Police Management: Throughout History, Police Management Has Research Paper
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Throughout history, police management has experienced numerous changes because of the various significant changes that have continued to occur in the society. The emerging trends have contributed to the development of new policing governance, which has had considerable implications for police management. Towards the end of the 20th Century, the governmental police reforms have contributed to an end to public policing, a claim that is regarded as extrapolated towards a certain extreme. However, in light of the changes that have occurred in the recent past, it's evident that public policing has not come to an end but that the monopoly of public policing has come to an end. As a result, the dominance of public policing that characterized the 19th and 20th centuries is no longer a characteristic of the modern era. Actually, the emerging diverse totality of public policing is a reflection of the so-called post-modern period.
Nonetheless, the new public policing governance can be considered as a transitional and embryonic consequence of conflicting pressures whose forms are yet to develop. The emergence of the new policing governance has become more prevalent in the past few years to an extent that it's seemingly difficult to predict the future of police management (Cope, Leishman & Starie, 1997, p. 457). The emergence of the new public policing is one of the most outstanding global trends in public administration. While its spread in the Western governments has been uneven, the development of new public management has been a major form of restructuring. Notably, there are other emerging trends and issues in police management that have taken place the impact of globalization on law enforcement managers.
Globalization and Law Enforcement:
Generally, globalization is a reflection of the ongoing interdependence of global society that incorporates the significant regionalization or globalization of an activity that was previously managed in a single-country context. Through globalization, states and societies have not only been able to promote increased interconnectedness but also facilitated more interdependence. Notably, ongoing globalization may result in uniformity of diversity based on local, national, and regional situations. Since globalization has resulted in the development of global marketplace, states have been forced to restructure themselves and the societies in attempts to ensure that they remain competitive.
One of the major changes that have occurred because of globalization is police management reform, which is a significant aspect in the law enforcement. The new police reforms have in turn contributed to the emergence of new policing order. These new trends have been witnessed in wider trends in law enforcement such as centralization, decentralization, and privatization that shape governance. Therefore, the restructuring of policing has incorporated both centralization and decentralization. Consequently, the police exercise superior managerial and operational self-sufficiency within an ever-increasing centralized policy and financial strategy. Policing is increasingly centralized through steering while policing is continually decentralized through rowing.
In relation to crime, the advancements in telecommunications through globalization have contributed to the growing irrelevance of national borders ("Predicting Crime," 2012). This is mainly because of the various factors associated with increased globalization such as global trade, immigration, trade, travel, and technological advancements. The irrelevance of national borders with regards to crime is evident through the fact that the Internet has been a major aspect for transnational crimes. The development and increased use of the Internet has allowed criminals from various countries to gather together with relative ease through overcoming geographical restrictions. As a result, many offenses can be carried out without the perpetrator of such actions ever having entered the jurisdiction where the offense has taken place.
The ever-increasing volumes of trade will continue to multiply the opportunities for organized crime and smuggling while lessening the risk involved in such activities. Therefore, globalization of commerce and markets can be considered as one of the major factors that drive change and influences the criminal environment. This is primarily because the concept has enhanced opportunities to transnational crime groups and sophisticated criminals.
Moreover, crimes related to illegal immigration, especially migrant smuggling will continue to increase because of the significant increases in global migration. This crime will also be fueled by the ongoing desire and ability for both domestic and international mobility of people, families and social groupings. Generally, transnational crime groups are also expected to continue capitalizing on the inherently local and national nature of law enforcement.
Canadian Law Enforcement:
In light of increased globalization,
one of the most important aspects of an evolving legal and domestic culture is linked to front-line social control. In the Canadian law enforcement department, public police has played a crucial role in civil order and the character of the Canadian society. The Canadian law enforcement and public police have been an integral as a policy instrument of national development and an important arm of the state beyond the evident functions of crime control (Forcese, 2002, p.5). The Canadian law enforcement has also served to represent the legitimacy and impersonality of the justice system. This has been achieved through serving practical and symbolic functions that have contributed to legitimating impersonal law. Generally, the Canadian police have been contracted and regulated by senior governments, bound by regulation and contract, and acted and represented the nation.
The initial model of Canadian policing had its origins in the colonial police model, which was the direct agent of the federal state. However, police model in the country has continued to evolve in order to cope up with the numerous changes in the Canadian society. Throughout the history of the nation, the Canadian population has changed tremendously to an extent that it has become progressively more heterogeneous. These changes also included massive European immigration and significant trans-border migration to and from America. During this period, the legislative mandate of the federal parliament and provincial legislatures was basically represented and imposed by police officers. This legislative authority was represented and enforced by police officers in the course of the mobility of the population such as the settlement in the North and West regions of the country.
Police forces were used to represent and enforce the federal authority because police presence in the society brought control and sovereignty and fixed a legal ethic. As a result, the intervention of the police was an expression and reflection of rational and formal application of state bureaucracy. The police forces contributed to the achievement of direct control and a culture of order and rule of law. This in turn enabled the country to experience controlled settlement and social development unlike the model in the United States. This was also achieved through explicitly accepting and restricting the nature and conduct of deviance and crime.
Globalization Challenges for Law Enforcement Managers:
As previously mentioned, increased globalization has had tremendous impacts on various aspects in the society. Similarly, globalization has also had significant impacts on law enforcement agencies and operations. Notably, the globalization of law enforcement is usually brought by globalization of the economy and prosecution (Haddouti, 1999). Due to the significant challenges brought by globalization, there have been numerous concerted efforts at the international front to help address the challenges effectively. Notably, the challenges brought by increased globalization on law enforcement managers are mainly linked to the emergence of new methods of crime. In most cases, perpetrators of criminal activities are continually maximizing on the technological advancements to develop new methods of carrying out criminal behaviors. The emerging crime trends and challenges brought by globalization on law enforcement managers include & #8230;
Emergence of Computer-based Crimes:
One of the major developments brought by globalization is the use of computers as information communication devices, especially through the use of the Internet. While this development has revolutionized modern communication, it has also contributed to the rise of considerable challenges for law enforcement managers. In the past few years, computers have increasingly become central to a broad range of electronic crimes, particularly when used as information communication devices. Many criminals are increasingly turning to the Internet as a prominent channel with which the conventional and new kinds of computer-based offenses are perpetrated.
As a result of the increased use of the Internet and computers, the extent and impact of computer-based crimes are likely to grow in the future. This is primarily because the Internet will offer computer-literate criminals with new opportunities to commit crimes directly linked to networked systems. As criminals identify new opportunities to pursue computerized, digital, and electric world, the conventional forms of crime will be converted to the electronic world and increasingly carried out through new electronic or digital channels. Moreover, the Internet will enable offenders to carry out conventional offenses like theft, gambling, pornography, embezzlement, drug trafficking, and fraud on a wider scale.
In essence, the Internet will not necessarily involve the formation of new crimes but the translation of traditional crimes to a wider scale in the electronic, digital, and computerized world. As a result, these conventional crimes will be carried out with increased effectiveness and efficiency, which will make them to have greater impacts on the society. The main…
Sources Used in Documents:
Cope, S., Leishman, F. & Starie, P. (1997). Globalization, New Public Management and the Enabling State: Futures of Police Management. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 10(6), 444-460.
"Cooperation Agreement between the Government of Canada and the European Police Office."
(n.d.). Europol. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from https://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/flags/canada.pdf
Forcese, D. (2002). Police: current issues in Canadian law enforcement. Kemptville, Ontario:
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