1000 results for “Justice Department”.
Criminal Justice Department has been asking graduating seniors to take an exit exam as a measure of departmental learning outcomes. How could that tool be used to determine if the criminal justice major is effective? Please assess, in detail, in the context of this week's chapter readings.
An exit exam could indeed be extremely effective in assessing whether the criminal justice major is effective in a range of capacities. First of all, it will test simply how much of the learning outcomes and themes each student absorbed. The key part of this aspect of the exam is that it will properly assess how much was retained. Given all the years of certain criminal justice programs at certain facilities (ranging from two to four), it will see what the major learning themes and ideas were experienced the highest level of retention for individual students and whether students were able to capitalize…
Maxfield, M., & Babbie, E. (2011). Basics of Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology. Belmont: Cengage.
Roberts, A., & Springer, D. (2007). Social Work in Juvenile And Criminal Justice Settings. Springfield: CC Thomas Publishing.
U.S. Justice Department
Review the current organization and administration of the three components of the U.S. justice system: the police, the courts, and corrections. This review should consists of a summary of each component system, standard organizational structures of each component system, and a thorough examination of the pressing issues and challenges faced by each component system, including ethical considerations.
The three parts of the U.S. justice system include: law enforcement, the judiciary and corrections. These different pieces work together, to address various problems involving a host of laws and regulations. Once this takes place, it is providing a way of dealing with various challenges. (Garner, 2011)
Law enforcement is the branch of the criminal justice system that deals with enforcing the various laws and regulations. They are the first contact that an individual will have with the criminal justice system. In the U.S., there are three different…
Anderson, M. (2006). Sociology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Garner, S. (2011). Main Components of the Criminal Justice System. E How. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/list_6542392_main-components-criminal-justice-system.html
Hallet, M. (2006). Private Prisons in America. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
ace is used in this country to exploit and use people's emotions to eventually control their actions. ace is something that we are born with and is assigned to us in a completely mysterious way. Somehow this quirk in life has been used to divide and conquer huge masses of people. Although slavery and racial tensions are not unique to America, it appears that these issues still reverberates throughout the discussions in this country.
The purpose of this essay is to examine how cultural diversity, and race specifically, plays a role of institutional control. This essay will examine the racial disparity between blacks, whites, and Latinos in terms of justice, law and lawmaking. This essay will give some background information on the subject before exposing some new approaches to this problem while trying to comprehend its true purpose.
Fewer than half of 1% of Americans are…
Brooks, E. (2011). Cultural Resources. The African-American Lectionary, 1 Nov 2011. Retrieved from http://www.theafricanamericanlectionary.org/PopupCulturalAid.asp?LRID=235
Goldmacher, S. (2012). Disparate Impact: Black Lawmakers and Ethics Investigations. The Atlantic, 3 Mar 2012. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2012/03/disparate-impact-black-lawmakers - and-ethics-investigations/253931/
Kerby, S. (2012). The Top10 Most Startling Facts about the People of Color And Criminal Justice in the United States. Center For American Progress, 13 March 2012. Retrieved from http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/race/news/2012/03/13/11351/the-top-10 - most-startling-facts-about-people-of-color-and-criminal-justice-in-the-united-states/
Kansal, T. & Mauer, M. (2005). Racial Disparity in Sentencing: A Review of the Literature. The Sentencing Project, January 2005. Retrieved from http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/rd_sentencing_review.pdf
The management of large organizations is a very crucial issue, whether they are government-related or not (Argyris, 1993; Argyris & Schon, 1978; Broom, Jackson, Harris, & Vogelsang-Coombs, n.d.; Brown & Brudney, 2003; Hatry, 1999; Haynes, 1999). Often, however, the government does not seem to realize that it must manage itself in the same way that a business would in certain aspects if it is to succeed and therefore it does not market itself to the public.
The spending that has been involved with the Department of Homeland Security is also crucial, because it has changed over time to reflect the needs and the realization of what it takes to make the Department work (Eggen & Mintz, 2003). This spending is important to discuss, because it indicates how much of the government's money - and by extension how much of the tax dollars of Americans - is going toward funding this…
Argyris, C., (1993). Knowledge for action: A guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Argyris, C. & Schon, D.A. (1978). Organizational learning, a theory of action perspective. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Broom, C., Jackson, M., Harris, J., & Vogelsang-Coombs, V. (n.d.). Performance measurement: Concepts and techniques (3rd ed.), workbook. Washington, DC: American Society for Public administration.
Brown, M.M., & Brudney, J.L. (2003). Learning organizations in the public sector? A study of police agencies employing information and technology to advance knowledge. Public Administration Review. 63(1), 30-43.
The United States judicial system is ranked among the most sophisticated systems in the world. Each and every day there are thousands of people who include officers for law enforcement, judges, lawyers, accused criminals and officials in the government take part in the system with the hope that they will settle disputes and work towards the achievement of justice. This system is quite remarkable since it operates successfully in a country which is quite large and diverse. There are various elements of the criminal justice system in the U.S. these include criminal courts, arraignments, trials, sentencing, booking, bargaining of a plea, jury, punishment, appeals and so on. Within these systems there are elements that work quite well when it comes to the completion of the entire judicial process (Silverman, 2012).
The existence of criminal courts within the judicial system of the U.S. is an element that has made…
Silverman, J. (2012). How the Judicial System Works. Retrieved August 22, 2013 from http://www.howstuffworks.com/judicial-system.htm
But the focus of Tim Tyson's book, the North Carolinian veteran Dickie Marrow was attacked and murdered by a gang of white men. The police and the jury system, much like the legislature of the state of Mississippi were complicit in the violence, and eventually the African-Americans of the community rioted in response to the delay and the fact the men were not convicted. On the pretext that Marrow had made an inappropriate comment towards a white woman, he became a subject of vengeance, recalled the author in a 2004 interview with NPR, a white man whose father was an anti-segregation minister, and African-Americans, after initially cooperating with the investigation, felt that they had no other recourse but street violence ("Tim Tyson, 'Blood Done ign My Name,'"2004, NPR: Morning Edition).
Marrow's death came to symbolize all of the oppression and injustice inflicted upon African-Americans, and the deferred promises of the…
Curry, Constance. (1996). Silver Rights. New York: Harvest.
Tyson, Tim. (1994). Blood Done Sign My Name. New York; Crown Books.
Tim Tyson, 'Blood Done Sign My Name'." (10 Nov 2004). NPR: Morning Edition. Retrieved 6 Nov 2007. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4162533
These insights are equally applicable to forecasting how global events will potentially impact the United States and its trading partners. The same techniques used for anticipating terrorism threats can use used for anticipating conditions of genocide and political upheaval, even in countries that appear to be economically and politically stable (Goldsmith, utcher, Semenovich, Sowmy (2012), et.al.). The DHS has also had to architect it systems that overcome bureaucratic inertia and protecting bureaucracy instead of flattening it (Larson (2004), pp. 29). Having had to streamline not just their own structure but the integration points with many other departments and divisions also shows how unique their cross-functional structure is (Mitchell (2003), p. 18). Using the lessons learned of organizational structure efficiencies and dynamics of cross-functional performance in more expanded areas could solve the impasse on budgeting within the broader U.S. government as well. There is also the potential to combine…
Goldsmith, Benjamin E., Charles Robert Butcher, Dimitri Semenovich, and Arcot Sowmya. Forecasting the Onset of Genocide and Politicide: Annual Out-of-Sample Forecasts on a Global Dataset, 1988-2003. Rochester, Rochester: 2012.
Hewitt, Ronald T. "Valuing it Human Capital." It Professional Magazine 14, no. 1 (2012): 58-60.
Larson, Richard C. "Emergency Response: Operations Research Models for Homeland Security." or-MS Today 31, no. 5 (2004): 22-9.
Mitchell, Kenneth. "The Other Homeland Security Threat: Bureaucratic Haggling." Public Manager 32, no. 1 (2003): 15-18.
criminal justice and American culture. Specifically it will discuss jail time served by Blacks, Hispanics and whites, and the lawyers who prosecute them. The statistics indicate that African-American men, especially between the ages of 25 to 29, are incarcerated at a higher rate than either Hispanics or whites. There are several factors that are associated with these statistics, including where these young men grow up, their income, and their education, among others. There is also the issue of racial profiling. This paper will look at these statistics and attempt to answer the question of why these young men serve more jail time than other American men do.
In most areas of violent and non-violent crime, African-American men are more represented in American prisons than any other race. Some people may feel African-Americans are more prone to crime and violence, but many studies point to several other factors in criminal activity.…
Editors. (2009). Demographic characteristics of persons convicted of felonies in State courts, by offense, 2004. Retrieved 21 May 2009 from the Bureau of Justice Statistics Web site: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/html/scscf04/tables/scs04201tab.htm .
Editors. (2009). Homicide trends in the United States. Retrieved 21 May 2009 from the Bureau of Justice Statistics Web site: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/homicide/race.htm .
Editors. (2009). Mean length of felony sentences imposed in State courts, by offense and race of felons, 2004. Retrieved 21 May 2009 from the Bureau of Justice Statistics Web site: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/html/scscf04/tables/scs04207tab.htm .
Goldman, D.S. (2004). The modern-day literacy test?: Felon disenfranchisement and race discrimination. Stanford Law Review, 57(2), 611+.
The reduction occurs through allowing the counties to acquire other methods of jailing apart from the prisons. This includes out-of custody rehabilitative treatments, which could serve in reducing the number of the criminals taken to the prisons. However, the AB109 criminals must be individuals whose crime are not violent and not that serious as provided by the law. This means that that jailing of the A109 criminals in other alternative would involve selection from the other criminals. However the unstated implication is that it would be much difficult to rate a crime as either more serious or not serious. Consequently, the rationale provides higher chances of biasness of selecting some non-serious cases while leaving others.
Implication of the policy
The criminal justice implication of the policy will mainly affect the non-violent arrestees. The decision of keeping them in custody, would affect their ability to avoid recividism future. The social implications…
Kraska, P., & Brent, J. (2011).Theorizing Criminal Justice: Eight Essential Orientations (2nd
Edition). Long Grove
Hancock, B., & Sharp, P. (2004).Criminal Justice in America (3rd Edition).Upper Saddle River,
NY: Prentice Hall
1. Explain how a criminal justice agency can ensure that it hires moral individuals.
Criminal justice leaders are public servants responsible to their community. This responsibility, together with the huge amount of control and influence they have, necessitates that they display superior levels of ethical and moral conduct. Ethical practice guidelines remind criminal justice heads to realize the divide between integrity and friendship; corporate objectives and adeptness and client interests; between personal prejudices, interests, and views and professional values. In this respect, all law enforcement leaders are required to refrain from unethical conduct when carrying out their duties. Ethicality is crucial, considering their job involves making life-altering decisions targeted at involved individuals (both victims and offenders). For instance, policemen who put legislation into force and work within societal settings are empowered to snatch away citizens' freedom, undertake investigations, issue tickets and engage in covert operations. Arbitrariness may arise if police…
Ethical Dilemmas In Criminal Justice
Ethical dilemmas permeate almost all organizations globally. Members of an organization often find themselves in challenging situations that require the adoption of the most effective solution that meet the needs of the conflicting parties or situations. One of the organizations that often face the challenge of ethical dilemmas is the criminal justice organization. The criminal justice organizations have been known to perform activities that ensure safety of the population. Most of the ethical dilemmas focus on decisions that organizations can adopt with the aim of fostering the safety of the victims, convict, and the society. Significant evidence shows that ethics play a significant role in an organization. It ensures the recognition of the rights and freedom of the individual alongside prioritizing the safety of individuals in the society (oberson & Mire, 2010).
Therefore, this research paper analyzes different ethical issues that face the…
Hudson, B. (2003). Justice in the risk society challenging and re-affirming justice in late modernity. London: SAGE.
Roberson, C., & Mire, S. (2010). Ethics for criminal justice professionals. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis.
Industries that face stiff competition may favor and encourage an aggressive approach from employees that produces rapid results, rather than thoughtful, strategic action. When the gains cannot be realized in the desired time frame, there is a temptation to implement short cuts; resulting in fraud." (Price; Norris, 2009) That however is not a justification, although it prompts some regulations on the way industries operate.
The Law Catches Up
Today the criminal justice system responds to corporate crime much better than before. This is because earlier the scams were an unknown commodity in Australia and it was a U.S. phenomenon. Globalization changed that and now, according to the National Crime Prevention office in Australia the fraudster type of activities in firms were classified as fake billing and invoicing, investments and money chain scams, advance fee frauds, borrowing from the public as in ponzi type scams, the pyramid and money chain, insolvency…
Braithwaite, John. (1992) "Penalties for White-Collar Crime"
Retrieved 28 July, 2012 from http://www.anu.edu.au/fellows/jbraithwaite/_documents/Articles/Penalties_White_1992.pdf
Braithwaite, John. (1985) "White Collar Crime" Annual Review of Sociology vol. 11, no. 1, pp: 1-25.
"Definition of white collar crime" (from the scanned reference mailed by client -- book title not clear) Please insert book title here
Criminal Justice -- Sentencing and Analysis
Courtney Elizabeth Hernandez was indicted for kidnapping. Her case was handled in the Circuit Court for the Western District of Texas. Based on her attorney's advice, she accepted a plea bargain, pleading guilty to kidnapping. The normal sentence for kidnapping in Texas is 10 years in prison; however, Hernandez was sentenced to 15 years in prison, along with other punishments.
According to a plea bargain in which Defendant Courtney Elizabeth Hernandez pleaded guilty to kidnapping, she received a sentence of 15 years in Federal prison, and then three years of supervised release, plus she is order to pay $3,000 in restitution for the kidnapping of the 2-1/2-year-old girl (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2010).
The Victim's Role in Sentencing
The 2-1/2-year-old girl is too young to participate in the sentencing process; however, her mother can participate. There is no indication that the mother…
Procedure after Sentencing and Possible Appeal
After sentencing, Hernandez would be taken into custody (if not already in custody) and handed over to the custody of the Federal Corrections Department to begin her sentence. Hernandez entered her plea in the Western District of Texas (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2010), so her appeal would go to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit, which is the appellate court with jurisdiction over the Western District of Texas (United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, 2012, p. 9).
In order for Hernandez's appeal to be granted, Hernandez would have to show that something was materially wrong procedurally or substantively in the lower court and that her plea, her sentence or something else about her case should be overturned or sent back to the lower court for further action. That covers a lot of ground and many different arguments might be successfully made to the appellate court. For two examples: Hernandez might argue that she had ineffective assistance of counsel because her attorney had her accept a plea with
Justice at Bat
The Story of Three Strikes Legislation
It has been said that only two things are certain - death and taxes. Yet to these two inevitabilities, many Americans would add a third -- crime. The fear of becoming the victim of a crime - especially of a violent crime - haunts many otherwise rational individuals. Violence, it seems, is everywhere. One need only turn on the television to be assailed by images of murder, rape, and physical assault. And, it is not only Hollywood that is the villain. Both local and national newscasts revel in the depiction and discussion of violent acts: a child is kidnapped; a pregnant housewife disappears and is later found murdered; a ruthless killer stalks the streets of a large city. The media like to quote facts. Just yesterday, on April 27th, it was reported that the murder rate in California's most…
Bellamy, Richard. "Crime and Punishment." History Review (1997): 24+.
Davey, Joseph Dillon. The New Social Contract: America's Journey from Welfare State to Police State. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995.
Culural Competence |
Cultural Competence in the Criminal Justice System
Culture determines people's experiences of their world. It is important in the reception and delivery of services. Cultural competence starts with knowing your cultural practices and beliefs, and recognizing the different practices and values of people from different cultures. This goes beyond speaking a different language, or just acknowledging a different group's cultural icons. Cultural competence involves changing your biases or prejudgments on a different people's cultural traditions or beliefs (Continuing Education Online, 2002-2016).
Cultural competence, therefore, can be described as a group of attitudes and behavior within a culture. These attitudes and behavior are incorporated into the methods of practice of an agency, system or its experts, and helps them work productively under cross-cultural circumstances. To successfully achieve cultural competency, knowledge about groups and individuals must be incorporated and translated into certain practices and rules applied in suitable cultural…
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (1998). Case Management for Clients With Special Needs. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from National Center for Biotechnology Information: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Continuing Education Online. (2002-2016). Cultural Competency and Diversity. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from Continuing Education Online: http://www.getceusnow.com
Otu, N. (2015). Decoding Nonverbal Communication In Law Enforcement. Salus Journal, Issue 3, No. 2, 1-16. Retrieved from Salus Journal: http://www.salusjournal.com
Patel, S. (2016). Cultural Competency Training: Preparing Law Students for Practice in Our Multicultural World. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from UCLA Law Review: http://www.uclalawreview.org
The sources provided background and reviews of published literature: Holmstrom (1996); Marcus-Mendoza (1995); and Osler (1991). Finally, three reports took on a narrower focus in investigating boot camps: Clark and Kellam (2001); Mueller (1996); and Souryal, Layton & MacKenzie (1994).
Burns and Vito (1995) examined the effectiveness of Alabama boot camps. In Alabama, overcrowded prisons brought on interest at the state level for prison boot camps. State prison boot camps incorporated marching, discipline, physical training, work, classes, and drug and alcohol abuse treatment in three phases. In the first phase, inmates confront their crime and take responsibility for it, ridding themselves of excuses. In the second phase, inmates focus on "self-discovery" by learning about themselves, goal planning, and improving themselves for future release. In the third phase, pre-release, inmates focus on problem solving as the key to their own future success as a lawful citizen upon release. Entry and participation…
Ashcroft, J., Daniels, D.J., & Hart, S.V. (2003, June). Correctional boot camps: Lessons from a decade of research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.
Burns, J.C., & Vito, G.F. (1995, March). An impact analysis of the Alabama boot camp program. Federal Probation, 59(1), 63-67.
Burton Jr., V.S., & Marquart, J.W. (1993, September). A study of attitudinal change among boot camp participants. Federal Probation, 57(3), 46-52.
Christenberry, N.J., Burns, J.L., & Dickinson, G.B. (1994, September). Gains in educational achievement by inmates during the Arkansas Prison Boot Camp program. Journal of Correvtional Education, 45(3), 128-132.
This essay discusses how the criminal justice system is an important part of the government, allowing for the prosecution, imprisonment, and rehabilitation of criminals. Apart from the court system and police, the criminal justice system has other components like criminal justice agencies that provide additional information for researchers to form studies and articles to help improve the criminal justice system as a whole. This Criminal Justice Essay will help students looking to understand what the system is and what components make up the system. By exploring the core of the criminal justice system, one can understand law and how the government carries out enforcement of the law within the country.
What is at the Core of the Criminal Justice System in the United States?
The Effects of the Criminal Justice System on Crime
Does the Criminal Justice System Need Change?
Selected Title: The Role of The American Criminal Justice…
acism and Mental Health Issues in Juvenile Justice Systems
It seems that, not only are juvenile justice systems deficient in mental health services, and not only is there a disparity between services for whites and African-American youths - but some juvenile facilities may even be contributing to the deterioration of kids' emotional and mental well-being. This paper looks at racial prejudice in the administration of juvenile justice from the point-of-view of who gets locked up, what happens once they're in, and the built-in system cruelty.
ace: Chances of incarceration are far greater if you're a Black kid
Between the years 1985 and 1994, delinquency cases brought through the Juvenile Justice System (JJS) increased by 41%; but more disturbing is the fact that in that time period, delinquency cases involving blacks jumped 78% and cases involving other non-white youths skyrocketed by 94% (Lardiero, 1997). Another key fact illustrating the institutional bias…
Bishop, Donna M., & Frazier, Charles E. (1996). Race effects in juvenile justice
Decision-making: finding of a statewide analysis. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 86, 392-414.
Glasser, Jeff (2000, May 8). And Justice for Some. U.S. News & World Report.
Lardiero, Carl J. (1997). Of disproportionate minority confinement. Corrections Today. 59, 14-16.
The major participants in the Cuban Missile Crisis were in many ways driven by intelligence information to make the decisions upon which the crisis centered. The Soviet Union and its puppet nation Cuba relied on the heavy detail they received from their own agencies and believed that as a result of the failure and humiliation of the U.S. during the infamous Bay of Pigs incident that America would be blind at worst to its nuclear build up in Cuba and impotent at best. "At the time of the crisis, the United States possessed many more weapons than the Soviet Union, and thus had a military advantage. Khrushchev had formulated the plan...when he was searching for a place to install nuclear warheads that could not be detected by the U.S. early warning system..." ("Cuban Missile Crisis," 2002, p. 18) Simultaneously, the Americans both feared the Soviets and resented the clear violation…
Cuban Missile Crisis. (2002). Cuban Missile Crisis. Politics & World Affairs: Cold War, 18.
In Defense of Civil Liberties (2004, September 20). The New York Times, p. A24.
Kaplan, Morton A. (2002). Intelligence Failures. World & I, 17, 12.
U.S. Has "No Objections" to China's Nuclear Buildup (2001). The New American, 17, 13.
Homeland Security and Justice Administration
In this paper, we are going to be studying the impact of the relationship between: an emergency operations plan (EOP) with a real time incident action plan (IAP). This will be accomplished by focusing on: the strategies that can be used by first responders and the relationship between an EOP in comparison with an IAP. Once this takes place, is when we provide specific insights as to how these areas can address the challenges that are impacting different stakeholders.
Over the last several years, the issue of first responders in dealing with terrorist related events has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because they are expected to go into areas where they may have to save lives. Yet, they are also must preserve evidence and protect any kind of possible crime scene. This is illustrating the constant amounts of planning and training that…
Emergency Operations Plan. (2011). Rollins University. Retrieved from: http://www.rollins.edu/safety/documents/EOPRev03122012.pdf
FEMA Incident Action Planning Guide. (2012). FEMA. Retrieved from: http://www.uscg.mil/hq/cg5/cg534/nsarc/FEMA%20Incident%20Action%20Planning%20Guide%20 (IAP).pdf
Bennett, G. (2010). Cross Training for First Responders. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Kirkorian, M. (2007). Are Immigrants a Homeland Security Risk? CFR. Retrieved from: http://www.cfr.org/immigration/immigrants-homeland-security-risk/p14660
DOJ Policy Changes
The plethora of commentary regarding the terrorist attacks that occurred on 9/11 has created much confusion. The overwhelming quality of the circumstances altered the collective psyche of America in deep and profound ways. In many cases these changes have provided solutions, problems and more questions.
The purpose of this essay is to discuss how 9/11 changed criminal justice policies in the United States. The essay will argue that although there have been many worthwhile and successful alterations, a small portion of the policies have provided more questions than answers. To help illuminate this hypothesis, this essay will analyze many of these changes that have been implemented and evaluate them from a new perspective.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is essentially responsible for enforcing and promoting the ideas of justice, fairness and retribution. In a ten-year retrospective of their own accomplishments and principles regarding…
Baginski, M. (2005). Testimony to Congress Subcommittee on Crime Terrorism and Homeland Security, Washington DC, 19 April 2005. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/news/testimony/importance-of-usa-patriot-act-to-fbi-information-sharing
Blumenthal, R. (2013). FISA Court Secrecy Must End. Politico, 14 July 2013. Retrieved from http://www.politico.com/story/2013/07/fisa-court-process-must-be-unveiled-94127.html
Davis, L. et al. (2010). Long-Term Effects of Law Enforcement's Post 9/11 Focus on Counterterrorism and Homeland Security. Prepared for the National Institute of Justice by Rand Corporation, 2010. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/232791.pdf
Liu, E. (2013). Reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act. Congressional Research Service, 8 April, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/R42725.pdf
departments, police officer a generalist. Discuss inconsistent Max Weber's theory division labor? 2) Police departments written protocols including general orders procedures.
Max Weber promotes the idea of specialized division of labor, thus meaning that his theories are against instances such as a police officer taking on generalist roles. By carrying out specialized roles, individuals are more likely to assist the community as a whole in achieving positive results. This would also make it possible for the system to be better organized and for the idea of hierarchy to be less problematic.
Police departments need to encourage officers to take on open minded attitudes in spite of the fact that their role is to enforce laws whenever this is required. Officer discretion involves a law enforcement agent being able to properly understand the situation that he or she is in. Decision space is the information concerning the options that he or…
Some of the characteristics of this country include community policing, a patriarchal family system, the importance of higher education, and the way businesses serve as surrogate families. Asian societies are also "shame-based" rather than "guilt-based" as Western societies are. For example, it is unthinkable to commit a crime in such places because of the shame it would bring upon one's family and the business or corporation with which that family is associated with. (Stevens, 2004, Places with little… section, ¶ 2).
In the book, Comparative criminal justice, Francis J. Pakes (2004) points out that when compatriots become involved in trouble with the law abroad, the news media invariably gains an interest in criminal justice in far-away places. When a case in a foreign country ends, albeit, the increased interest in the criminal justice system of the country at issue with the law in the U.S. dissipates. The media attention to…
Lah, K., Cooper, a., Ahmed, S. & Sanchez, C. (2009, ). American jailed in Japan for trying to reclaim his children. CNN.com. Retrieved October 21, 2009 from http://www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/asiapcf/09/29/japan.father.abduction/index.html?ere
Morley, J.D. (2008, March 28). News India-Times, Retrieved October 21, 2009 from http://www.internationalfamilylawfirm.com/2008/03/international-parental-child-abduction.html
Pakes, F.J. (2004). Comparative criminal justice. Willan Publishing. Retrieved October 21, 2009
S. Customs and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services were combined to form U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Overall, DHS incorporates 22 government agencies. The major agencies of DHS are the TSA, Customs and Border Protection, Citizenship and Immigration Services, ICE, FEMA, the U.S. Secret Service, and the U.S. Coast Guard (Borja).
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) was formed on July 1, 1973 and is headquartered in Arlington, VA. Former drug enforcement related agencies are the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs and the Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement. The parent agency of the DEA is the U.S. Department of Justice. The DEA is the lead agency for domestic enforcement under the Controlled Substances Act. The DEA's primary goal is to combat drug smuggling and use within the U.S. The DEA shares jurisdiction with the FBI and ICE and shares communications systems with the Department of Defense. DEA…
Borja, Elizabeth. "Brief Documentary History of the Department of Homeland Security
2001-2008." Department of Homeland Security History Office. 2008. Print.
"DEA History." Drug Enforcement Adminstration. 3 February 2011. Web.
Criminal justice organizations have "varied and complex environments," and are affected by those environments in ways that makes them "malleable" and prone to frequent change (Stojkovie, Kalinich & Klofas, 2015, p. 15-16). Because of this, criminal justice administration reflects the core principles of learning organizations. Criminal justice organizations must be flexible, responsive to changes in social norms and public policies, and willing to account for developments in empirical research that might alter practice. Leadership in criminal justice organizations must therefore be visionary and transformative, motivated by core goals. Because the core goals of criminal justice organizations are as complex as their organizational structures and functions, it is important to explicitly clarify the missions, values, and goals of each organization under the criminal justice umbrella. Likewise, it is important to understand the role of the criminal justice organization within the overarching government.
As governmental institutions, criminal justice organizations are bureaucratic in…
Stojkovie, Kalinich, & Klofas. (2015) Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management - custom (6th ed.) Florence, KY: Wadsworth Publishing
Wiechmann, A.D. (2007). Public Administration in Criminal Justice Organizations. San Diego: University Readers.
Criminal Justice Data Interpretation
In December of 2014 the National Center for Juvenile Justice published its fourth "comprehensive report on juvenile crime, victimization, and the juvenile justice system." (Sickmund, 2014, pg iii) This report was prepared in order to present the most important information on the juvenile justice system and those who come under its jurisdiction. In order to understand the many influences on the lives of juveniles, the report examines the variety of characteristics within the population of juveniles included in the report. While this includes such information as demographics, population data, living arrangements and high school dropout rates, one of the most important characteristics is the rate of births attributed to juveniles. Page 13 of the report includes a table which describes the teenage birthrate in the United States compared with a number of other industrialized nations. The data used was collected from the United Nations…
Sickmund, Melissa and Charles Puzzanchere, Editors. (2014). Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2014 National Report. National Center for Juvenile Justice. Retrieved from http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/nr2014/downloads/NR2014.pdf
Durose, Matthew, Alezia Cooper, and Howard Snyder. (2014 Apr). Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 30 States in 2005: Patterns from 2005 to 2010. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/rprts05p0510.pdf
What do you Think
Paradigm of Laws
Paradigm of Laws
• the paradigm of law your actions define and give reasons
Law and ethics applies to everyone whether free individuals or a prisoners. Everybody has the right of existence, justice and fairness. However, there are occasions when a prisoner cannot be offered the right of confidentiality and privacy. This is exactly what I have done to the inmate in state prison where I am a correctional officer. My paradigm of law does not believe in sincerity of inmates. Given the history of the prisoner who has deceived twice earlier, I cannot trust him again. Whatever he says or does, it has to be communicated to authorities so that they can take action.
The inmates are individuals that have caused harm to the society earlier thus they are in the prison. These people should not be blindly trusted. The…
Jensen, O.C., (1934), "Kant's Ethical Formalism," Philosophy, 9(34), 195-208
Retributive vs. Restorative Justice, (2009), Retrieved from:
A written policy regarding sexual misconduct is imperative, as is stringent hiring practices including applicant screening, adequate supervision, training, and a structured investigative process regarding allegations of sexual misconduct (Abner et al., 2011). Addressing Sexual Offenses further states that it is necessary to clearly outline the consequences for sexual misconduct as a means of deterring it (Abner et al., 2011). Additionally, Addressing Sexual Offenses outlines other strategies which need to be employed to eliminate the possibility of police sexual misconduct including videotaping all officer interactions, requiring strict time reporting, and implementing unannounced spot checks on officer's electronic devices and communication devices (Abner et al., 2011).
Specific strategies, policies, training, screening, and supervising must be employed to eradicate sexual misconduct by law enforcement officers. Obviously, sexual misconduct by law enforcement officers is a reality and has far reaching implications within a society. Only by eliminating the behavior, will it be possible…
Abner, C., Clark, D., Dahmer-Farris, T., Di Pino, B., Gamble, a., Gibbs, T… Firman, J.
(2011, June). Addressing Sexual Offenses and Misconduct by Law
Executive Guide. Retrieved November 27, 2012 from website:
As part of my studies in terrorism and homeland security which were a requirement of my military service, I have come to understand the need for strong intelligence, culturally-astute law enforcement, and effective security protocols when dealing with threats from within as well as from without.
Homeland security remains one of the most vitally necessary components of law enforcement, as seen by the recent alerts raised regarding potential terrorist attacks threatening our nation's major cities. The exciting aspect of this field is that it is constantly changing -- just as America's enemies are always looking for new ways to attack the U.S., law enforcement officials within this specialty must have a flexible and open-minded approach, so they too can change with the needs posed by the environment. I would like to have a substitutive impact in terms of my future career, and I believe that I have the potential to…
Ethics in Criminal Justice:
The police function has continued to be the most needed elements since the beginning of the existence of human societies because social coordination and harmony have never prospered without some kind of supervisory authority. The supervisory authority or power has usually been shared among several agencies or departments including policing. These various departments have been planned and synchronized to provide the service efficiently and effectively. Since its inception, policing have been mandated with the task of identifying and convicting criminals. However, the police have been expected to have an increasingly wider social role in acting as crisis managers or problem busters. As the police have been faced with numerous moral challenges, there are various theories that have been developed to describe ethics within the field of criminal justice.
Slippery Slope and Gratuities:
One of the long-standing and controversial practices within the police force is police gratuities…
Andrews, W.C. (2004, June). Police Gratuities, Public Perception after September 11, 2001.
Retrieved April 12, 2013, from http://www.clearwaterpolice.org/articles/andrews.asp
Delattre, E.J. (2002). Character and cops: ethics in policing (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.:
American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.
Criminal Justice Program at the John Hay College of Criminal Justice. This is one of the most famous criminal justice programs in the nation and its home is one of the most diverse and challenging metropolis in the country: New York City. The criminal justice program here is different from others in a variety of ways, most notably in its origins.
Unlike other criminal justice programs, this one developed not out of student demand, but out of need. "In the mid 1950s, civic leaders and the New York City Police Department became increasingly aware of the growing complexity of police work, not only in the internal administration and operation of the department, but also in the ongoing relations between police and the community. In response to these concerns, a Police Science Program was established in 1954 at the then Baruch School of Business and Public Administration of City College" (jjay.cuny.edu).…
American.edu (2013). Drug Market Intervention Training. Retrieved from:
Gendall, J. (2013). John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Retrieved from Architectmagazine.com: http://www.architectmagazine.com/education-projects/john-jay-college-of.aspx
Jjay.cuny.edu. (2013). History of John Jay. Retrieved from Jjay.cuny.edu: http://www.jjay.cuny.edu/835.php
How the Criminal Justice System is Dysfunctional according to Paul Butler's Let's Get Free
The American criminal justice system has had a long history of prejudice. From the Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision that institutionalized the false concept of "separate but equal" to the Jim Crow laws that followed to the methods of "control" enacted by police in urban communities, criminal justice in the U.S. has seen lots of crime but little justice. Part of the reason for the inherent dysfunction in the way minorities have always been treated in America is that the country was founded on prejudiced WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) principles: the principle of "manifest destiny" was based on the supposedly "divine right" that WASPs had to "control" the New World and eradicate the "lesser" races (such as the Native Americans and the African-Americans). These prejudiced principles were absorbed into the criminal justice system through lawmakers…
Butler, P. (2010). Let's Get Free: A Hip-Hop Theory of Justice. UK:
Criminal Justice System
After heavy bombardment on London by fighter plans of Germany in Second World War, someone asked Winston Churchill that would ritain live long! Churchill replied immediately that if our courts are providing justice then there is no question about existence of ritain, which they are. Similarly, in World War 1 and World War 2 where Jews were brutally killed by Nazis then some of the Jews got refuge in America. Americans do not have discrimination for any community at that time and famous scientist Einstein was one of them, which proved its worth. Provision of justice for every community is very important for any society, so it is for ritain. From last few years' lot of questions have been raised on criminal Judiciary system in ritain.
Shami chakrabarti (Director of liberty) says
efore you decide whether the system is fit for purpose, you have to decide what…
BBC. (2001, MAY 7). BBCNEWS VOTE 2001. Retrieved from BBC NEWS|VOTE 2001|FACTS: http://news.bbc.co.uk/news/vote2001/hi/e
CNN. (2012, Feb 22). Cameron hosts talks on football racism. Retrieved from CNN: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/02/22/sport/football/uk-football-racism/index.html
Community Correction Punishments. (1996, May). California Research Bureau. Retrieved from Community Correction Punishments: http://www.library.ca.gov/crb/96/08/
Press TV. (2012, May 07). UK police racism complaints doubled. Retrieved from Press TV_UK police racism complaints doubled: http://www.presstv.ir/detail/239932.html
I think that my knowledge of procedure is probably my strongest. I feel very comfortable with the level of knowledge I have about proper police procedure. I feel confident that I not only understand basic procedural rules, but also the justification or reasoning behind those rules. Furthermore, I feel as if my understanding of the basis for these various procedural rules will help me easily grasp any additional procedural rules that I will encounter on the job.
While I do feel as if I have had a strong educational background, there are two areas where I feel as I could benefit from more education: psychology and human services. The more I study the psychology of criminals and victims, the more I realize I do not know about why perpetrators do things. I understand that people who align with certain profiles may be more likely to commit crimes, but I am…
City of Houston. (2013). Victim services unit. Retrieved February 6, 2013 from Houston Police
Department website: http://www.houstontx.gov/police/vsu/
Stevens, M. (2003, June 18). Victimology theory. Retrieved February 6, 2013 from North
Carolina Wesleyan College website:
For instance, in the eyes of the courts, an offense's level could be equated to the guideline for the seriousness of a crime. The next aspect of the scorecard was the offender's personal or associative criminal history. Prior offenses dictated a level of conviction frequencies and social offenses. Therefore the personal criminal history of an individual ends up playing a major role in the sentencing guidelines. A person's propensity to repeat offences entails longer sentences. The person that had a history of repeat offenses offered a greater threat and therefore was often thought to be more dangerous to society. but, how does the justice system maintain a culprit's history without an ability to utilize integrated processes?
This is a prime example of where justice information systems integration could have far reaching implications. In regard to sentencing, first time offenders in one community may not have been labeled as serial offenders…
Avolio, Frederick M. (2000, March 20). Best Practices in Network Security -- as the Networking Landscape Changes, So Must the Policies That Govern Its Use. Don't Be Afraid of Imperfection When it Comes to Developing Those for Your Group. Network Computing.
Capital Punishment in U.S. Hit 30-Year Low in 2003. Ed. All American Patriots. (March 1, 2005). Retrieved on April 21, 2005, from All American Patriots at http://www.allamericanpatriots.com/m-news+article+storyid-6869-PHPSESSID-c7528df1df14be6397da4e89e25a7374.html.
Dekker, Marcel. (n.d.). Security of the Internet. Retrieved on April 21, 2005, at http://www.cert.org/encyc_article/tocencyc.html#Overview
Holmes, Amir., Webster, Lawrence P., & Sullivan, Teri (2004). JIEM Reference Model. SEARCH, the National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics. Retrieved on April 21, 2005, at http://www.search.org/integration/JRM1.0.1.pdf
Latinos participations are low in CAPS, and most of their members are unaware of the strategies of CAPS. Their levels of awareness have been on a declining state since the year 1990. Their involvement in these meetings was driving by the levels of crime, moral decay on the community and at the level of social disorder. The problem with the Latino population is that they do not turn up in numbers to these meetings. The community's representation is low in these meetings.
However, research further shows that the community lacks representation in the district advisory committees that meet on a regular basis with the police department. Compared to the African-Americans and the Whites Latinos have young families are they are more likely to be working and having families at home. Their involvement with the police department is variedly mixed. There is evidence that their community avoids police contacts, including not…
Lyons, T., Lurigio, Rodriguez, P.L., & a.J., Roque, (2013). Racial disparity in the criminal justice system for drug offenses a state legislative response to the problem. Race and justice, 3(1), 83-101.
Lombardo, R.M. (2013). Fighting Organized Crime a History of Law Enforcement Efforts in Chicago. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 29(2), 296-316.
Portnoy, J., Chen, F.R., & Raine, a. (2013). Biological protective factors for antisocial and criminal behavior. Journal of Criminal Justice.
Lee, M. (2013). Inventing Fear of Crime. Willan.
History U.S. Criminal Justice Systems/Police
It is undeniable that criminal justice and police activities are integral parts of every relatively peaceful nation in the world. ithout the actions and standards set forth by the agencies that "protect and serve" many wrongs would go not only unpunished but possibly unnoticed as well.
The basic purposes of policing in democratic societies are: 1. To prevent and investigate crimes; 2. To apprehend offenders; 3. To help ensure domestic peace and tranquility; and 4. To enforce and support the laws (especially the criminal laws) of the society of which the police are a part." (Schmalleger Chapter 5 Summary)
Though the developmental history of modern policing and criminal justice there have been many changes, changes in focus and standard, and even crime and justice. The very term professionalism has completely evolved across the board, more so in the policing industry than almost anywhere else. A…
Downer L.J. Legis Henrici Primi Abstract Retrieved April 25, 2004 at http://www.powellschicago.com/html/reprints/16560.html.
Fagin, James A. Criminal Justice New York, NY Allyn & Bacon, 2003.
Hirschel, J. David, and William Wakefield. Criminal Justice in England and the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1995.
In 1993 there were 155,704 recorded crimes of burglary and of these 20,200 were residential burglaries. Since the mid-1970s the level of recorded burglaries has fluctuated around a level of 130,000 to 150,000 crimes per year although during the three last years, 1991 to 1993, the level has been close to 155,000. The number of recorded car thefts in 1993 was 61,141 and of these 18,300 were attempts. During the 1980s the number of recorded thefts of cars has doubled from 34,301 in 1980 to 69,003 in 1989. However, in the last three years this crime has decreased from roughly 70,000 in 1991 to roughly 61,000 in 1993.
Drug offenses. In 1993, 40,700 violations of the Narcotic Drugs Act were reported to the police. This figure is 40% higher than in 1990. Due to the method of counting drug offenses and the fact that this is a crime category highly…
An Introduction to the Sami Culture" (1996) Retrieved, January 28, at http://boreale.konto.itv.se/samieng.htm
Criminal Matters" Swedish Government Offices Website Retrieved, January 28, at http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2138/a/14884
Malmstrm, C. "Diversity in the European Context" Retrieved, January 28, at http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/8660/a/82943
Reiter, P.L. (2007), Comparative criminal justice systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall/Pearsons.
As practitioners of the law, court officials and subordinates are bound by the single powerful system of the law and governmental policy. Lawyers are bound by regulation rather than occupational socialization. Their interaction with the general public is also much more significant than that of the police, which provides a lower level of occupational intra-organizational loyalty than might be found among police officers.
Court decisions are obliged to abide by the law. The issue is however complicated by the fact that the upreme Court is partial towards the power-wielding authority in the White House. This tends to detract from objectivity when making constitutional decisions. The issue is further complicated by the 9/11 attacks and other similar factors.
The devastating attacks during 2001 have not only influenced political power, but also the way in which this power was used to influence decisions by courts, the police, and individuals working within these…
Bibas, Stephanos. (2005, Nov). Originalism and Formalism in Criminal Procedure: The Triumph of Justice Scalia, the Unlikely Friend of Criminal Defendants? Georgetown Law Journal. FindArticles.com: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3805/is_200511/ai_n16013090
Clayton, Cornell W. (2006, June). Politics of Criminal Justice. Georgetown Law Journal. FindArticles.com:
Harrison, Stephen J. (1998) Police Organizational Culture: Using Ingrained Values to Build Positive Organizational Improvement. http://www.pamij.com/harrison.html
Organizational and Administrative Strategies in Criminal Justice
The Americans with Disabilities Act is designed to protect people with a wide variety of disabilities from all manner of discrimination from employment to access. A police department has the same guidelines as other types of employment, but there may be caveats because of the nature of the job. No matter what the job, an employee, whether disabled or not, has to prove that he or she is capable of performing the job after an offer of employment has been made (DOJ, 1997). Prior to a job offer being made though the agency is not allowed to ask if the potential employee has any type of disability. Also, the police department must consider all applicants equally. If the applicant has an obvious disability, they must still be allowed to compete for a job on equal footing with all other applicants, but…
DOJ. (1997). Questions and answers: The Americans with Disabilities Act and hiring police officers. Retrieved from http://www.ada.gov/copsq7a.htm
Mangan, T. (2011). Libel raises its ugly head in Brockport. Retrieved from http://www.examiner.com/article/libel-raises-its-ugly-head-brockport
Mayer, M.J. (2012). ADA and the hiring process. The Police Chief. Retrieved from http://www.policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display&iss ue_id=92009&category_ID=3
Many states, such as Virginia, are training private security officers in order to ensure smooth cooperation and coordination between security companies without police powers and the police and sheriff's departments. In Washington D.C., the municipal police department requires private security officers to be licensed as "special police" officers in order to legally search or arrest people. Cooperation can reach significant proportions, as in the case of the Minneapolis Police Department's "SafeZone" program, which place private security officers downtown who now outnumber Minneapolis Police Department officers there 13 to 1.
4. Industries and organizations that use special and/or commissioned officers and for what purposes
a. There is a truly broad range of industries and organizations which use special police officers. These organizations tend to have significant financial resources, large premises, and sensitive security needs which they believe cannot be met by the existing public police force. These often involve the need…
Amy Goldstein, Washington Post, the Private Arm of the Law January 2, 2007
Criminal Justice -- Sheriff's Departments Hiring Requirements
San Francisco County Sheriff's Department
The minimum qualifications for applying to the San Francisco Sheriff's Department (SFSD) are as follows: the candidate must be at least 18 years of age; must be a U.S. citizen or a "permanent alien who is eligible and has applied for citizenship"; must have a U.S. high school diploma (or GED certificate) or a 2-year or 4-year college degree; cannot have any felony convictions (and certain misdemeanor convictions); must be physically and mentally healthy and be of good moral character.
The selection requirements include: a) testing reading and writing ability (an acceptable score must be obtained on the POST Entry-Level Law Enforcement Test Battery); b) an oral interview (the department head and another department employee, or an oral panel, gives this oral interview; a candidate's "experience, problem solving ability, communication skills, motivation/interest, interpersonal skills and community awareness /…
Saint Louis County Missouri. (2009). Law and Public Safety / Evaluating Quality Police
Services / What is Quality Police Service? Retrieved June 3, 2012, from http://www.stlouisco.com .
San Diego County Sheriff's Department. (2011). Become a Deputy Sheriff / Lateral Program /
Join Our Team. Retrieved June 3, 2012, from http://www.joinsdsheriff.net/lateral.html.
City Police Department
Police departments are professional organizations comprised of men and women who are empowered by society to serve as the guardians of society's well being. Organizations of professionals are characterized by extensive and continuing professional training, shared and understanding of and commitment to the values of the profession, and the desire to improve their communities. This paper discusses a city police department that has demonstrated great success over the years -- the New York City Police Department (NYPD).
Founded in 1845, the NYPD is the biggest municipal police force in the world, the oldest in the United States, and the model on which the other city departments have patterned themselves (Larder and Reppetto, 2000). From a population of about 33,000 in 1790, New York City rapidly became a city of nearly 400,000 by 1845. The old constable system, which had policed New York since the days of the…
Kelling, G. (Autumn, 1995). How to Run a Police Department. City Journal, Vol. 5, No. 4.
Lardner, James and Thomas Reppetto. (2000). NYPD: A City and Its Police. New York: Henry Holt.
Livingston, Debra. 1997. "Police Discretion and the Quality of Life in Public Places: Courts, Communities, and the New Policing." Columbia Law Review. 97-3, p. 551-672. April.
New York City Police Department (NYPD). (2004). Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.ci.nyc.ny.us/html/nypd/home.html.
Richard Allen, the state's prisons commissioner, said ednesday the change is meant to reduce overtime, and should save the state $3 million to $4 million a year. 'e don't have any choice about it,' Allen said. 'e've got to save money. e've got to do some things that are out of the box, and this is one of them'" (Diel 2008). Corrections officers have naturally protested this measure, citing the dangers of the job and the impact upon the quality of their health and financial lives.
Alabama is not alone. In Florida budget cutbacks were blamed recently when "A Florida correctional officer was killed on the job last week" (Ray 2008). Even though corrections officer positions have not been eliminated in the state of Florida, an expanding prison population coupled with a refusal to add more positions have lead to understaffed prisons and overworked, tired officers. In other states, cutbacks…
Corrections officers. (2008). 2008 Occupational Outlook. Department of Labor Statistics 2008-
2009 Edition. Retrieved 1 Oct 2008. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos156.htm
Diel, Stan. (2008, September 25) Corrections officers at seven Alabama prisons to work 12-hour shifts. Birmingham News. Retrieved 1 Oct 2008.
Criminal Justice System
Ever since gaining independence status, both Mozambique and Zimbabwe have come under the scanner for violation of human rights incidences and extrajudicial excesses. The under trials, often arrested without formal sanctions have been continually processed through undemocratic norms and subjected to undue treatment when in confinement and under the control of policing authorities in spite of the fact that statutory provisions in the constitution provide assured guarantee for appeal and fundamental rights protecting the citizens in both the nations. The Dependant Variables hence comprise of use of force and even firearms against those in detention and secondly custodial executions and deaths.
Defining extrajudicial executions and deaths in detentions:
Extra judicial killing is the act of execution or subjecting an under trial to violent acts that may result in death of the person. Such uses of force or acts of violence precede, supersede or bypass any due judicial…
Ackerman, S.R. (n.d.). Independence, political interference and corruption. Retrieved from: http://www.google.com.pk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CB8QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fresources.transparency.bg%2Fdownload.html%3Fid%3D674&ei=nmSFVJjfJsX3UIzXgpAL&usg=AFQjCNG3iXhyvEpGajwTxpO_2SO2oFiECw&sig2=qZhx2nM7AmhxVKqpdVdtOA&bvm=bv.80642063,d.d24
BAR Human Rights Committee of England and Wales. (2010). A Place in the Sun Zimbabwe: A Report on the state of the rule of law in Zimbabwe after the Global Political Agreement of September. Retrieved from: www.barcouncil.org.uk/media/144602/7351_bhrc_zimbabwe_report.pdf
Barkow, R.E. (2008). Institutional Design and the Policing of Prosecutors: Lessons from Administrative Law. Stanford Law Review 61, 869-922.
Barzelay, M. (1992). Breaking through bureaucracy. Berkeley: Univ. Of CA Press.
Australian Criminal Justice System
Formal mechanisms are required to make certain there is no bias or discrimination against the people. With informal mechanisms there was unfair treatment of the accused even to the point of receiving unjust sentencing. Those who had the power within the informal mechanisms often received the property or other goods once held by the accused, withhold evidence for personal benefit, or acted as vigilantes exacting their own justice (Lincoln and obinson, 2010).
Social control is best managed by those that have been elected to oversee the management of the changing formats of punishment for criminal behavior. The formal mechanisms work best when connected with matters of state within society (oach Anleu, 1998). One theory that demonstrates the interconnected relations is the Behaviorists Concept. This theory asserts that social control lies within governmental administration of what is considered a normal lifestyle through
Legislation, legal action and negotiation…
Australian Government Department of Foreign Investment and Trade (2011). Legal System. Retrieved December 15, 2011 from http://www.dfat.gov.au/facts/legal_system.html
Indehmar, D and Roberts, L. (2009). Confidence in the criminal justice system. Retrieved December 15, 2011 from http://www.aic.gov.au/documents/D/6/8/%7BD68CD7EA-536A-4025-A8C0-A5BADF59A6AC%7Dtandi387.pdf
Lincoln, R. And Robinson, S. (2010). Crime over Time. Cambridge Scholars Publishing: Newcastle Tyne.
Roach Anleu, S.L. (1998). The role of civil sanctions of in social control: a social legal examination December 15, 2011 from http://www.popcenter.org/library/crimeprevention/volume_09/Role_ofCivilSanctions.pdf
Criminal Justice Theory and the Los Angeles County Probation Department
Criminal and antisocial behaviors have been studied in the field of criminology for many years. Criminologists are very interested to learn what types of things cause specific criminal and antisocial behaviors. hile criminal behavior and antisocial behavior are not always related, they often have close ties. Criminologists and other researchers are looking to find commonalities between certain genetic makeups and deviant behavior. They believe that many people are genetically predisposed to be violent, and if these people can be located they can be treated.
That does not mean that criminologists are in favor of testing everyone's genetic makeup on the planet to see if any of them show violent tendencies. hat they are interested in doing, however, is studying criminals who already have a history of violent and deviant behavior to see what other traits they have, and what their…
Anderson, R.H. (2000, January 13). Unit 5: deviance, conformity and social control. University of Colorado at Denver. Retrieved September 2, 2005, from http://psychology. about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fthunder1.cudenver.edu%2F%2Fsociology%2Fintrosoc%2Ftopics%2FUnitNotes%2Fweek05.html
Brand, C. Cycad Web Works. (2003, February). Can crime be traced to such often-mooted personality features as extraversion and lack-of-conscientiousness? Are genetic factors involved-in whatever interaction with the environment? And can any therapeutic or preventive steps by recommended? Retrieved August 29, 2005, from http://www.cycad.com/cgi-bin/Brand/quotes/q16.html
Brunet, J.R. (2002, November 15). Discouragement of Crime Through Civil Remedies: An Application of a Reformulated Routine Activities Theory. In Western Criminology Review 4 (1) Retrieved September 5, 2005, from http://wcr.sonoma.edu/v4n1/brunet. html
Casey, D. Human Genome Project. (1997, June). Introduction. Retrieved September 1, 2005, from http://www.ornl.gov/TechResources/Human_Genome/publicat / primer/prim1.html
esearch also showed that offenders tend to be part of or return to communities with high concentrations of offenders. The concentration of offenders in these neighborhoods affects the community negatively by increasing the stigma associated with the community and also saddling the community with additional problems without providing added resources needed for restoring or maintaining order. The ultimate consequence is the that the criminal justice system destabilizes informal networks of social control and increases poor attitudes towards formal social controls, both of which have been shown to contribute to increases in crime and disorder in the communities. Churning results in unnecessary pressure being put on the other residents of the communities who are law-abiding in disadvantaged communities. The removal of men from the community through incarceration has the chilling effect of changing the family's socio-economic structure. The families of incarcerated members, especially men, of the community also face stigma and…
Burke, K. And Leben, S. (2007). Procedural Fairness: A key Ingredient in Public Satisfaction.
Court Review: The Journal of the American Judges Association. 44 (1), 4-25.
Davis, A.J. (2008). Racial Fairness in the Criminal Justice System: The Role of the Prosecutor. Colombia Human Rights Law Review. 202 (39), 202-32.
Hurwitz, J and Peffley, M. (2001). Racial Polarization on Criminal Justice Issues:
activities of the U.S. criminal justice system focus for the most part on immediate events. Nonetheless, it is important to take a broad look at changes in criminal rate across a period of time, in order to comprehend the context in which individual crimes occur, and establish better means of minimizing their incidence. The present work's aim is to analyze characteristics of New York City's crime rates from the past three years, as reported by authorities, and envision a setting whereby criminality might diminish.
Firstly, local data gathered consistently by The Division of Criminal Justice Services from year to year is to be compared and contrasted in order to identify and assess New York City's important crime trends. The following table illustrates the results pertaining to the analysis.
New York City crime statistics of the last three years
Difference in Percentage
2011 compared to 2010
Division of Criminal Justice Services (June 7, 2013). Crime, Arrest and Firearm Activity Report: Data Reported through April 30, 2013 (page 3001). New York City, NY: Office of Justice Research and Performance. Retrieved from: http://www.criminaljustice.ny.gov/criment/ojsa/greenbook.pdf
Oppel, R.A. Jr. (2011). Steady Decline in Major Crime Baffles Experts, New York Times, May 24,-page A17.
Yet Arab-Americans are not necessarily hostile to the idea of greater community intervention, provided it is done to enhance community life, and not done to profile all Arab-American residents as terrorists. In fact, in the city of Chicago, there have been calls for greater police intervention in Arab-American communities by parents and local leaders, to reduce the threat of violent crime. Nizar Hasan, president of the Arab-American Police Association, believes Arab-American youth are increasingly falling into negative criminal behaviors. "It's getting worse…Some of these kids first try [drugs], get hooked, want more and look for ways to make money to support their habit, which means criminal activity" (Bohn & Schott 2009). However because Chicago, like many cities, does not track crime rates amongst Arab-Americans they are not labeled as 'minorities' -- "according to the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, persons from the Middle East and North Africa, like those…
Bohn, Lauren E. & Paul Schott. (2009, November 17). Blight of street crime creeping into Arab-
American community. Merrill reports. Northwestern University. Retrieved October 19,
2010 at http://news.medill.northwestern.edu/chicago/news.aspx?id=147319
Elliott, Andrea. (2006, June 13). After 9/11 Arab-Americans fear police, study finds. New York
However, in order to establish a private facility the consent of state legislature is required. Once a state makes the decision for allowing establishment of a private for-profit prison then corporations are asked to participate in bidding by submitting their proposals. The highest bidder offering better services is awarded the contract. Many states attach certain conditions such as maintenance and provision of educational and rehabilitation services before actually awarding the contract. After awarding the contract government exercises the right of monitoring and accountability by means of thorough inspections, interviews, observations, hearings, and meetings. For example, in the state of Florida there is a legal requirement that such prison facilities can be inspected at least once annually. Some argue that annual and semi-annual inspections are not enough and full-time government monitoring is required but this too may have issues of costs and corruption. To counter this some private firms have taken…
Campbell, A., Coyle, A., & Neufeld, R. (2003). Capitalist Punishment: Prison Privatization & Human Rights. Clarity Press. Atlanta.
Gandy, J. & Hurl, L. (1987). Private Sector Involvement in Prison Industries: Options and Issues. Canadian Journal of Criminology. Volume: 29. Issue: 2.
Criminal Justice ystem Components Analysis
Research the questions below for each of the three criminal justice system components: police, criminal courts, and correctional agencies. Prepare a table or chart that compares and contrasts the information you gather on the components. For example:
Criminal Justice Components
management structure bureaucratic structure with hierarchy of authority and strict regulations
A collection of federal, state, and local public agencies that deal with. They are interdependent
Traditional organizational structures. The chief executive officer is at the top, with other functions dispersed at various layers down through the pyramid
The differences between the organizations in this component as compared to the other two?
The purpose of the police is to maintain order, enforce the criminal law, and provide services.
Courts are the place where defendants / the accused / plaintiffs come to have their please adjudged by judge and jury.…
Barbaree, H.E., Marshall, W.L. (2008). An introduction to the juvenile sex offender: Terms, concepts, and definitions (2nd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Holmes, S.E, James, R.S & Javad K. (2001). Risk Factors in Childhood that Lead to the Development of Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, .31
Rozalski, M., Deignan, M., & Engel, S. (2008). The world of juvenile justice according to the numbers. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 24,143-147.
Criminal Justice Career
How will this new terminology and knowledge apply to a career in criminal justice?
Criminal justice is seen as the practices, system and the concerned government institutions that are focused on implementing social control, participating in crime mitigation and sanctioning the law violator by imposing penalties and rehabilitation programs. It covers the private sector, the pubic sector, NGOs, state and the local governments as well (Oregon Laws, 2007). To handle effectively such a wide spectrum of departments with professionals without a chance foe making the wrong interpretation of the law once needs to be well equipped with the legal terms.
How can not knowing the proper terminology affect you as you conduct criminal justice research?
When one lacks the proper terminology in the criminal justice, this can be a fundamental barrier in the execution of duty and definition of the offences committed as well as interpretation of…
Cambridge Dictionary Online (2011). Research: Definition. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/research_1
CDC (2011). Differences Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://www.orau.gov/cdcynergy/demo/Content/phase05/phase05_step03_deeper_qualitative_and_quantitative.htm
Chris Williams, (2009). Scientific Research and Quantitative Research. Retrieved May 21, 2011
Criminal Justice Managers
Discuss the three ways leaders can manage ethical behavior in their organizations. Provide at least one example from a current law enforcement agency that supports your discussion.
Three ways that leaders can manage ethical behavior inside their organization include: training, policies / codes and accountability. In the case of training, supervisors can teach personnel the most effective procedures for addressing a variety of challenges they will face on a daily basis. This helps to prepare them for the issues they will encounter and how to respond in way which is taking into account the needs of stakeholders. (Barker, 2011) oss, 2011)
Policies and codes are establishing ethical practices inside any law enforcement agency. This is because these guidelines let everyone know what kind of behavior is acceptable and the consequences they will face when they deviate from it. These areas are providing a foundation for determining the…
Barker, T. (2011). Police Ethics. Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas.
Ross, J. (2011). Policing Issues. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Seelke, C. (2009). Gangs in Central America. Washington DC: Diane Publishing.
Vodde, R. (2009). Andragogical Instruction for Effective Police Training. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press.
For Possible Outcome 2, two groups in a population have been subjected to different treatments. One group served as the control group and was not given the opportunity to engage in an educational program that featured the study of human rights violations. However, the group was given course credit for watching a series of films on nature. he second group watched films that dealt with the Holocaust, Darfur, Rwanda, and the famines in eastern Africa. he groups randomly selected from the prison population, but were not randomly selected for the groups. Both groups had been in the prison facility an average of five years. Both groups were surveyed before watching any films, following each film and at the completion of the courses to measure the effect of the film on the subjects' empathy scores using standardized instruments. Mean scores of empathy ratings were charted below, with the blue…
The study population. All homicides in the murder analysis files of the Chicago Police Department from 1965 through 1995
The observation unit. Individuals.
The sampling method. All homicides were included, but In cases where the offender data were completely missing in the victim-level data, no offender records were generated in the offender-level file. The offender-level data do not contain information about the victims in these cases.
The Magna Charta is apparently responsible for limiting the power of sheriffs in England, meant to lessen the number of abuse cases involving a sheriff physically harming royal subjects with the purpose of collecting taxes. If the colonists had not taken it in the U.S. In the seventeenth century it is likely that the sheriff profession would have ended in England.
hile sheriffs in England were perceived as merciless lawmen willing to apply any measure in order to be in agreement with the king's requirements, those in the U.S. were seen as noble men who risked their lives in order to protect the law. U.S. citizens appeared to be supportive regarding the sheriffs in their jurisdiction. Thomas Jefferson was particularly interested in supporting sheriffs in their endeavor to perform their duties, as his book, "The value of Constitutions" states that "there is no honorable law enforcement authority in Anglo-American law…
1. Arado, Matt, "Sheriff Investigating Death of Epileptic Restrained by Police," Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 24 Feb. 2000: 4.
2. Glenn, Russell W. Panitch, Barbara R. Dionne Barnes-Proby, Williams, Elizabeth Christian, John Lewis Matthew W. Gerwehr, Scott and Brannan, David W. Training the 21st Century Police Officer: Redefining Police Professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2003).
3. "HISTORY OF THE SHERIFF," Retrieved September 13, 2010, from the Camden County Website: http://www.camdencounty.com/sheriff/History%20Of%20The%20Sheriff.htm
This could be on account of the normal human reaction to being placed in frustrating conditions, or drawbacks like very poor security, and lethargy of the authorities. Investing in controlling mechanisms like weapons, guards, and other means of surveillance and control, while suppressing the violent tendencies of most inmates do little to help remove the causes of aggression. A more comprehensive approach is required that takes a study of the whole gamut of psychological emotional, physical needs and suffering into one group and then provide better training to the personnel in handling these emotions and the prisoners. They must be adepts in identifying the threat potential is necessary. (Carter; Glaser, 1977)
Another important fact that was clearly visible in the negotiation process and the later handling of the issue was the tardy help received from the outside, or the reluctance to get outside help. The negotiators must have gone in…
Carter, Robert Melvin; Glaser, Daniel. (1977) "Correctional Institutions" Lippincott.
Corcoran, Michael H; Cawood, James S. (2003) "Violence Assessment and Intervention: The Practitioner's Handbook" CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL.
Garrett, Michael. (2004, Jun) "In Need of Correction: Arizona's prison system is overloaded and its staff is overwhelmed" Retrieved 4 April, 2008 at http://www.tucsonweekly.com/gbase/Currents/Content?oid=oid%3A57551
Evolution of Criminal Justice Policy:
The evolution of the criminal justice system can be traced to as early as 1969 when the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice presented a report on the growing challenge of crime in the society. In addition to providing a detailed approach on the prevention and fight against crime, the report also provided means of improving the collaboration among policing, courts, and corrections. This is because of the significance of these three parts in the criminal justice system and their ultimate impact on the implementation of the criminal justice policy.
As the first contact between a criminal and the criminal justice system, policing or law enforcement has evolved in three distinct areas i.e. politically, progressively and through reforms. Both the political era and progressive period of the evolution of policing was during the pre-colonial period with the political era emanating from…
Hartmann, F.X. (1988, November). Debating the Evolution of American Policing. Retrieved from National Institute of Justice -- U.S. Department of Justice website: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/114214.pdf
"History of Criminal Justice, Punishment and Corrections." (n.d.). Intelicus. Retrieved August
23, 2011, from http://intelicus.com/history-of-criminal-justice-punishment-corrections/
Criminal Justice System
The civilized society is one that is founded on laws and values where each member of society thereto should abide by and adhere to. Any breach or non-conformance to said statutes and principles will be met with corresponding sanctions and more particularly in cases that are criminal in nature. Thus, the criminal justice system is the law enforcement mechanism that involves the investigation, arrest, prosecution, defense, all the way to sentencing and commitment to the penal institution for those accused of, suspected or charged with criminal offenses. Despite the raison d'etre of the criminal justice system existing to protect the members of society, the system is far from perfect and there are several issues that continually needed to be addressed. These issues vary such as the disparity between the types of defense the rich and the poor accused can avail of where the former can seek the…
Leipold, A.D. (2010). What's wrong with the criminal justice system and how we can fix it? Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 7(515): 516-519. Retrieved July 4, 2011 from http://moritzlaw.osu.edu/osjcl/Articles/Volume7_2/Leipold-FinalPDF.pdf
West, T. (2009, May 7). Criminal justice system -- A pipeline with many problems. Philadelphia Public Record. Retrieved July 4, 2011 from http://www.dc47afscme.org/local_810/public%20record/90507.htm
Disparity and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System
Discrimination in the justice system is the dissimilarity based on the difference in treatment given to people regardless of their qualifications or behavior. The criminal justice system has different forms of discrimination including pure justice, contextual discrimination, institutionalized discrimination, and systematic discrimination. Every stage of the criminal justice system experiences systematic discrimination. Further, this form of discrimination occurs without variation in all corners of the world. This implies that systematic discrimination happens when a certain gender, ethnic, age or race group encounters discrimination in different parts of the world. Critics are of the opinion systematic discrimination does not exist while other believes that it exists when groups of people encounter consistent discrimination in the criminal justice system (obinson & Williams, 2009).
Institutionalized discrimination is associated with disparities in the results and not in the policies. Institutionalized discrimination is based on the aspect…
Mustard, B. (2009). Racial, ethnic, and gender disparities in sentencing: Evidence from the U.S.
Federal Courts. New York: Springer.
Robinson, M. & Williams, M. (2009). The myth of a fair criminal justice system. South Carolina:
Edward Elgar Publishing.
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The Magna Charta is apparently responsible for limiting the power of sheriffs in England, meant to lessen the number of abuse cases involving a sheriff physically harming royal subjects…Read Full Paper ❯
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