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An all-too-common example of this is the Vietnam war, which may have been entered simply because, after the McCarthy Witch Hunt, no politicians were brave enough to avoid publically condemning communism for communism's sake: "As a consequence of McCarthyism, no U.S. politician [was] willing to appear to be 'soft' on Communism." Going to war was a reactionary measure, and by the time a concrete goal was formulated, it was: how can we get out without losing face?
Perhaps the most complicated precept of Just War heory is that the war should do more good than harm. he difficulties lie in the definition of good and harm, as obviously the definitions of the two parties at war are at odds, or there would not be a war. During the American Civil War, the North was obviously convinced that slavery was an abomination and should be halted, and the South was just…
The Vietnam War. Article online. Available at http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/vietnam/index-1945.html .
The Civil War. Article online. Available at http://www.civilwar.com .
Wilde, Robert. Overview: The First World War. Article online. Available at http://europeanhistory.about.com/od/worldwar1/a/ovww1.htm .
Just war theory is based on a doctrine that was "largely inspired by the religious tenets of Christianity" during the time of Saint Augustine, according to Jeffrey hitman, writing in the peer-reviewed journal Public Integrity (hitman, 2007, p. 26). The theory evolved thanks to the narratives presented by Saint Thomas Aquinas and Francisco de Vitoria -- and later fine-tuned by Hugo Grotius -- and today the principles of the just war theory "enjoy the status of positive widely accepted, international law," hitman asserts (26). The just war theory has three main goals, which together seek to find common ground between pacifism and "realism," the author explains. The first goal is to "limit the frequency of war" (jus ad bellum translates to "justice of war standards"); the second goal is designed to "limit the brutality of war" (jus in bello -- "justice in war"); and the third goal of the just…
Whitman, Jeffrey P. (2007). Just War Theory and the War on Terrorism: A Utilitarian
Perspective. Public Integrity, 9(1), 23-43.
Just ar Theory
Sweeping changes in the way wars are fought have brought current scholars' attention to the ethical concept of the Just ar. The concept of the Just ar is nearly as old as war itself; it is perhaps best codified in Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian ar. There have historically been two main approaches to deciding what is, in fact, fair in war: deontological and consequentialist. In short, these opposing poles represent: on the one hand, duty, what war "ought" to be, and the notion that war requires a moral motivation and morally justifiable means; on the other hand, realpolitik, pragmatic considerations, and an account based on justifiable ends rather than means. The deontological approach takes many cues from Kant's ethics, while the consequentialist or Realist school finds its roots in John Stuart Mill, among others.
Recent work in political philosophy and ethics has attempted to place international…
Walzer, Michael (1991). Just and Unjust Wars: 2nd Edition. New York: Basic Books.
Kaufman, Whitley. "Rethinking the ban on assassination: Just war principles in the age of terror." Rethinking the Just War Tradition. Ed. Michael W. Brough et al. Albany: SUNY Press, 2007.
Tirimanna, Vimal. "Mass Media and its Effects on Just War Criteria in the Gulf War." New Blackfriars. 73.859 (1992): 235-246.
Oliver, Kelly. "Bodies against the law: Abu Ghraib and the War on Terror." Continental Philosophy Review. 42.1 (2009): 63-80.
Just War Theory and Pacifism
This paper seeks to establish a working description of pacifism. Then, it gives a short description of the just war tradition. In addition, it compares and contrasts the principles of just war theory and pacifism in conflict resolution. In the end, it shows that pacifism is preferable to just war, both in the outcome and in principles.
The definition of pacifism relates to the dispute within and between states. Pacifists believe that even defense of self or others are not justification for war (Charles, 2009). However, in this case, we cannot question the right of people to defend themselves and those close to them against threats. The problem here is the application of force by states during a conflict. It is argued that we must reject the idea that pacifism is an entirely rejection of violence. Arguably, the very word "pacifism" has been coined to…
Cahill, L. S. (1992). Theological Contexts of Just War Theory and Pacifism: A Response to J. Bryan Hehir. The Journal of Religious Ethics. Vol. 20, No. 2: 259-265
Charles, J. D. (2009). Between Pacifism and Jihad: Just War and Christian Tradition. New York: InterVarsity Press
Fiala, A. G. (2008). The Just War Myth: The Moral Illusions of War. New York: Rowman & Littlefield
Johnson, J. T. (2014). Just War Tradition and the Restraint of War: A Moral and Historical Inquiry. New York: Princeton University Press
Up until the point that the United States dropped the second atomic bomb on Japanese citizens, World War II was a just war. However, dropping the second bomb, perhaps even the first bomb, on innocent civilians, removed the war out of traditional rules of warfare and brought the world into a new phase of combat. Up until that time, the general rules of war prohibited using civilian targets. In fact, Germany was the first one to break this rule and this unjust act was one of the reasons the United States entered the war.
At the time the second bomb was dropped, the war ceased being just. However, after the bomb was dropped, new rules and regulations were created to accommodate this new face of war, therefore changing the rules of the game and thus the definition of a just war.
ailey, S. Prohibitions and Restraints in war. Oxford:…
Bailey, S. Prohibitions and Restraints in war. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972.
Childress, J. "Just War Theories." Theological Studies. 39 (1978), 427-45.
Martin, Glenn R. Prevailing Worldviews of Western Society Since 1500. New York: Triangle Publishing, 2006.
THE TWO FACES OF WAR
The basic and universal sentiment is that war assaults people's rights to life, security, subsistence, peace and liberty (Lacewing, 2012). Some contend, however, that war is just under certain conditions, which morally justify it. This Theory consists of three parts, namely the justice of resorting to war or jus ad bellum; just conduct in war or jus in bello; and justice at the end of war or jus post bellum. The justice basis of resorting to war is grounded on six criteria, which justify it. It has a just cause. It has the right intention. It is made through the proper authority. It is made as a last resort. It has a probability of success. And it has a proportionate response. Justice in war refers to the treatment of the enemy. There is justice if weapons prohibited by international law are…
Buell, J. (2002). Just war theory and the wars of the 20th century. Vol 11, Yale-New
Haven Teachers Institute. Retrieved on June 16, 2012 from http://www.yale-edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2002/3/02.03.01.x.html
Chavez, F.B. III (2012). Legitimate use of military force. eHow: Demand Media, Inc.
Retrieved on June 16, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/facts_6869777_legitimate-use-military-force.html
The 2001 incidents also made other nations act supportive toward U.S.'s decision to wage war against Iraq, with the international public apparently believing that the Americans had been entitled to fight terrorism everywhere. In spite of the fact that the idea of the U.S. waging war in Iraq had a rather vindictive nature, little nations actually appeared willing to condemn the actions performed by the Bush administration.
The U.S.'s decision to go to war against Iraq appears to be unjustified, considering the fact that there had been no rational grounds for such an act. The main issue to be addressed relating to the event is whether it is reasonable for a nation to invade another on the basis that the latter either owns weapons of mass destruction or has the capability to produce them. Taking into account the fact that the U.S. had probably been suspicious concerning Iraq's intention is…
1. Himes, Kenneth R. "Intervention, Just War and U.S. National Security." Theological Studies, Vol. 65, 2004.
2. Wogaman, J. Philip. (1993). "Christian ethics: a historical introduction." Westminster John Knox Press.
Wogaman, J. Philip. (1993). "Christian ethics: a historical introduction." Westminster John Knox Press.
Wogaman, J. Philip. (1993). "Christian ethics: a historical introduction." Westminster John Knox Press.
Is the ar in Iraq Justified?
This paper will explore the concept of war from the point-of-view of the just war theory. In order to better understand war, one must look at the concept from all angles including the point-of-view of peace movements. hat is the Just ar Theory and what are its principles? hat does the theory represent and who believes in this theory? By answering such questions, one can better understand the state of the war's current conflicts that are resulting in death and destruction. More specifically, this paper will look at the current war in Iraq and beg the question: is the war in Iraq justified? This paper will look at sources that attest to both sides of the issue in hopes to find that the war is not justified at this moment. Part of the problem with discussing the war in Iraq is that…
"CAIR: U.S. Muslims Say War on Iraq Not Justified." U.S. Newswire (2003) February
Hill, Brandon, D. "A Christian Perspective on War." Your Guide to Christian Teens
First, the relative quiet produced by the surge permits the United States to withdraw its forces far more safely than if the country were in flames; if this opportunity is seized, the surge will have made an important contribution" (Zelleke & Dujarric 2008). The United States has ultimately striven to bring regional stability to Iraq and to Afghanistan, not to establish a permanent presence, and such stability is to be welcomed by all, particularly those who live in these nations who desire peace.
The means of a just war must be limited by proportionality to the offense.
The offense is a potentially future attack, "one we have good reason to believe is coming, then we can prevent it with what it takes to prevent it in proportion to how reasonably we can expect it and what means would be involved in such a potential attack" (Pierce 2005). Given the extent…
Greenway, HDS. (2005, March 31). Afghanistan, the poor stepsister to Iraq. The Boston Globe.
Retrieved April 12, 2009 at http://www.boston.com/news/globe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2005/03/25/afghanistan_the_poor_stepsister_to_iraq/
Pierce, Jeremy. (2005). Just war theory and Iraq. Parablemania. Retrieved April 12, 2009 at http://parablemania.ektopos.com/archives/2005/12/just_war_theory_1.html
Principles of just war. (2009). Mt. Holyoke. Retrieved April 12, 2009 at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pol116/justwar.htm
just war seems to be an issue of discussion that people are very passionate about. The excuses given for the starting of a war as well as the reasons for why a war continues to go on is something that can vary. The reason why a war begins may not persist a given amount of time later, nor may it be the same reason why it comes to an end. According to the Just War Theory (Christopher 2003), there are four tenets that should be considered most important.
First of all, a war must only be started after all other attempts of resolving an issue have failed (Christopher 2003). Discussions by the two opposing parties must be had in order for a war to even be thought of. This means that if a declaration of war is to be made, it is because it is literally the last resort to…
Christopher, P. (2003). The Ethics of War and Peace: An Introduction to Legal and Moral Issues. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Roxane, Justin, and Patrick sounds like a sensible one, but the simple fact is that Roxane's position is insane, Justin's position is out-of-touch with the reality of twenty-first century warfare, and Patrick offers a traditional pacisism in the mold of Gandhi. I hope to demonstrate that Michael Walzer's conclusion on the justice of warfare -- that it is almost impossible to justify -- it is expensive -- runs double for the peacetime attack.
Roxane's kneejerk jingoism is entirely devoid of merit. The dictator of country Z. has a terrible reputation because he slaughters civilians and has threatened to invade neighboring states -- Roxanne's proposed solution is that the U.S. should actually invade the far-away state of Z, and slaughter their civilians. To pretend that there is any ethical consistency in Roxanne's suggestion here is nonsense. Her notion that Japan became a peaceful and stable ally of the U.S. because it…
traditional principles of just war guide states in fighting terrorism, or do new rules have to apply?
War has been waged much in the same manner, barring technological advances, for centuries. Wars are fought between sovereign nation states and the regimes that control them or against civil challenges to sovereign nation states from within, and yet the current so called war on terror is very obviously a different animal all together than any previous war. Yet, like so many other national and international challenges there is a reluctance to change.
The questionable link that the ush administration established between its war on terror and its military intervention in Iraq, as well as its apparent willingness to suspend fundamental rights if the 'war' requires it (exemplified by its practices in Guantanamo ay and its exhortations to extradite terror suspects across Europe), have contributed much to the striking fact that many citizens…
Arquilla, J. (2007). The End of War as We Knew It? Insurgency counterinsurgency and lessons from the forgotten history of early terror networks. Third World Quarterly, 369-386.
Michta, A.A. (2008, January). Double or Nothing. National Interest, 58-61.
Monar, J. (2007). The EU's approach post-September 11: global terrorism as a multidimensional law enforcement challenge. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 20 (2), 267-283.
Richard H. Fallon, J. (2010). The Supreme Court, Habeas Corpus, and the War on Terror: an Essay on Law and Poltical Science. Columbia Law Review, 352-398.
Many reasons for the war were offered by both the United States and British governments at various times. In the months leading up to the war, there were a plethora of reasons offered that made it difficult to rationalize and understand exactly why the war was necessary. The argument regarding weapons of mass destruction was one of the most argued points; however, there was much debate as to whether these alleged weapons of mass destruction even existed (Iraq Survey Group 2004). Another point of contention with the war in Iraq was whether or not there were right intentions. According to many scholars and lay persons, reiterated by Fishar and Biggar, there was serious opposition because the disarmament of Iraq seemed only the beginning of a larger agency established by the U.S., UK and their allies. Reasonable belief that weapons of mass destruction existed, for many, was not enough to…
American Unbound: the Bush Revolution in foreign policy. Washington DC. Web. 2003.
Biggar, N. "Invading Iraq: what are the morals of the story?" International Affairs, 87.1
(2011): p. 29-30.
Davies, N. Blood on our hands: the American invasion and destruction of Iraq. Web. 2010.
Just War" Theory
The idea of a 'just war' is a conundrum. How can one group of people consider their actions 'right' or 'just' to apply military force against an another group. When can one group's actions, which will create devastation, economic difficulty, and death to thousands of people, be considered 'right?' In a civilized society, the concept of a 'just war' has become the centerpiece of many discussions, and has acted as a gate keeper, restraining hawkish tendencies of nations who pride themselves in freedom, and individual liberty. In order for a nation to engage in an activity which creates harm for another group, there must be a justifiable reason.
Just-war theory deals with the justification of how wars are fought, and attempts to give answers for why. Often the justification is based in either theoretical (ethical arguments) or in long standing historical hostilities between peoples. The theoretical aspect…
Arner, L. History Lessons from the End of Time: Gower and the English Rising of 1381. CLIO, Vol. 31, 2002
Augustine, The City of God (New York: Random House, 1950), Books 1, 3, and 4.
Holy Bible, King James Editions. Philadephia: WW Kirkbride and Co.1969.
Mosely, Alex. Just War Theory. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed 30 March 2004. Website: http://www.iep.utm.edu/j/justwar.htm
Ethics of ar: Justified and Unjustified ar
hen countries launch hostile military actions against other nations to the point where war occurs, the belligerents will inevitably have fundamentally opposing views concerning the legitimacy of the conflict and each opposing side will offer its poignant justification for its respective moral, legal and political positions regarding the conflict. In many cases, all belligerents in a war may have equally compelling just causes, and these causes can change from just to unjust even as the war is being fought. Indeed, scarcity of resources is frequently at the heart of many wars, but virtually all wars throughout history have also been justified on the basis of both sound and spurious rationales, the veracity of which depends on who is asking and who is being asked, questions that quickly become heated when religious reasons are included in the mix. To get at the heart of…
Alexandrov, Stanimir A. (1997, January 1). "Self-Defense against the Use of Force in International Law." The George Washington Journal of International Law and Economics 30(2/3): 605-610.
Dagi, Ihsan. (2013, Winter). "Editor's Note." Insight Turkey 15(1): 4-5.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke. (2005, October). "Against the New Utopianism: Response to 'Against the New Internationalism.' Ethics & International Affairs 19(2): 91-93.
Nardin, Terry. (2002, April). "The Moral Basis of Humanitarian Intervention." Ethics & International Affairs 16(1): 57-63.
Viet Nam War and its comparison to several social theories. Using the war as a measuring stick theories are examined and held against the war to see how the war could be applied to each theory. The writer explains a short history of each theory and then examines how the war holds up using that particular theory.
The Viet Nam War was arguably the most controversial war that America has ever been involved in. It sparked social movements that had never before been seen. It pitted the young against the old, the conservative against the liberal and the rich against the poor in ways that threatened to tear the nation in pieces. Until Viet Nam, service personnel had been considered heroes, worthy of the nation's admiration. During the Viet Nam war those who served often came home to being spit on, and having things thrown at time. Until Viet Nam…
Rational Choice and Deterrence Theory
Sociology of Deviant Behavior
The Theory of Hegemonic Stability
Proportionality in War
The principle of proportionality in war is something that is hotly contested and debated. How the principle could and should apply in terms of response to military action or aggression, the incidence or possibility of civilian casualties and other things are all considerations when it comes to proportionality in war. In general terms, the argument to be made is that there should be consistence between a strike and a counterstrike. Obviously, the idea is to win whatever conflict is at hand. However, there are limits to this approach. For example, responding to a cruise missile strike with a nuclear strike is obviously not going to fly. However, there are some times where proportionality is clouded and made difficult to figure out. At the very least, it can be controversial. The dual nuclear strike on Japan during World War II is one example. The manner in which the…
Brown, Davis. 2011. "PROPORTIONALITY IN MODERN JUST WAR THEORY: A TORT-BASED APPROACH." Journal Of Military Ethics 10, no. 3: 213-229. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).
Case Briefs. 2017. "Public Committee Against Torture V. State Of Israel | Case Briefs." Casebriefs.Com. http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/criminal-law/criminal-law-keyed-to-kadish/exculpation/public-committee-against-torture-v-state-of-israel/ .
"DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE - LAW OF WAR MANUAL." 2017. US Department Of Defense. http://archive.defense.gov/pubs/Law-of-War-Manual-June-2015.pdf .
Eberle, Christopher J. 2016. "Rights, Goods, and Proportionate War." Monist 99, no. 1: 70. MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).
strategy executed by the United States (U.S.) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) met the criterions for a just war as defined below. Both the U.S. And NATO did not fight this war in order to overthrow the Yugoslavian government nor to give the Kosovo Albanians a country of their own. ather, the war was fought to stop the needless ethnic violence against the Albanians living in Kosovo and allow the return of all refugees, and that is just what both the U.S. And NATO did during this military operation. The U.S. And NATO had no intention of any major military operation, they only wished to use the minium force required in order to achieve their stated goals. This paper examines the strategy formulation, coordination, and execution, that lead to NATO's war to save Kosovo. How the U.S. And NATO reached their goal could not be described as perfectly…
Yugoslavia: Travel Guide, n.d. [cited 12 December 2004] Available from World Wide Web: http://sg.travel.yahoo.com/guide/europe/yugoslavia / history.html
Elshtain J.B. "The third annual grotius lecture: Just war and humanitarian intervention." American Society of International Law: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting.( 2001) 1-12
Please replace this with the proper citationr, e.g. (W.U. 1987 4)
Need reference for W.U.
A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East.
A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…
Van Bergen, J. (2003) "In the Absence of Democracy: The Designation and Material Support Provisions of the Anti-Terrorism Laws." Cardozo Pub. [?] Law Policy & Ethics Journal 2 (2003): 107.
Luca, B (2004). American foreign policy and global governance, in A. Gobbicchi (ed.), Globalization, armed conflicts and security (Rubbettino/CEMISS, Roma) 112-127
Fawcett, L. (2009) International Relations of the Middle East (2nd ed.) Oxford University Press
S. forces were made to operate on ground and targeted operations were planned against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda fighters. There were significant individually planned battles and skirmishes between the U.S. army and Taliban often resulting in heavy losses to both sides. A tactic that Taliban often used in such conditions was the suicide attacks and planting improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that left the soldier carrying vehicles destroyed. The U.S. utilized an Iraqi style counter insurgency operations in the Afghan region that resulted in some strengthening of the conditions.
3.1.3 Power sharing agreements
In order to enhance the effectiveness of the U.S. presence in Afghanistan the U.S. forged agreements with many warring tribes and factions of the Northern Alliance to enhance the unity of these groups that were to be pitched against the Taliban. These agreements were aimed at removing the support base of Taliban and Al-Qaeda from the Afghan society…
Coll, S. (2005). Ghost wars: The secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin.
Dreyfuss, R. (2005). Devil's game: how the United States helped unleash fundamentalist Islam. Metropolitan Books.
Giustozzi, a. (2008). Koran, Kalashnikov, and laptop: the neo-Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan. Columbia University Press.
Jones, a. (2013, Jan). Only Three Choices for Afghan Endgame: Compromise, Conflict, or Collapse: Counting down to 2014. TomDispatch.com. Retrieved from: [ http://www.commondreams.org/view/2013/01/28-3 ]
ar in Iraq: An Application of Conflict Theory
The recent war with Iraq has been on the minds of people all across the world since well before it started. Many are worried that the United States will be seen as being too controlling, and that it should let the Iraqi people work out their own problems. Others, who are concerned about the threat of terrorist activity in this country and others, stick with the belief that the United States was right in their attempt to remove Saddam Hussein from power.
Regardless of which opinion one holds, there are theorists, both classical and modern, who have strong views on war. This is largely due to conflict theory, which is that life is largely characterized more by conflict that it is by consensus. Those who uphold this theory have different ways of looking at it, and the purpose of this paper is…
Collins, Randall. "Conflict Sociology." New York: Academic Press, 1974. 56-61.
Conflict. 2003. 10 April 2003 http://www.sunflower.com/~syber/sociology/html/conflict.html.
Dugger, William M., & Howard J. Sherman. "Institutional and Marxist theories of evolution." Journal of Economic Issues, 31 (1997): 991-210.
Introduction to sociological theory. 2003. 10 April 2003 http://www.dustbunny.fsnet.co.uk/Soci1.htm .
However, in the end, they were unable to stop the war despite their best efforts. The war happened anyway, in spite of the best intentions and actions to prevent it. T he actions of the various governments were reactions to events that they had tried their best to prevent. They did not make a full-blown effort to convince their people of the need for war, until the war had already begun. Had the war been intentional on the part of Germany or any other entity, there would have been plans in place to gain the support of the people long before August 1, 1914.
Only Germany had such a plan in place. However, this does not mean that they started the war intentionally. It might mean that they saw it coming and wanted to be prepared. In the end, only the players know what their motives were on any particular…
The Treaty of Versailles (1919), esp. Article 231, http://net.lib.byu.edu/~rdh7/wwi/versailles.html
Memorandum of Prince Karl Max Lichnowsky (1914)
...[p. 41] Reasons may be given, why an Act ought to be repeal'd, and yet obedience must be yielded to it till that repeal takes place.
The intent of most colonists, was to create change through the proper channels, as has been described by the Philadelphia congress, as having occurred over the ten years bridging the two previous declarations.
A consummate expert on the War of Independence, writing in the early twentieth century, Van Tyne, stresses that the development of the ideal of democratic representation, was seeded in the ideals of Puritan politics which were spurned by the exposure of ministers to the ideas of John Locke and John Milton, who demonstratively effected the ideas of the American colonists as well as many others all over the colonial world. The idea of a fierce fight against tyranny and unchecked despotism was an essential standard of the day and at some…
Bancroft, Hubert H.. American war for Independence: Early Causes. 2002-2003. http://www.publicbookshelf.com/public_html/The_Great_Republic_By_the_Master_Historians_Vol_II/americanw_bb.html .
Leach, Douglas Edward. Roots of Conflict: British Armed Forces and Colonial Americans, 1677-1763. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.
Miller, John C. Origins of the American Revolution. Boston: Little, Brown, 1943.
Morison, S.E., ed. Sources and Documents Illustrating the American Revolution, 1764-1788, and the Formation of the Federal Constitution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923.
So, even in such situations as when the countryside has also been hit by war, the local administrators are much more likely to be able to function productively as they are fundamentally closer to the need and have strong community ties and possible a strong desire for social order but more importantly for the meeting of the local publics' needs.
The importance of establishing a public administration theoretical framework that prioritizes citizenship over consumerism, in a society where so much of the citizenry relies on public services is foundational to social order and to mitigating the change that has occurred as a result of war. There is no one right answer to all the functional changes to public administration, with regard to war as the many facets of war also create many facets of change in public administration. The level of degradation to physical and psychological networks must be analyzed…
Boleman, L., & Deal, T. (2003). Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership. Third Ed. . San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Bruck, T. (1997). Macroeconomic Effects of the War in Mozambique. QEH Working Paper Series QEHWPS11, 1-63.
Chopra, J., & Hohe, T. (2004). Participatory Intervention. Global Governance, 10-27.
Denhart, J., & Denhardt, R.B. (2007). The New Public Service. Revised Edition. Armonk, NY:: M.E. Sharpe.
English for academic purposes approach focuses on the reader, too, not as a specific individual but as the representative of a discourse community, for example, a specific discipline or academia in general. The reader is an initiated expert who represents a faculty audience. This reader, particularly omniscient and all-powerful, is likely to be an abstract representation, a generalized construct, one reified from an examination of academic assignments and texts (aimes, 1991).
Partnership Teaching is not just an extension of co-operative teaching. Co-operative teaching consists of a language support teacher and class teacher jointly planning a curriculum and teaching strategies which will take into account the learning needs of all pupils. The point is to adjust the learning situation in order to fit the pupils. Partnership Teaching is more than that. It builds on the notion of co-operative teaching by linking the work of two teachers with plans for curriculum improvement…
Davison, Chris. (2006). Collaboration Between ESL and Content Teachers: How Do We Know
When We Are Doing It Right? International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 9(4), 454-475.
Grover, Sam. (2009). Methods for Teaching TESOL. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from e-How
Web site: http://www.ehow.com/way_5403572_methods-teaching-tesol.html
Private armies and warlords support themselves with these crops -- an instance of exploiting (in fact, abusing) the environment to pay for war (Global esources, 2004).
Use of esources to Finance Conflict
Forest products are also often used to pay for conflicts. Timber requires little investment and can be converted to cash more cheaply than oil, which requires technology. Control over timber resources can shift the balance of power during a conflict and affect how long the conflict lasts. Underfunded armies, military, police, and rebel forces often finance themselves by cutting trees. Conflicts in Cambodia, Burma and Liberia have been funded with timber, and in each of those countries the wood produced more than 100 million dollars per year (Global esources, 2004).
Incompatible Uses Leading to Conflict
Use or misuse of resources can be very profitable on one hand but ruinous to another. For example, jurisdictional conflicts have heated up…
Breaking the habit (2004). The Nation (Feb 9), 178 (5), 11-14.
Brown, V.J. (2004). Battle scars: Global conflicts and environmental health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112 (17), 994-1003.
Coles, C. (2004). Resources for peace. The Futurist (Jan/Feb), 38 (1) 6.
Conserving the Peace: Resources, Livelihoods, and Security (2002). IUCN/IISD E&S Task Force. Johannesburg: World Summit on Sustainable Development.
trategy -- Rulers, tates and War
It is very difficult to look at the history of humanity and define a number of common, yet intangible philosophies of action that seem to be part of the overall human condition. One of these intangibles is the human capacity to produce both incredible beauty and horrific evil -- both of which occur during war. In fact, we may ask -- what is war? Every historical period from Ancient Mesopotamia to the present has added a new meaning to the word, but the very essence remains the same. War is a conflict between groups, a way to solve a political or social disagreement through force. Because war has been part of the human condition for millennia, however, we can look at it from both a theoretical and practical aspect of a way to use violence as a solution to problems. One of the most…
Clausewitz, C. On War. Edited by M. Howard. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1984.
Keegan, J. A History of Warfare. New York: Vintage, 1994.
Murray, W., et al., eds. The Making of Strategy: Rulers, States and War. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1996.
St. Augustine, "Even those with a just grievance cannot go to war out of hatred or thirst for vengeance." The war in Iraq fails to meet this reasonable criterion and is therefore not a "just war." hile the typical excuse for the invasion of Iraq hones on the presence of weapons of mass destruction, the main motivation for military action in the Middle East had much to do with both hatred and a thirst for vengeance. The events of September 11 preceded the war by no coincidence: vengeance was therefore a major cause for the attack on Iraq, even though no plausible connection was made. Moreover, the spurious search for weapons of mass destruction clarifies primary reasons for waging war. Underlying the rhetoric about weapons of mass destruction rests an obvious desire for power and domination. President Bush, Prime Minister Blair, and those who support them, hearken to the theories…
Carver, Tom. "Bush puts God on his side." BBC News World Edition. 6 Apr. 2003. 2 July 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2921345.stm
Quotes from reader: Karl von Clauswitz, Count von Moltke, Sir Francis Bacon, St. Augustine.
War in Afghanistan from a Liberal Pluralist Perspective
The term "liberal" has taken on a specific meaning in Western politics that is somewhat different than the actual stated definition of the word. The word truly means "favorable to progress or reform" (Liberal, 2012) and is seen as the opposite of conservative which is being "disposed to preserve existing conditions" (Conservative, 2012). These terms have become politicized and the groups which carry the two labels may be better described by the opposite literal use of the word at any given time. However, another term, liberal pluralist, is something else again.
The book "The Practice of Liberal Pluralism" discusses introduces the topic of how liberal democracy has changed from it original meaning into something that is wholly different, at times, from the origins of the term (Galston, 2005,1). Democracy is a government which is focused on the people being served rather than…
Bajoria, J. (2011). The Taliban in Afghanistan. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved June 17, 2012 from http://www.cfr.org/afghanistan/taliban-afghanistan/p10551
Conservative. (2012). In Dictionary.com. Retrieved June 16, 2012 from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/conservative
Galston, W.A. (2005). The practice of liberal pluralism. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Liberal. (2012). In Dictionary.com. Retrieved June 16, 2012 from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/liberal
overriding aim of globalization is to eliminate physical boundaries, uniting all the countries of the world into one massive village. So far, globalization has had both positive and negative influences, and has literally split the world into three -- the portion that is already reaping the benefits of globalization and is characterized by high standards of living and stable governments (the Core); that which is yet to reap any benefits and is still grappling with political repression and widespread disease (the Gap); and that which exhibits features of both the Core and the Gap (the Seam)[footnoteRef:1]. Most Americans tend to think that the problems the Core faces are a result of its association with the Gap; and hence, believe that cutting links would be the solution to the issues of drugs and terrorism. This, however, is not a valid argument because as long as the Gap is not enjoying the…
ADP 3-0, "Unified Land Operations," Department of the Army, http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/adrp3_0.pdf (accessed 23 July 2014).
Barnett, Thomas, "The International Security Environment; the Pentagon's New Map: It Explains Why We are Going to War and Why We'll Keep Going to War," Pentagon News Map, http://www.thomaspmbarnett.com/published/pentagonsnewmap.htm. (Accessed 23 July, 2014).
Joint Publication 3-0, "Joint Operations," Department of the Navy and Department of the Army, http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_0.pdf (accessed 23 July 2014),
Prados, John and Ames, Christopher (Eds.), "The Iraq War -- Part II: Was There Even a Decision?" The George Washington University, http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB328 / (accessed 23 July, 2014
Force that Gives Meaning
Today I received an e-mail message about a funeral for a soldier in Texas. The sender who forwarded it wrote that his "faith in America had been restored" when he read this account by the deceased's wife:
When we turned off the highway, suddenly there were teenage boys along both sides of the street about every 20 feet or so, all holding large American flags on long flag poles, and again with their hands on their hearts ... Hundreds of young people, standing silently on the side of the road with flags. At one point we passed an elementary school, and all the children were outside, shoulder to shoulder holding flags ... kindergartners, handicapped, teachers, staff, everyone. Some held signs of love and support. Then came teenage girls and younger boys, all holding flags. Then Adults. Then families. All standing silently on the side of the…
Cooper, Gloria. (2004). The censors: New patterns in opinion control. Columbia Journalism Review, 43, 2, 58-9, Jul/Aug.
Hedges, C. (2001). War is a force that gives us meaning. New York: Public Affairs.
Louis, W.R. & D.M. Taylor (2002). Understanding the September 11 terrorist attack on America: The role of intergroup theories of normative influence. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 87-100.
Victoroff, J. (2005). The mind of the terrorist: A review and critique of psychological approaches. Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 49, No. 1, Feb, 3-42.
The Civil War in Nicaragua was one of the defining events from the 1980s, and it also happened to be a defining event in my personal life and that of my family. The argument in question was over the nature of the revolution in Nicaragua, and the political motivations of the Sandinistas. My assertion is that the situation in my home country is not as black-and-white as it has been presented in the American media, and to a lesser degree, the Canadian media. I believe that the situation that gave rise to this argument is rooted in a lack of accurate media coverage. Because I am from a Nicaraguan background, but also have one American parent, I can present a unique perspective that illuminates both sides of the argument to show that neither the Sandinistas nor the Americans had the best interests of Nicaragua at heart.
During this argument,…
Chomsky, Noam. "1970-1987: The contra war in Nicaragua." Retrieved online: https://libcom.org/history/1970-1987-the-contra-war-in-nicaragua
Klerlein, Ellie. "Environmental Effects of Nicaraguan Armed Conflicts." Nov. 2006. Retrieved online: http://www1.american.edu/ted/ice/nicaragua.htm
Smith, John. [Conversation]. 2014.
The initial modern clarification of crime is known as "classical hypothesis" (Cullen and Agnew 2011). This hypothesis was produced in response to the malefic, irrational, and barbaric frameworks of criminal equity that existed in Europe in the 1700s. The laws were frequently arbitrary; judges were corrupt; penal awards for the same wrongdoing varied broadly; and disciplines were at times very cruel, causative of extreme physical abuse and often resulting in death. Classical Theorists needed to supplant the framework with one that was more viable and just. They contended that individuals are balanced creatures who seek after their own particular pursuits, endeavoring to amplify their pleasure and minimize their unhappiness. Individuals decide to indulge in wrongdoing when they accept that it will bring more joy than agony, As such, the most ideal approach to control wrongdoing is to guarantee that the torment of penal awards exceeds the…
Cullen, F.T., and Agnew, R. (2011). Criminological Theory: Past to Present. Los Angeles: Roxbury. [An overview of the leading theories of crime, with selections from the original works.]
ithin the realm of social contract theory, citizens within a given state consent, either tacitly or explicitly, to surrender various rights and freedoms to the authority of the state. In return, the state guarantees protection of citizen's rights and freedoms. The state also guarantees citizen's protection from external aggression and preservation of national security in return for citizens' sacrifice of certain rights. Citing national security protocol, safeguarding civilian life and forestall another terrorist strike in the wake of 9 / 11, Jean Bethke Elshtain wrote that the fight against terrorism waged by the Bush regime against the Middle Eastern perpetrators and their allies qualifies as just war. hile the claim that waging retaliatory war deterred recurrence is a reasonable one, the manner in which the U.S. went about it defied the Jus in bello principle of just war. The inhumane treatment of suspected terrorist in the Guantanamo Bay and the…
Benson, Richard. The Just War Theory: A Traditional Catholic Moral View, New York: The Tidings 2006.
Butler, Paul. By Any Means Necessary: Using Violence and Subversion to Change Unjust Law 50. UCLA L. Rev. 2003 p. 721
Cortright, David. Peace: A History of Movements and Ideas Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke Just War against Terror: The Burden of American Power in a Violent World New York: Basic Books, 2004
Pacifism -- a Doctrine of Non-Violence
Pacifism is a theory which provides the basis of anti-violence behavior. It is an ideology which defines the permissibility of violence on the basis of morality and ethics. Where pacifism is appreciated and consider as a necessary behavior required for having stability in a society as it promotes tolerance; a lot of criticism has also been made on this particular theory. It is said that Pacifists are inconsistent. For they consider violence (or war) an absolute evil; but an absolute evil must be resisted by all necessary means, and pacifists reject using violence (or war) even when it is such a necessary means. The strict nature of this theory gives rise to a confused situation where decision regarding justification of war and violence, is difficult to ascertain.
Pacifism is the fundamental ideology of all those who are against initiating and contributing in a war.…
Buckham, J.W. (1916), The Principles of Pacifism, The Biblical World, Vol. 48, No. 2 (Aug., 1916), pp. 88-90, The University of Chicago Press, Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3142284
Comte-Sponville, A. (1996).A Small Treatise on the Great Virtues. New York: Henry Holt andCompany.
Ihara, C.K. (1978).In Defense of a Version of Pacifism. Ethics, 88(4), 369-374. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2380242
Kelley, A. (2006).Toward a Reformulation of the Doctrine of Pacifism. In J. Kultgen & M. Lenzi (Eds.), Problems for Democracy. New York: Rodopi.
Fundamentally, the insurgents are fighting an enemy with superior weaponry, technology, and resources, so therefore, must seek avenues to mitigate these disadvantages. In other words, insurgent forces out vastly outdone in the traditional aspects of warfare, so they are forced to resort to unconventional modes of attack.
Early in his book, the Army and Vietnam, Krepinevich provides the broad game plan an insurgent force must follow to achieve final victory:
As developed by Mao in China and adapted by Giap in Vietnam, contemporary insurgency is a third world phenomenon comprising three phases: first, insurgent agitation and proselytization among the masses -- the phase of contention; second, overt violence, guerrilla operations, and the establishment of bases -- the equilibrium phase; and third, open warfare between insurgent and government forces designed to topple the existing regime -- the counteroffensive phase."
Primarily, this form of warfare consists of the formation of a political…
Anonymous. 2004. Imperial Hubris. Washington, D.C.: Brassley's, Inc. Page, xxi.
Barringer, Mark. 1999. "The Anti-War Movement in the United States." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press Available: www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/vietnam/antiwar.html.
Bush, George W. 2002. "The National Security Strategy of the United States of America." Speeches delivered September 17 and June 1.
Butler, Smedley D. War is a Racket. New York: Feral House, 2003.
War Without Victory
Nominally, the United States achieved victory in the first Gulf War. However, the decades of fighting in the Middle East, punctuated by the second Gulf War demonstrate that the United States was not victorious in that war. However, equally clear is the fact that Iraq was not victorious. This paper examines the politics behind the Gulf War including deterrence, diplomacy, power struggles, and military and political implications to come to the conclusion that there was no victor in the Gulf War.
In August of 1990, Saddam Hussein, the leader of Iraq, ordered an invasion of Kuwait (A&E, 2013). This action alarmed other countries in the area, and these countries asked for intervention from other countries and from the United Nations. The United Nations Security Council responded by ordering Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait. The United States, working with and through the United Nations, attempted to use deterrence…
A&E Television Networks. (2013). Persian Gulf War. Retrieved May 5, 2013 from History.com website: http://www.history.com/topics/persian-gulf-war
Morgan, P. (2012). The state of deterrence in international politics today. Retrieved May 5,
2013 from Contemporary Security Policy website: http://www.contemporarysecuritypolicy.org/assets/CSP-33-1%20Morgan.pdf
PBS. (2010). The Persian Gulf War. Retrieved May 5, 2013 from American Experience
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Nuclear Weapons in the 21st Century Security Environment
The apparent anti-proliferation approach of the George W. ush Administration to nuclear and other Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) seems to coincide with the perspective of Scott Sagan in The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate, as opposed to the deterrence perspective of his co-author, Kenneth Waltz. Security for major nations is currently under greater threat by the destabilizing effects of terrorism than it is by annihilation through conventional warfare. The Cold-War approach of deterrence is not adequate against enemies who are more concerned with their philosophical endurance than their physical survival. The modern landscape of nuclear arms reduction by major world powers, while many quasi-minor countries scramble to attain nuclear status explicitly underscores the delicate problem of securing safety while upholding widely accepted tenets of Just War Theory.
The Spread of Nuclear Weapons is the work of…
1. "Just War Theory." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Alex Moseley, Ph.D. 2001. 16 Apr. 2003 http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/j/justwar.htm .
2. Review of: The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate. Helen E. Purkitt. United States Naval Academy. 16 Apr. 2003 http://www.nwc.navy.mil/press/Review/1996/autumn/nuc-a96.htm.
3. Sagan, Scott D., and Kenneth N. Waltz. The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate. New York: W.W. Norton, 1995.
In general, both sides fought using impromptu raids and very vicious and undercutting tactics. However, this was the traditional fighting method used by Native Americans during this particular era and could be understood in terms of their cultural perspective.
The fifth criteria of just warfare is that "war must be the only possible means of righting the wrong done." This particular standard is another very flexible standard for warfare. oth sides of any conflict must justify their actions as "last resort" even if other opportunities were open for negotiation. However, in this historical context it could be argued that war was inevitable. This is because population tension within the eastern border mandated that a push by the colonials west of the Ohio River was inevitable. As a result, land that was traditionally Native American would ultimately get taken away from their ownership by the colonists. This it is an unavoidable…
A. Britt, Great Indian Chiefs (1938, repr. 1969)
M.F. Schmitt and D.A. Brown, Fighting Indians of the West (1948, repr. 1966)
R.H. Lowie, Indians of the Plains (1954, repr. 1963)
A.M. Josephy, the Patriot Chiefs (1961)
Even if the torture of these people would save lives it is a slippery slope that we do not want to begin. Once we allow the torture of suspects or terrorists it could begin a landslide witch-hunt in which people who are not terrorists and have not committed any crimes could be tortured based on suspect or circumstantial evidence.
While there is justified outrage at what happened in this country we, as Americans, must maintain our ethical standards at all times. It is only by maintaining these standards that we can hope to set and example worldwide about the strength and dignity of our nation and all that it stands for.
The history of "just war" philosophy stems from religious and secular issues. One of the longest standing Just War traditions centers on religious differences including the differences between Muslim and Christian faiths. In addition the "Just War" theories support…
Anti-American Backlash The Washington Post; 10/16/2001 The Washington Post
10-16-2001 Anti-American Backlash
IRAQ WAR MIGHT NOT BE A 'JUST WAR' United Press International; 10/1/2002
United Press International 10-01-2002
Q8. Talk briefly about the nature of the war, types of weapons used, and is terrorism a weapon in this conflict?
Terrorism is a weapon in this conflict, as is guerrilla warfare; the U.S. has attempted to train the Afghani forces to take over the nation's defense but has had difficulty training the native population in the strategies of modern warfare.
Q9. How many people have been injured or killed?
2,443 U.S. fatalities and 10468 wounded (iCasualties, 2011, OEF)
Q10. Should the U.S.A. play a role with respect to global peacekeeping and has the U.S.A. had a negative or positive effect?
In the world as a whole, there is little question that the U.S. had a positive effect, particularly when acting as a part of joint coalitions, such as with the UN and NATO. In the past, there was strident criticism that the U.S. did not intervene soon enough in…
Afghanistan-profile. (2010, August 16). Geneva Academy of International Law and Human
Rights. ADH-Geneva. Retrieved May 4, 2011 at
Mulrine, Anna. (2011, April 29). Pentagon's rosy report of Afghanistan war raises questions.
CS Monitor. Retrieved May 4, 2011 at
Coker's article (published in a very conservative magazine in England) "reflected unease among some of his colleagues" about that new course at LSEP. Moreover, Coker disputes that fact that there is a female alternative to male behavior and Coker insists that "Whether they love or hate humanity, feminists seem unable to look it in the face" (Smith quoting Coker, p. 58).
If feminists are right about the female nature being more peaceful and "less aggressive" than men, then women pose a "far greater danger than men…" to the world and to international relations Coker continued. It was a less aggressive attitude toward international relations that "prevented us from deterring Hitler," Coker went on, referencing (without naming) Neville Chamberlain, England's Prime Minister who reportedly appeased Hitler rather than take a strong stand against the Third Reich.
On page 58 Steve Smith explains that in cases where feminine concerns are being…
Carpenter, R. Charli, 2005, 'Women, Children, and Other Vulnerable Groups: Gender, Strategic Frames and the Protection of Civilians as a Transnational Issue', International Studies Quarterly, vol. 49, 295-334.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke, 1995, Women and War, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Goldstein, Joshua S., 2003, War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hooper, Charlotte, 2001, Manly States: Masculinities, International Relations, and Gender Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.
Definitions of terrorism
Under the U.S. Government, terrorism has different definitions, not accounting also scholars' own definitions of this concept. In a study by Mark Burgess (2003) for the U.S. Center for Defense Information, he identified five (5) definitions of terrorism, three from the U.S. Government and two from academic scholars. The common factors in each definition, according to Burgess, are the terrorists' motives, identity, and methods.
The Department of Defense defines terrorism as "[t]he calculated use of unlawful violence to inculcate fear… to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious or ideological" (para. 4). The FBI has the same definition, albeit worded differently and includes not only people, but also property as an object of violence. The State Department, meanwhile, has a more specific definition, identifying terrorism as "premeditated" and primarily "politically motivated," and identified terrorists as "subnational groups or clandestine…
Burgess, M. (2003). "Terrorism: the problems of definition." Center for Defense Information. Accessed 23 April 2011. Available at: http://www.cdi.org/program/issue/document.cfm?DocumentID=1564&IssueID=138&StartRow=1&ListRows=10&appendURL=&Orderby=DateLastUpdated&ProgramID=39&issueID=138
Slater, J. (2006). "Tragic choices in the war on terrorism: should we try to regulate and control torture?" Political Science Quarterly, (121)2.
US Army Training and Doctrine Command. (2007). "Terrorist Organizational Models." In A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. Available at: www.fas.org/irp/threat/terrorism/guide.pdf
In addition, I've heard a great deal of expressed frustration by the citizens of this country in regards to their rights, and the impact on their rights by the Patriot Act and regulations put in place by the Department of Homeland Security. Do these people not understand that their rights are nonexistent because of the authority of the state? Like a child and her parents, the state will do what it thinks is necessary for its people, and the people must obey."
Pretend for a moment," Augustine posed, "that the question at hand is not the sovereignty of the state, but the moral justice of the war. Do you agree that the decision to go to war was moral?" do not concern myself so much with morality," Hobbes countered, "as I do with the reason why these wars must continue to occur. Obviously, none is in favor of the death…
This demands that states treat terrorists just as they would any heinous criminal, whether an ordinary lawbreaker or war criminal. Law enforcement entails arrest, trial and sentencing, and only permits law enforcement officers to use lethal force when either their lives or the lives of bystanders are in immediate danger" (Gross, 2006, p 324).
Michael Gross points out that in time of state declared war, it is difficult to actually pinpoint the elements of war and therefore the state of war is debatable and can often result in arguments rather that a clear cut situation that could eventually justify a preemptive action taken against rebel activists. The state of war justifies against international law different types of activities state driven. However, in time of peace, such actions are not only illegal from the point-of-view of international law but are also considered immoral and non-ethical in relation to the public opinion,…
Buzan, Barry. People, States, and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. Brighton: Wheatsheaf, 1983
Colonomos, Ariel. Precision in Uncertain times: targeting as a mode of justification of the use of force. David Chandler and Volker Heins (eds) Ethical Foreign Policy. Routledge, 2009.
Gross, Michael. "Moral Dillemas of Modern War: Torture, assassination, and blackmail in an age of asymmetrical conflict." 2010. Cambridge University Press, NY.
Gross, Michael. "Assassination and targeted killing." Journal of Applied Philosophy, vol
Conflict & Negotiation
The Bophuthatswana crisis of 1994
The Bophuthatswana crisis of 1994 entailed a devastating political crisis which started when the Bophuthatswana president, Lucas Mangope, made an attempt at crushing the widespread demonstrations and labor unrest from the people of South Africa as they demanded incorporation of the Bophuthatswana territory into the South African region pending the first multiracial election in 1994 (Holomisa, 2011; Lawrence & Manson1, 1994). Lucas Mangope was a Bantustan (Lentz, 2014). The crisis provoked violent protests after President Mangope made an announcement in 7th March 1994 to the effect that Bophuthatswana was intending to boycott the general elections in South Africa (Appiah & Gates, 2010). The violence quickly escalated into mutiny from local based armed forces and striking of civil servants. The crisis was further complicated when the right-wing extremists arrived with an intention to push for the preservation of Manope’s Bophuthatswana government (Cawthra, 1997).…
William of Occam formulated the principle of Occam's Razor, which held that the simplest theory that matched all the known facts was the correct one. At the University of Paris, Jean Buridan questioned the physics of Aristotle and presaged the modern scientific ideas of Isaac Newton and Galileo concerning gravity, inertia and momentum when he wrote:
...after leaving the arm of the thrower, the projectile would be moved by an impetus given to it by the thrower and would continue to be moved as long as the impetus remained stronger than the resistance, and would be of infinite duration were it not diminished and corrupted by a contrary force resisting it or by something inclining it to a contrary motion (Glick, Livesay and Wallis 107)
Thomas Bradwardine and his colleagues at Oxford University also anticipated Newton and Galileo when they found that a body moving with constant velocity travels distance…
The United States, though it has been involved in much unconventional fighting over the last 50 years, has positioned itself to fight more or less conventional wars. Al Qaeda represents an adaptable, flexible, and potent enemy that has no headquarters and does not fight on any battlefield so to speak. Each of these entities views and fights war completely differently. The Al Qaeda model is based in the historic warfare model of the crusades, whereby small religious groups brought the battle to each other's doorstep. The United State's relatively inflexible, unadaptive forces are having a hard time fighting successfully against such a small, moving target. The battle lines and compartments of this war between these two entities are ever shifting and ever-increasing in complexity.
As war becomes more compartmentalized, that is to say as low-intensity conflict spreads, the face of warfare will shift forever as a result. Author van Creveld…
Keohane, Robert O. And Nye, Joseph S. Power and Interdependence, 3rd ed. New York:
Van Creveld, Martin. The Transformation of War. New York: The Free Press, 1991.
He understood exploration and discovery was creating a new world order, and that the old way of doing things would not work in this big new world. He understood the future implications of law and global relations, and helped create the theories that would lead to national law and international understanding. History books and many historians do not always recognize him, but the Catholic Church recognizes him as an influential and vital advocate of theology, education, and global change.
In conclusion, Francisco de Vitoria is legendary for his creation of international law, his development of the University of Salamanca, and his treatment of many other theological issues. In 1926, The Dutch Association of Grotius honored the University of Salamanca with a gold medal to commemorate Francisco de Vitoria as the founder of international law. There is also a Spanish Asociacion Francisco de Vitoria that studies Vitoria and his ideas at…
Capizzi, Joseph E. "The Children of God: Natural Slavery in the Thought of Aquinas and Vitoria." Theological Studies 63.1 (2002): 31+.
Editors. "Vitoria." Oregon State University. 2006. 17 Jan. 2007. http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/philosophers/vitoria.html
Schroeder, Joseph. "Francis of Vittoria." Catholic Encyclopedia. 2006. 17 Jan. 2007. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06232a.htm
Scott, James Brown. The Spanish Origin of International Law. Oxford, England: The Clarendon Press, 1934.
Similarities and Contrasts
Marcus Tullius Cicero had been born on January 3, 106 B.C.E; and he demised on December 7, 43 B.C.E. in a murder. His life overlapped with the downfall and eventually decimation of the Roman realm, during which time he has been a significant factor in political affairs, and as such, his writings are a valued source of information and knowledge regarding those events. He was a philosopher, politician, lawyer, orator, among other things. To grasp the logic of his work and to appreciate his philosophy necessitates us to have that in mind. Philosophical study was important but it was even more significant as a way to a more effectual action politically, so he put politics higher than philosophical study. During times when he was inhibited to take part in politics against his will, he made his philosophical writings. St. Augustine's submission that Hortensius (an…
Cicero, Marcus Tullius. "Cicero De Officiis."Translation by Andrew P. Peabody, Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1887.
Clayton, Edward. "Cicero (106 -- 43 B.C.E.)." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ISSN 2161-0002, http://www.iep.utm.edu/cicero/ . Accessed 4 December 2016.
Dyson, R. W. "Augustine: The City of God Against the Pagans." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Cicero, Marcus Tullius, Griffin, M. T., Atkins, E. M."Cicero: On Duties." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
As part of my studies in terrorism and homeland security which were a requirement of my military service, I have come to understand the need for strong intelligence, culturally-astute law enforcement, and effective security protocols when dealing with threats from within as well as from without.
Homeland security remains one of the most vitally necessary components of law enforcement, as seen by the recent alerts raised regarding potential terrorist attacks threatening our nation's major cities. The exciting aspect of this field is that it is constantly changing -- just as America's enemies are always looking for new ways to attack the U.S., law enforcement officials within this specialty must have a flexible and open-minded approach, so they too can change with the needs posed by the environment. I would like to have a substitutive impact in terms of my future career, and I believe that I have the potential to…
popular religions in the world, Christianity and Islam, both developed from the same area -- the deserts of the Middle East -- but one existed for several centuries prior the beginning of the other. Christianity, the older of the two religions, was started by the followers of Jesus Christ, himself a Jew who lived and died in present day Israel (Latourette, 1975). Most of the early growth of Christianity was among the Jews but as the Jewish leaders began to persecute the early Christians the Christians began to scatter throughout the oman Empire in order to avoid these persecutions. For the next several hundred years Christianity enjoyed steady growth until Emperor Constantine legally approved the right to practice the religion. Following such recognition, Christianity grew geometrically and, eventually, it became to dominate both the secular and religious affairs on the continent of Europe. When the European powers began to expand…
Cesari, J. (2006). European Muslims and the Secular State. Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing Company.
Latourette, K.S. (1975). A History of Christianity, Volume 1: Beginnings to 1500. New York: HarperOne.
Liu, X. (2011). A Silk Road Legacy: The Spread of Buddhism and Islam. Journal of World History, 55-81.
Mayr-Harting, H. (1996). Charlemagne, the Saxons, and the Imperial Coronation of 800. The English Historical Review, 1113-1133.
International elations Theory and United Nations Peace:
International elations (I) field normally focuses on the study of how various state systems can be made to work more efficiently to improve the power of law, maintain order, manage interstate affairs peacefully, and lessen prospects of war. The word relation in this field is used to denote the inclusion of more than political affairs to aspects like conflict and peace. International relations field is closely linked administratively to political science departments (O'Connor, 2010). Actually, the field of international relations traces its origin from various subfields including international law, diplomatic history, and international economics. While it's still early to consider international relations as a sovereign field of study, it has broken from the analytical procedures of economics and law as well as the ongoing process of breaking from political science. Consequently, this field has become an important facet because of the conceptualizations of…
Ahmed, S. Keating P. & Solinas, U (2007), 'Shaping the Future of UN Peace Operations: is there
A Doctrine In the House?' Cambridge Review of International Affairs, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 11-28, viewed 26 November 2011,
Cristol, J (n.d.), International Relations Theory, Oxford Bibliographies Online, viewed 26
Sonar esearch and Naval Warfare: 1914-1954
During both World War I and World War II, there were a number of informational tactics used by the Navy in order to gain ground on enemy troops. One of those was sonar research, because it provided them with knowledge they would not have otherwise had (Hackmann, 1984). Sonar is not perfect, but a great deal of work has gone into it since its creation, and that has helped it to become a more valuable tool for Naval operations. Sonar is used for navigation, but also for communication and the detection of objects, primarily underwater (Urick, 1983). There are two types of sonar: passive and active. In active sonar, pings are sent out to search for other objects (Hackmann, 1984). Passive sonar does not send out a signal, but only listens for the pings and signals of others (Hackmann, 1984). Both have their place,…
Abbatiello, J. (2005). Anti-submarine warfare in World War I: British Naval aviation and the defeat of the U-boats. NY: Routledge.
Adamthwaite, A.P. (1992). The making of the Second World War. New York: Routledge.
Barber, J., & Harrison, M. (2006). Patriotic war, 1941 -- 1945. In Ronald Grigor Suny, ed. The Cambridge History of Russia, Volume III: The Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hackmann, W. (1984). Seek & Strike: Sonar, anti-submarine warfare and the Royal Navy 1914-54. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
In international relations theory, realists generally follow the rational choice or national actor with the assumption that states and their leaders make policy on the basis of calculated self-interest. They follow a utilitarian and pragmatic philosophy in which "decision makers set goals, evaluate their relative importance, calculate the costs and benefits of each possible course of action, then choose the one with the highest benefits and lowest costs" (Goldstein and Pevehouse 127). Individual leaders will have their unique personalities, experiences and psychological makeups, and some will be more averse to risk than others, but essentially they all follow a rational model of policymaking. American presidents are generally skilled politicians as well or they would never have achieved such high office in this first place, and this means that their rational calculations will always include public opinion, the needs of their electoral coalitions and the wishes of various interest…
Goldstein, Joshua and Jon C. Pevehouse. International Relations, 10th Editon. Longman, 2002.
Heinrichs, Waldo, "Lyndon B. Johnson: Change and Continuity" in Warren I Cohen and Nancy Bernkopf Tucker (eds). Lyndon Johnson Confronts the World: American Foreign Policy, 1963-68. Cambridge, 1994: 9- 31.
McDermott, Rose. Presidential Leadership, Illness, and Decision Making. Cambridge, 2008.
Waite, Robert G.L. The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler. De Capo Press, 1993.
Military Theory: Jomini on Napoleon
The objective of this study is to use the Campaign of 1813 culminating in the battle of Leipzig and to identify and analyze both the critical points and decisive points that Antoine-Henri Jomini in his 'Principles of War' would have listed in relation to proper time and sufficient force and identify how many would be applied both positively and negatively to Napoleon's maneuvering and engaging.
The focus of Napoleon in the Campaign of 1813 was to launch such a mass attack on the enemy that they would be overcome and decimated. However, as this study will demonstrate, Napoleon missed chances to do just that and his poor planning and improper timing resulted in the losses of many thousands of lives that did not have to be lost. According to Jomini, the art of war is comprised by six specific parts including: (1) statesmanship…
Allen, BM (1998) The Effects of Infectious Disease on Napoleon's Russian Campaign. Air Command and Staff College, Air University. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA398046
Jomini on Strategic Lines and Points, Decisive Points of the Theater of War, and Objective Points of Operations. [Excerpted from Antoine-Henri Jomini, The Art of War G.H. Mendell and W.P. Craighill, trs. (Philadelphia: Lippicott, 1892), pp. 85-92]. Retrieved from: http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/JominiSP.html
Keefe, JM (1995) Napoleon's Marshals in 1813. School of Advanced Military Studies. United States Army Command and General Staff College. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. First Term AY 94-95. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA293453
Nomura, RC (2012) Issues in strategic thought: from Clausewitz to al-Qaida. NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL I. JOMINI VS. CLAUSEWITZ December 2012. Retrieved from: http://calhoun.nps.edu/public/bitstream/handle/10945/27881/12Dec_Nomura_Ryan.pdf?sequence=1
international relations theory due to their background in agriculture related research and study, including a BSc. degree in agriculture, a master's degree was in agricultural development and a master's degree in sustainable development in agriculture. ith regard to sustainable development this applicant was struck by the number of issues that were purely related to an understanding of the nation state and the crisis that it now faces in the era of neoliberal globalization due to the growth in power and influence of non-state corporate entities that have become more powerful than traditional nation states.
hat is happening to date in globalization challenges all of the areas of international relations theory, whether using the approaches of realism, constructivism, or Marxism and critical theory, feminism, foundationalism, the "English school," functionalism, post-structuralism or post-colonialism. The overall topic of this author's research is ambitious. It will be to fuse the elements of all of…
George, A.L., & Smoke, R. (1974). Deterrence in american foreign policy. New York,
NY: Columbia University Press.
Claude, I.L.Y (1984). Swords into plowshares. New York, NY: Random House.
Allison, G. (1999). Essence of decision. New York, NY:
In real war, soldiers have been ripped from their families, surviving, sometimes barely, in foreign surroundings. The author of With the Old Breed repeatedly states he "just wanted to survive," (p. 186), which underscores the fact that cinematic versions of war often overplay the elements of honor and pride and downplay the more real, mundane, everyday feelings and experiences. In fact, Sledge notes that he did not want to be "burdened with responsibility" of being a commanding officer. It was better to be a mortarman, because then just surviving would be a victory. Therefore, the "real war" was the reality on the ground, and according to E.B. Sledge, it was "terribly depressing," (p. 180). This paper will demonstrate that the "real war" is to be found in the often mundane and "depressing" experiences of its soldiers, and will also discuss the counterpoint of idealized heroism.
eal war is…
Sledge, E.B. With the Old Breed. Random House, 2007.
Spielberg, S. Saving Private Ryan. Feature Film, 1998.
break out of war in Afghanistan and Iraq propelled alarming forecasts about its most likely psychiatric effects. he chief of recuperation or readjustment therapy services at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) asserted that as high as 30% of soldiers deployed to Iraq may establish posttraumatic tension ailment (PSD) (Dentzer, 2003), a disorder that can arise following experience of gruesome, dangerous occasions, such as battle, natural catastrophes, and rape. PSD patients do not simply remember their injury; they reexperience it as vibrant sensory recollections (flashbacks), horror stories, and invasive ideas. hey feel reduced or small and mentally detached from the family, friends and loved ones, yet likewise stressful, cranky, and hyper-vigilant as if risk were permanently present.
Psychiatry ratified the PSD medical diagnosis in 1980, mainly in feedback to the belated awareness of its signs in Vietnam veterans whose troubles had actually long been improperly comprehended and dealt with. Undoubtedly,…
Trochim, W. (2006). The Research Methods Knowledge Base, 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: Atomic Dog Publishing.
Vogt, Dawne S.; Samper, Rita E.; King, Daniel W.; King, Lynda A.; Martin, James A. (2008). Deployment stressors and posttraumatic stress symptomatology: Comparing active duty and National Guard/Reserve personnel from Gulf War I. Journal of Traumatic Stress. Vol. 21 Issue 1, p66-74. 9p.
Yin, R.K. (2008) Case study research: design and methods. 4th ed. London: Sage Publication Inc.
Spanish Civil War
The famous Spanish Civil War fought from the year 1936 to 1939. This war was fought between two groups; the Republicans and the Nationalists. The Republicans were the supporters of the established Spanish republic; meanwhile the latter were a group of rebels who were led by General Francisco Franco. Franco emerged victorious in this war and ruled Spain for the next 36 years as a dictator.
After a group of generals (led by Jose Sanjurjo) of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces declared opposition against the government of the Second Spanish Republic, the war ensued. At that time the President of Spain was Manuel Azana. This group of rebels had gained support from a couple of conservative groups that included the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right, Fascist Falange and Carlists (Payne, 1973).
Military units formed in urgos, Pamplona, Corodova, Morocco, Cadiz and Seville supported this group of…
Beevor, Antony. The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936 -- 1939. London: Weidenfield and Nicolson. 2006
Buckley, Ramon. "Revolution in Ronda: The facts in Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls." The Hemingway Review. 1997
Hemingway Ernest. "For Whom the Bell Tolls." New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1940
Meyers, Jeffrey. Hemingway: A Biography. London: Macmillan. 1985