an ethical problem because it constitutes abuse of power, and also leads to mistrust of law enforcement. Mistrust of law enforcement in turn undermines the authority and legitimacy of the police and prevents cooperative measures of stopping crime like community policing models. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (2015), 44 million people on average each year in the United States have some kind of face-to-face contact with police and of those 44 million, just under two percent experience use of threatening or nonfatal force. While this number may seem small, on the ground the high rate of police…… [Read More]

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Police the Philosophy and Role

Words: 876 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7736746

These people often lack familiarity with public safety operations. Campus chiefs of police and directors of security are often challenged by the opposing interests of their chief executive officers. Informing campus leaders about importance of public safety is vital to its success. Nonetheless, time constraints and other challenges and priorities imposed on these leaders make it difficult for them to devote any time to security and safety matters before the problems arise (National Summit of Campus Public Safety, 2005).

The look and feel of security on college and university campuses has changed dramatically since September 11th. Colleges and universities have implemented the following:

- updated their campus emergency management plans to include response protocols for an active shooter on campus, bomb threat, evacuation, lockdown and other high probability incidents that might occur.

- registered their campus emergency management plans with their local municipal police departments and county offices of emergency…… [Read More]

References

Canas, Richard. (2008). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from The New York Times Web site:

http://topics.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/04/16/rethinking-the-role-of-campus-police/

National Summit of Campus Public Safety. (2005). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from U.S.

Department of Justice Web site:
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Policing - Implementing Changes the

Words: 846 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16762141

Regardless of the fact that no serious criminal activity transpired in most cases, it detracted from the quality of life of some residents of buildings immediately adjacent to such congregations (Conlon, 2004).

In other situations, such as peaceful gatherings of small groups of students outside bars every weekend night, residents of buildings overlooking the bars were subjected to loud conversations, cigarette smoke, music from vehicles until well after typical closing times of 4:00AM every weekend night, at a minimum. Giuliani's zero-tolerance approach to "unlawful assembly" of the type previously and ordinarily ignored as a technical violation not worth enforcing prohibited these gatherings for the benefit of residents who wished not to be disturbed all night long three or four nights a week in many "trendy" neighborhoods. Furthermore, the broken windows analogy also applied to those situations, by virtue of the frequency with which altercations and brawls break out in conjunction…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Conlon, E. (2004) Blue Blood. Riverhead, NY: Bantam

Nolan, J., Conti, N, McDevitt, J. Situational Policing. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 74 No. 11 (Nov/05).

Schmalleger, F. (2001) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
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Viewing the Function of Policing It Increases

Words: 1222 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92961918

viewing the function of policing. It increases understanding of the policing function at different levels hence minimizes conflict and confusion over issues in policing. It is obvious the levels of policing discussed herein are very dependable on each other. Policing like other professions obtains knowledge through experience. It follows that modern police officers look for effective policing strategies through the guidance of the police history lessons (Conser, Paynich & Gingerich, 2013). The challenges confirm that police history is incoherent, and the lessons are hard to learn. Such histories are generated by thousands of police departments in response to local conditions and the pursuit for their visions. While varied policing perspectives are a viable source of lessons, few trends shaping the function of policing at the local, state, and federal levels exist. In this case, interpretation is imperative.

Perspectives of the policing function

Local

In the U.S., policing is civilian, extremely…… [Read More]

References

Conser, J.A., Paynich, R., & Gingerich, T. (2013). Law enforcement in the United States. Burlington, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Dantzker, M.L. (2009). Police organization and management: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Langworthy, R.H., & Travis, L.F. (2013). Policing in America: A balance of forces. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.
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American Policing Issues Why Is

Words: 1853 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32212869



11. What is community policing? How does it differ from traditional policing?

Community policing emphasizes positive situational contacts between police personnel and the general public and de-emphasizes enforcement-based approaches to policing. It differs from traditional policing mainly in that it is a means of reducing crime through enhanced public involvement in communities and in that it strongly promotes the initiation of police-civilian contacts outside of the enforcement realm (Caruso & Nirode, 2001).

12. What is the nature of the drug problem in the United States? Is today's drug problem any different or worse than the drug problem in the past?

The most important drug problem today is the questionable value of criminalizing private recreational drug use, particularly in relation to marijuana, which cannot be justified or logically distinguished from the permissive approach to cigarette and alcohol consumption. Evidence from Europe suggests that even enforcement of criminal laws prohibiting the use…… [Read More]

Reference

Schmalleger F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st

Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Criminology in a Modern Society Police Have

Words: 4137 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12460429

Criminology

In a modern society, police have important roles play in preventing and managing crimes. The police are in good position to learn and investigate crimes and threats because they have available resources to ensure that communities are protected from vulnerable targets. However, changes and multi-dynamic complexities within a given society have necessitated police force to develop partnership relationships with various public agencies to enhance prevention of crimes and security matters within a society. (Clarke and Newman, 2007). Partnership working or partnership approach is largely based on the premises that only police force could not deal with the crime and complex safety problems within a community. Partnership working is defined as the cooperative relationships between two or more organizations with the aim to achieve common goals such as tackling the crime problems in a society. Partnership working with the goal to tackle crimes is now strongly embedded in the methods…… [Read More]

References

Berry, G. Briggs, P. Erol, R. et al. (2011). The Effectiveness of Partnership Working in a Crime and Disorder Context: A Rapid Evidence Assessment. Research Report 52, The National Archives, UK.

Clarke, R.V. And Newman, G.R.(2007). Police and the Prevention of Terrorism. Policing. 1 (1): 9-20.

Home Office, (2007). Delivering Safer Communities: A Guide to Effective Partnership Working. Guide for Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership and Community Safety Partnerships. Welsh Assembly Government. UK.

Jacobs, K.(2010). The politics of partnerships: a study of police and housing collaboration to tackle anti-social behaviour on Australian public housing estates. Public Administration, 88(4): 928-942.
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Proactive Policing

Words: 6206 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42132239

Proactive Policing

There is generally a concept that police respond only after a crime is committed. However, now police do have opportunities to be proactive. Today proactive policing has emerged as the key to a booming future in crime prevention and control. Now police uncompromisingly carries out required investigation and works with citizens and social service groups in order to contain crime-breeding conditions and decrease the rate of street crime.

Proactive/community policing stresses on clarification, forecast and avoidance of crime occurrence. This is done through the investigation of fundamental issues of offenses and chaos and through proactive problem solving for problems that are anticipated to culminate into criminal / anti-social activism, if not controlled at the initial stage.

Outline of the Paper

The article discusses police practices towards controlling crime. Its main emphasis is on analyzing proactive practices adopted in the police systems over the years, translating from the early…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Angell, J. Towards an Alternative to the Classic Police Organizational Arrangement: A Demographic Model. Criminology 8. 1971

Bennett, T. Evaluating Neighborhood Watch. Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing, 1990.

Brodeur, Jean-Paul. High Policing and Low Policing: Remarks about the Policing of Political

Activities. Social Problems. 1983.
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Discretionary Use of Police Authority

Words: 738 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32704165



Disadvantages of police discretion

The blanket use of discretion can result in repressive tactics being utilized against suspected criminals. If the police department refrains from guiding and controlling the use of this authority, abuses as well as extreme disparities can occur. Where, various individuals could become corrupted from the large amounts of authority they are given. As they could begin seeking out special favors (bribes / kickbacks) or they could use severe tactics when dealing with suspects. This is because police officials often operate in environments, where they are mostly alone. While at the same time, they are in contact with people in who live in different social / economic conditions. (Goldstein 1977) When you put these various elements together, this means that the use of discretion must be limited (due to the fact that possible abuses could occur).

Factors that influence an officer's decision-making process

There are a number…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Goldstein, H. (1977). Categorizing and structuring discretion. Policing in a Free society (pp. 93-130). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Company.

Livingston, D. (1997) Police Discretion and the Quality of Life in Public Places: Courts, Communities, and the New Policing. Columbia Law Review 97 (3), 551-672.

Remington, F. (1965). Police in a Democratic Society. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science (1965): 361.

Wilson, James Q. (1968). Varieties of Police Behavior, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
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Unethical Police Operations Over the

Words: 766 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96529109

The charges were quietly dropped against the suspect and an Internal Affairs investigation cleared them of all wrong doing. (Terruso, 2011)

Explain the outcomes of the cases. Did you agree with the outcomes? Why or why not?

The situation involving the New York City police officers is still in the court system. So far I agree with the outcome. This is because they were deliberately breaking the law by selling automatic weapons to criminal elements. Moreover, they were also working with organized crime to sell cigarettes that were stolen from the police evidence room. This can erode the confidence of the general public in the department's ability to objectively enforce the law. When this happens, it will affect investigations and their outcomes. As a result, they had to be stopped before the situation became worse. (ashbaum, 2011)

While the case in Elizabeth, resulted in the suspect suing the department for…… [Read More]

References

2010 NPMSRP. (2010), Police Misconduct. Retrieved from:  http://www.policemisconduct.net/2010-q2-npmsrp-national-police-misconduct-statistical-report/ 

Johnson, K. (2007). Police Brutality Cases on the Rise. USA Today. Retrieved from:  http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-12-17-Copmisconduct_N.htm 

Rashbaum, W. (2011). 8 Officers Charged with Gun Trafficking. City Room. Retrieved from: http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/10/25/officers-accused-of-smuggling-guns-in-federal-corruption-case/

Terruso, J. (2011). Elizabeth Police Brutality. Star Ledger. Retrieved from:  http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2011/11/elizabeth_police_brutality_cas.html
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Ethical Issues in Law Enforcement

Words: 2631 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29653362

J. Simpson or John Gotti. In both cases, the defendants are entitled to the presumption of innocence only in court; but there is no such "presumption" in the intellectual "court" of one's mind.

A lawyer with integrity would refuse to represent any defendant he believed was probably guilty of horrendous crimes and simply let that defendant be represented by a court-appointed attorney who is obligated by law to represent any defendant who cannot afford a private attorney. If all criminal defense lawyers had high personal ethical standards, the Simpsons and Gottis of the world would find it impossible to retain any defense counsel other than those obligated by law to take their cases.

4. Define and briefly explain ethical dilemma. Of the four categories of dilemmas: discretion, duty, honesty and loyalty, which one applies best to the following situations? Explain your rationale. Also, explain how an officer might analyze the…… [Read More]

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Ethical Considerations in Police Work

Words: 905 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67131128

Lead by Example

Field training officers do not merely instruct rookie officers in the technical protocols pertinent a job description: they also set the moral tone for the organization. When an officer acts unethically in front of a rookie, it places the rookie in an uncomfortable situation: he or she can go along with his or her commanding officer as he or she is supposed to -- and thus act unethically -- or he or she can be true to his or her convictions but then seem to be defying the dictates of the police force at an early, critical stage in his or her career. "The solidarity norm of police and corrections officer subculture constitutes fertile ground for officer wrongdoing" given the 'us vs. them' dynamic of officer culture (Jones & Carlson 2004: 99).

Interestingly, New York City was recently criticized for having over-zealous new officers staffing its 'stop…… [Read More]

References

Bobb, M & Pearsall, A. (2010). The changing mission of police monitoring. U.S. Department of Justice.  http://cops.usdoj.gov/html/dispatch/January_2010/print/police_monitoring_print.htm 

Jones, J.R. & Carlson, D.P. (2004). Reputable conduct: Ethical issues in policing and corrections (2nd ed.). Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Standards and guidelines for internal affairs. (2014). U.S. Department of Justice.

Retrieved from: http://ric-doj.zai-inc.com/Publications/cops-p164-pub.pdf
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Technology for Effective Policing as

Words: 2199 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52861484

The field is generally that of social control, informal and formal, and it sits in a surround, the larger political forces in a city or a nation (Manning 2008, p. 87).

The most prominent of these political pressures is a public, at least in the United States, that is ostensibly averse to constant monitoring as well as the continued militarization of the police force though the deployment of technologies such as those used in special operations. In their editorial regarding intersection cameras and automatic license plate scanners, the editors of McClatchy propose that, "somehow there has to be a way to take into consideration the uncomfortable feeling people get when they believe they are being spied on with the justifiable methods of making law enforcement more efficient" (McClatchy 2010). They suggest the place to start is the database where recorded video and license plate data is kept anywhere from a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Editorial: balance public concerns, police technology. (2010, December 30). McClatchy

Tribune Business News.

Manning, P.K. (2008). The technology of policing: crime mapping, information technology, and the rationality of crime control. New York, NY: New York University Press, 87-88.

Moriarty, L.J. (2005). Criminal justice in the 21st century. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas
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Force Police and Other Protectors

Words: 3816 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69106210

One of the authors in the review, in fact details a reporting system that effectively makes the use of force scene an investigated crime scene, where forensic and other evidence, physical and testimonial, is collected to develop a clear understanding of the events as they unfolded. (2005) Some would argue that this sort of method smacks of the police policing the police, and yet the OSCE Guidebook and many experts would argue that this sort of transparency is necessary for public trust and the insurance of reduced opportunity for corruption at every level. (2006) This emphasis on transparency is relatively new to policing, but in my opinion is demonstrative of positive social change and the eventual development of a much clearer sense on the part of the police, their governing agencies and the public of the nature and definitions of justifiable.

Suspect Coercion by Force or Threat of Force:

Klokar's…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buker, H. (2005) Book Reviews, International Journal of Police Science and Management 7: 3 pp. 208-312

Carty, K. (2006) "Guidebook of Democratic Policing Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe" Vienna

Council of Europe Committee of Ministers (COECM) "Recommendation Rec (2001)10 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the European Code of Police Ethics" 19 September 2001, Retrieved, November 15, 2007, at http://www.legislationline.org/legislation.php?tid=155&lid=4886

Evans, M.D., & Morgan, R. (1998). Preventing Torture: A Study of the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Measuring the Effectiveness of Police Body Cameras

Words: 1022 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92438802

Define the Concept and Create Measures

This study will use the survey method in order to measure officers’ perception of the effectiveness of body cameras in reducing tension in everyday situations in which police are at work. For the purpose of this study, tension is defined as a feeling in which insecurities, uneasiness, paranoia, anxiety, or other feeling of pressure is heightened (Ariel, Farrar & Sutherland, 2015). The body camera program recently adopted by the metropolitan police force is meant to encourage and promote accountability and verifiability while simultaneously helping to de-escalate situations through the knowledge of the fact that every engagement of an officer with a citizen is being recorded. This study aims to use the quantitative survey method in order to assess the extent to which officers find the body cameras to be effective in achieving the policy aims.

The survey will consist of a series of 5-10…… [Read More]

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Corrections Police Law Enforcement Police Technology

Words: 3819 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94009628



The middle of the decade of the 1980's was witness to the creation of the Technology Assessment Program Information Center and the Technology Program Advisory Agency. Their functions were as follows:

Technology Assessment Program Information Center: Picked up laboratories for testing equipment, supervised the testing process, published reports concerning the results that the lab released after testing.

Technology Program Advisory Agency: This was a large advisory body of senior local and federal law enforcement officials which are the predecessors to that which exists today

Important in the advancement of police protection was the creation and application in use of pepper spray.

VI. The Role of the National Institute for Justice in the Development of Law Enforcement technology:

The National Institute of Justice issued a "mandate in its capacity as the criminal research and development arms of the U.S. Department of Justice was to improve and strengthen the nations' system of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Are U.S. Police Agencies Being Outpaced in Technology-policeone.com 09-28-04 [Online] available at http://www.policeone.come/policeone/frtonend/parser.cfm?object+Product Categories&te

Visteon Provides the Latest in Law Enforcement Technology to Alkland County Sheriff Bouchard PR Newswire 10-29-05 [Online] available at http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?ctrlInfo+Round9a%AProd%ADOC%AP11-10-04

Satellite Technology Boosts Officer Safety 26 Jan 2004 [Online] available at http: www.staffordshire.police.uk/news306.htm

NIJ: Autoloading Pistols for Police Officers: NIJ STandard Series: Law Enforcement and Corrections Standard and Testing [Online] available at http://wwwlncjrs.org/txtfiles1/173943.txt
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Suspension of the Miami Florida Police Chief

Words: 962 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79119320

suspension of the Miami, Florida police chief. The suspension was the result of a political dispute between the police chief and the Miami mayor. The mayor and police chief had been involved in a dispute over suspected illegal gambling that the police chief believed that the mayor was supporting. The chief's actions will be reviewed by a special commission. The question as to the level of involvement by the mayor in the gambling operation is still unresolved as well. The chief has requested that the FBI investigate the mayor's involvement and the chief has requested whistle blower status under the federal statutes. The City Council has expressed concerns that the dispute between the mayor and police chief has resulted in dysfunction in the operation of the Miami police force. The circumstances of this situation are such that minimizing or eliminating the politics would be difficult. Although the nature of the…… [Read More]

References

Baker, A. (2011, August 13). Effort to Fight Misconduct by City Police is Imperiled. New York Times, p. A20.

Don Van Natta, J. (2011, September 7). In Miami, Long and Bitter Feud with Mayor Pushes Police Chief Close to Dismissal. New York Times, p. A16.

Eligon, J. (2011, August 11). Second Ex-Officer in Rape Case Receives a Two-Month Jail Term. New York Times, p. A20.

Criminal Justice
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police vehicle pursuits

Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21369743

Police Pursuit

The law enforcement system's need of pursuing suspected lawbreakers has, perhaps, existed ever since the very first laws to tackle crime have been written. Right from the era of human traveling on foot to horse-riding to today's motorized transport, it is highly evident that police pursuits may be highly dangerous. The year 2003 witnessed approximately 35,000 pursuits of criminals across America, with 14,000 (i.e. almost 40% of these pursuits) ending in car crashes. No less than 50% of these 14,000 crashes gave rise to injuries. Furthermore, fatalities linked to police pursuits amounted to about 350. The technique and manner of suspect capture, particularly with regard to automobile pursuits, has remained a matter of conflict and criticism among a large number of analysts (O'Connor and Norse). Some, for example, raise questions regarding the reason behind pursuit, stating that an exceedingly large number of administrators and officers cannot state what…… [Read More]

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Police Force You Are Memo The Need

Words: 1220 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79832299

Police Force

You are

Memo: The need to increase our members of the city police force

ecently, there has been a heated debate in the city council regarding crime rates. epresentative Brown has alleged that crime rates are skyrocketing and says that increased members of the police are necessary to engage in effective policing. Although members of our force have taken umbrage at these allegations that we are not performing our duties in an effective manner, I would contend that this is a critical juncture for law enforcement in our town. Although the actual crime rates have not been going up, there is still a vital need to increase members of our force. Our city is changing, and the police force must change with it likewise.

Our city is classified as a mid-sized metropolis of approximately 75,000 residents. However, for the past several years we have been steadily expanding at…… [Read More]

References

Broken windows theory. (2012). Google. Retrieved:

 http://sociologyindex.com/broken_window_theory.htm
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Policing Issues Affecting 21st Century Law Enforcement Officers

Words: 2520 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77159469

Militarization of Police

The 21st century has provided in a very short time, major changes to the way society interacts and operates. Governmental structures and institutional principles have also greatly swayed in recent decades. It is apparent that the world is drastically changing and evolving into a new form of culture and society that presents many problems and issues, especially in cases of the law and law enforcement.

The law is changing rapidly and the requirements that are placed on law enforcement professionals in this extremely turbulent time in history have grown and expanded to many different areas of responsibility. Terrorisms and the threat of massive societal upheaval are potential threats to the current and accepted way of life and the burden to protect society from these threats often falls I the hands of law enforcement professionals.

The purpose of this essay is to explain the gradual and sustained militarization…… [Read More]

References

Baker, A. (2011). When the Police Go Military. The New York Times, 3 Dec 2011. Retrieved from  http://www.nytimes.com /2011/12/04/sunday-review/have-american-police-become-militarized.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

Balko, R. (2013). Too Many Cops Are Told They're Soldiers Fighting a War. How Did We Get Here? ACLU, 9 July 2013. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/blog/criminal-law-reform-free-speech-technology-and-liberty/too-many-cops-are-told-theyre-soldiers

Bernick, E. (2013). It's Past Time to Scaled Back Police Militarization. The Washington Times, 18 Sep 2013. Retrieved from  http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/sep/18/bernick-its-past-time-to-scale-back-police-militar/ 

Clark, J.P. (1972). The functions of the police in modern society. Contemporary Sociology, 1(3), 243 -- 244.
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Police Community Relations

Words: 1063 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33436936

Answer the following questions for each video in paragraph form. Also for each video, provide a thought provoking question of your own for discussion and attempt to provide a response to it.

Video one: Bill of Rights Overview

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nXopINJmxkE

Which amendment do YOU value most?

I consider Amendment I the most crucial aspect of the Constitution's Bill of Rights.

WHY?

Amendment I safeguards the five most fundamental freedoms: speech, religion, assembly, press and the right of petitioning governmental bodies for righting any wrongs. The above safeguards were missed most by Antifederalists within the novel Constitution (Feinberg, 1987).

Is our justice system better or worse than other systems around the world today?

Accessible reports and scholarly works reveal that the American justice system is neither the most effective nor the most unsuccessful justice system of all. Some nations (e.g., Scandinavian nations) enjoy a more superior system while others (e.g., Middle Eastern…… [Read More]

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Police Strategies

Words: 1955 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50516603

Police Programs and Strategies between New York and Los Angeles Police Department

For the past decade, the prevalence of deaths caused by crimes and other crime-related activities in the society has increased. Especially with the increasing development of weaponry, strategies, and prevalence of drug addiction, the occurrence of crime in the America society has been one of the primary concerns of most police enforcers and the government in the present time. New York and Los Angeles are examples of cities wherein the occurrence of crime and other offenses against the law and society are prevalent. This paper will discuss the police programs and strategies and crime statistics of the New York and Los Angeles Police Departments, and analyze each department's effectiveness in combating crime an offenses caused by the criminals and delinquents of the society. In relation to the analyses of both departments' police programs, this paper will also study…… [Read More]

References

Official web site of the New York Police Department: http://www.nyc.gov

Official Web site of the Los Angeles Police Department: http://www.lasd.org
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Police Relations

Words: 1221 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10706032

police forces are run, and Thibault et al. take examine some of the important issues that have prompted these changes. Their work on police management, and the research that they have pursued on the ways in which police departments are constituted, have helped to created the kinds of community-based, progressive forms of policing that are becoming more and more widely used - even if they are still in the minority overall in this country.

In the preface to their work, the authors argue for three elements to be included in every progressive police department:

First, we believe that sound management is management based on a combination of theory and practice. Practice without analysis will cause us to repeat the mistakes of history, so our theoretical analysis must be directed toward the practical for implementation into the day-to-day rigors of operating a police department.

Second, we reject complete adherence to the…… [Read More]

References

Block, R. (1971). "Fear of Crime and Fear of the Police." Social Problems 19: 91-100.

Davis, M. (1998). Community policing: How to get started. Denver: Anderson Publishing.

Harris, D. (1997). "Driving While Black' and All Other Offenses: The Supreme Court and Pretextual Traffic Stops." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 87: 544-582.

Thibault, E., Lynch, L. & McBride, B. (2000). Proactive Police Management. (5th ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.