Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Juvenile Delinquency -- Causes and Preventive Strategies
Juvenile delinquency defines negative behavior in young teens and children which result in serious and severe crimes. With the passage of time crimes committed by adolescents and young children have risen alarmingly. Several economic, social and family related issues are the core reasons behind the rise in juvenile delinquency. This paper discusses the core reason due to which young teens and children sought towards severe and intense crimes. It also discusses the preventive strategies which can easily be adopted in minimizing delinquent acts committed by young people.
Juvenile Delinquency -- Causes and Preventive Strategies
Juvenile Delinquency involves the participation of minors in criminal practices which deeply affects parents, neighbors, family and teachers. The social, economic and cultural conditions prevalent in a country determine the intensity and severity of juvenile delinquency there. The economic decline in poor districts of large cities has risen up…
Araki, Y., Braunchsweig, S., Conant, A. & Dabel, R. (2003). Juvenile Delinquency Prevention,
What Works in the United States and is Promising for Great Britain. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 9(1), Pp. 45-62. Retrieved October 24, 2012, from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/40215595?uid=2&uid=4&sid=21101198780653
Bartollas, C. & Miller, S. (2008). Juvenile justice in America (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River:
Impact of Poverty, Health Problems, Family Problems on Increase in Juvenile Delinquency?
Juvenile delinquency and its causes have been studied extensively. Many factors that put adolescents at risk of becoming delinquent have been identified. The majority of youth who enter the child welfare system, and many of the youth who are caught up in the juvenile justice system have experienced abuse and neglect, dysfunctional home environments, destructive and inconsistent parenting practices, poverty, emotional and behavioral disorders, poor mental and physical health care, poor family-school relationships, exposure to deviant peers as well as community and societal problems that have contributed to their entry into the child welfare and juvenile justice systems (Miller, Davies & Greenwald, 5-6).
The increasing depth of poverty for American children is shown not only in this change but also in dramatic changes in the nature of poverty. Children in poverty are increasingly concentrated in…
Apel, R., & Kaukinen, C. On the relationship between family structure and antisocial behavior: Parental cohabitation and blended households. Criminology, (2008). 46, 35-70.
Demuth, S., & Brown, S. Family structure, family processes, and adolescent delinquency: The significance of parental absence vs. parental gender. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, (2004). 41, 58-81.
Farnworth, M., Thornberry, T., Krohn, M., and Lizotte, A. Measurement in the study of class and delinquency: Integrating theory and research. J. Res. Crime Delinq. (1994). 31: 32 -- 61.
Fauth, R.C., Roth, J.L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. Does the neighborhood context alter the link between youth's after-school time activities and developmental outcomes? A multilevel analysis. Developmental Psychology, (2007). 43, 760-777.
Juvenile Delinquency and the Juvenile Justice System
Juveniles are represented either in the legal system through the juvenile family court designed for children many years ago or by the criminal court system meant for adults. The criminal court system is opted for children suspected of committing serious crimes although transfer is possible from juvenile justice system into adult court system. This legal system has been the source of problems for all children suspects.
Minors are immature and lack powers to resist immorality. Because of underdeveloped manners, they often fall in temptation and attraction to criminal activity. Juvenile delinquency is on the rise globally, and this has subjected them to legal action. esearch suggests that, every minor gets involved in delinquency, but the law catches up with a few. While legislation does not condone delinquency, many questions are coming up. Psychologists argue that delinquency is a reaction from the youth crying…
Dembo, R., Williams, L., Wish, E.D., Getereu, A., Washburn, M., and Scmeidler, J., (1990).
Examination of the relationships among drug use emotional/psychological problems, and crime among youths entering a juvenile detention centre. International Journal of the Addictions, 1301-1340.
Gary, B.M., John, P., Norman, G.P., and Christopher, S. (2007). Psychological Evaluation for the Courts, Third Edition: A Handbook for Mental Health Professionals and Lawyers.
New York, NY: Guilford Press (p 466-468).
The link between abusive or neglectful behavior perpetrated on a child, and that child's delinquent or troubled behavior later in life, is justifiably of great concern to society. This paper references the literature on this topic and offers suggested interventions for the delinquent adolescent that was abused as a very young person.
"Neglect should be defined as an interaction between aversive parental behaviors and developmental stage…neglect can also be defined as an omission, which is either 'harmful to the child' or 'improper,' or can refer to the commission of behavior…" (Maughan, et al., 2010).
In the Journal of Research on Adolescence the authors review the history of society's awareness of child abuse, as a way of establishing the need for understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment. Albeit society has been aware of child neglect since the early 1900s, it wasn't until 1974 that federal legislation (Child Abuse Prevention…
Chen, Wan-Yi, Propp, Jennifer, deLara, Ellen, and Corvo, Kenneth. (2011). Child Neglect and Its Association with Subsequent Juvenile Drug and Alcohol Offense. Child and Adolescent
Social Work Journal, Vol. 28, 273-290.
Leve, Leslie D., and Chamberlain, Patricia. (2004). Female Juvenile Offenders: Defining an Early-Onset Pathway for Delinquency. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 13(4), 439-452.
Maughan, Daniel, and Moore, Simon C. (2010). Dimensions of Child Neglect: an Exploration of Parental Neglect and Its Relationship with Delinquency. Child Welfare, 89(4), 47-60.
Juvenile delinquency: Why they happen and the possible remedies.
Juvenile delinquency has been a dominant debate in various spheres and for a long time and this debate do not seem to disappear any time soon. There have been various attempts to explain the concept and sense behind juvenile delinquency but little has been of corrective measure to this problem within the society. Despite there being various theories behind the juvenile delinquency, there are two explanations that come close to the real explanation.
The biological theory holds that delinquency is facilitated by brain dysfunction accompanied by impairment in learning. This brain dysfunction is related to the violent and aggressive behaviors, limited impulse control, and destructiveness as well as limited social adaptation. This theory portends that the brain dysfunction is linked to the ability to learn as well as presence of dyslexia, hyperactivity and aphasia which consequently turns one to deviant behavior,…
Boeree G., (2006). Personality Theories. Albert Bandura. Retrieved September 5, 2013 from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/bandura.html
Elliott, D. (2001). Gender, delinquency, and society: a comparative study of male and female offenders and juvenile justice in Britain. London: Avebury.
Joseph A.W., (2013). Why Juveniles Commit Crimes. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute.
Retrieved September 5, 2013 from http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2000/2/00.02.07.x.html
Surely, this is somewhat disturbing when considering that he or she has no right to intimacy and that he or she is probable to suffer on a social level because individuals that he interacts with are likely to find out about his or her background.
Although they are a controversial juvenile delinquency prevention technique, boot camps are effective because they provide individuals with the chance to learn important information concerning how they need to behave in order to obtain positive results while in the social order. Consequent to being in a boot camp, individuals learn more about basic life skills, improve their physical condition, and have an increased self-esteem. Concomitantly, however, many individuals in boot camps risk being abused and fail to learn a lot because they are simply unable to adapt. This means that their self-esteem goes down and that they are probable to experience significant traumas throughout their…
Greenwood, P. Prevention and Intervention Programs for Juvenile Offenders, Retrieved November 17, 2012, from the Future of Children Website: http://futureofchildren.org/futureofchildren/publications/docs/18_02_09.pdf
Hess, K, M., and Drowns, R.W., Juvenile Justice. Cengage Learning, 26.06.2009.
Sklaver, S.L. The Pros and Cons of Using Electronic Monitoring Programs in Juvenile Cases. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from the American Bar Association Website: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:rwwMeqVkNzIJ:www2.americanbar.org/sections/criminaljustice/PublicDocuments/jjSklaver.doc+&hl=ro&gl=ro&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjwh_6ozqMI_haXAN2eKRZkvLPalWjv96E3UJPFmUmjHLkgc7HzZJx-B8pp_8CS06pGGQ9HEhBLVGpzGzvzUAOAqaqAVEuwCon5Dsxu9hh0FNiQ8tJeO6wO5SK7QxSCvedhUVip&sig=AHIEtbQ1UhDL8ZdvX4b0aJ5QnCNjc0VEWg
For those adults and children that admit guilt both systems offer procedures that safeguard and protect their rights ( LaMance, 2011).
There are also differences between the two systems these include; the underlying rationales of the juvenile system are that the youth are different in terms of development from adults and hence their behavior is malleable hence rehabilitation, treatment in addition to community protection are considered the primary and viable goals but when it comes to adult systems rehabilitation is not considered as a primary goal. Their operation is under the assumption that criminal sanctions should be proportional to the offense. The successful outcome of the punishment is seen as deterrence.
Another difference is the access to records in juvenile systems there are limitations that are placed on the public access to juvenile records since there is belief that the juvenile offenders can be rehabilitated and hence avoid unnecessary stigmatization.…
WGBH Educational Foundation, (2012). Juvenile vs Adult justice. Retrieved November 3,
2012 from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/juvenile/stats/juvvsadult.html
Spencer, J. (2007). Similarities between Adult Court & Juvenile Court. Retrieved November 3,
2012 from http://www.ehow.com/info_7899418_similarities-adult-court-juvenile-court.html
Studies indicate that "... A higher than average incidence of delinquency occurs among youngsters of the poorest social standing and with the lowest performance at school..." (Jarvelin et al., 1994, p. 230)
Similarly, studies also note that neighborhood influences on development was determinant on factors such as "...collective socialization, peer-group influence, and institutional capacity." (Sampson, Morenoff & Gannon-owley, 2002. p 443) Generally studies like the above present a negative picture of environmental and neighborhood influences.
The above analysis is also related to cultural issues such as the formation of gangs which is a factor that is related to delinquency in poverty-stricken areas. "The gang, a source of much delinquency, has been a common path for adolescents, particularly in the inner cities. "("Juvenile Delinquency," 2004) This also refers to the cultural and social norms in certain areas, where values and standards may accommodate behavior that is generally seen as delinquent. "Delinquent…
Anderson, D.C. (1998). When Should Kids Go to Jail. The American Prospect 72+. Retrieved December 2, 2006, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
The Challenge of School Violence. Retrieved December 2, 2006, at http://www.crf-usa.org/violence/school.html
Cirillo, K.J., Pruitt, B.E., Colwell, B., Kingery, P.M., Hurley, R.S., & Ballard, D. (1998). School Violence: Prevalence and Intervention Strategies for At-Risk Adolescents. Adolescence, 33(130), 319.
CARMICHAEL, A. (2003) Rich kids causing school problem. Retrieved December 1, 2006, at http://www.cso.on.ca/CNEWS/Canada/2003/11/02/244914-cp.html
The Correlation Between Juvenile Delinquency and Mental Illness
The Correlation Between Juvenile Delinquency and Mental Illness
Juvenile delinquency and juvenile crime are serious issues in the United tates and other countries today. While it is important to stop crimes before they start, and to make sure that juveniles have other activities so they do not turn to crime, one of the overlooked areas has to do with the factors that relate to juvenile crime. Knowing what causes someone to commit delinquent acts, and what to do in order to stop those acts from occurring, are both very important tools in the fight against juvenile delinquency (Mulvey, Arthur, & Reppucci, 1997). Naturally, every juvenile is different. What causes one person to commit a delinquent act may not cause another person to do so. till, there are common, contributing factors to juvenile delinquency - and mental…
Some juvenile delinquents are sex offenders, and this is one of the most serious crimes in which juveniles can be involved. Usually, those who get involved with sexual offenses at an early age do so because they are being sexually abused and/or because they have some type of mental illness. Finding these juvenile offenders early and treating them for their problems is really the only way to ensure that juvenile sexual offenders do not continue their criminal activities into adulthood.
Zigler, E., Taussig, C., & Black, K. (1992). Early childhood intervention. A promising preventative for juvenile delinquency. American Psychologist, 47(8): 997-1006.
The earlier a treatment or prevention strategy is begun, the better off the juvenile will be. It appears as though juveniles are beginning to struggle with delinquency at younger and younger ages, and if they are not treated properly for the issues that cause their delinquency, they will face a long road of struggle. They can also cause harm to others, and if that can be avoided society will benefit from it.
Once a group gains the trust of neighborhood gangs and manages to encourage some positive community activities, the group should then seek support from area businesses and organizations to encourage such behavior. Teenagers often become involved with gangs because they want structure and security. Lacking such qualities at home, teenagers find such qualities within gangs, which have strong, defined hierarchies, specific rules and clearly defined behavior expectations. It no surprise that homes where there is little discipline, unclear or vague expectations, and little or no authority tend to produce teenagers that are most likely to participate in gangs. For that reason, teenagers that show a willingness to participate more positively in society should be encouraged by community organizations and businesses. Local organizations and businesses can do this by providing employment or membership to former gang members who have refuted their criminal pasts. By finding acceptance in community oriented organizations, juvenile…
Burgess, Ernest & Bogue, Donald J. (eds.) Contributions to Urban Sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1964
Gabbidon, Shaun. L, Greene, Helen T. Race, Crime, and Justice: A Reader. Routledge Press: New York. 2005
Hawkins, Darnell F. et al. Race, Ethnicity and Serious and Violent Juvenile Offending. U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Justice and Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. June 2000.
Jensen, Gary F. "Social Disorganization Theory." Encyclopedia of Criminology. Richard a. Wright (Editor). Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. 2003.
(ampson, R. 1987) in one of the exhaustive juvenile crime studies that exist today, Professor Laub from the university of Maryland followed the lives of juvenile delinquent and non-delinquent boys at age 14, 25 and 32 respectively. All the boys were from the similar poor backgrounds and the results of the study helped identify a clear and conclusive pattern. Professor Laub found that low levels of parental supervision, harsh discipline and weak parental attachment were high risk factors for juvenile delinquency and adult criminal behavior. The study also reported that juvenile criminals were less likely to complete school, more likely to be jobless and likely to experience divorce and separation as adults. [JCPR]
tatistics show that the percentage of juvenile population living under poverty line has declined steadily since 1993. However, the figure is still quite high compared to the rate of adults living under poverty. As per the 2002…
School Dropout and Delinquency
The increasing high school dropout rate and the decline in the graduation rate has become a pressing problem for the United States. As per the national center for education statistics released in 2005, the graduation rate for the country has declined from an average of 73% in 1990 to just around 68% in 2005. (United Health Foundation). It is a disturbing trend since high school dropouts have problems finding good jobs and are at risk for delinquent behavior. Surveys have also found that young girls who dropout from high school are prone to become pregnant at a much younger age and consequently end up as single parents. (Alexa Lamm). In the increasingly technological corporate world that requires continuous update and learning, the opportunities for high school dropouts are very limited. Unemployment rates are much higher among high school dropouts than those who successfully complete their school graduation. Given the importance of a high school diploma for the future of the young people, researchers have studied the factors that affect school dropout rates both in the positive and negative context. Participation in extra curricular activities, in particular, has been found to have largely positive outcome in reducing the dropout rates.
The 1995 national level data analysis by the Department of Health and Human Services stresses the importance of extra curricular activities among adolescents. The researchers found that adolescent students who are not involved in extra curricular
(Causal Theories of Juvenile Delinquency: Social Perspectives)
Charles Cooley in his publication Human Nature and the Social Order analyzed the personal perception of juvenile delinquents by means of the studies of children and their imaginary friends. Cooley develops his theory around the imaginary concept of looking glass self, which is considered to be a type of imaginary sociability. People introspectively imagine through the eyes of others in their social circles and make judgments of themselves on the basis of such observations. (Howard Bechler's Labeling Theory)
Briefly, Cooley put forth that the perception of an individual is what he or she thinks regarding what other people think in relation to them and it influences in some respect the mode that individual perceives or feels regarding him or herself. His ideology thus reveals that another person or group of people influence the individual's perception and resultantly his or her behaviors, attitudes and…
Defining Juvenile Delinquency. Retrieved at http://www.jbpub.com/downloads/0763736287/Chapter_02.pdf. Accessed 3 November, 2005
Causal Theories of Juvenile Delinquency: Social Perspectives. Retrieved at http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/english/courses/en205d/student7/stud7proj2.html . Accessed 3 November, 2005
Howard Bechler's Labeling Theory. Retrieved at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/becker.htm . Accessed 3 November, 2005
Dawson, E. Murell; Chatman, Elfreda A. Reference group theory with implications for information studies: A theoretical essay. Information Research. April 2001. Vol. 6; No. 3; pp: 18-21
There has always been a difference between juvenile and adults when it comes to criminal justice in this country. During the nineteenth century, the handling of juveniles in the United States started to change. Social reformers began to create special services to deal with troubled juveniles, particularly in large cities. In 1899, the first juvenile court in the United States was set up in Cook County, Illinois. The initiative quickly spread, and within twenty-five years, most states had established juvenile court systems. "The early juvenile courts shared with reform schools the same desire to rehabilitate rather than of punish juvenile offenders. They were based on the legal doctrine of parens patriae (a Latin term that means "parent of the country"). The parens patriae doctrine gives the state the power to serve as the guardian (or parent) of those with legal disabilities, including juveniles" (The History of Juvenile Justice,…
Juvenile vs. Adult Justice. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/juvenile/stats/juvvsadult.html
Juvenile justice system structure and process. (1999). Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/nationalreport99/chapter4.pdf
The History of Juvenile Justice. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/publiced/features/DYJpart1.au thcheckdam.pdf
(Johnson, 2008, pp. 560 -- 567) This is significant, because it is corroborating the root causes of why someone will become involved in illegal activities at a young age. As a result, this source is providing us with a good rational for studying this issue and the long-term effects that it will have on communities.
The Importance of this Topic in Studying Criminal ehavior
Understanding juvenile delinquency will help to improve our ability to determine what individuals are most likely to become criminals as adults. This is based upon three different reasons to include: it will offer insights about their behavior, the role that the environment is playing in their development and how family could influence these people. When it comes to offering insights about their behavior, this establishes specific techniques for understanding what kinds of thinking and actions are common in those who are more likely to become anti-social.…
Baker, L. (2011). The Effects of Juvenile Delinquency. E How. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/about_5108646_effects-juvenile-delinquency.html
Johnson, J. (2008). Being Black and Young. Crime and Delinquency. 57 (5), 560 -- 567.
McCord, J. (1991). Family Relationships. Criminology. 29 (3), 397 -- 417.
Staff, J. (2010). Explaining the Relationship between Employment and Juvenile Delinquency. Criminology, 48 (4), 1101- 1131.
The system of juvenile courts is vital in all the nations globally more so in the U.S. Its purpose is to control the welfare of children, provide guidance and counseling while taking care of kids who have been abandoned by their parents. These systems address problems facing children who are below 18 years of age. These courts have authority in addressing cases that involve support to children, terminating parents' rights, and detention. Juveniles who commit serious crimes are handled by higher courts. The juvenile courts also address cases involving young people who commit serious crimes. In addition, these courts are in charge of juveniles who commit traffic offences or who are involved in military crimes (Trulson & Carmen, 2005).
The high court judge will appoint judges in the new juvenile courts. These cases involve youth offenders who have gone against the law. Law experts have argued…
Winterdyk, J. (2002). Juvenile Justice Systems: International Perspectives. New York: Canadian
Trulson, C. & Carmen, R. (2005). Juvenile Justice: The System, Process, and Law. California:
Juvenile Delinquency & Social Class
Juvenile Justice: Juvenile Delinquency & How Perceptions of Social Class Affect Treatment of Young so-called 'Criminals'
It is common to view issues pertaining to justice in purely retributive terms or positivist terms. In other words, conservatives tend to view the system of juvenile justice in terms of crimes that must be morally punished by society. In contrast, liberals often view crimes; particularly crimes committed by juveniles who are presumably less cognizant of societal norms and whom society still has a responsibility to educate, in positivist terms. In other words, if the causes of the crime are alleviated, such as poverty, then it is assumed the crimes that are the result of such poverty will disappear. This paradigm of individual and societal responsibility, eschewing both paradigm's accuracy and efficacy for the moment, indicates how the language used to express concepts of justice affect the way crime…
Cicourel, Aaron. (1968) The social organization of juvenile justice New York: Wiley.
Hornbacher, Marya. (1998). Wasted. New York: HarperCollins.
There are many juvenile cases in the justice system of USA, like that of Josh and Terry, where teens from broken families commit crimes. These juveniles lack a supportive environment thus the crimes often become a habit rather than occasional incidences. The juvenile crimes normally start with a prolonged absenteeism from the school after which students develop bad habits and may learn to steal and to commit assaults. It is not always for fun but sometimes the teenagers are habitual in crimes. Once these are caught and put into jail at such a young age, they have a tough life. Juvenile are counseled and held under supervision. They are released later depending upon the nature of crime but the juvenile record is often a hurdle in their career. The paper discusses the legal and social issues related to juvenile records, funding programs, system and controlling felony in questions…
A Better Way to Handle Juvenile Offenders, (2001), Retrieved from:
Hard times, (2013), Retrieved from:
Findings revealed the importance of early intervention and other schooling factors in reducing delinquency. They also emphasized the benefits of early intervention as one effective measure in preventing delinquency (Mann & Reynolds).
The study established the connection between a large-scale preschool program and reductions in the incidence, frequency and severity of juvenile crime (Mann & Reynolds, 2006). The connection is between early social functioning and severe behavioral problems. Social functioning measures include the teacher's rating of the young person's classroom adjustment. Social skill problems include difficulty in developing social relationships with either the teacher or peers or an inability to interact well with adults. Adults include police and other authority figures. Children with extreme behavioral problems are likely to become delinquent. Current special education services may not be sufficient to meet their needs. Otherwise, already existing social and learning situations prevent incline them to develop behavior problems. These realities prompt…
Leve, L.D. And Chamberlain, P. (2005, June). Association with delinquent peers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology: Plenum Publishing Corporation. Retrieved on October 31, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0902/is_3_33/ai_n13785284?tags=content;col1
Mann, E.A. And Reynolds, A.J. (2006, September). Early intervention and juvenile delinquency prevention. Social Work Research: National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved on October 31, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p.articles/mi_hb6481/is_3_30/ai_n29296326?tag=content;col1
Munson, W.W. (2002, June). Recreation and juvenile delinquency. Parks and Recreation: National Recreation and Park Association. Retrieved on October 31, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1145/is_6_37/ai_88702659 ?tag=content;col1
Onwudiwe, I.D. (2004, October). Theoretical perspectives on juvenile delinquency: root causes and control. Corrections Today: American Correctional Association, Inc. Retrieved on October 31, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6399/is_6_66/ai_n29129141?tag=content;col1
This is particularly important when making decisions about court processes and sentencing practices in the juvenile court. The ability of youth to recognize that sanctions will drastically increase in the adult system is ample reason to justify the use of punishment in the juvenile system.
Under a model that focuses on punishment, sentencing will need to be harsh enough to deter the youth from continued behavior but not so harsh that it increases the likelihood of future acts. If juvenile detention centers and community-based programs emphasize human assets and place stigma on those who commit crimes a decrease in recidivism may occur (Levitt, 1998). Sentencing considerations will now shift to an offense-based system, one in which the nature of the act rather than the youth himself become the basis for determination of appropriate consequences (Ash, 2006).
Intervention in crimes will need to be consistent in arrest, the court process, corrections,…
Ash, P. (2006). Adolescents in adult court: Does the punishment fit the criminal? Journal of American Academic Psychiatry Law, 34(2), 145-149.
Chamberlin, C. (2001). Not kids anymore: A need for punishment and deterrence in the juvenile justice system. Boston College Law Review, 42(2), 391-419.
Fontaine, R.G. (2008). Social information processing, subtypes of violence, and a progressive construction of culpability and punishment in juvenile justice. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 31, 136-141.
Kulpchick, A. (2003). Prosecuting adolescents in criminal courts: Criminal or juvenile justice. Social Problems, 50(3), 439-460.
Juvenile delinquency poses a serious problem in the contemporary society, with the authorities often having a limited influence on preventing it. Society in general has had the tendency to devise different agendas meant to address juvenile delinquency. This is also one of the reasons why correctional institutions normally have laws that can only be applied in cases involving minors. hile status offenses can also be applied in cases involving adults, they are typically considered in situations where a minor committed an illegality. The fact that the criminal is a part of a specific group means that he or she is going to be provided with special treatment -- the authorities implement regulations that can only be considered for that particular group.
Many schools have specially designed programs meant to inform students with regard to the effects that juvenile delinquency has on society and on individuals involved in it. Courses meant…
Puzzanchera, C., & Robson, C. "Delinquency Cases in Juvenile Court, 2010," Retrieved January 5, 2015, from Delinquency Cases in Juvenile Court, 2010
Siegel, L., & Welsh, B. (2014). "Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Practice, and Law." Cengage Learning.
"Youth Violence," Retrieved January 5, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/pdf/YV-DataSheet-a.pdf
"When Juveniles Are Tried in Adult Criminal Courts," Retrieved January 5, 2015, from http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/juveniles-youth-adult-criminal-court-32226.html
Juvenile delinquency seems to be growing in this country; at least the media's handling of it seems to be increasing. This paper will provide research into violence in the various forms of media and how it affects juvenile delinquency. Studies indicate violence in the media can contribute to violence in young people. They also indicate that there are many instances of violence in the media every day. Another issue facing young people is human trafficking. Studies show it is on the rise around the world, and more needs to be done to deter and outlaw the practice.
The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze the topic of criminal justice. Specifically it will discuss the impact that media (i.e., television, video games, and music) has on delinquency, and how to reduce the incidence of the human trafficking of children. It seems the media is always filled with…
Destefano, A.M. (2007). The war on human trafficking: U.S. policy assessed. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Editors. (2009). Human trafficking of children in the United States. Retrieved 24 Nov. 2009 from the U.S. Department of Education Web site: http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osdfs/factsheet.html .
Jones, L., Engstrom, D.W., Hilliard, T., & Diaz, M. (2007). Globalization and human trafficking. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 34(2), 107+.
Katz, N. (2009). Prosecutor: Alyssa Bustamante killed Elizabeth Olten because "She wanted to know what it felt like." Retrieved 24 Nov. 2009 from the CBS News Web site: http://www.cbsnews.com/blogs/2009/11/19/crimesider/entry5709430.shtml?tag=contentMain;contentBody .
S.A.). Most youths in state facilities have also been held in detention centers, though they tend to be more chronic, serious offenders. Every day, averages of 54,500 youths are incarcerated in U.S. detention or correctional institutions. These incarcerations may harm the youths and make it more likely they will continue offending. It is important, where possible, to intervene with youth and families prior to detention or incarceration. No single factor is responsible for juvenile offending and subsequent incarcerations minority race, early childhood behavior problems and poor family functioning have all been implicated (Mallett, Stoddard Dare and Seck, 2009).
For an increasing and record number of communities in America and now in other countries, youth courts are providing a positive alternative to the juvenile justice system with significant and unexpected favorable outcomes. Youth court is most commonly identified as a juvenile justice program, given that the vast majority of youth cases…
Basic Statistics Juvenile Crime. (2010). Retrieved April 30, 2010, from PBS Web site:
Juvenile Delinquency. (2010). Retrieved April 30, 2010, from Answers.com Web site:
In order to determine an appropriate sentence for a 17-year-old youth who committed an armed robbery, I would first need to study the offender's criminal history. Whether the offender had a history of escalating offenses as a juvenile, the offender's prior history of punishment and treatment, and the offender's family background would all play important roles in helping me determine an appropriate punishment for the offender. Because each of these factors plays an important role in determining the youth's intent, the possibility of rehabilitation, and the youth's future dangerousness, I will approach sentencing based on three differing scenarios: no criminal history, mid-level criminal history combined with increasing family dysfunction, and extensive criminal history and complete disruption of the nuclear family system. Furthermore, before sentencing any offender convicted of a violent offense, I would have that offender submit to a complete psychological examination in order to rule out or…
· Problem Statement
Last year, America’s largest cities, according to Major Cities Chiefs Association, experienced significant increase in violent crime (Major Cities Chiefs Association, 2017). It is important to note that this was the second year in a row that the said cities had to contend with rising crime rates. While most of those arrested in the U.S. for crimes ranging from homicide to aggravated assault to robbery were adults, juvenile violent crime arrests have also risen substantially, with most juvenile delinquents continuing their criminal behaviors well into adulthood. There is need for a closer look into how juvenile offenders who transition to adult offenders are contributing towards higher crime rates in our cities. Some of the contemporary approaches to the war against crime could include the implementation of early interventions to ensure that young delinquents do not graduate to become adult criminals.
· Purpose and Significance of…
Houser, R. (1998). Counseling and Educational Research: Evaluation and Application. Thousand Oaks: SAGE
Howell, J.C. (2009). Preventing and Reducing Juvenile Delinquency: A Comprehensive Framework (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: SAGE
Logan, J.S. (2008). Good Punishment: Christian Moral Practice and U.S. Imprisonment. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company
Loeber, R. & Farrington, D.P. (Eds.). (2012). From Juvenile Delinquency to Adult Crime: Criminal Careers, Justice Policy and Prevention. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Major Cities Chiefs Association. (2017). Violent Crime Survey – Totals: Midyear Comparison between 2016 and 2015. Retrieved from https://www.majorcitieschiefs.com/pdf/news/mcca_violent_crime_data_midyear_20162015.pdf
National Institute of Justice – NIJ. (2017). From Juvenile Delinquency to Young Adult Offending. Retrieved from https://www.nij.gov/topics/crime/Pages/delinquency-to-adult-offending.aspx
Reynolds, C.R. & Fletcher-Janzen, E. (Eds.). (2004). Concise Encyclopedia of Special Education: A Reference for the Education of the Handicapped and Other Exceptional Children and Adults (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Willey & Sons.
Rhoades, K.A., Leve, L.D., Eddy, J.M. & Chamberlain, P. (2016). Predicting the Transition from Juvenile Delinquency to Adult Criminality: Gender-Specific Influences in Two High-Risk Samples. Criminal Behav. Ment. Health, 26 (5), 336-351.
Where Does Crime Begin? The Issue of Juvenile Offenders
There are many theories for how juvenile offenders come to be: from strain theory to social control theory and social learning theory, researchers have postulated on what accounts for juvenile delinquency, what factors contribute to its rise, and who is to blame. Werner and Silbereisen (2003) have shown that harmonious families have greater probability of having a positive impact on childhood development than inharmonious families. Barrett, Ju, Katsiyannis, and Zhang (2015) have shown that there are personal, family, and emotional/behavioral variables that impact and/or determine a young person’s degree of delinquency, including recidivism. And Farrell, Mays, Henry and Schoeny (2011) have shown in their study that parents act as moderators of juvenile behavior, as juveniles seek to balance multiple influences from school life to peer influence as they grow and develop. In short, there are many factors that contribute to…
Barrett, D., Ju, S., Katsiyannis, A., Zhang, D. (2015). Females in the juvenile justice
system: influences on delinquency and recidivism. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 427-433.
Bursik, R. (1988). Social disorganization and theories of crime and delinquency:
Problems and prospects. Criminology, 26(4), 519-552.
Farrell, A., Mays, S., Henry, D., Schoeny, M. (2011). Parents as moderators of the
impact of school norms and peer influences on aggression in middle school students. Child Development, 82(1), 146-161.
Kristjansson, K. (2014). There is something about Aristotle: the pros and cons of
Aristotelianism in contemporary moral education. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 48(1), 48-68.
Economic conditions that have forced both parents to work and have caused teenaged unemployment have also been associated with delinquency, as children are not only unsupervised, but also unoccupied. In addition to this, children who face undue hardships, such as physical and sexual abuse, as well as failure to perform academically, also often turn to delinquency (oberts, 2005). Like Kim and Kim (2008) point out for South Korean children, stress is a likely culprit for the fact that dealing with difficult situations turns into delinquency in youth. This problem is further compounded if the youth has not had instruction in making good choices from parents and teachers (oberts, 2005).
Thus, although they are on separate sides of the world, the United States and South Korea face many of the same problems when it comes to juvenile delinquents. In both countries, the lack of a definite role for criminal justice personnel…
Kim, H. & Kim, H. (2006). Discriminative Factor Analysis of Juvenile Delinquency in South Korea. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe chi, 36(8), 1315-1323.
Kim, H. & Kim, H. (2008). Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime. New York: Nova.
Library of Congress (2009). A Country Study: South Korea. Retrieved August 18, 2009,
from the Library of Congress Web Site: http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/krtoc.html
Juvenile Delincency in Urban Areas
Juvenile delinquency is a contemporary term for an old problem. One of the oldest relevant studies of the phenomenon was 'social disorganization' theory, which was developed by the Chicago school of sociology in the 1920's. This theory posits that there exist areas in a city in which traditional institutions have little or no control. This was studied in Chicago using a system of 'Concentric Zones' which demonstrated that most of the crime in the city occurs within certain areas that are typically associated with poverty. According to studies conducted by Shaw and McKay in the 1940's, "a preponderance of the delinquent boys lived either in areas adjacent to the central business and industrial district or along the two forks of the Chicago River, ack of the Yards, or in South Chicago, with relatively few in other outlying areas." (Jacoby, 13)
Shaw and McKay discovered a…
Carlin Wong. Clifford R. Shaw and Henry D. McKay: The Social Disorganization Theory. Center for Spacially Oriented Social Science. 2002.
Terence Morris. The Criminal Area: A Study in Social Ecology Routledge & Paul, 1966
Robert C. Trojanowicz, Merry Morash, and Pamela Schram. Juvenile Delinquency Concepts and Control, 6th Edition. Prentice Hall: 2000.
Walter B. Miller. The Growth of Youth Gang Problems in the United States: 1970-98. U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. April, 2001.
Finally, for the purposes of this research proposal we will refer to a third study that suggests education could be at the heart of reducing juvenile delinquency statistics but the conditions in which the child is raised impacts their ability to choose between right and wrong (Hindelang, 1981).
Method and design
The goal of this study is to add to the literature that demonstrates that there is a correlation between poverty and juvenile delinquency. This researcher will begin by reviewing the available statistics provided by the state judicial system related specifically to the number of juveniles currently incarcerated at state facilities as well as the youths' offenses. Once this information has been compiled the next step will be to chart the level of income brought in by the adults within each home as well as to determine if the families live rely on welfare or government assistance for their daily…
Hindelang, M; Measuring Deliquency. Sage Library of social research; Vol. 123.
Lewis, D; Violent Juvenile Delinquents: Psychiatric, Neurological, Psychological, and Abuse Factors. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry. Vol 18, Issue 2
Loeber, R.; Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review. Vol. 10, p. 1-41. 1990.
Juvenile delinquency is one of the most serious social concerns facing the American society today. In 2010, for instance, juvenile offenders accounted for approximately 8% of all reported homicides. For a society that still considers itself conservative, this figure is relatively high. It is these statistics that spur the researcher's interest in investigating the reasons why juveniles engage in crime, particularly juvenile crime. Past studies have shown that most juvenile crimes are committed between 3 p.m and 7 p.m., the period when a child has left school and is primarily under the care of the parent. The current study thus focuses on showing, using the social control and social disorganization theories of crime, that the lack of social support in the home environment…
Burfeind, J.W. & Bartusch, D. (2011). Juvenile Delinquency: An Integrated Approach (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Crime Solutions. (n.d.). Juveniles. Crime Solutions. Retrieved 5 February 2015 from http://www.crimesolutions.gov/TopicDetails.aspx?ID=5
Heide, K.M. (1999). Young Killers: The Challenge of Juvenile Homicide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Sandra, W. (2007). Understanding Criminology: Current Theoretical Debates (3rd ed.). Berkshire, England: McGraw Hill.
In this form of punishment, authorities find infractions, encourage compliance and reward or punish and take away rights depending on the individual's response. In 1957, Fritz edl and David Wineman (as cited in Vander Ven, 2009) wrote about another approach in their book, the Aggressive Child, which proved to be much more successful at their juvenile residence Pioneer House. However, for various reasons, their methodology never received much of a following (Vander Ven, 2009).
Now, residential institutions are revisiting edl and Wineman's approach, which has greater credibility due to insights in the behavioral sciences over the past several decades. The distinction between typical youth and those who hate and are filled with anger, say edl and Wineman, is that while neither always behave perfectly, typical children will respond to interventions that remind them of what is good behavior. However, even these "normal" children under certain types of stress may not…
Edmondson, V.C. (2009) a new business: redirecting Black youth from the illegal economy
Reclaiming Children and Youth 18(3), 16-21 Hide details
Edwards, D.M. (2002). From illegal to legitimate professions: Alternatives to low-wage employment. UAB McNair Chronicle 3, 42-47.
Peterson, S.B. (2009) Made in America: the Global Youth Justice Movement: with more than 1,200 local youth and teen court programs in America -- Europe, Australia, Asia, and Canada are now implementing this model to harness the positive peer influence of youth volunteers to reduce juvenile crime. Reclaiming Children and Youth 18 (2), 48-53
, 2008). Respondents to the study were 250 persons, aged 19-24, recruited at birth between 1979 and 1984 and pregnant women in four clinics in Cincinnati, Ohio. The pregnant women lived in areas with high concentrations of older-type of lead-contaminated dwellings (Wright et al.). Commendable efforts have been expended to reduce exposures to tobacco and environmental lead at this time. ut millions of young people continue to be exposed to them in levels sufficient to put them at risk of persistent violent and criminal behaviors (raun et al.).
Studies conducted with a wide range of age groups, populations and types of trauma showed that traumatized children and adolescents face a high risk of developing different behavioral, psychological and neurobiological problems (Caffo et al., 2005). Early traumatic experiences can have strong and lasting behavioral and psychological consequences in the young. These include Post Traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD, depression, anxiety…
Bartlett, R., et al. (2007). Problem behaviors in adolescents. 33 (1): 13-18 Pediatric
Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc. Retrieved on February 15, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/555209
Braun, J.M., et al. (2008). Association of environmental toxicants and conduct disorder in U.S. children. 116 (7): 956-962 Environmental Health Perspectives: National Institute
of Environmental Health Sciences. Retrieved on February 15, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/577047
Moreover, if an adolescent who has reached 18 commits sexual offending is considered an adult sex offender, "what does this mean for young adults who engaged in sexually abusive behavior prior to age 18?" (p. 433). ecause of this blurry line, Rich suggests, it is imperative that adolescents of older age must especially be provided with comprehensive treatment programs to prevent them from developing fixed sexualized abusive interests.
ecause of the complicated nature of the problem of juvenile sex offending, Rich offers a holistic treatment for curing juvenile sex offenders. The holistic model, grounded on the principle that the 'whole' of the person needs to be taken into consideration, must look into the nature of the individual "whose emotions, cognitions, behaviors and relationships are driven by multiple factors, many of which are unique to that individual" (p. 444). In other words, the approach should first and foremost focus on learning…
Bibliography of Scholarly References, 1970-1992. Family Relations, 42(2): 222-226.
Rich, P (2009) Understanding the Complexities and Needs of Adolescent Sex Offenders in Beech, a.R., Craig, B.A., & Browne, K.D. (Eds.) Assessment and Treatment of Sex Offenders. West Sussex, UK: Whiley-Blackwell.
Rightland, S., & Welch, C (2001) Juveniles Who Have Sexually Offended: A Review of the Professional Literature. A report to the U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Ryan, G., Leversee, T., & Lane, Sandy (2010) Juvenile Sexual Offending: Causes, Consequences, and Correction. New Jersey: Wiley & Sons.
Smallbone, S., Marshall, W.L., & Wortley, R. (2008) Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Evidence, Policy and Practice. Portland: Willan Publishing.
Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes
Researchers are now focused on developing and evaluating programs designed to break the drug-crime cycle that is common in juvenile delinquents. This paper will summarize existing literature about programs designed to prevent the juvenile drug-crime cycle and, based on that literature, identify interventions that offer the best chances for success. This paper will also provide guidelines and recommendations for developing a comprehensive juvenile justice system that can best address the needs of juvenile offenders involved with drug crimes.
This thesis is expected to make a contribution to the selection of successful interventions and the development of collaborative partnerships in the juvenile justice system, drug treatment programs, and other agencies as they attempt to break the cycle of drugs and crime afflicting U.S. juveniles.
With the prevalence of drug crimes among juveniles and the complexity involved in their treatment, which must involve both the child…
Abuse and Dependence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 5 (1): 201-211.
Allison, M., and Hubbard, R.L. (1985). Drug abuse treatment process: A review of the literature. International Journal of the Addictions 20:13211345.
Anglin, M.D., and Hser, Y. (1990). Treatment of drug abuse. In Drugs and Crime, vol. 13, edited by M. Tonry and J.Q. Wilson. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Ball, J.C., Rosen, J.A., Flueck, J.A., and Nurco, D.N. (1981). The criminality of heroin addicts: When addicted and when off opiates. In The Drugs-Crime Connection, edited by J.A. Inciardi. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
In the past, there was no such term as “juvenile delinquent” or “juvenile delinquency” within the justice system. As frightening as it is to consider, over a hundred years ago, children who committed crimes were thrown into prisons with adults and some children were even sentenced to corporal punishment or even death (Yale.edu, 2000). Reformers of the justice system were the ones who pushed for a distinct court system for the treatment of juveniles, with the underlying notion being that these young people could potentially be helped and reformed. “Central to the concept of juvenile court was the principle of parens patriae. This meant that instead of lawyers fighting to decide guilt or innocence, the court would act as a parent or guardian interested in protecting and helping the child” (yale.edu, 2000). These reforms were novel at the time, and helped to enact changes such as closed hearings for…
Criminal Justice: Juvenile Delinquency
Juvenile delinquency is described as the participation of minors, usually under the legal age of 18, in criminal activities. Cases of juvenile delinquency have increased at an alarming rate in recent years. According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, OJJDP (2015), juveniles under the age of 18 are responsible for about 10% of all homicides. In the period between 1990 and 2003, violent crimes by juveniles declined significantly - but after 2003, the previous trend continued and about 30% of murder crimes were attributed to delinquency. Today, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) incarcerates more than 33000 minors under the age of 18 for different criminal offenses (OJJDP, 2015). The fight against juvenile delinquency is often inconvenienced by recidivism. ecidivism occurs when juvenile offenders relapse back to their criminal ways after they are released from residential care. Majority of juvenile offenders are rearrested…
Burfeinf, J.W & Bartusch, D. (2011). Juvenile Delinquency: An Integrated Approach. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC.
National Institute of Justice (2015). Formal System Processing for Juveniles. Crime solutions. Retrieved 6 February 2015 from https://www.crimesolutions.gov/PracticeDetails.aspx?ID=9
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2015). Juvenile Justice System Structure and Process. Office of Justice Programs. Retrieved 6 February 2015 from http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/structure_process/index.html
Welsh, B. C & Siegel, L. J (2015). Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Practice, and Law. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
Crime and Its Impact on Youth
Crime impacts children differently than it does adults. This paper examines the differences and the reasons children are affected uniquely by crime. It looks in particularly at the multiple theories that can be used to explain these impacts, such as Strain Theory and Social Control Theory. It also identifies the unique challenges that children and adults face as they struggle to cope both with the environments in which they live and the criminal justice systems that confront them. The paper concludes that children are uniquely impacted by crime because they are still in their developmental stage, wherein their psychology and physicality are still highly susceptible to external influences.
Children suffer from the effects of crime in different ways from adults. This is primarily due to the fact that children are still developing, both cognitively and physically, whereas adults are already developed. Crime thus…
Agnew, R. (2008). Strain Theory. In V. Parrillo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social problems.
(pp. 904-906). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
Barrett, D., Ju, S., Katsiyannis, A., Zhang, D. (2015). Females in the juvenile justice system: influences on delinquency and recidivism. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24: 427-433.
Benns, W. (2015). American Slavery, Reinvented. The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/09/prison-labor-in-america/406177/
Juvenile Delinquency and Genetics
Genetics and Juvenile Delinquency
The role of genetics in delinquent behavior
Although the role of genetics in determining human behavior has become an increasingly popular explanation for a variety of sociological phenomenon, until recently, social learning theory tended to be the most common way to explain delinquency. This theory suggested that children 'learn' appropriate standards of behavior from parents, peers, and other adults. However, there remains the question of why certain adolescents seem to have more of a tendency to exhibit low levels of self-control, to act out, and to associate with delinquent peers. One explanation is genetics. For example, one theory suggests that the precise configuration of the prefrontal cortex has a great deal of influence over the ability of the individual to control his or her impulses, which thus influences behavior. The extent to which genetics influences behavior vs. environmental conditions is controversial, however…
Beaver, K.M., Schutt, J.E., Boutwell, B.B., Ratchford, M., Roberts, K., & Barnes, J.C. (2009).
Genetic and environmental influences on levels of self-control and delinquent peer affiliation: Results from a longitudinal sample of adolescent twins. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 36(1), 41-60
Genetics, social factors tied to male delinquency. (2008). U.S. News and World Report.
Biological Factors and Juvenile Delinquency
A biological theory or a biological factor contributing to delinquency:
A genetic propensity for addiction
Although many teens experiment with drugs and alcohol, not all teens become addicted. Biological as well as social factors can impact an adolescent's propensity to become addicted to illicit substances. According to the research study, "Youth substance use and body composition: Does risk in one area predict risk in the other?" from the Journal of Youth and Adolescence, a positive association has been found in numerous studies between high adolescent BMI and alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use (Pasch et al. 2012). The willingness to engage in illegal behavior regarding drugs and alcohol has thus been linked to a higher BMI in youth and adolescents.
The authors of the study initially speculated that this association might be due to the fact that overweight teens use smoking as an appetite suppressant,…
Pasch, K.E., Velazquez, C.E., Cance, J.D., Moe, S.G., & Lytle, L.A. (2012). Youth
substance use and body composition: Does risk in one area predict risk in the other? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(1), 14-26. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-011-9706-y
Juvenile Delinquency Is Associated With Parenting Factors Through Social Control Theory
Interventions that involve life-course unrelenting offenders should place emphasis on remedial social abilities, for them to have a chance to decrease their frequency of offence in future, and to tackle conduct disorder problems. Interventions involving teenage-onset offenders should, wherever applicable, tackle issues relating to parenting, alcohol/drug misuse, and anti-social friends. Keane, Krull and Phythian (2008) define self-control as the extent to which a person is susceptible to temptation. According to them, lack of self-restraint or self-control is a fairly universal and stable characteristic, accounting for individual discrepancies in deviant, reckless, and criminal conduct. Youngsters' parents are usually blamed for their kids' delinquent behavior. Some courts go as far as penalizing parents for their kids' antisocial actions. It is believed that weak self-control develops during early childhood, when one's family is the most central socializing agent. Therefore, lack of self-restraint…
Apel, R., & Kaukinen, C. (2008). On the relationship between family structure and antisocial behavior: Parental cohabitation and blended households. Criminology, 46, 35-70.
Asher, A. J. (2006). Exploring the relationship between parenting style and juvenile delinquency. Department of Social Studies and Family Work. Faculty of Miami University.
Baron, S. W. (2003). Self-control, social consequences, and criminal behavior: Street youth and the general theory of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40(4), 403.
Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescence competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11, 56-95.
Treating Juvenile Delinquency
Delinquency treatment program:
Peer mentoring program for African-American male juveniles
A brief description of your community
African-American males are disproportionately represented in the incarcerated juvenile population, relative to their percentage of the general population. The reasons for this have been hotly debated amongst criminal justice professionals and laypersons. Possible reasons include racism within the police and justice systems, the ways laws are written, and also a lack of vocational opportunities. According to one study conducted by the U.S. Department of Justice in New Jersey, while 10% of white juveniles were adjudicated and sentenced for their first-degree offenses, more than 31% of African-American juveniles received sentences for the same crimes; white juvenile offenders were similarly found to receive lesser sentences than African-Americans in the state of Florida (Drakeford & Garfinkle 2000). Dealing with the unique problems of African-Americans within juvenile detention centers is clearly an essential…
Black male dropouts lead nation in incarceration. (2012). PR News wire. Retrieved:
Drakeford, Will & Garfinkle, Lili Frank. (2000). Differential treatment of African-American
The National Center on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice. Retrieved:
Causes of Juvenile Delinquency
The problem of juvenile delinquency is becoming more complicated and universal, and crime prevention programs are either unequipped to deal with the present realities or do not exist. Many developing countries have done little or nothing to deal with these problems, and international programs are obviously insufficient. Developed countries are engaged in activities aimed at juvenile crime prevention, but the overall effect of these programs is rather weak because the mechanisms in place are often inadequate to address the existing situation. On the whole, current efforts to fight juvenile delinquency are characterized by the lack of systematic action and the absence of task-oriented and effective social work with both offenders and victims, whether real or potential. Analysis is further complicated by a lack of international comparative data. (WY, 2003) The paper is a meditation and investigation of the causes of juvenile delinquency. While it…
Ali, M. (2008). Youth Crime: Causes and Remedies. Munich Personal RePEc Archive, 17223, Available from: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/17223/ .
Chowdry, I.A., Khan, M.M., & Uddin, I. (2012). Causes and Consequences of Juvenile Delinquency in Bangladesh: A Sociological Analysis. International Journal of Social Science Tomorrow, 1(4), 1 -- 11.
Loeber, R. (1990) Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 1 -- 41.
Tigar, Michael E. "What Are We Doing to the Children?: An Essay on Juvenile (In)justice." Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, Vol. 47, No. 849, 849 -- 866, 2010.
Future ole of the Juvenile Justice System in the United States
Young people are naturally prone to experimentation and impulsive behaviors that frequently result in their involvement with the law enforcement community, and police officers today generally enjoy wide latitude in resolving these incidents. In fact, in some if not most cases, police officers can release young offenders into the custody of their parents or guardians without the further involvement of the criminal justice system. Even when young offenders are arrested, though, the juvenile justice system tends to afford them with more leniency than their adult counterparts, due in part to the view that the role of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate rather than punish. These enlightened views of juvenile justice, though, are being replaced with "get-tough-on-crime" approaches in some states, and there remains a paucity of standardized models for states to follow. To gain some fresh insights…
Alridge, D.P. (2005, Summer). Introduction: Hip hop in history: Past, present, and future. The Journal of African-American History, 90(3), 190-193.
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Boyd, T. (2002). The new H.N.I.C.: The death of civil rights and the reign of hip hop. New York:
Brookins, G.K. & Hirsch, J.A. (2002, Summer). Innocence lost: Case studies of children in the juvenile justice system. The Journal of Negro Education, 71(3), 205-210.
Social Control Theory of Juvenile Delinquency
Travis Hirschi's Social Control theory of deviance assumes that deviant behavior is largely a function of the connectedness of the individual to his or her society; more specifically, Hirschi's assumptions are that juvenile delinquency, and criminal deviance more generally, are inversely related to the following elements of connectedness between the individual and the community: involvement, commitment, attachment, and belief (Akers & Sellers, 2004; Huebner & Betts, 2002).
Structure of Theory
Hirschi used the concept of involvement to describe the manner and extent to which the individuals takes part in the so-called "conventional" activities, such as extracurricular school functions and other organized opportunities for socially productive youth recreation available in the community (Macionis, 2008). Hirschi used the concept of commitment, to describe the basic "acceptance" in the most general senses, of fundamental social and behavioral norms, values, and expectations in the individual's community…
Akers, R.L., and Sellers, C.S. (2004). Criminological Theories: Introduction,
Evaluation, and Application. California: Roxbury Publishing Company.
Button, D.M. "Social Disadvantage and Family Violence: Neighborhood Effects on Attitudes about Intimate Partner Violence and Corporal Punishment." American
Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 33 (2008):130 -- 147.
While the subject's rationale for blaming his most recent victim for dressing provocatively may reflect "normal" (Macionis 2002) social conditioning (particularly among adolescent males), his complete lack of empathy (as distinct from responsibility or fault) is more consistent with pathological indifference and lack of empathy often observed in serial rapists and other sociopaths who display a clinical indifference to their victims (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).
Subsequent analysis will distinguish whether the subject's relative immature statements about the connection between video game violence and the real world are the result of low intelligence and delayed cognitive skills in the area of logical reasoning and responsibility or functions of repressed rage directed at all females.
viable intervention strategy must emphasize intensive psychological counseling to address the subject's past sexual victimization, the rage associated with it, and the direction of his anger at all females. Behavioral psychotherapy will be necessary to…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas
Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Packer, Herbert, L. (1968) the Limits of the Criminal Sanction. Stanford University Press.
Theory on Juvenile Delinquency
Interventions that involve life-course unrelenting offenders should place emphasis on remedial social abilities, for them to have a chance to decrease their frequency of offending in future, and to tackle conduct disorder problems. Interventions involving teenage-onset offenders should, wherever applicable, tackle issues relating to parenting, alcohol/drug misuse, and anti-social cronies. Keane, Krull and Phythian (2008) define self-control as the extent to which a person is susceptible to temptation. According to them, lack of self-restraint or self-control is a fairly universal and stable characteristic, accounting for individual discrepancies in deviant, reckless, and criminal conduct. Youngsters' parents are usually blamed for their kids' delinquent behavior. Some courts go as far as penalizing parents for their kids' antisocial actions. It is believed that weak self-control develops during early childhood, when one's family is the most central socializing agent. Hence, lack of self-restraint and the resultant deviant behavior result from…
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory.
Burfeind, J. W., & Bartusch, D. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Demuth, Stephen and Susan L. Brown. 2004. "Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence vs. Parental Gender." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41(1):58-81.
Farrington, D. P. (2010). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile justice and delinquency, 203-222.
This could lead to factors such as peer pressure.
Peers could make the otherwise "rejected" child feel accepted within a social setting, and hence encourage actions required to continue such acceptance. This could further exacerbate other possible contributing factors such as a difficult home life, where parents are involved in criminal activities, suffer from poverty or illness, or are abusive. Concomitantly, these factors may lead to drug or alcohol addiction, which further encourages crimes such as theft.
Other factors may include social pressures such as a lack of job opportunities, inadequate school systems, juvenile correctional facilities that do not rehabilitate the youth, or simply a personality that tends towards violence and crime.
Mandell, Betty Reid & chram, Barbara. An Introduction to Human ervices and Policy. 6th Edition.
Roberts, Cynthia H. (2008). Juvenile Delinquency: Cause and Effect. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2000/2/00.02.05.x.html
Mandell, Betty Reid & Schram, Barbara. An Introduction to Human Services and Policy. 6th Edition.
Roberts, Cynthia H. (2008). Juvenile Delinquency: Cause and Effect. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2000/2/00.02.05.x.html
seminar was revolving more around why childhood education is important and the various credentials that support increased effort in this arena. Even though there were many related topics covered in this seminar, the major objective and goal is the relevance of early childhood education. It has been stated that early childhood development is a time when the child not only develops physically but socially, emotionally and cognitively as well. The infants enter into this world with a certain group of abilities and talents. They have many potentials that need to be worked on and brought out by the parents.
When looking into this subject through the perspective of a psychologist, many different theories can be used For instance; Sigmund Freud talked about the three essays sexuality and the different stages that a child must pass through in the right way. If a child does not successfully finish a stage, he…
Bornstein, D. (2013). Protecting Children from Toxic Stress. New York Times.
Felitti, M., Vincent, J., Anda, M., Robert, F., Nordenberg, M., & Williamson, M. et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal Of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245 -- 258.
Lazar, I., Darlington, R., Murray, H., Royce, J., Snipper, A., & Ramey, C. (1982). Lasting effects of early education: A report from the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies. Monographs Of The Society For Research In Child Development, --151.
Zigler, E., Taussig, C., & Black, K. (1992). Early childhood intervention: a promising preventative for juvenile delinquency. American Psychologist, 47(8), 997.
Juvenile Delinquency and Deterrents
Explain how the threat of punishment does or does not deter juvenile delinquency.
Punishment of juvenile delinquents has been a hot button issue in many jurisdictions because of the need to prosecute crime but also the desire to shield young people from harm. Usually when a young person commits a crime, he or she is sentenced to detention in either a juvenile facility or perhaps even an adult prison facility for a length of time appropriate to their crime. General deterrence is a theory that states that the fear of punishment will be enough to prevent crime. For those that are not deterred by the thought of punishment, there is always detention. According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, nearly 70% of juvenile delinquency cases will end in a juvenile court (Shoemaker 2009,-page 39). his means that the offender will receive a lesser…
The National Guard Youth Foundation is an organization which helps disadvantaged youth (National 2013). According to the social structure theory, young people who are financially disadvantaged will be more likely to commit crimes and to get into legal trouble. Many people in financially disadvantaged communities feel that they cannot overcome this difference and so turn to trouble out of anger and frustration as much as necessity. This program takes kids, most of whom have already been in some manner of legal difficulties and uses military knowledge to provide the young people with discipline and determination. They also encourage involvement in the military and in pursuing a college education.
b. Social Process Theories
Social process theories postulate that communication with peers can have either positive or negative effects on a young person. Youths who interact with dangerous people who are interested in criminal behaviors will be more likely to commit crimes themselves. Research indicates that sports teams are an ideal way to keep young people out of trouble (DeLeon 2012). School-sponsored sports programs ensure that teens are with people in similar circumstances. They have to keep their
Juvenile delinquency is a common phenomenon in the globe today. Owing to the severe crimes, committed, different states handle the matter differently. On one hand, some states utilize the "punitive approach" that prioritizes crime control, punishment, and incarceration; on another, the restorative model, which stresses human rights, youth development research, and restoring the community. In the United States, the law does not tolerate juvenile delinquency; this explains the utilization of the "punitive approach" when handling juveniles. In addition, policies in the U.S. are becoming more punitive; therefore, juveniles have found themselves tried in the adult legal system. However, in the recent past, the U.S. has re-considered the death and life without parole sentences for juveniles, which it has termed as unconstitutional. Apparently, the state is gradually applying some human rights principles in relation to juvenile justice policy, a positive move, indeed (Caldwell, 2011).
During the 19th century,…
Abrams, L.S., Kim, K., & Anderson-Nathe, B. (2005). Paradoxes of treatment in the juvenile corrections. Child and youth car form, 34(1), 7-25.
Caldwell, B. (2011). Punishment vs. restoration: A comparative analysis of juvenile delinquency law in the United States and Mexico.
Hirth, D. (2001). Early intensive help for high-risk juveniles. Corrections today, 80-83.
Perlin, M. (2013). Collaborative justice. Criminology and Law Enforcement, 1-3.
Gangs have been thorns on the flesh of the citizens of the United States no wonder they have occupied a prominent position in American criminological literature. Gang wars between the Crips and the Bloods in Los Angeles are testament to the gang culture among certain communities in the United States. As opposed to the Dutch youth who are interested in music and romance of the West Side Story, especially the video clips and compact disc with gangster rap, the Americans juveniles appear to have negative associations (Klein, 2001). The language of the youngsters perceived to be engaging in juvenile gang activities is characterized by hyperbole and contains refers to competition and violence. The youth style personified by rappers like Tupac Shakur and Notorious B.I.G. who appeared to talk about the hard life in their neighborhoods referred to juvenile gangs. This research paper seeks to review literature on criminal…
Defleur, L.B. (1967). Delinquent Gangs in Cross-Cultural Perspective: the Case of Cordoba.
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 4(1), 132-141.
Flores, J.R. (2006). Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED495786.pdf
Klein, M. (2001). The Eurogang Paradox: Street Gangs and Youth Groups in the U.S. And Europe. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Since biblical times, children have been mentioned and admonished about social transgressions. The first man and woman, according to the Christian Holy Bible suggest that Adam and Eve, both children of God, were in trouble from the outset; the consequences were dire with no "out" such as rehabilitation. Today, of course, we see that rehabilitation is the primary focus for children's behaviors. Further, social attitudes toward children differ around the world in various cultures. These attitudes have changed over time, of course. The purpose of this paper is to detail differences in perception of children throughout history, with a particular emphasis in the periods between 1824-1960 and, in contrast the "modern" period after 1960.
The age at which children are considered responsible for their own actions (e.g., marriage, voting, etc.) has also changed over time, and this is reflected in the way they are treated in courts of law.…
Melchiorre, A. (2004) At What Age?...are school-children employed, married and taken to court? Retrieved from: http://www.right-to-education.org/node/53
Rachel K. Jones and April Brayfield, Life's greatest joy?: European attitudes toward the centrality of children. Social Forces, Vol. 75, No. 4, Jun 1997. 1,239-69 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Akers, R.L. (1973). Law and Control in Society. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Juvenile facilities provide intensive and specialized therapeutic programs with brilliant results. The juvenile placed in juveniles' corrections enjoy an education-centered curriculum and trained staff that functions exclusively with the juvenile offenders' population. On the contrary, those juvenile held in adult jails and prisons do not enjoy these services (Siegel 2009, 671). Understanding that juveniles hold different emotional, safety, social and physical requirements from adult offenders, guidelines requiring certified juveniles to get placements in divergent setting other than adult prisons and jails is paramount. More than sixteen states in America hold certified juveniles in juvenile corrections and not in adult prison until these offenders reach eighteen years.
Six states hold juvenile in juvenile facilities until they attain the age of 21. Pennsylvania and Virginia passed the laws requiring that juveniles, regardless of their crime, get placement in juvenile correction facilities and not in adult jails (Dietch 2011, p.11). This is because…
Deitch, M 2011. Juveniles in the adult criminal justice system in Texas. The University of Texas at Austin, school of Public Affairs.pp.1-44.
Elrod, P., Ryder, C 2011. Juvenile justice: A social, historical and legal perspective. Michigan: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Roberts, a., Springer, D 2007. Social work in juvenile and criminal justice settings. Texas: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.
Siegel, L 2009. Introduction to criminal justice. New York: Cengage Learning.
Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims
Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims
The adult justice system in America has long focused upon retribution and community restoration as well as rehabilitation of offenders. Victims must be 'made whole,' not just offenders within the adult system. However, the juvenile justice system has had a far less clear focus upon the restoration of justice to the community than that of its adult counterpart. This is partially due to the oft-expressed view that juveniles are less morally responsible than adults. Juvenile records are usually 'wiped clean' after the adolescents have served their time in probation or prison. The focus of the juvenile justice system is always on the improvement of the life of the juvenile and to reduce the likelihood of recidivism, rather than outright punishment.
On the other hand,…
Balanced and restorative justice. (2010). OJJDP report: Guide for implementing the balanced and restorative justice model. Retrieved July 4, 2010. http://www.ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/pubs/implementing/balanced.html
Giacomazzi, Andrew L. (2005, February). Review of Restorative justice by Ruth Ann
Strickland. (New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2004). LPBR. 15.2: 139-142. Retrieved July 4,
Juvenile Total Institutions
Total Institutions ( prisons/jails) juveniles. A. Discuss history B. Goals C. programming youth held . D. Issues/Problems Present facilities Below Guideline paper. 1. Students expected draw information class material scholarly sources journal articles, government websites, NPO websites.
Bortner and Williams (1997)
define a total institution as a physical location such as a prison or a reformatory where all the total needs of the residents are met. The needs of the individuals are mostly physical such as health, clothing, nutrition, shelter, etc. For juveniles, total institutions must be able to meet their educational and psychological needs as the youth. For an institution to quality as a total institution, the totality of the care that is provided in the institutions must be reflected in the round the clock confinement of the residents including holidays and weekends Shoemaker, 2009.
argues that in many different ways, correctional institutions also…
ABA Division for Public Education. The History of Juvenile Justice. In ABA Division for Public Education (Ed.), Dialogue on Youth and Justice (pp. 1-8). Chicago, IL: American bar association.
Austin, J., Johnson, K.D., & Weitzer, R. (2005). Alternatives to the Secure Detention and Confinement of Juvenile Offenders (pp. 41). Rockville, MD: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Dept of Justice.
Bortner, M.A., & Williams, L. (1997). Youth in Prison. New York: Rutledge.
Commonwealth v. Fisher, No. 213 48 (1905).
In the United States of American court systems, juvenile courts still proposes juvenile delinquents in aspects that are more paternal other than diagnostic. The adult counterparts cannot access such diagnostic processing as juveniles do. Adults are treated separately unlike juveniles within the jury and the constitutional accordance that assures the difference has been assured to the individuals.
The IV Amendment Search and Seizure Clause
The Fourth Amendment is one of the most prolific archives of constitution litigation in the United States of America. The application to the state through the process of Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment is unique and comprehensive to the American court systems dealing with juveniles. This amendment is depicted by issuance of connotation that protected individuals from unnecessary seizures and searches while in court proceedings. The amendment has much respect to juveniles and juvenile courts since most juveniles do not have to be apprehended…
Bueren, G.V. (1998). The international law on the rights of the child. Dordrecht [u.a.: Nijhoff.
Detrick, S. (1999). A commentary on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Hague [u.a.: Nijhoff Pub.
Kumar, a. (2006). Human rights and sustainable development. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons.
Siegel, L.J., & Welsh, B. (2012). Juvenile delinquency: Theory, practice, and law. Australia: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
, 1914, p. 500).
Meanwhile when the state asserts control over the child due to his non-criminal behavior that governmental intervention supports parens patriae, Siegel maintains. (Parens patriae in Latin means "substitute parent"; its been the court's prerogative to intervene in cases where through no fault of his own a child has been neglected or is dependent, Alarid, et al., explains on page 326). States' intervention supports parens patriae simply because state courts believe -- and they assume without really knowing for certain -- that status offender is in his best interests (Siegel, 17). Approximately 150,000 under age youths (technically children) are sent to juvenile court as "status offenders" every year, Siegel explains (17). This policy takes due process and throws it out the window, just because the individual is under age.
The U.S. Congress passed the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act in 1974, which provides funds to make…
Alarid, Leanne Fiftal, and Del Carmen, Rolando V. (2010). Community-Based Corrections.
Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
McLaughlin, Andrew Cunningham, and Hart, Albert Bushnell. (1914). Cyclopedia of American
Government, Volume 1. Emeryville, CA: D. Appleton and Company.
Based on statistics, nearly one million eighth graders admit getting drunk and another 1.2 million twelfth graders are considered binge drinkers. Heroin use by young adults has doubled from 1991 to 1996 and even teenage compulsive gambling is on the rise (http://www.einstein.edu/e3front.dll?durki=8576,2004).
Youth Gangs and Violence - The Starting Point
It should be noted that violence started from the family affecting the whole society. hat an individual has for a family, what can be seen in the society, what is seen in the environment are all clear reflections of the kind of people a certain society is bringing up - whether it is a deviance to the society or not.
Now, pertaining to the crimes and how the government solved it, it must be remembered that the laws are already there, it is already being maintained by the concerned officials and followed the U.S. citizen. But there are still some…
Capital punishment." 2004 [online] Duhaime.org. http://www.duhaime.org/dictionary/dict-c.htm .
Capital Punishment: Pros." 1998 [online]
Cerf, Vinton G. Computer Networking: Global Infrastructure for the 21st Century. 1997. February 21, 2004. http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/lazowska/cra/networks.html
Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong
Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong
The increase in juvenile delinquency has become a world-wide phenomenon, especially in many developed countries. This trend is also evident in cities like Hong Kong and can be seen in a recent report which asserts that the age of juvenile offenders in Kong is getting younger. This study by Pang (2008) states that, "Some juvenile delinquents are now as young as 10 and 11..." (Pang, 2008).
According to the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, another disturbing indication of the increase in youth crime was the number of crimes committed by young females, which increased in 2006. "The young girls, mostly aged 13 to 14, usually like to commit crimes with their friends, like stealing accessories or cosmetics"..." ( Pang, 2008). Furthermore, this study notes that there was a thirteen percent increase in crimes committed by children…
Broadhurst R. ( 2000). Crime Trends in Hong Kong. Retrieved from http://www.crime.hku.hk/rb-crimetrends.htm
Cagape E. ( 2008). Why I think juvenile offenders are getting younger. Retrieved from http://asiancorrespondent.com/17054/why-i-think-juvenile-offenders-are-getting-younger/
Edwin H. Sutherland: Differential Association Theory. Florida State University.
Retrieved from http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html
Juveniles as Adults: Pros and Cons
Severe and continuing juvenile offenders are progressively being tried as adults in criminal court all over the country. These juveniles face incarcerations in adult correctional facilities and the dangers that come from being with an adult criminal population. This type of movement poses significant inquiries for policy makers. To what degree do trials in criminal courts and imprisonment in adult reformatories endorse or hinder community security and the answerability and reintegration of juvenile offenders? This research paper deliberates on the legal consequences of adjudication in criminal court and offers a comprehensive review of research discoveries on the preventive effects of transfer laws, sentencing patterns and conviction and recidivism rates in juvenile as opposed to criminal courts, and programming and conditions in juvenile as opposed to adult correctional facilities. The pros and cons of trying juveniles as adults are discussed along with the evidence to…
Bartol, C.R., & Bartol, A.M. (2011). Chapter 6 Consulting with Juvenile and Civil Courts. Introduction to forensic psychology (3 ed., pp. 187-219). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Cooper, D.K. (1997). Juveniles' understanding of trial-related information: are they competent defendants?. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 15(2), 167-180.
NCIDS. (n.d.). Chapter 3: Juvenile Court Jurisdiction and Parties to Juvenile Proceedings. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from http://www.ncids.org/other%20manuals/JuvDefenderManual/JuvenileDefBook_03.pdf
Ojo, M., & Olufemi, D. (2012). A SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW OF ISSUES ON JUVENILE DELINQUENCY. Journal of International Social Research, 5(21), 468-482.
As theories claim certain risk factors and ignore others, it is critical to evaluate the most common risk factors despite their discipline fields. There are five broad domains for risk factors: Individual, family, school, peer group, and community. Another key component to understanding risk factors is the age of onset, in which early onset is considered age 6-11, and late onset is considered age 12-14 (Shader, 2002). Each of the risk factor domains are also coupled with protective factors, such as high IQ and parental monitoring, that subtract from the probability of risk factors blossoming into delinquency. isk factors of juvenile delinquency can be grouped together in a variety of ways, and the five domains of individual, family, school, peer group, and community can be distilled further into: individual, social, and community categories. The three categories also branch into sub-categories, for example, the social category includes both family and peer…
Binder, A, Geis, G, & Bruce, D. (2000). Juvenile delinquency: historical, cultural, and legal perspectives. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Co.
Cicourel, A. (1995). The social organization of juvenile justice. Brunswick, NJ: Transaction
Farrington, D. (2002). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile delinquency: an integrated