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Department of Homeland Security A

Words: 3834 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 51950489

The management of large organizations is a very crucial issue, whether they are government-related or not (Argyris, 1993; Argyris & Schon, 1978; Broom, Jackson, Harris, & Vogelsang-Coombs, n.d.; Brown & Brudney, 2003; Hatry, 1999; Haynes, 1999). Often, however, the government does not seem to realize that it must manage itself in the same way that a business would in certain aspects if it is to succeed and therefore it does not market itself to the public.

The spending that has been involved with the Department of Homeland Security is also crucial, because it has changed over time to reflect the needs and the realization of what it takes to make the Department work (Eggen & Mintz, 2003). This spending is important to discuss, because it indicates how much of the government's money - and by extension how much of the tax dollars of Americans - is going toward funding this…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Argyris, C., (1993). Knowledge for action: A guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Argyris, C. & Schon, D.A. (1978). Organizational learning, a theory of action perspective. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Broom, C., Jackson, M., Harris, J., & Vogelsang-Coombs, V. (n.d.). Performance measurement: Concepts and techniques (3rd ed.), workbook. Washington, DC: American Society for Public administration.

Brown, M.M., & Brudney, J.L. (2003). Learning organizations in the public sector? A study of police agencies employing information and technology to advance knowledge. Public Administration Review. 63(1), 30-43.
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Department Management Dear City Council

Words: 1970 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99235734

These are federal stimulus funds for policing programs that are community oriented. As these programs has already awarded $1 billion in ARRA funds. (2010).

If the Lowell Police Department is able to receive ARRA funding from the COPS program, additional layoffs can be averted, while building a rapport with the community. Many lessons became evident, when we were undergoing the painstaking cuts for the police department. One lesson that could be the most valuable is: understanding the community and its needs. Therefore, all of the City of Lowell's departments appreciate the camaraderie established through the process of budgetary cuts. As they are working together to: provide as many services as possible to benefit the community. Once this takes place, it means that the government is more efficient and responsive to the needs of the people.

While cutting any budget is an experience: a department head, staff, and the community never…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"Budget knife falls on police training." Police One, 5 Oct. 2010. Web. 31 Mar. 2011

Brock, Ed. "Budget problems force cuts to public safety." American City & County 129.5 (2010). Print.

Friend, Zach M.F.F. And Rick Martinez. "Preserving Community-Oriented Policing in Recession," FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (2010). Print.

Goldstein, Joseph. "Police Force Nearly Halved, Camden Feels Impacts." The New York
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Justice Administration

Words: 742 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 72320841

Justice Administration

The United States judicial system is ranked among the most sophisticated systems in the world. Each and every day there are thousands of people who include officers for law enforcement, judges, lawyers, accused criminals and officials in the government take part in the system with the hope that they will settle disputes and work towards the achievement of justice. This system is quite remarkable since it operates successfully in a country which is quite large and diverse. There are various elements of the criminal justice system in the U.S. these include criminal courts, arraignments, trials, sentencing, booking, bargaining of a plea, jury, punishment, appeals and so on. Within these systems there are elements that work quite well when it comes to the completion of the entire judicial process (Silverman, 2012).

The existence of criminal courts within the judicial system of the U.S. is an element that has made…… [Read More]

References

Silverman, J. (2012). How the Judicial System Works. Retrieved August 22, 2013 from  http://www.howstuffworks.com/judicial-system.htm
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Justice Delayed Justice Denied Constance

Words: 1094 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81313913

But the focus of Tim Tyson's book, the North Carolinian veteran Dickie Marrow was attacked and murdered by a gang of white men. The police and the jury system, much like the legislature of the state of Mississippi were complicit in the violence, and eventually the African-Americans of the community rioted in response to the delay and the fact the men were not convicted. On the pretext that Marrow had made an inappropriate comment towards a white woman, he became a subject of vengeance, recalled the author in a 2004 interview with NPR, a white man whose father was an anti-segregation minister, and African-Americans, after initially cooperating with the investigation, felt that they had no other recourse but street violence ("Tim Tyson, 'Blood Done ign My Name,'"2004, NPR: Morning Edition).

Marrow's death came to symbolize all of the oppression and injustice inflicted upon African-Americans, and the deferred promises of the…… [Read More]

Sources

Curry, Constance. (1996). Silver Rights. New York: Harvest.

Tyson, Tim. (1994). Blood Done Sign My Name. New York; Crown Books.

Interviews

Tim Tyson, 'Blood Done Sign My Name'." (10 Nov 2004). NPR: Morning Edition. Retrieved 6 Nov 2007.  http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4162533
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Department of Homeland Security Assessment

Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: A-Level Coursework Paper #: 79733935

58, 59).

These insights are equally applicable to forecasting how global events will potentially impact the United States and its trading partners. The same techniques used for anticipating terrorism threats can use used for anticipating conditions of genocide and political upheaval, even in countries that appear to be economically and politically stable (Goldsmith, utcher, Semenovich, Sowmy (2012), et.al.). The DHS has also had to architect it systems that overcome bureaucratic inertia and protecting bureaucracy instead of flattening it (Larson (2004), pp. 29). Having had to streamline not just their own structure but the integration points with many other departments and divisions also shows how unique their cross-functional structure is (Mitchell (2003), p. 18). Using the lessons learned of organizational structure efficiencies and dynamics of cross-functional performance in more expanded areas could solve the impasse on budgeting within the broader U.S. government as well. There is also the potential to combine…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Goldsmith, Benjamin E., Charles Robert Butcher, Dimitri Semenovich, and Arcot Sowmya. Forecasting the Onset of Genocide and Politicide: Annual Out-of-Sample Forecasts on a Global Dataset, 1988-2003. Rochester, Rochester: 2012.

Hewitt, Ronald T. "Valuing it Human Capital." It Professional Magazine 14, no. 1 (2012): 58-60.

Larson, Richard C. "Emergency Response: Operations Research Models for Homeland Security." or-MS Today 31, no. 5 (2004): 22-9.

Mitchell, Kenneth. "The Other Homeland Security Threat: Bureaucratic Haggling." Public Manager 32, no. 1 (2003): 15-18.
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Criminal Justice and American Culture Specifically it

Words: 2075 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56806322

criminal justice and American culture. Specifically it will discuss jail time served by Blacks, Hispanics and whites, and the lawyers who prosecute them. The statistics indicate that African-American men, especially between the ages of 25 to 29, are incarcerated at a higher rate than either Hispanics or whites. There are several factors that are associated with these statistics, including where these young men grow up, their income, and their education, among others. There is also the issue of racial profiling. This paper will look at these statistics and attempt to answer the question of why these young men serve more jail time than other American men do.

In most areas of violent and non-violent crime, African-American men are more represented in American prisons than any other race. Some people may feel African-Americans are more prone to crime and violence, but many studies point to several other factors in criminal activity.…… [Read More]

References

Editors. (2009). Demographic characteristics of persons convicted of felonies in State courts, by offense, 2004. Retrieved 21 May 2009 from the Bureau of Justice Statistics Web site:  http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/html/scscf04/tables/scs04201tab.htm .

Editors. (2009). Homicide trends in the United States. Retrieved 21 May 2009 from the Bureau of Justice Statistics Web site:  http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/homicide/race.htm .

Editors. (2009). Mean length of felony sentences imposed in State courts, by offense and race of felons, 2004. Retrieved 21 May 2009 from the Bureau of Justice Statistics Web site:  http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/html/scscf04/tables/scs04207tab.htm .

Goldman, D.S. (2004). The modern-day literacy test?: Felon disenfranchisement and race discrimination. Stanford Law Review, 57(2), 611+.
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Criminal Justice Theory and Policy

Words: 2584 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 20694471

The reduction occurs through allowing the counties to acquire other methods of jailing apart from the prisons. This includes out-of custody rehabilitative treatments, which could serve in reducing the number of the criminals taken to the prisons. However, the AB109 criminals must be individuals whose crime are not violent and not that serious as provided by the law. This means that that jailing of the A109 criminals in other alternative would involve selection from the other criminals. However the unstated implication is that it would be much difficult to rate a crime as either more serious or not serious. Consequently, the rationale provides higher chances of biasness of selecting some non-serious cases while leaving others.

Implication of the policy

The criminal justice implication of the policy will mainly affect the non-violent arrestees. The decision of keeping them in custody, would affect their ability to avoid recividism future. The social implications…… [Read More]

Reference

Kraska, P., & Brent, J. (2011).Theorizing Criminal Justice: Eight Essential Orientations (2nd

Edition). Long Grove

Hancock, B., & Sharp, P. (2004).Criminal Justice in America (3rd Edition).Upper Saddle River,

NY: Prentice Hall
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Ethics for Criminal Justice Professionals

Words: 3047 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20025092

Criminal Justice

Ethical Dilemmas In Criminal Justice

Ethical dilemmas permeate almost all organizations globally. Members of an organization often find themselves in challenging situations that require the adoption of the most effective solution that meet the needs of the conflicting parties or situations. One of the organizations that often face the challenge of ethical dilemmas is the criminal justice organization. The criminal justice organizations have been known to perform activities that ensure safety of the population. Most of the ethical dilemmas focus on decisions that organizations can adopt with the aim of fostering the safety of the victims, convict, and the society. Significant evidence shows that ethics play a significant role in an organization. It ensures the recognition of the rights and freedom of the individual alongside prioritizing the safety of individuals in the society (oberson & Mire, 2010).

Therefore, this research paper analyzes different ethical issues that face the…… [Read More]

References

Hudson, B. (2003). Justice in the risk society challenging and re-affirming justice in late modernity. London: SAGE.

Roberson, C., & Mire, S. (2010). Ethics for criminal justice professionals. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis.
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Need for'strong moral character in criminal justice'system participants

Words: 1308 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65256150

1.  Explain how a criminal justice agency can ensure that it hires moral individuals.

Criminal justice leaders are public servants responsible to their community. This responsibility, together with the huge amount of control and influence they have, necessitates that they display superior levels of ethical and moral conduct. Ethical practice guidelines remind criminal justice heads to realize the divide between integrity and friendship; corporate objectives and adeptness and client interests; between personal prejudices, interests, and views and professional values. In this respect, all law enforcement leaders are required to refrain from unethical conduct when carrying out their duties. Ethicality is crucial, considering their job involves making life-altering decisions targeted at involved individuals (both victims and offenders). For instance, policemen who put legislation into force and work within societal settings are empowered to snatch away citizens' freedom, undertake investigations, issue tickets and engage in covert operations. Arbitrariness may arise if police…… [Read More]

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Australian Criminal Justice System Respond

Words: 3213 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81904640

Industries that face stiff competition may favor and encourage an aggressive approach from employees that produces rapid results, rather than thoughtful, strategic action. When the gains cannot be realized in the desired time frame, there is a temptation to implement short cuts; resulting in fraud." (Price; Norris, 2009) That however is not a justification, although it prompts some regulations on the way industries operate.

The Law Catches Up

Today the criminal justice system responds to corporate crime much better than before. This is because earlier the scams were an unknown commodity in Australia and it was a U.S. phenomenon. Globalization changed that and now, according to the National Crime Prevention office in Australia the fraudster type of activities in firms were classified as fake billing and invoicing, investments and money chain scams, advance fee frauds, borrowing from the public as in ponzi type scams, the pyramid and money chain, insolvency…… [Read More]

References

Braithwaite, John. (1992) "Penalties for White-Collar Crime"

Retrieved 28 July, 2012 from  http://www.anu.edu.au/fellows/jbraithwaite/_documents/Articles/Penalties_White_1992.pdf 

Braithwaite, John. (1985) "White Collar Crime" Annual Review of Sociology vol. 11, no. 1, pp: 1-25.

"Definition of white collar crime" (from the scanned reference mailed by client -- book title not clear) Please insert book title here
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Criminal Justice -- Sentencing and Analysis Courtney

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91290330

Criminal Justice -- Sentencing and Analysis

Courtney Elizabeth Hernandez was indicted for kidnapping. Her case was handled in the Circuit Court for the Western District of Texas. Based on her attorney's advice, she accepted a plea bargain, pleading guilty to kidnapping. The normal sentence for kidnapping in Texas is 10 years in prison; however, Hernandez was sentenced to 15 years in prison, along with other punishments.

The Sentence

According to a plea bargain in which Defendant Courtney Elizabeth Hernandez pleaded guilty to kidnapping, she received a sentence of 15 years in Federal prison, and then three years of supervised release, plus she is order to pay $3,000 in restitution for the kidnapping of the 2-1/2-year-old girl (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2010).

The Victim's Role in Sentencing

The 2-1/2-year-old girl is too young to participate in the sentencing process; however, her mother can participate. There is no indication that the mother…… [Read More]

Procedure after Sentencing and Possible Appeal

After sentencing, Hernandez would be taken into custody (if not already in custody) and handed over to the custody of the Federal Corrections Department to begin her sentence. Hernandez entered her plea in the Western District of Texas (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2010), so her appeal would go to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit, which is the appellate court with jurisdiction over the Western District of Texas (United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, 2012, p. 9).

In order for Hernandez's appeal to be granted, Hernandez would have to show that something was materially wrong procedurally or substantively in the lower court and that her plea, her sentence or something else about her case should be overturned or sent back to the lower court for further action. That covers a lot of ground and many different arguments might be successfully made to the appellate court. For two examples: Hernandez might argue that she had ineffective assistance of counsel because her attorney had her accept a plea with
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Business Law Justice at Bat the Story

Words: 3165 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58122676

Business Law

Justice at Bat

The Story of Three Strikes Legislation

It has been said that only two things are certain - death and taxes. Yet to these two inevitabilities, many Americans would add a third -- crime. The fear of becoming the victim of a crime - especially of a violent crime - haunts many otherwise rational individuals. Violence, it seems, is everywhere. One need only turn on the television to be assailed by images of murder, rape, and physical assault. And, it is not only Hollywood that is the villain. Both local and national newscasts revel in the depiction and discussion of violent acts: a child is kidnapped; a pregnant housewife disappears and is later found murdered; a ruthless killer stalks the streets of a large city. The media like to quote facts. Just yesterday, on April 27th, it was reported that the murder rate in California's most…… [Read More]

References  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000489537 

Bellamy, Richard. "Crime and Punishment." History Review (1997): 24+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=27447744

Davey, Joseph Dillon. The New Social Contract: America's Journey from Welfare State to Police State. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=35252808
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Analyzing Cultural Competence in the Criminal Justice System

Words: 1646 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45537562

Culural Competence |

Cultural Competence in the Criminal Justice System

Culture determines people's experiences of their world. It is important in the reception and delivery of services. Cultural competence starts with knowing your cultural practices and beliefs, and recognizing the different practices and values of people from different cultures. This goes beyond speaking a different language, or just acknowledging a different group's cultural icons. Cultural competence involves changing your biases or prejudgments on a different people's cultural traditions or beliefs (Continuing Education Online, 2002-2016).

Cultural competence, therefore, can be described as a group of attitudes and behavior within a culture. These attitudes and behavior are incorporated into the methods of practice of an agency, system or its experts, and helps them work productively under cross-cultural circumstances. To successfully achieve cultural competency, knowledge about groups and individuals must be incorporated and translated into certain practices and rules applied in suitable cultural…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (1998). Case Management for Clients With Special Needs. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from National Center for Biotechnology Information:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov 

Continuing Education Online. (2002-2016). Cultural Competency and Diversity. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from Continuing Education Online:  http://www.getceusnow.com 

Otu, N. (2015). Decoding Nonverbal Communication In Law Enforcement. Salus Journal, Issue 3, No. 2, 1-16. Retrieved from Salus Journal:  http://www.salusjournal.com 

Patel, S. (2016). Cultural Competency Training: Preparing Law Students for Practice in Our Multicultural World. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from UCLA Law Review:  http://www.uclalawreview.org
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Criminal Justice Bootcamp Programs for

Words: 5841 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21697054

The sources provided background and reviews of published literature: Holmstrom (1996); Marcus-Mendoza (1995); and Osler (1991). Finally, three reports took on a narrower focus in investigating boot camps: Clark and Kellam (2001); Mueller (1996); and Souryal, Layton & MacKenzie (1994).

Burns and Vito (1995) examined the effectiveness of Alabama boot camps. In Alabama, overcrowded prisons brought on interest at the state level for prison boot camps. State prison boot camps incorporated marching, discipline, physical training, work, classes, and drug and alcohol abuse treatment in three phases. In the first phase, inmates confront their crime and take responsibility for it, ridding themselves of excuses. In the second phase, inmates focus on "self-discovery" by learning about themselves, goal planning, and improving themselves for future release. In the third phase, pre-release, inmates focus on problem solving as the key to their own future success as a lawful citizen upon release. Entry and participation…… [Read More]

References

Ashcroft, J., Daniels, D.J., & Hart, S.V. (2003, June). Correctional boot camps: Lessons from a decade of research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.

Burns, J.C., & Vito, G.F. (1995, March). An impact analysis of the Alabama boot camp program. Federal Probation, 59(1), 63-67.

Burton Jr., V.S., & Marquart, J.W. (1993, September). A study of attitudinal change among boot camp participants. Federal Probation, 57(3), 46-52.

Christenberry, N.J., Burns, J.L., & Dickinson, G.B. (1994, September). Gains in educational achievement by inmates during the Arkansas Prison Boot Camp program. Journal of Correvtional Education, 45(3), 128-132.
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Iraq War Criminal Justice &

Words: 2201 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92104559

"The United States engaged in a pattern of conduct beginning in or before 1989 intended to lead Iraq into provocations justifying U.S. military action against Iraq and permanent U.S. military domination of the Gulf.

2. President ush from August 2, 1990, intended and acted to prevent any interference with his plan to destroy Iraq economically and militarily.

3. President ush ordered the destruction of facilities essential to civilian life and economic productivity throughout Iraq.

4. The United States intentionally bombed and destroyed civilian life, commercial and business districts, schools, hospitals, mosques, churches, shelters, residential areas, historical sites, private vehicles and civilian government offices.

5. The United States intentionally bombed indiscriminately throughout Iraq.

6. The United States intentionally bombed and destroyed Iraqi military personnel, used excessive force, killed soldiers seeking to surrender and in disorganized individual flight, often unarmed and far from any combat zones and randomly and wantonly killed Iraqi…… [Read More]

Bibliography

John Ashcroft's April 1, Testimony (2003) TalkLeft: The Politics of Crime 2003 April 5. Online available at  http://talkleft.com/new_archives/002337.html .

Pillar, Paul R. (2006) Intelligence, Policy, and the War in Iraq. Foreign Affairs. March/April 2006. Council on Foreign Relations. Online available at http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20060301faessay85202/paul-r-pillar/intelligence-policy-and-the-war-in-iraq.html.

Tremblay, Rodrigue (2006) War Crimes and Responsibility of the Bush Administration. After Downing Street. Online available at  http://www.afterdowningstreet.org/node/13670 .

Skelly, James M. (2006) American Soldiers and War Crimes in Iraq. Open Democracy. June 9, 2006. Online available at  http://www.opendemocracy.net/democracy-americanpower/iraq_warcrimes_3627.jsp .
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Criminal Justice System Essay

Words: 3528 Length: Pages Document Type: Paper #: Array

This essay discusses how the criminal justice system is an important part of the government, allowing for the prosecution, imprisonment, and rehabilitation of criminals. Apart from the court system and police, the criminal justice system has other components like criminal justice agencies that provide additional information for researchers to form studies and articles to help improve the criminal justice system as a whole. This Criminal Justice Essay will help students looking to understand what the system is and what components make up the system. By exploring the core of the criminal justice system, one can understand law and how the government carries out enforcement of the law within the country.

Titles

What is at the Core of the Criminal Justice System in the United States?

The Effects of the Criminal Justice System on Crime

Does the Criminal Justice System Need Change?

Selected Title: The Role of The American Criminal Justice…… [Read More]

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Racism Mental Health in the Juvenile Justice System

Words: 1781 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70684099

acism and Mental Health Issues in Juvenile Justice Systems

It seems that, not only are juvenile justice systems deficient in mental health services, and not only is there a disparity between services for whites and African-American youths - but some juvenile facilities may even be contributing to the deterioration of kids' emotional and mental well-being. This paper looks at racial prejudice in the administration of juvenile justice from the point-of-view of who gets locked up, what happens once they're in, and the built-in system cruelty.

ace: Chances of incarceration are far greater if you're a Black kid

Between the years 1985 and 1994, delinquency cases brought through the Juvenile Justice System (JJS) increased by 41%; but more disturbing is the fact that in that time period, delinquency cases involving blacks jumped 78% and cases involving other non-white youths skyrocketed by 94% (Lardiero, 1997). Another key fact illustrating the institutional bias…… [Read More]

References

Bishop, Donna M., & Frazier, Charles E. (1996). Race effects in juvenile justice

Decision-making: finding of a statewide analysis. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 86, 392-414.

Glasser, Jeff (2000, May 8). And Justice for Some. U.S. News & World Report.

Lardiero, Carl J. (1997). Of disproportionate minority confinement. Corrections Today. 59, 14-16.
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Criminal Justice - Intelligence Does

Words: 2835 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93963443



The major participants in the Cuban Missile Crisis were in many ways driven by intelligence information to make the decisions upon which the crisis centered. The Soviet Union and its puppet nation Cuba relied on the heavy detail they received from their own agencies and believed that as a result of the failure and humiliation of the U.S. during the infamous Bay of Pigs incident that America would be blind at worst to its nuclear build up in Cuba and impotent at best. "At the time of the crisis, the United States possessed many more weapons than the Soviet Union, and thus had a military advantage. Khrushchev had formulated the plan...when he was searching for a place to install nuclear warheads that could not be detected by the U.S. early warning system..." ("Cuban Missile Crisis," 2002, p. 18) Simultaneously, the Americans both feared the Soviets and resented the clear violation…… [Read More]

References

Cuban Missile Crisis. (2002). Cuban Missile Crisis. Politics & World Affairs: Cold War, 18.

In Defense of Civil Liberties (2004, September 20). The New York Times, p. A24.

Kaplan, Morton A. (2002). Intelligence Failures. World & I, 17, 12.

U.S. Has "No Objections" to China's Nuclear Buildup (2001). The New American, 17, 13.
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Homeland Security and Justice Administration

Words: 1467 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 76654550

Homeland Security and Justice Administration

In this paper, we are going to be studying the impact of the relationship between: an emergency operations plan (EOP) with a real time incident action plan (IAP). This will be accomplished by focusing on: the strategies that can be used by first responders and the relationship between an EOP in comparison with an IAP. Once this takes place, is when we provide specific insights as to how these areas can address the challenges that are impacting different stakeholders.

Over the last several years, the issue of first responders in dealing with terrorist related events has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because they are expected to go into areas where they may have to save lives. Yet, they are also must preserve evidence and protect any kind of possible crime scene. This is illustrating the constant amounts of planning and training that…… [Read More]

References

Emergency Operations Plan. (2011). Rollins University. Retrieved from:  http://www.rollins.edu/safety/documents/EOPRev03122012.pdf 

FEMA Incident Action Planning Guide. (2012). FEMA. Retrieved from:  http://www.uscg.mil/hq/cg5/cg534/nsarc/FEMA%20Incident%20Action%20Planning%20Guide%20 (IAP).pdf

Bennett, G. (2010). Cross Training for First Responders. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Kirkorian, M. (2007). Are Immigrants a Homeland Security Risk? CFR. Retrieved from:  http://www.cfr.org/immigration/immigrants-homeland-security-risk/p14660
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Evolution of Justice in a Post 9 11 America

Words: 3268 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51206463

DOJ Policy Changes

The plethora of commentary regarding the terrorist attacks that occurred on 9/11 has created much confusion. The overwhelming quality of the circumstances altered the collective psyche of America in deep and profound ways. In many cases these changes have provided solutions, problems and more questions.

The purpose of this essay is to discuss how 9/11 changed criminal justice policies in the United States. The essay will argue that although there have been many worthwhile and successful alterations, a small portion of the policies have provided more questions than answers. To help illuminate this hypothesis, this essay will analyze many of these changes that have been implemented and evaluate them from a new perspective.

Key Actions

The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is essentially responsible for enforcing and promoting the ideas of justice, fairness and retribution. In a ten-year retrospective of their own accomplishments and principles regarding…… [Read More]

References

Baginski, M. (2005). Testimony to Congress Subcommittee on Crime Terrorism and Homeland Security, Washington DC, 19 April 2005. Retrieved from  http://www.fbi.gov/news/testimony/importance-of-usa-patriot-act-to-fbi-information-sharing 

Blumenthal, R. (2013). FISA Court Secrecy Must End. Politico, 14 July 2013. Retrieved from  http://www.politico.com/story/2013/07/fisa-court-process-must-be-unveiled-94127.html 

Davis, L. et al. (2010). Long-Term Effects of Law Enforcement's Post 9/11 Focus on Counterterrorism and Homeland Security. Prepared for the National Institute of Justice by Rand Corporation, 2010. Retrieved from  https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/232791.pdf 

Liu, E. (2013). Reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act. Congressional Research Service, 8 April, 2013. Retrieved from  http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/R42725.pdf
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Departments Police Officer a Generalist Discuss Inconsistent

Words: 822 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64835715

departments, police officer a generalist. Discuss inconsistent Max Weber's theory division labor? 2) Police departments written protocols including general orders procedures.

Max Weber promotes the idea of specialized division of labor, thus meaning that his theories are against instances such as a police officer taking on generalist roles. By carrying out specialized roles, individuals are more likely to assist the community as a whole in achieving positive results. This would also make it possible for the system to be better organized and for the idea of hierarchy to be less problematic.

Police departments need to encourage officers to take on open minded attitudes in spite of the fact that their role is to enforce laws whenever this is required. Officer discretion involves a law enforcement agent being able to properly understand the situation that he or she is in. Decision space is the information concerning the options that he or…… [Read More]

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Justice Each Country Has Different

Words: 2621 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 36622463

Some of the characteristics of this country include community policing, a patriarchal family system, the importance of higher education, and the way businesses serve as surrogate families. Asian societies are also "shame-based" rather than "guilt-based" as Western societies are. For example, it is unthinkable to commit a crime in such places because of the shame it would bring upon one's family and the business or corporation with which that family is associated with. (Stevens, 2004, Places with little… section, ¶ 2).

In the book, Comparative criminal justice, Francis J. Pakes (2004) points out that when compatriots become involved in trouble with the law abroad, the news media invariably gains an interest in criminal justice in far-away places. When a case in a foreign country ends, albeit, the increased interest in the criminal justice system of the country at issue with the law in the U.S. dissipates. The media attention to…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Lah, K., Cooper, a., Ahmed, S. & Sanchez, C. (2009, ). American jailed in Japan for trying to reclaim his children. CNN.com. Retrieved October 21, 2009 from  http://www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/asiapcf/09/29/japan.father.abduction/index.html?ere 

=rss_topstories

Morley, J.D. (2008, March 28). News India-Times, Retrieved October 21, 2009 from  http://www.internationalfamilylawfirm.com/2008/03/international-parental-child-abduction.html 

Pakes, F.J. (2004). Comparative criminal justice. Willan Publishing. Retrieved October 21, 2009
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Department of Homeland Security and

Words: 565 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 68678368

S. Customs and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services were combined to form U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Overall, DHS incorporates 22 government agencies. The major agencies of DHS are the TSA, Customs and Border Protection, Citizenship and Immigration Services, ICE, FEMA, the U.S. Secret Service, and the U.S. Coast Guard (Borja).

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) was formed on July 1, 1973 and is headquartered in Arlington, VA. Former drug enforcement related agencies are the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs and the Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement. The parent agency of the DEA is the U.S. Department of Justice. The DEA is the lead agency for domestic enforcement under the Controlled Substances Act. The DEA's primary goal is to combat drug smuggling and use within the U.S. The DEA shares jurisdiction with the FBI and ICE and shares communications systems with the Department of Defense. DEA…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Borja, Elizabeth. "Brief Documentary History of the Department of Homeland Security

2001-2008." Department of Homeland Security History Office. 2008. Print.

"DEA History." Drug Enforcement Adminstration. 3 February 2011. Web.
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Justice Administration and Criminal Justice

Words: 612 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 52226816

Criminal justice organizations have "varied and complex environments," and are affected by those environments in ways that makes them "malleable" and prone to frequent change (Stojkovie, Kalinich & Klofas, 2015, p. 15-16). Because of this, criminal justice administration reflects the core principles of learning organizations. Criminal justice organizations must be flexible, responsive to changes in social norms and public policies, and willing to account for developments in empirical research that might alter practice. Leadership in criminal justice organizations must therefore be visionary and transformative, motivated by core goals. Because the core goals of criminal justice organizations are as complex as their organizational structures and functions, it is important to explicitly clarify the missions, values, and goals of each organization under the criminal justice umbrella. Likewise, it is important to understand the role of the criminal justice organization within the overarching government.

As governmental institutions, criminal justice organizations are bureaucratic in…… [Read More]

References

Stojkovie, Kalinich, & Klofas. (2015) Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management - custom (6th ed.) Florence, KY: Wadsworth Publishing

Wiechmann, A.D. (2007). Public Administration in Criminal Justice Organizations. San Diego: University Readers.
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Criminal Justice Data Interpretation

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40563918

Justice System

Criminal Justice Data Interpretation

In December of 2014 the National Center for Juvenile Justice published its fourth "comprehensive report on juvenile crime, victimization, and the juvenile justice system." (Sickmund, 2014, pg iii) This report was prepared in order to present the most important information on the juvenile justice system and those who come under its jurisdiction. In order to understand the many influences on the lives of juveniles, the report examines the variety of characteristics within the population of juveniles included in the report. While this includes such information as demographics, population data, living arrangements and high school dropout rates, one of the most important characteristics is the rate of births attributed to juveniles. Page 13 of the report includes a table which describes the teenage birthrate in the United States compared with a number of other industrialized nations. The data used was collected from the United Nations…… [Read More]

References

Sickmund, Melissa and Charles Puzzanchere, Editors. (2014). Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2014 National Report. National Center for Juvenile Justice. Retrieved from  http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/nr2014/downloads/NR2014.pdf 

Durose, Matthew, Alezia Cooper, and Howard Snyder. (2014 Apr). Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 30 States in 2005: Patterns from 2005 to 2010. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved from  http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/rprts05p0510.pdf
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Criminal Justice What Do You Think Paradigm

Words: 1247 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 59365994

Criminal Justice

What do you Think

Paradigm of Laws

Paradigm of Laws

• the paradigm of law your actions define and give reasons

Law and ethics applies to everyone whether free individuals or a prisoners. Everybody has the right of existence, justice and fairness. However, there are occasions when a prisoner cannot be offered the right of confidentiality and privacy. This is exactly what I have done to the inmate in state prison where I am a correctional officer. My paradigm of law does not believe in sincerity of inmates. Given the history of the prisoner who has deceived twice earlier, I cannot trust him again. Whatever he says or does, it has to be communicated to authorities so that they can take action.

The inmates are individuals that have caused harm to the society earlier thus they are in the prison. These people should not be blindly trusted. The…… [Read More]

References

Jensen, O.C., (1934), "Kant's Ethical Formalism," Philosophy, 9(34), 195-208

Retributive vs. Restorative Justice, (2009), Retrieved from:

 http://www.cscsb.org/restorative_justice/retribution_vs_restoration.html
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Ethics in Criminal Justice Maintaining

Words: 1835 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53458873

A written policy regarding sexual misconduct is imperative, as is stringent hiring practices including applicant screening, adequate supervision, training, and a structured investigative process regarding allegations of sexual misconduct (Abner et al., 2011). Addressing Sexual Offenses further states that it is necessary to clearly outline the consequences for sexual misconduct as a means of deterring it (Abner et al., 2011). Additionally, Addressing Sexual Offenses outlines other strategies which need to be employed to eliminate the possibility of police sexual misconduct including videotaping all officer interactions, requiring strict time reporting, and implementing unannounced spot checks on officer's electronic devices and communication devices (Abner et al., 2011).

Specific strategies, policies, training, screening, and supervising must be employed to eradicate sexual misconduct by law enforcement officers. Obviously, sexual misconduct by law enforcement officers is a reality and has far reaching implications within a society. Only by eliminating the behavior, will it be possible…… [Read More]

References

Abner, C., Clark, D., Dahmer-Farris, T., Di Pino, B., Gamble, a., Gibbs, T… Firman, J.

(2011, June). Addressing Sexual Offenses and Misconduct by Law

Enforcement:

Executive Guide. Retrieved November 27, 2012 from website:
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MS Degree in Criminal Justice

Words: 1225 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Admission Essay Paper #: 7826914

As part of my studies in terrorism and homeland security which were a requirement of my military service, I have come to understand the need for strong intelligence, culturally-astute law enforcement, and effective security protocols when dealing with threats from within as well as from without.

Homeland security remains one of the most vitally necessary components of law enforcement, as seen by the recent alerts raised regarding potential terrorist attacks threatening our nation's major cities. The exciting aspect of this field is that it is constantly changing -- just as America's enemies are always looking for new ways to attack the U.S., law enforcement officials within this specialty must have a flexible and open-minded approach, so they too can change with the needs posed by the environment. I would like to have a substitutive impact in terms of my future career, and I believe that I have the potential to…… [Read More]

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Ethics in Criminal Justice The Police Function

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97518654

Ethics in Criminal Justice:

The police function has continued to be the most needed elements since the beginning of the existence of human societies because social coordination and harmony have never prospered without some kind of supervisory authority. The supervisory authority or power has usually been shared among several agencies or departments including policing. These various departments have been planned and synchronized to provide the service efficiently and effectively. Since its inception, policing have been mandated with the task of identifying and convicting criminals. However, the police have been expected to have an increasingly wider social role in acting as crisis managers or problem busters. As the police have been faced with numerous moral challenges, there are various theories that have been developed to describe ethics within the field of criminal justice.

Slippery Slope and Gratuities:

One of the long-standing and controversial practices within the police force is police gratuities…… [Read More]

References:

Andrews, W.C. (2004, June). Police Gratuities, Public Perception after September 11, 2001.

Retrieved April 12, 2013, from http://www.clearwaterpolice.org/articles/andrews.asp

Delattre, E.J. (2002). Character and cops: ethics in policing (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.:

American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.
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Criminal Justice Program at the John Hay

Words: 1348 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88828889

Criminal Justice Program at the John Hay College of Criminal Justice. This is one of the most famous criminal justice programs in the nation and its home is one of the most diverse and challenging metropolis in the country: New York City. The criminal justice program here is different from others in a variety of ways, most notably in its origins.

Unlike other criminal justice programs, this one developed not out of student demand, but out of need. "In the mid 1950s, civic leaders and the New York City Police Department became increasingly aware of the growing complexity of police work, not only in the internal administration and operation of the department, but also in the ongoing relations between police and the community. In response to these concerns, a Police Science Program was established in 1954 at the then Baruch School of Business and Public Administration of City College" (jjay.cuny.edu).…… [Read More]

References

American.edu (2013). Drug Market Intervention Training. Retrieved from:

 http://www.american.edu/spa/jpo/Drug-Market-Intervention-Training-Technical-Assistance-Initiative.cfm 

Gendall, J. (2013). John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Retrieved from Architectmagazine.com: http://www.architectmagazine.com/education-projects/john-jay-college-of.aspx

Jjay.cuny.edu. (2013). History of John Jay. Retrieved from Jjay.cuny.edu: http://www.jjay.cuny.edu/835.php
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Ethical Concern Related to Criminal Justice

Words: 944 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 2522327

Ethical Concerns in Criminal Justice: Police Brutality

In the field of criminal justice, it is important to be mindful of the moral or ethical problems which might arise. In a perfect world, police officers, prosecuting attorneys, judges, and juries would always act above board and with the singular interest of seeking out justice. However, this is a highly imperfect world and every society has had an incidence at some point in their history wherein someone abused their position in the process of criminal justice for their own ends. Those involved in criminal justice must be ever mindful of these past abuses and keep a watchful eye on their cohorts to ensure that the occurrence of similar unethical behaviors is kept to a minimum in the future. One of the most controversial aspects of criminal justice in recent years has been the question of police brutality and the consequences of officer's…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Byers, B. (2002). Ethics and criminal justice: some observations on police misconduct. Crime and Justice International. Sam Houston University, Texas. (18:68).

Krupanski, M. (2012). Policing the police: civilian video monitoring of police activity. Global Minds.

Locke, H. (1966). Police brutality and civilian review board: a second look. 625.

Skolnick, J. (1995). Community-oriented policing would prevent police brutality. Policing the Police. Greenhaven: San Diego, CA. 45-55.
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Free How the Criminal Justice System Is

Words: 2325 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79452872

Free

How the Criminal Justice System is Dysfunctional according to Paul Butler's Let's Get Free

The American criminal justice system has had a long history of prejudice. From the Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision that institutionalized the false concept of "separate but equal" to the Jim Crow laws that followed to the methods of "control" enacted by police in urban communities, criminal justice in the U.S. has seen lots of crime but little justice. Part of the reason for the inherent dysfunction in the way minorities have always been treated in America is that the country was founded on prejudiced WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) principles: the principle of "manifest destiny" was based on the supposedly "divine right" that WASPs had to "control" the New World and eradicate the "lesser" races (such as the Native Americans and the African-Americans). These prejudiced principles were absorbed into the criminal justice system through lawmakers…… [Read More]

Reference List

Butler, P. (2010). Let's Get Free: A Hip-Hop Theory of Justice. UK:

ReadHowYouWant Publishers.
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How the Criminal Justice System Works

Words: 1614 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 58423805

Criminal Justice System

After heavy bombardment on London by fighter plans of Germany in Second World War, someone asked Winston Churchill that would ritain live long! Churchill replied immediately that if our courts are providing justice then there is no question about existence of ritain, which they are. Similarly, in World War 1 and World War 2 where Jews were brutally killed by Nazis then some of the Jews got refuge in America. Americans do not have discrimination for any community at that time and famous scientist Einstein was one of them, which proved its worth. Provision of justice for every community is very important for any society, so it is for ritain. From last few years' lot of questions have been raised on criminal Judiciary system in ritain.

Shami chakrabarti (Director of liberty) says

efore you decide whether the system is fit for purpose, you have to decide what…… [Read More]

Bibliography

BBC. (2001, MAY 7). BBCNEWS VOTE 2001. Retrieved from BBC NEWS|VOTE 2001|FACTS: http://news.bbc.co.uk/news/vote2001/hi/e

CNN. (2012, Feb 22). Cameron hosts talks on football racism. Retrieved from CNN:  http://edition.cnn.com/2012/02/22/sport/football/uk-football-racism/index.html 

Community Correction Punishments. (1996, May). California Research Bureau. Retrieved from Community Correction Punishments:  http://www.library.ca.gov/crb/96/08/ 

Press TV. (2012, May 07). UK police racism complaints doubled. Retrieved from Press TV_UK police racism complaints doubled:  http://www.presstv.ir/detail/239932.html
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Criminal Justice Associates Program When

Words: 1192 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23144061



I think that my knowledge of procedure is probably my strongest. I feel very comfortable with the level of knowledge I have about proper police procedure. I feel confident that I not only understand basic procedural rules, but also the justification or reasoning behind those rules. Furthermore, I feel as if my understanding of the basis for these various procedural rules will help me easily grasp any additional procedural rules that I will encounter on the job.

While I do feel as if I have had a strong educational background, there are two areas where I feel as I could benefit from more education: psychology and human services. The more I study the psychology of criminals and victims, the more I realize I do not know about why perpetrators do things. I understand that people who align with certain profiles may be more likely to commit crimes, but I am…… [Read More]

References

City of Houston. (2013). Victim services unit. Retrieved February 6, 2013 from Houston Police

Department website: http://www.houstontx.gov/police/vsu/

Stevens, M. (2003, June 18). Victimology theory. Retrieved February 6, 2013 from North

Carolina Wesleyan College website:
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Legal Justice Information Systems Integration

Words: 2569 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70165819

For instance, in the eyes of the courts, an offense's level could be equated to the guideline for the seriousness of a crime. The next aspect of the scorecard was the offender's personal or associative criminal history. Prior offenses dictated a level of conviction frequencies and social offenses. Therefore the personal criminal history of an individual ends up playing a major role in the sentencing guidelines. A person's propensity to repeat offences entails longer sentences. The person that had a history of repeat offenses offered a greater threat and therefore was often thought to be more dangerous to society. but, how does the justice system maintain a culprit's history without an ability to utilize integrated processes?

This is a prime example of where justice information systems integration could have far reaching implications. In regard to sentencing, first time offenders in one community may not have been labeled as serial offenders…… [Read More]

References

Avolio, Frederick M. (2000, March 20). Best Practices in Network Security -- as the Networking Landscape Changes, So Must the Policies That Govern Its Use. Don't Be Afraid of Imperfection When it Comes to Developing Those for Your Group. Network Computing.

Capital Punishment in U.S. Hit 30-Year Low in 2003. Ed. All American Patriots. (March 1, 2005). Retrieved on April 21, 2005, from All American Patriots at http://www.allamericanpatriots.com/m-news+article+storyid-6869-PHPSESSID-c7528df1df14be6397da4e89e25a7374.html.

Dekker, Marcel. (n.d.). Security of the Internet. Retrieved on April 21, 2005, at  http://www.cert.org/encyc_article/tocencyc.html#Overview 

Holmes, Amir., Webster, Lawrence P., & Sullivan, Teri (2004). JIEM Reference Model. SEARCH, the National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics. Retrieved on April 21, 2005, at http://www.search.org/integration/JRM1.0.1.pdf
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Criminal Justice and Criminology the

Words: 5114 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 18724377

Latinos participations are low in CAPS, and most of their members are unaware of the strategies of CAPS. Their levels of awareness have been on a declining state since the year 1990. Their involvement in these meetings was driving by the levels of crime, moral decay on the community and at the level of social disorder. The problem with the Latino population is that they do not turn up in numbers to these meetings. The community's representation is low in these meetings.

However, research further shows that the community lacks representation in the district advisory committees that meet on a regular basis with the police department. Compared to the African-Americans and the Whites Latinos have young families are they are more likely to be working and having families at home. Their involvement with the police department is variedly mixed. There is evidence that their community avoids police contacts, including not…… [Read More]

References

Lyons, T., Lurigio, Rodriguez, P.L., & a.J., Roque, (2013). Racial disparity in the criminal justice system for drug offenses a state legislative response to the problem. Race and justice, 3(1), 83-101.

Lombardo, R.M. (2013). Fighting Organized Crime a History of Law Enforcement Efforts in Chicago. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 29(2), 296-316.

Portnoy, J., Chen, F.R., & Raine, a. (2013). Biological protective factors for antisocial and criminal behavior. Journal of Criminal Justice.

Lee, M. (2013). Inventing Fear of Crime. Willan.
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Sweden's Current Justice System Overview

Words: 3924 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32355412

In 1993 there were 155,704 recorded crimes of burglary and of these 20,200 were residential burglaries. Since the mid-1970s the level of recorded burglaries has fluctuated around a level of 130,000 to 150,000 crimes per year although during the three last years, 1991 to 1993, the level has been close to 155,000. The number of recorded car thefts in 1993 was 61,141 and of these 18,300 were attempts. During the 1980s the number of recorded thefts of cars has doubled from 34,301 in 1980 to 69,003 in 1989. However, in the last three years this crime has decreased from roughly 70,000 in 1991 to roughly 61,000 in 1993.

Drug offenses. In 1993, 40,700 violations of the Narcotic Drugs Act were reported to the police. This figure is 40% higher than in 1990. Due to the method of counting drug offenses and the fact that this is a crime category highly…… [Read More]

Resources

An Introduction to the Sami Culture" (1996) Retrieved, January 28, at  http://boreale.konto.itv.se/samieng.htm 

Criminal Matters" Swedish Government Offices Website Retrieved, January 28, at  http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2138/a/14884 

Malmstrm, C. "Diversity in the European Context" Retrieved, January 28, at  http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/8660/a/82943 

Reiter, P.L. (2007), Comparative criminal justice systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall/Pearsons.
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American Criminal Justice Systems and Policies

Words: 3251 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16883688

History U.S. Criminal Justice Systems/Police

It is undeniable that criminal justice and police activities are integral parts of every relatively peaceful nation in the world. ithout the actions and standards set forth by the agencies that "protect and serve" many wrongs would go not only unpunished but possibly unnoticed as well.

The basic purposes of policing in democratic societies are: 1. To prevent and investigate crimes; 2. To apprehend offenders; 3. To help ensure domestic peace and tranquility; and 4. To enforce and support the laws (especially the criminal laws) of the society of which the police are a part." (Schmalleger Chapter 5 Summary)

Though the developmental history of modern policing and criminal justice there have been many changes, changes in focus and standard, and even crime and justice. The very term professionalism has completely evolved across the board, more so in the policing industry than almost anywhere else. A…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Downer L.J. Legis Henrici Primi Abstract Retrieved April 25, 2004 at http://www.powellschicago.com/html/reprints/16560.html.

Fagin, James A. Criminal Justice New York, NY Allyn & Bacon, 2003.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9487482

Hirschel, J. David, and William Wakefield. Criminal Justice in England and the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1995.
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Criminal Justice Organizations Since the

Words: 1593 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30134227

As practitioners of the law, court officials and subordinates are bound by the single powerful system of the law and governmental policy. Lawyers are bound by regulation rather than occupational socialization. Their interaction with the general public is also much more significant than that of the police, which provides a lower level of occupational intra-organizational loyalty than might be found among police officers.

Court decisions are obliged to abide by the law. The issue is however complicated by the fact that the upreme Court is partial towards the power-wielding authority in the White House. This tends to detract from objectivity when making constitutional decisions. The issue is further complicated by the 9/11 attacks and other similar factors.

The devastating attacks during 2001 have not only influenced political power, but also the way in which this power was used to influence decisions by courts, the police, and individuals working within these…… [Read More]

Sources

Bibas, Stephanos. (2005, Nov). Originalism and Formalism in Criminal Procedure: The Triumph of Justice Scalia, the Unlikely Friend of Criminal Defendants? Georgetown Law Journal. FindArticles.com:  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3805/is_200511/ai_n16013090 

Clayton, Cornell W. (2006, June). Politics of Criminal Justice. Georgetown Law Journal. FindArticles.com:

 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3805/is_200606/ai_n16618978 

Harrison, Stephen J. (1998) Police Organizational Culture: Using Ingrained Values to Build Positive Organizational Improvement. http://www.pamij.com/harrison.html
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Criminal Justice -- Sheriff's Departments Hiring Requirements

Words: 788 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85682963

Criminal Justice -- Sheriff's Departments Hiring Requirements

San Francisco County Sheriff's Department

The minimum qualifications for applying to the San Francisco Sheriff's Department (SFSD) are as follows: the candidate must be at least 18 years of age; must be a U.S. citizen or a "permanent alien who is eligible and has applied for citizenship"; must have a U.S. high school diploma (or GED certificate) or a 2-year or 4-year college degree; cannot have any felony convictions (and certain misdemeanor convictions); must be physically and mentally healthy and be of good moral character.

The selection requirements include: a) testing reading and writing ability (an acceptable score must be obtained on the POST Entry-Level Law Enforcement Test Battery); b) an oral interview (the department head and another department employee, or an oral panel, gives this oral interview; a candidate's "experience, problem solving ability, communication skills, motivation/interest, interpersonal skills and community awareness /…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Saint Louis County Missouri. (2009). Law and Public Safety / Evaluating Quality Police

Services / What is Quality Police Service? Retrieved June 3, 2012, from  http://www.stlouisco.com .

San Diego County Sheriff's Department. (2011). Become a Deputy Sheriff / Lateral Program /

Join Our Team. Retrieved June 3, 2012, from http://www.joinsdsheriff.net/lateral.html.
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Organizational and Administrative Strategies in Criminal Justice

Words: 930 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 9161461

Criminal Justice

Organizational and Administrative Strategies in Criminal Justice

The Americans with Disabilities Act is designed to protect people with a wide variety of disabilities from all manner of discrimination from employment to access. A police department has the same guidelines as other types of employment, but there may be caveats because of the nature of the job. No matter what the job, an employee, whether disabled or not, has to prove that he or she is capable of performing the job after an offer of employment has been made (DOJ, 1997). Prior to a job offer being made though the agency is not allowed to ask if the potential employee has any type of disability. Also, the police department must consider all applicants equally. If the applicant has an obvious disability, they must still be allowed to compete for a job on equal footing with all other applicants, but…… [Read More]

References

DOJ. (1997). Questions and answers: The Americans with Disabilities Act and hiring police officers. Retrieved from http://www.ada.gov/copsq7a.htm

Mangan, T. (2011). Libel raises its ugly head in Brockport. Retrieved from  http://www.examiner.com/article/libel-raises-its-ugly-head-brockport 

Mayer, M.J. (2012). ADA and the hiring process. The Police Chief. Retrieved from  http://www.policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display&iss  ue_id=92009&category_ID=3
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Security Department Policy

Words: 1426 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45140883

Many states, such as Virginia, are training private security officers in order to ensure smooth cooperation and coordination between security companies without police powers and the police and sheriff's departments. In Washington D.C., the municipal police department requires private security officers to be licensed as "special police" officers in order to legally search or arrest people. Cooperation can reach significant proportions, as in the case of the Minneapolis Police Department's "SafeZone" program, which place private security officers downtown who now outnumber Minneapolis Police Department officers there 13 to 1.

4. Industries and organizations that use special and/or commissioned officers and for what purposes

a. There is a truly broad range of industries and organizations which use special police officers. These organizations tend to have significant financial resources, large premises, and sensitive security needs which they believe cannot be met by the existing public police force. These often involve the need…… [Read More]

Bibliography

 http://www.seattlepi.com/local/430256_harborview.html 

U.S. Constitution

Amy Goldstein, Washington Post, the Private Arm of the Law January 2, 2007
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City Police Departments

Words: 1863 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56981886

City Police Department

Police departments are professional organizations comprised of men and women who are empowered by society to serve as the guardians of society's well being. Organizations of professionals are characterized by extensive and continuing professional training, shared and understanding of and commitment to the values of the profession, and the desire to improve their communities. This paper discusses a city police department that has demonstrated great success over the years -- the New York City Police Department (NYPD).

Founded in 1845, the NYPD is the biggest municipal police force in the world, the oldest in the United States, and the model on which the other city departments have patterned themselves (Larder and Reppetto, 2000). From a population of about 33,000 in 1790, New York City rapidly became a city of nearly 400,000 by 1845. The old constable system, which had policed New York since the days of the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kelling, G. (Autumn, 1995). How to Run a Police Department. City Journal, Vol. 5, No. 4.

Lardner, James and Thomas Reppetto. (2000). NYPD: A City and Its Police. New York: Henry Holt.

Livingston, Debra. 1997. "Police Discretion and the Quality of Life in Public Places: Courts, Communities, and the New Policing." Columbia Law Review. 97-3, p. 551-672. April.

New York City Police Department (NYPD). (2004). Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.ci.nyc.ny.us/html/nypd/home.html.
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Criminal Justice System in Two Countries

Words: 4897 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49687414

Criminal Justice System

Ever since gaining independence status, both Mozambique and Zimbabwe have come under the scanner for violation of human rights incidences and extrajudicial excesses. The under trials, often arrested without formal sanctions have been continually processed through undemocratic norms and subjected to undue treatment when in confinement and under the control of policing authorities in spite of the fact that statutory provisions in the constitution provide assured guarantee for appeal and fundamental rights protecting the citizens in both the nations. The Dependant Variables hence comprise of use of force and even firearms against those in detention and secondly custodial executions and deaths.

Defining extrajudicial executions and deaths in detentions:

Extra judicial killing is the act of execution or subjecting an under trial to violent acts that may result in death of the person. Such uses of force or acts of violence precede, supersede or bypass any due judicial…… [Read More]

References

Ackerman, S.R. (n.d.). Independence, political interference and corruption. Retrieved from:  http://www.google.com.pk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CB8QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fresources.transparency.bg%2Fdownload.html%3Fid%3D674&ei=nmSFVJjfJsX3UIzXgpAL&usg=AFQjCNG3iXhyvEpGajwTxpO_2SO2oFiECw&sig2=qZhx2nM7AmhxVKqpdVdtOA&bvm=bv.80642063,d.d24 

BAR Human Rights Committee of England and Wales. (2010). A Place in the Sun Zimbabwe: A Report on the state of the rule of law in Zimbabwe after the Global Political Agreement of September. Retrieved from: www.barcouncil.org.uk/media/144602/7351_bhrc_zimbabwe_report.pdf

Barkow, R.E. (2008). Institutional Design and the Policing of Prosecutors: Lessons from Administrative Law. Stanford Law Review 61, 869-922.

Barzelay, M. (1992). Breaking through bureaucracy. Berkeley: Univ. Of CA Press.
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Criminal Justice Administration Corrections Officers

Words: 1001 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 44740907

Richard Allen, the state's prisons commissioner, said ednesday the change is meant to reduce overtime, and should save the state $3 million to $4 million a year. 'e don't have any choice about it,' Allen said. 'e've got to save money. e've got to do some things that are out of the box, and this is one of them'" (Diel 2008). Corrections officers have naturally protested this measure, citing the dangers of the job and the impact upon the quality of their health and financial lives.

Alabama is not alone. In Florida budget cutbacks were blamed recently when "A Florida correctional officer was killed on the job last week" (Ray 2008). Even though corrections officer positions have not been eliminated in the state of Florida, an expanding prison population coupled with a refusal to add more positions have lead to understaffed prisons and overworked, tired officers. In other states, cutbacks…… [Read More]

Works cited

Corrections officers. (2008). 2008 Occupational Outlook. Department of Labor Statistics 2008-

2009 Edition. Retrieved 1 Oct 2008.  http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos156.htm 

Diel, Stan. (2008, September 25) Corrections officers at seven Alabama prisons to work 12-hour shifts. Birmingham News. Retrieved 1 Oct 2008.

 http://www.al.com/news/birminghamnews/statebriefs.ssf?/base/news/1222330508324710.xml&coll=2
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Australian Criminal Justice System Formal Mechanisms Are

Words: 1321 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58468006

Australian Criminal Justice System

Formal mechanisms are required to make certain there is no bias or discrimination against the people. With informal mechanisms there was unfair treatment of the accused even to the point of receiving unjust sentencing. Those who had the power within the informal mechanisms often received the property or other goods once held by the accused, withhold evidence for personal benefit, or acted as vigilantes exacting their own justice (Lincoln and obinson, 2010).

Social control is best managed by those that have been elected to oversee the management of the changing formats of punishment for criminal behavior. The formal mechanisms work best when connected with matters of state within society (oach Anleu, 1998). One theory that demonstrates the interconnected relations is the Behaviorists Concept. This theory asserts that social control lies within governmental administration of what is considered a normal lifestyle through

Legislation, legal action and negotiation…… [Read More]

References

Australian Government Department of Foreign Investment and Trade (2011). Legal System. Retrieved December 15, 2011 from  http://www.dfat.gov.au/facts/legal_system.html 

Indehmar, D and Roberts, L. (2009). Confidence in the criminal justice system. Retrieved December 15, 2011 from http://www.aic.gov.au/documents/D/6/8/%7BD68CD7EA-536A-4025-A8C0-A5BADF59A6AC%7Dtandi387.pdf

Lincoln, R. And Robinson, S. (2010). Crime over Time. Cambridge Scholars Publishing: Newcastle Tyne.

Roach Anleu, S.L. (1998). The role of civil sanctions of in social control: a social legal examination December 15, 2011 from  http://www.popcenter.org/library/crimeprevention/volume_09/Role_ofCivilSanctions.pdf
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Criminal Justice Theory

Words: 2525 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51732386

Criminal Justice Theory and the Los Angeles County Probation Department

Criminal and antisocial behaviors have been studied in the field of criminology for many years. Criminologists are very interested to learn what types of things cause specific criminal and antisocial behaviors. hile criminal behavior and antisocial behavior are not always related, they often have close ties. Criminologists and other researchers are looking to find commonalities between certain genetic makeups and deviant behavior. They believe that many people are genetically predisposed to be violent, and if these people can be located they can be treated.

That does not mean that criminologists are in favor of testing everyone's genetic makeup on the planet to see if any of them show violent tendencies. hat they are interested in doing, however, is studying criminals who already have a history of violent and deviant behavior to see what other traits they have, and what their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, R.H. (2000, January 13). Unit 5: deviance, conformity and social control. University of Colorado at Denver. Retrieved September 2, 2005, from http://psychology. about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fthunder1.cudenver.edu%2F%2Fsociology%2Fintrosoc%2Ftopics%2FUnitNotes%2Fweek05.html

Brand, C. Cycad Web Works. (2003, February). Can crime be traced to such often-mooted personality features as extraversion and lack-of-conscientiousness? Are genetic factors involved-in whatever interaction with the environment? And can any therapeutic or preventive steps by recommended? Retrieved August 29, 2005, from http://www.cycad.com/cgi-bin/Brand/quotes/q16.html

Brunet, J.R. (2002, November 15). Discouragement of Crime Through Civil Remedies: An Application of a Reformulated Routine Activities Theory. In Western Criminology Review 4 (1) Retrieved September 5, 2005, from http://wcr.sonoma.edu/v4n1/brunet. html

Casey, D. Human Genome Project. (1997, June). Introduction. Retrieved September 1, 2005, from  http://www.ornl.gov/TechResources/Human_Genome/publicat  / primer/prim1.html
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Ethics in Justice System-How We

Words: 4207 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 46525136

esearch also showed that offenders tend to be part of or return to communities with high concentrations of offenders. The concentration of offenders in these neighborhoods affects the community negatively by increasing the stigma associated with the community and also saddling the community with additional problems without providing added resources needed for restoring or maintaining order. The ultimate consequence is the that the criminal justice system destabilizes informal networks of social control and increases poor attitudes towards formal social controls, both of which have been shown to contribute to increases in crime and disorder in the communities. Churning results in unnecessary pressure being put on the other residents of the communities who are law-abiding in disadvantaged communities. The removal of men from the community through incarceration has the chilling effect of changing the family's socio-economic structure. The families of incarcerated members, especially men, of the community also face stigma and…… [Read More]

References

Burke, K. And Leben, S. (2007). Procedural Fairness: A key Ingredient in Public Satisfaction.

Court Review: The Journal of the American Judges Association. 44 (1), 4-25.

Davis, A.J. (2008). Racial Fairness in the Criminal Justice System: The Role of the Prosecutor. Colombia Human Rights Law Review. 202 (39), 202-32.

Hurwitz, J and Peffley, M. (2001). Racial Polarization on Criminal Justice Issues:
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Activities of the U S Criminal Justice System

Words: 1009 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 39184447

activities of the U.S. criminal justice system focus for the most part on immediate events. Nonetheless, it is important to take a broad look at changes in criminal rate across a period of time, in order to comprehend the context in which individual crimes occur, and establish better means of minimizing their incidence. The present work's aim is to analyze characteristics of New York City's crime rates from the past three years, as reported by authorities, and envision a setting whereby criminality might diminish.

Firstly, local data gathered consistently by The Division of Criminal Justice Services from year to year is to be compared and contrasted in order to identify and assess New York City's important crime trends. The following table illustrates the results pertaining to the analysis.

New York City crime statistics of the last three years

2010

2011

2012

Difference in Percentage

2011 compared to 2010

2012 compared…… [Read More]

References

Division of Criminal Justice Services (June 7, 2013). Crime, Arrest and Firearm Activity Report: Data Reported through April 30, 2013 (page 3001). New York City, NY: Office of Justice Research and Performance. Retrieved from:  http://www.criminaljustice.ny.gov/criment/ojsa/greenbook.pdf 

Oppel, R.A. Jr. (2011). Steady Decline in Major Crime Baffles Experts, New York Times, May 24,-page A17.
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Changes Within Criminal Justice Organization

Words: 1168 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43777253



Yet Arab-Americans are not necessarily hostile to the idea of greater community intervention, provided it is done to enhance community life, and not done to profile all Arab-American residents as terrorists. In fact, in the city of Chicago, there have been calls for greater police intervention in Arab-American communities by parents and local leaders, to reduce the threat of violent crime. Nizar Hasan, president of the Arab-American Police Association, believes Arab-American youth are increasingly falling into negative criminal behaviors. "It's getting worse…Some of these kids first try [drugs], get hooked, want more and look for ways to make money to support their habit, which means criminal activity" (Bohn & Schott 2009). However because Chicago, like many cities, does not track crime rates amongst Arab-Americans they are not labeled as 'minorities' -- "according to the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, persons from the Middle East and North Africa, like those…… [Read More]

References

Bohn, Lauren E. & Paul Schott. (2009, November 17). Blight of street crime creeping into Arab-

American community. Merrill reports. Northwestern University. Retrieved October 19,

2010 at http://news.medill.northwestern.edu/chicago/news.aspx?id=147319

Elliott, Andrea. (2006, June 13). After 9/11 Arab-Americans fear police, study finds. New York
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Criminal Justice Service Contracts With

Words: 1233 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41762333



However, in order to establish a private facility the consent of state legislature is required. Once a state makes the decision for allowing establishment of a private for-profit prison then corporations are asked to participate in bidding by submitting their proposals. The highest bidder offering better services is awarded the contract. Many states attach certain conditions such as maintenance and provision of educational and rehabilitation services before actually awarding the contract. After awarding the contract government exercises the right of monitoring and accountability by means of thorough inspections, interviews, observations, hearings, and meetings. For example, in the state of Florida there is a legal requirement that such prison facilities can be inspected at least once annually. Some argue that annual and semi-annual inspections are not enough and full-time government monitoring is required but this too may have issues of costs and corruption. To counter this some private firms have taken…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Campbell, A., Coyle, A., & Neufeld, R. (2003). Capitalist Punishment: Prison Privatization & Human Rights. Clarity Press. Atlanta.

Gandy, J. & Hurl, L. (1987). Private Sector Involvement in Prison Industries: Options and Issues. Canadian Journal of Criminology. Volume: 29. Issue: 2.
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Crimonology Criminal Justice System Components Analysis Research

Words: 1257 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84548197

Crimonology

Criminal Justice ystem Components Analysis

Research the questions below for each of the three criminal justice system components: police, criminal courts, and correctional agencies. Prepare a table or chart that compares and contrasts the information you gather on the components. For example:

Criminal Justice Components

Police

Criminal Courts

Correctional Agencies

management structure bureaucratic structure with hierarchy of authority and strict regulations

A collection of federal, state, and local public agencies that deal with. They are interdependent

Traditional organizational structures. The chief executive officer is at the top, with other functions dispersed at various layers down through the pyramid

The differences between the organizations in this component as compared to the other two?

The purpose of the police is to maintain order, enforce the criminal law, and provide services.

Courts are the place where defendants / the accused / plaintiffs come to have their please adjudged by judge and jury.…… [Read More]

Sources

Barbaree, H.E., Marshall, W.L. (2008). An introduction to the juvenile sex offender: Terms, concepts, and definitions (2nd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Holmes, S.E, James, R.S & Javad K. (2001). Risk Factors in Childhood that Lead to the Development of Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, .31

Rozalski, M., Deignan, M., & Engel, S. (2008). The world of juvenile justice according to the numbers. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 24,143-147.
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Criminal Justice Career How Will This New

Words: 2315 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45479853

Criminal Justice Career

How will this new terminology and knowledge apply to a career in criminal justice?

Criminal justice is seen as the practices, system and the concerned government institutions that are focused on implementing social control, participating in crime mitigation and sanctioning the law violator by imposing penalties and rehabilitation programs. It covers the private sector, the pubic sector, NGOs, state and the local governments as well (Oregon Laws, 2007). To handle effectively such a wide spectrum of departments with professionals without a chance foe making the wrong interpretation of the law once needs to be well equipped with the legal terms.

How can not knowing the proper terminology affect you as you conduct criminal justice research?

When one lacks the proper terminology in the criminal justice, this can be a fundamental barrier in the execution of duty and definition of the offences committed as well as interpretation of…… [Read More]

References

Cambridge Dictionary Online (2011). Research: Definition. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from  http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/research_1 

CDC (2011). Differences Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from  http://www.orau.gov/cdcynergy/demo/Content/phase05/phase05_step03_deeper_qualitative_and_quantitative.htm 

Chris Williams, (2009). Scientific Research and Quantitative Research. Retrieved May 21, 2011

from  http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/2479012/scientific_research_and_quantitative.html?cat=17
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Criminal Justice Managers Discuss the Three Ways

Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48487164

Criminal Justice Managers

Discuss the three ways leaders can manage ethical behavior in their organizations. Provide at least one example from a current law enforcement agency that supports your discussion.

Three ways that leaders can manage ethical behavior inside their organization include: training, policies / codes and accountability. In the case of training, supervisors can teach personnel the most effective procedures for addressing a variety of challenges they will face on a daily basis. This helps to prepare them for the issues they will encounter and how to respond in way which is taking into account the needs of stakeholders. (Barker, 2011) oss, 2011)

Policies and codes are establishing ethical practices inside any law enforcement agency. This is because these guidelines let everyone know what kind of behavior is acceptable and the consequences they will face when they deviate from it. These areas are providing a foundation for determining the…… [Read More]

References

Barker, T. (2011). Police Ethics. Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas.

Ross, J. (2011). Policing Issues. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Seelke, C. (2009). Gangs in Central America. Washington DC: Diane Publishing.

Vodde, R. (2009). Andragogical Instruction for Effective Police Training. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press.
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Criminal Justice for Possible Outcome 2 Two

Words: 1421 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52689691

Criminal Justice

For Possible Outcome 2, two groups in a population have been subjected to different treatments. One group served as the control group and was not given the opportunity to engage in an educational program that featured the study of human rights violations. However, the group was given course credit for watching a series of films on nature. he second group watched films that dealt with the Holocaust, Darfur, Rwanda, and the famines in eastern Africa. he groups randomly selected from the prison population, but were not randomly selected for the groups. Both groups had been in the prison facility an average of five years. Both groups were surveyed before watching any films, following each film and at the completion of the courses to measure the effect of the film on the subjects' empathy scores using standardized instruments. Mean scores of empathy ratings were charted below, with the blue…… [Read More]

The study population. All homicides in the murder analysis files of the Chicago Police Department from 1965 through 1995

The observation unit. Individuals.

The sampling method. All homicides were included, but In cases where the offender data were completely missing in the victim-level data, no offender records were generated in the offender-level file. The offender-level data do not contain information about the victims in these cases.
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Sheriff Dept vs Police Dept

Words: 1192 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99473559

The Magna Charta is apparently responsible for limiting the power of sheriffs in England, meant to lessen the number of abuse cases involving a sheriff physically harming royal subjects with the purpose of collecting taxes. If the colonists had not taken it in the U.S. In the seventeenth century it is likely that the sheriff profession would have ended in England.

hile sheriffs in England were perceived as merciless lawmen willing to apply any measure in order to be in agreement with the king's requirements, those in the U.S. were seen as noble men who risked their lives in order to protect the law. U.S. citizens appeared to be supportive regarding the sheriffs in their jurisdiction. Thomas Jefferson was particularly interested in supporting sheriffs in their endeavor to perform their duties, as his book, "The value of Constitutions" states that "there is no honorable law enforcement authority in Anglo-American law…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Arado, Matt, "Sheriff Investigating Death of Epileptic Restrained by Police," Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 24 Feb. 2000: 4.

2. Glenn, Russell W. Panitch, Barbara R. Dionne Barnes-Proby, Williams, Elizabeth Christian, John Lewis Matthew W. Gerwehr, Scott and Brannan, David W. Training the 21st Century Police Officer: Redefining Police Professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2003).

3. "HISTORY OF THE SHERIFF," Retrieved September 13, 2010, from the Camden County Website:  http://www.camdencounty.com/sheriff/History%20Of%20The%20Sheriff.htm
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Arizon Department of Corrections Morey

Words: 2200 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43436219

This could be on account of the normal human reaction to being placed in frustrating conditions, or drawbacks like very poor security, and lethargy of the authorities. Investing in controlling mechanisms like weapons, guards, and other means of surveillance and control, while suppressing the violent tendencies of most inmates do little to help remove the causes of aggression. A more comprehensive approach is required that takes a study of the whole gamut of psychological emotional, physical needs and suffering into one group and then provide better training to the personnel in handling these emotions and the prisoners. They must be adepts in identifying the threat potential is necessary. (Carter; Glaser, 1977)

Another important fact that was clearly visible in the negotiation process and the later handling of the issue was the tardy help received from the outside, or the reluctance to get outside help. The negotiators must have gone in…… [Read More]

References

Carter, Robert Melvin; Glaser, Daniel. (1977) "Correctional Institutions" Lippincott.

Philadelphia, PA.

Corcoran, Michael H; Cawood, James S. (2003) "Violence Assessment and Intervention: The Practitioner's Handbook" CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL.

Garrett, Michael. (2004, Jun) "In Need of Correction: Arizona's prison system is overloaded and its staff is overwhelmed" Retrieved 4 April, 2008 at  http://www.tucsonweekly.com/gbase/Currents/Content?oid=oid%3A57551