Juvenile Delinquency Essays (Examples)

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Delinquency Deterrence Response Sociological Theories and Social Process Theories

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81727173

Juvenile Delinquency and Deterrents

Explain how the threat of punishment does or does not deter juvenile delinquency.

Punishment of juvenile delinquents has been a hot button issue in many jurisdictions because of the need to prosecute crime but also the desire to shield young people from harm. Usually when a young person commits a crime, he or she is sentenced to detention in either a juvenile facility or perhaps even an adult prison facility for a length of time appropriate to their crime. General deterrence is a theory that states that the fear of punishment will be enough to prevent crime. For those that are not deterred by the thought of punishment, there is always detention. According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, nearly 70% of juvenile delinquency cases will end in a juvenile court (Shoemaker 2009,-page 39). his means that the offender will receive a lesser…… [Read More]

The National Guard Youth Foundation is an organization which helps disadvantaged youth (National 2013). According to the social structure theory, young people who are financially disadvantaged will be more likely to commit crimes and to get into legal trouble. Many people in financially disadvantaged communities feel that they cannot overcome this difference and so turn to trouble out of anger and frustration as much as necessity. This program takes kids, most of whom have already been in some manner of legal difficulties and uses military knowledge to provide the young people with discipline and determination. They also encourage involvement in the military and in pursuing a college education.

b. Social Process Theories

Social process theories postulate that communication with peers can have either positive or negative effects on a young person. Youths who interact with dangerous people who are interested in criminal behaviors will be more likely to commit crimes themselves. Research indicates that sports teams are an ideal way to keep young people out of trouble (DeLeon 2012). School-sponsored sports programs ensure that teens are with people in similar circumstances. They have to keep their
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Juvenile Corrections

Words: 1407 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10711731

Juvenile Corrections

Juvenile delinquency is a common phenomenon in the globe today. Owing to the severe crimes, committed, different states handle the matter differently. On one hand, some states utilize the "punitive approach" that prioritizes crime control, punishment, and incarceration; on another, the restorative model, which stresses human rights, youth development research, and restoring the community. In the United States, the law does not tolerate juvenile delinquency; this explains the utilization of the "punitive approach" when handling juveniles. In addition, policies in the U.S. are becoming more punitive; therefore, juveniles have found themselves tried in the adult legal system. However, in the recent past, the U.S. has re-considered the death and life without parole sentences for juveniles, which it has termed as unconstitutional. Apparently, the state is gradually applying some human rights principles in relation to juvenile justice policy, a positive move, indeed (Caldwell, 2011).


During the 19th century,…… [Read More]


Abrams, L.S., Kim, K., & Anderson-Nathe, B. (2005). Paradoxes of treatment in the juvenile corrections. Child and youth car form, 34(1), 7-25.

Caldwell, B. (2011). Punishment vs. restoration: A comparative analysis of juvenile delinquency law in the United States and Mexico.

Hirth, D. (2001). Early intensive help for high-risk juveniles. Corrections today, 80-83.

Perlin, M. (2013). Collaborative justice. Criminology and Law Enforcement, 1-3.
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Juvenile Gangs Have Been Thorns on the

Words: 1041 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89349132

Juvenile Gangs

Gangs have been thorns on the flesh of the citizens of the United States no wonder they have occupied a prominent position in American criminological literature. Gang wars between the Crips and the Bloods in Los Angeles are testament to the gang culture among certain communities in the United States. As opposed to the Dutch youth who are interested in music and romance of the West Side Story, especially the video clips and compact disc with gangster rap, the Americans juveniles appear to have negative associations (Klein, 2001). The language of the youngsters perceived to be engaging in juvenile gang activities is characterized by hyperbole and contains refers to competition and violence. The youth style personified by rappers like Tupac Shakur and Notorious B.I.G. who appeared to talk about the hard life in their neighborhoods referred to juvenile gangs. This research paper seeks to review literature on criminal…… [Read More]

References List

Defleur, L.B. (1967). Delinquent Gangs in Cross-Cultural Perspective: the Case of Cordoba.

Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 4(1), 132-141.

Flores, J.R. (2006). Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED495786.pdf

Klein, M. (2001). The Eurogang Paradox: Street Gangs and Youth Groups in the U.S. And Europe. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
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Juveniles Since Biblical Times Children Have Been

Words: 1748 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9544807


Since biblical times, children have been mentioned and admonished about social transgressions. The first man and woman, according to the Christian Holy Bible suggest that Adam and Eve, both children of God, were in trouble from the outset; the consequences were dire with no "out" such as rehabilitation. Today, of course, we see that rehabilitation is the primary focus for children's behaviors. Further, social attitudes toward children differ around the world in various cultures. These attitudes have changed over time, of course. The purpose of this paper is to detail differences in perception of children throughout history, with a particular emphasis in the periods between 1824-1960 and, in contrast the "modern" period after 1960.

The age at which children are considered responsible for their own actions (e.g., marriage, voting, etc.) has also changed over time, and this is reflected in the way they are treated in courts of law.…… [Read More]



Melchiorre, A. (2004) At What Age?...are school-children employed, married and taken to court? Retrieved from:  http://www.right-to-education.org/node/53 

Rachel K. Jones and April Brayfield, Life's greatest joy?: European attitudes toward the centrality of children. Social Forces, Vol. 75, No. 4, Jun 1997. 1,239-69 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Akers, R.L. (1973). Law and Control in Society. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
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Juvenile Corrections Before the Expansion

Words: 2458 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51190359

Juvenile facilities provide intensive and specialized therapeutic programs with brilliant results. The juvenile placed in juveniles' corrections enjoy an education-centered curriculum and trained staff that functions exclusively with the juvenile offenders' population. On the contrary, those juvenile held in adult jails and prisons do not enjoy these services (Siegel 2009, 671). Understanding that juveniles hold different emotional, safety, social and physical requirements from adult offenders, guidelines requiring certified juveniles to get placements in divergent setting other than adult prisons and jails is paramount. More than sixteen states in America hold certified juveniles in juvenile corrections and not in adult prison until these offenders reach eighteen years.

Six states hold juvenile in juvenile facilities until they attain the age of 21. Pennsylvania and Virginia passed the laws requiring that juveniles, regardless of their crime, get placement in juvenile correction facilities and not in adult jails (Dietch 2011, p.11). This is because…… [Read More]

Reference List

Deitch, M 2011. Juveniles in the adult criminal justice system in Texas. The University of Texas at Austin, school of Public Affairs.pp.1-44.

Elrod, P., Ryder, C 2011. Juvenile justice: A social, historical and legal perspective. Michigan: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Roberts, a., Springer, D 2007. Social work in juvenile and criminal justice settings. Texas: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.

Siegel, L 2009. Introduction to criminal justice. New York: Cengage Learning.
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Juvenile Delinquents

Words: 2220 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54718429

Juvenile Justice

Juvenile delinquents

Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims

Juvenile justice:

Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims

The adult justice system in America has long focused upon retribution and community restoration as well as rehabilitation of offenders. Victims must be 'made whole,' not just offenders within the adult system. However, the juvenile justice system has had a far less clear focus upon the restoration of justice to the community than that of its adult counterpart. This is partially due to the oft-expressed view that juveniles are less morally responsible than adults. Juvenile records are usually 'wiped clean' after the adolescents have served their time in probation or prison. The focus of the juvenile justice system is always on the improvement of the life of the juvenile and to reduce the likelihood of recidivism, rather than outright punishment.

On the other hand,…… [Read More]


Balanced and restorative justice. (2010). OJJDP report: Guide for implementing the balanced and restorative justice model. Retrieved July 4, 2010. http://www.ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/pubs/implementing/balanced.html

Giacomazzi, Andrew L. (2005, February). Review of Restorative justice by Ruth Ann

Strickland. (New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2004). LPBR. 15.2: 139-142. Retrieved July 4,

2010. http://www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt/lpbr/subpages/reviews/strickland205.htm
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Juvenile Total Institutions Total Institutions Prisons Jails

Words: 1797 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65920440

Juvenile Total Institutions

Total Institutions ( prisons/jails) juveniles. A. Discuss history B. Goals C. programming youth held . D. Issues/Problems Present facilities Below Guideline paper. 1. Students expected draw information class material scholarly sources journal articles, government websites, NPO websites.

Bortner and Williams (1997)

define a total institution as a physical location such as a prison or a reformatory where all the total needs of the residents are met. The needs of the individuals are mostly physical such as health, clothing, nutrition, shelter, etc. For juveniles, total institutions must be able to meet their educational and psychological needs as the youth. For an institution to quality as a total institution, the totality of the care that is provided in the institutions must be reflected in the round the clock confinement of the residents including holidays and weekends Shoemaker, 2009.

Goffman (1961)

argues that in many different ways, correctional institutions also…… [Read More]


ABA Division for Public Education. The History of Juvenile Justice. In ABA Division for Public Education (Ed.), Dialogue on Youth and Justice (pp. 1-8). Chicago, IL: American bar association.

Austin, J., Johnson, K.D., & Weitzer, R. (2005). Alternatives to the Secure Detention and Confinement of Juvenile Offenders (pp. 41). Rockville, MD: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Dept of Justice.

Bortner, M.A., & Williams, L. (1997). Youth in Prison. New York: Rutledge.

Commonwealth v. Fisher, No. 213 48 (1905).
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Juvenile Rights Comparisons of Protections

Words: 994 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23604736

In the United States of American court systems, juvenile courts still proposes juvenile delinquents in aspects that are more paternal other than diagnostic. The adult counterparts cannot access such diagnostic processing as juveniles do. Adults are treated separately unlike juveniles within the jury and the constitutional accordance that assures the difference has been assured to the individuals.

The IV Amendment Search and Seizure Clause

The Fourth Amendment is one of the most prolific archives of constitution litigation in the United States of America. The application to the state through the process of Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment is unique and comprehensive to the American court systems dealing with juveniles. This amendment is depicted by issuance of connotation that protected individuals from unnecessary seizures and searches while in court proceedings. The amendment has much respect to juveniles and juvenile courts since most juveniles do not have to be apprehended…… [Read More]


Bueren, G.V. (1998). The international law on the rights of the child. Dordrecht [u.a.: Nijhoff.

Detrick, S. (1999). A commentary on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Hague [u.a.: Nijhoff Pub.

Kumar, a. (2006). Human rights and sustainable development. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons.

Siegel, L.J., & Welsh, B. (2012). Juvenile delinquency: Theory, practice, and law. Australia: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
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Juveniles & Justice Is it

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38463361

, 1914, p. 500).

Meanwhile when the state asserts control over the child due to his non-criminal behavior that governmental intervention supports parens patriae, Siegel maintains. (Parens patriae in Latin means "substitute parent"; its been the court's prerogative to intervene in cases where through no fault of his own a child has been neglected or is dependent, Alarid, et al., explains on page 326). States' intervention supports parens patriae simply because state courts believe -- and they assume without really knowing for certain -- that status offender is in his best interests (Siegel, 17). Approximately 150,000 under age youths (technically children) are sent to juvenile court as "status offenders" every year, Siegel explains (17). This policy takes due process and throws it out the window, just because the individual is under age.

The U.S. Congress passed the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act in 1974, which provides funds to make…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alarid, Leanne Fiftal, and Del Carmen, Rolando V. (2010). Community-Based Corrections.

Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.

McLaughlin, Andrew Cunningham, and Hart, Albert Bushnell. (1914). Cyclopedia of American

Government, Volume 1. Emeryville, CA: D. Appleton and Company.
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Juveniles and Delinquency Youths Are

Words: 4772 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58533879

Based on statistics, nearly one million eighth graders admit getting drunk and another 1.2 million twelfth graders are considered binge drinkers. Heroin use by young adults has doubled from 1991 to 1996 and even teenage compulsive gambling is on the rise (http://www.einstein.edu/e3front.dll?durki=8576,2004).

Youth Gangs and Violence - The Starting Point

It should be noted that violence started from the family affecting the whole society. hat an individual has for a family, what can be seen in the society, what is seen in the environment are all clear reflections of the kind of people a certain society is bringing up - whether it is a deviance to the society or not.

Now, pertaining to the crimes and how the government solved it, it must be remembered that the laws are already there, it is already being maintained by the concerned officials and followed the U.S. citizen. But there are still some…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Capital punishment." 2004 [online] Duhaime.org. http://www.duhaime.org/dictionary/dict-c.htm.

Capital Punishment: Pros." 1998 [online]


Cerf, Vinton G. Computer Networking: Global Infrastructure for the 21st Century. 1997. February 21, 2004. http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/lazowska/cra/networks.html
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Juvenile Offenders and Recividism

Words: 1280 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45219755

Juvenile delinquency has been an ever-evolving issue in the United States. From aims focused on prevention and rehabilitation that resulted in the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974; to a reverse trend beginning in the mid-1970's, the present has brought on a more prevalent tendency to try juveniles as adults. No more have courts taken to giving juveniles delinquents a second chance through rehabilitation (Schmalleger, 2016). In recent years, juveniles have faced life sentences without parole like an adult would. If the trend continues, will the number of juveniles tried as adults grow? Is it the responsibility of the juvenile justice system to prevent crime by enacting harsh penalties on the troubled youth of the country? From a Judeo-Christian perspective, everyone in one way or another, sins. It is up to the government and the community to help sinners see their wrongs and allow them a chance for…… [Read More]


Casey, S., & Day, A. (2015). Accountability in Juvenile Justice: A Framework to Assess Client Outcomes. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 60(14), 1645-1668. doi:10.1177/0306624x15586767

Kretschmar, J. M., Butcher, F., Flannery, D. J., & Singer, M. I. (2016). Diverting Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth With Behavioral Health Issues From Detention. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 27(3), 302-325. doi:10.1177/0887403414560885

Mody, S. (2008). Juvenile Justice. Childhood Education, 1-3.

Schmalleger, F. (2016). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the twenty-first century (14th ed.). NJ: Pearson Education.
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Juvenile Offenders and Rehabilitation

Words: 4448 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35811849

Juvenile offenders have grown to become a serious problem in many countries, especially the United States. Like adult offenders, juvenile offenders are more likely to reoffend, especially without the proper guidance and assistance they need in order to live a law abiding life. esearch within the last five years has led to identification of specific program models as well theory-based intervention approaches that not only assist juvenile offenders in leading productive lives but also keeps them from potentially re-offending. This paper will focus on rehabilitation programs for juvenile offenders and prevention programs that help in lessening the number of potential juvenile offenders by proposing alternative means of coping with hardship and stress.

Farrington's Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential Theory will be examined within the context of juvenile offenders and how this framework may be applied to understanding Juvenile motivations for engaging in criminal activities Importance of rehabilitation will be emphasized because…… [Read More]


Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012

Barnes, A., Campbell, N., Anderson, V., Campbell, C., Onifade, E., & Davidson, W. (2015). Validity of initial, exit, and dynamic juvenile risk assessment: An examination across gender and race/ethnicity. Journal Of Offender Rehabilitation, 55(1), 21-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10509674.2015.1107004

Borduin, C., Dopp, A., & Taylor, E. (2013). Evidence-Based Interventions for Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders. An Evidence-Based Approach To Assessment And Treatment, 192-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118320655.ch11

Brooks, M., & Khan, R. (2015). Psychosocial influences that motivate young offenders to engage in a non-custodial community intervention. The Journal Of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 26(3), 351-367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14789949.2015.1013973
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Juvenile Offenders and Possibility of Mentorship Program

Words: 513 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57850144

Juvenile Offenders, an Intervention Analysis

The challenge of juvenile offenders, what prompts them into crime and what factors contribute to the repeat of same misdemeanors that led them to the juvenile prison are issues that have for long attracted protracted discussions and even detailed researches. There has been little attention however given to the possible role of mentor programs in keeping the young people off crime. This research proposal hence looks into the role that such a schedule can play in ensuring there is lesser juvenile delinquency.

The research will delve into the possibility of having each juvenile delinquent identifying the hero or mentor in their life at the time that they are being booked in to the rehabilitation facilities and then the facility officials contacting the mentor with the aim of having them regularly visit the juvenile in the facility to help in mentoring them into their dream career.…… [Read More]

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Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong

Words: 1770 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62195901


Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong

Juvenile Offenders

Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong

The increase in juvenile delinquency has become a world-wide phenomenon, especially in many developed countries. This trend is also evident in cities like Hong Kong and can be seen in a recent report which asserts that the age of juvenile offenders in Kong is getting younger. This study by Pang (2008) states that, "Some juvenile delinquents are now as young as 10 and 11..." (Pang, 2008).

According to the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, another disturbing indication of the increase in youth crime was the number of crimes committed by young females, which increased in 2006. "The young girls, mostly aged 13 to 14, usually like to commit crimes with their friends, like stealing accessories or cosmetics"..." ( Pang, 2008). Furthermore, this study notes that there was a thirteen percent increase in crimes committed by children…… [Read More]


Broadhurst R. ( 2000). Crime Trends in Hong Kong. Retrieved from  http://www.crime.hku.hk/rb-crimetrends.htm 

Cagape E. ( 2008). Why I think juvenile offenders are getting younger. Retrieved from http://asiancorrespondent.com/17054/why-i-think-juvenile-offenders-are-getting-younger/

Edwin H. Sutherland: Differential Association Theory. Florida State University.

Retrieved from http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html
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Juvenile Justice System

Words: 2332 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75295885

Criminal Justice

Juvenile justice

Gang Control Methods


Law Enforcement Efforts

The traditional police personnel from the youth unit control the gang.

Police officers from youth or detective unit are charged with controlling activities of the gang.

Setting up of gang unit within the police to exclusively control gang activity.

The Chicago Police Department set up gang crime section to process information on gangs and gang leaders.

The Los Angeles Police Department engages in crime breaking activities that involve arresting, prosecution, conviction and incarceration of gang leaders.

Community Control Efforts

The detached street worker program works with gangs in their own turf. Those facilitating these programs participate in gang activities to get to know their members.

Spergel's Community Gang Control Program is one such body that engages in community mobilization to control gang activities.

Adapted from Siegel & Welsh, 2005


Appendix E




Gangs always appeal…… [Read More]

References List

Austin, J., Johnson, K.D. & Gregoriou, M. (2000). Juveniles in Adult Prisons and Jails: A

National Assessment. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Assistance.

Barry, C.F. (1997). Readings in Juvenile Justice Administration. New York: Oxford University

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Juvenile Courts

Words: 1459 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63160490

Juveniles as Adults: Pros and Cons

Severe and continuing juvenile offenders are progressively being tried as adults in criminal court all over the country. These juveniles face incarcerations in adult correctional facilities and the dangers that come from being with an adult criminal population. This type of movement poses significant inquiries for policy makers. To what degree do trials in criminal courts and imprisonment in adult reformatories endorse or hinder community security and the answerability and reintegration of juvenile offenders? This research paper deliberates on the legal consequences of adjudication in criminal court and offers a comprehensive review of research discoveries on the preventive effects of transfer laws, sentencing patterns and conviction and recidivism rates in juvenile as opposed to criminal courts, and programming and conditions in juvenile as opposed to adult correctional facilities. The pros and cons of trying juveniles as adults are discussed along with the evidence to…… [Read More]


Bartol, C.R., & Bartol, A.M. (2011). Chapter 6 Consulting with Juvenile and Civil Courts. Introduction to forensic psychology (3 ed., pp. 187-219). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Cooper, D.K. (1997). Juveniles' understanding of trial-related information: are they competent defendants?. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 15(2), 167-180.

NCIDS. (n.d.). Chapter 3: Juvenile Court Jurisdiction and Parties to Juvenile Proceedings. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from http://www.ncids.org/other%20manuals/JuvDefenderManual/JuvenileDefBook_03.pdf

Ojo, M., & Olufemi, D. (2012). A SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW OF ISSUES ON JUVENILE DELINQUENCY. Journal of International Social Research, 5(21), 468-482.
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Juvenile Justice System More Focused

Words: 904 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61220949

Humes sees this as a defect of the system both from the point-of-view of justice and rehabilitation. On one hand, it is not fair that a family has less time to talk about the loss they have experienced, simply because the person who victimized their beloved son, daughter, mother, or father happened to be below the age of eighteen. On the other hand, perpetrators do not have to confront the consequences of their crimes: they are shielded from learning about the full effects of the tragedy they have caused. Humes even implies that this makes it easier for prosecutors to cut deals with juveniles, since the prosecutors do not have to suffer the uncomfortable and impolitic sight of the family in court, talking about their tragedy.

Even for more minor offenses, victims are 're-victimized' by the system -- because of lax policing and procedures juvenile cases are frequently dismissed because…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Humes, Edward. No matter how loud I shout. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997.
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Juveniles and Crime the Interaction

Words: 5161 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11803867

As theories claim certain risk factors and ignore others, it is critical to evaluate the most common risk factors despite their discipline fields. There are five broad domains for risk factors: Individual, family, school, peer group, and community. Another key component to understanding risk factors is the age of onset, in which early onset is considered age 6-11, and late onset is considered age 12-14 (Shader, 2002). Each of the risk factor domains are also coupled with protective factors, such as high IQ and parental monitoring, that subtract from the probability of risk factors blossoming into delinquency. isk factors of juvenile delinquency can be grouped together in a variety of ways, and the five domains of individual, family, school, peer group, and community can be distilled further into: individual, social, and community categories. The three categories also branch into sub-categories, for example, the social category includes both family and peer…… [Read More]


Binder, A, Geis, G, & Bruce, D. (2000). Juvenile delinquency: historical, cultural, and legal perspectives. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Co.

Cicourel, A. (1995). The social organization of juvenile justice. Brunswick, NJ: Transaction


Farrington, D. (2002). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile delinquency: an integrated
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Juvenile Justice System History of

Words: 2779 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28127296

hat is significant about youth court is that the attorneys, jurors and even the judges are themselves adolescents and many times former defendants (Butts, Hoffman & Buck, 1999). The foundational premise or ideology behind youth courts is that the youth's judgment from their peer cohorts may be more convincing and in the long run beneficial than judgment handed down by officials and adults in the judicial system. Because many times the participants in youth court as jurors, attorneys and judges have been through the system, the sanctions handed down are frequently stiffer than what a defendant would have received had they gone through more formalized proceedings (Butt, Hoffman & Buck, 1999). In many ways, those who have gone through the system use youth court and the sanctions that follow as a 'wake-up call' to the first time offender.

One of the concerns expressed by researchers in the field of juvenile…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allen, F. (1981). The rehabilitative ideal. New Haven, CT: Yale.

Bazemore, G., & Umbreit, M. (2001). A comparison of four restorative justice conference models. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Bazemore, G., & Walgrave, L. (1999). Introduction: restorative justice and the international juvenile justice crisis in G. Bazemore and L. Walgrave (eds.), Restorative juvenile justice: repairing the harm of youth crime. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

Butts, J., & Mears, D. (2001). Reviving juvenile justice in a get tough era. Youth and Society, 33, 169-198.
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Juvenile Justice System

Words: 2678 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16368465

Juvenile Justice System. Please shed light 1) Juveniles adult Juvenile Courts & 2) a revolving door juveniles. Please explain Juvenile justice system. APA format work cited page. Use book class, Juvenile Justice, An Introduction, 8th edition John T.

The present research focuses on the way in which the juvenile court system impacts children below the age of maturity, which according to the judicial system is 18 years of age that are being tried as adults rather than as juveniles. There are several perspectives to take into account in discussing the issue. In this sense, the research reviews the general notions about the juvenile judicial system, what its authority is and purpose as well as its raison d'etre. Secondly, there is a wide belief that children trialed as adults is not necessarily a good practice to follow or encourage particularly due to the fact that this does not allow for a…… [Read More]

Works cited:

American Bar Association (n.d.) "History of the Juvenile Justice" in ABA Section of Public Education, retrieved from  http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/publiced/features/DYJpart1.authcheckdam.pdf 

Bower, B. (2007) "Violent Justice: Adult system fails young offenders" in Science News, 18th April.

Dept. Of State (2006) "Juvenile Offenders and Victims" in OJJDP Report, retrieved from  http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/nr2006/downloads/NR2006.pdf 

Government Printing Office (2014) "U.S. Code" in Code of Federal Regulations, retrieved from http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/42/5601
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Juvenile Justice System of China

Words: 2570 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54917717

Called bang-jiao, it works to rehabilitate juveniles with a community group of parents, friends, relatives and representatives from the neighborhood committee and the police station. Formal rehabilitation is pursued in either a work-study school for juveniles or a juvenile reformatory. The emphasis for both is education and light or labor work (Ibid., 155-156).

China officially banned capital punishment for youth who were under 18 at the time of committing the capital crime in a 1997 amendment of its Criminal Code. However, the country has since executed two-18-year-olds, one in 2003 and one in 2004.

Recent news reports from China report that rates of juvenile crime continue to surge yearly. In 2007, juvenile crime was reported as increasing 13% annually since 2000 (China Daily 2007). The major provinces of Guangdong and Shanghai report huge increases in vagrant youth and orphan populations (enfang, May 5, 2010; Hongyi, July 7, 2009). These increases…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bakken, Borge. 1993. Juvenile deinquency and deterrence policy in China. Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 30:29-58.

Braithwaite, John. 1999. Restorative justice: Assessing optimistic and pessimistic accounts. Crime and Justice 25:1-127.

Chen, an. 2005. Secret societies and organized crime in contemporary China. Modern Asian Studies. 39(1):77-107.

China Daily, "Juvenile delinquency," September 21, 2007.   http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/cndy/2007-09/21/content_6123581.htm
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Juvenile Court System the Many

Words: 1536 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95487195

, sum up what might be revealing about the juvenile justice system in its current incarnation. They say:

"It is social institutions in the broader community -- families, churches, schools, social welfare agencies, etc. -- which have the primary mandate to control and care for young people who commit delinquent acts. It is only when individuals or institutions in the community fail to diver (or decide not to divert) that the formal processes of the juvenile justice system are called into action (213)."

Perhaps consistent with the public's perception of juvenile delinquency, especially crimes by violent young offenders, it is going to be more important than ever for the peripheral agencies, and especially the family, to step up to the plate and address juvenile delinquency. The court system, although it has shown positive steps by raising the death penalty to 18 years of age, is nonetheless demonstrating a lack of…… [Read More]

Reference List

Canedy, Diana. 2002. Florida Boys Convicted in Father's Death, New York Times,

September 7, 2002. Found online at  http://www.vachss.com/help_text/a2/king_brothers.html , retrieved April 18, 2010.

Cox, Steven M., Allen, Jennifer, M., Hanser, Robert D., and Conrad, John J. 2008.

Juvenile Justice: A Guide to Theory, Policy, and Practice. Sage Publications, Los Angeles. Book.
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Juvenile Recidivism Rates and Analysis

Words: 12874 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40811758

Dugan: Should be on its own page.

Juvenile recidivism is a prevalent problem in the criminal justice system. Tackling reoffending remains a complex task requiring several strategies and aims. It involves research, acknowledgement of causes, factors, exploration, and evaluation of subgroups to generate long-term, positive changes in the lives of juvenile offenders. From gang violence to Interactive, Constructive, Active, and Passive (ICAP), researchers discover some of the reasons why juveniles reoffend and the kinds of intervention methods that may help or worsen the problem of juvenile recidivism. Intervention philosophies like surveillance, discipline, close monitoring may increase recidivism rates. estorative programs, counseling, skill building programs, as well as multiple coordinated services decrease recidivism rates. Comment by Max Dugan: I would put evaluation at the end of the list vs. first. Comment by Max Dugan: Need to spell out all acronyms before using in APA format.


Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are…… [Read More]


Aalsma, M., White, L., Lau, K., Perkins, A., Monahan, P., & Grisso, T. (2015). Behavioral Health Care Needs, Detention-Based Care, and Criminal Recidivism at Community Reentry From Juvenile Detention: A Multisite Survival Curve Analysis. American Journal Of Public Health, 105(7), 1372-1378. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2014.302529

Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204012440107

Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012

Bates, K. & Swan, R. (2013). Juvenile delinquency in a diverse society (1st ed.). SAGE Publications.
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Juvenile Offenders and Reoffending

Words: 11154 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46175369


Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are an important problem facing the United States criminal justice system. For more than one hundred years, states held the belief that the juvenile justice system acted as a vehicle to safeguard the public via offering a structure that enables the rehabilitation of children growing into adulthood. States identified the difference of children committing crimes versus adult offenders (Loeber & Farrington, 2012). For example, the states saw them as less blameworthy with a higher capacity for longstanding, true change. Therefore, states have founded a distinct court system especially for the handling and rehabilitation of juvenile offenders along with a separate and different youth-based service delivery system that offers additional aid not found in the adult justice system.

The juvenile justice system offers the study of criminal justice an important area to develop proper rehabilitation techniques that will help juvenile offenders and reoffenders find a means…… [Read More]


Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204012440107

Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012

Burfeind, J. & Bartusch, D. (2015). Juvenile delinquency (p. 158). Routledge.

Cale, J., Smallbone, S., Rayment-Mchugh, S., & Dowling, C. (2015). Offense Trajectories, the Unfolding of Sexual and Non-Sexual Criminal Activity, and Sex Offense Characteristics of Adolescent Sex Offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal Of Research And Treatment. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1079063215580968
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Juveniles Be Tried as Adults

Words: 1352 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91075111

Consequently, these differences in mental abilities necessitate the fact that children or juvenile offenders should be tried separately from their adult counterparts because of their mental abilities. Those in opposition to the juvenile justice system and proponents of the eradication of the juvenile courts argue that a crime is a crime regardless of who commits it and that there should be a single justice system to try both juveniles and adults. However, this argument is not only chaotic but also faulty since it has been proven that children between the age of nine and ten years have a very different mental ability to that of adults. It is therefore impossible for children within this age to plan and carry out a crime and even understand its consequences (Borkar par, 4).

Consequences of Transfers:

An examination of the recent cases of transfer of juvenile offenders to the adult criminal justice system…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Borkar, Rujuta. "Should Juveniles Be Tried as Adults." Buzzle.com: Intelligent Life on the Web. Buzzle.com, 29 June 2010. Web. 30 Nov. 2010. .

Maroney, Terry a. "Should Juveniles Be Tried as Adults?" Vanderbilt University Law School. Vanderbilt University, 8 Jan. 2007. Web. 30 Nov. 2010. .

"Should Juveniles Be Tried as Adults?" Cliff Notes: The Fastest Way to Learn. Wiley Publishing, Inc. Web. 30 Nov. 2010. .

Steinberg, Laurence. "Should Juvenile Offenders Be Tried as Adults? A Developmental Perspective on Changing Legal Policies." Temple University. Department of Psychology, Temple University, 19 Jan. 2000. Web. 30 Nov. 2010. .
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Juvenile Delinquents and the Impact of Broken Homes

Words: 939 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77051897

Role of Family in Juvenile Offenders

Sociology 398: Methods of Social Research

Barrett, D., Ju, S., Katsiyannis, A., Zhang, D. (2015). Females in the juvenile justice system: influences on delinquency and recidivism. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24: 427-433.

"Our study addressed two major research questions. First, among delinquent females, what are the personal and family background variables which are useful in predicting female recidivism? Second, to what extent can we predict membership in the delinquent group versus the non-delinquent control group on the basis of females' emotional/behavioral problems and early adverse family experiences?" (2015: 428).

"Using information from a state department of juvenile justice, we examined the role of selected family and demographic variables in predicting female recidivism"

a. Variables included drug use, family delinquency, severity of the offense, and age. The control consisted of non-delinquent females.

-"multivariate logistic regression (Hosmer and Lemeshow 2000) was chosen to examine…… [Read More]

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Risk of Violence in Juveniles

Words: 1329 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1821635

Juveniles and the Legal Process

Juvenile crime is a problem that affects every society. In 2010, around 500,000 juveniles were arrested for drug abuse violations in the U.S. Some of the crimes committed by juveniles are robbery, vandalism, assault, and homicide. Some organizations have tried to help the teenagers to stop the vice because it is an issue affecting the entire community. In most states, the Juvenile Law determines the upper age-old eligibility. However, in some cases like violations or abuse, most states extend jurisdiction through 20 years. There are many reasons why juveniles engage in crimes. It has been shown that dangerous juvenile behaviors originate from domestic violence, family breakdown, and lack of parental moral supervision and guidance. One of the vital causes of juvenile delinquency is broken families. In fact, the separation of parents affects the behavior and psychology of children starting from early infancy. It is true…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carmen, Rolando V., and Chad R. Trulson. Juvenile justice: the system, process, and the law. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2006. Print.

Elrod, Preston, and Ryder Scott R. Juvenile justice: a social, historical, and legal perspective. 3rd ed. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2011. Print.

Hoge, Robert D., and Andrews, D.A.. Evaluation for risk of violence in juveniles. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.

Leverich, Jean. Juvenile justice. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, Gale, Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
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Family Environment as a Predictor of Adolescent Delinquency

Words: 547 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83488253


Family environment as a predictor of adolescent delinquency

According to the study entitled "Family environment as a predictor of adolescent delinquency" by Monique Matherne and Adrienne Thomas (2001), juvenile delinquency has long been analyzed as a social and family-based problem, not something that is solely due to the young person's character. Availability of guns, violent television, and poor educational opportunities has all been linked to delinquent behaviors (Matherne & Thomas 2001: 656). Although most researchers would concede that delinquency is multi-factorial in its cause, there remains a great deal of debate in the academic community as to which variables predict the likelihood of the juvenile to engage in delinquent behavior. Cashwell and Vacc (1996) "have suggested that family relations might be even more important than peer relations in predicting delinquency" (Matherne & Thomas 2001: 660). The family environment has been particularly focused upon for potential causation of delinquency in…… [Read More]


Matherne, Monique & Adrienne Thomas. (2001). Family environment as a predictor of adolescent delinquency. Adolescence, 36 (144) [HIDDEN]
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Youth and Criminal Delinquencies in the Society

Words: 1977 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95337099

Juvenile Criminals

As social systems expand to cover the ever growing social dynamics, the norms governing social behaviors are losing their ability to control behaviors. Over the years, concerns over the rising level of crimes committed primarily by the young are evident. The number of youths placed in juvenile correctional facilities is on the rise with the authorities appearing incapacitated to control the situation. This paper looks at the aspects of society contributing to Juvenile criminals and their continued perpetration of antisocial behaviors in the society.

In the modern world the norms that guide transitions and relationships from family to school and work have come under immense challenge. These challenges have seen to the collapse of the smooth socialization process that the young need to become productive in the society (Livingston, Stewart, Allard, & Ogilvie, 2008). As lifestyle trajectories vary and become more unpredictable, the young find it difficult to…… [Read More]


Greenwood, P. (2004). "Cost-effective Violence Prevention through Targeted Family Interventions, in Youth Violence- Scientific Approaches to Prevention." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1036, 201-214.

Livingston, M., Stewart, A., Allard, T., & Ogilvie, J. (2008). Understanding juvenile offending trajectories. Australian and New Zealand. Journal of Criminology, 41(3), 345-363.

Savignac, J. (2008). (2008) Families, Youth and Delinquency: The State of Knowledge, and Family-Based Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Programs. Ottawa: National Crime Prevention Centre, Public Safety.

Sprott, J., Jenkins, J., & Doob, A. (2005). "The Importance of School: Protecting At-Risk Youth from Early Offending." Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 3, 59-76.