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" But unlike Lehigh County, Cook County, on its website, provides a mission statement consisting of the aim to recognize the welfare of all children and their families based on public safety; it also is committed to "providing the guidance, structure and services needed by every child under its supervision" (2005, Internet). Thus, both of these juvenile probation departments have very similar goals, namely, to protect society from repeat offenders while providing equal and fair justice to the offenders, due to their age and, at times, negative social positions.
Eight specific objectives are also included in this mission statement -- to meet the special needs of each offender; to provide services to the community via sending probation officers into homes, schools and neighborhoods; to create strong relationships between probation officers and minors; to recognize the complexities of today's world and help parents to relate to their children in positive ways;…… [Read More]
I wish to pursue a career in the juvenile probation area of law enforcement, as a juvenile probation officer. Mcmahon (2016) defines 'juvenile probation' as a type of juvenile sentence wherein a juvenile lawbreaker is allowed to reside within his/her communities, instead of being sent to a new home or to prison. Numerous reasons may be cited as to why juvenile lawbreakers are allowed such leniency. It is up to the court to decide whether any juvenile offender is entitled to probation or not, as well as the probation terms. Probation as a whole, forms a rather critical area of criminal justice. At times considered a test, probation enables lawbreakers to serve their sentence partially or entirely outside of jail. From the incarceration system's perspective, probation reduces costs incurred by the state, enabling prisons to concentrate on punishing dangerous and vicious criminals. Probation for juveniles in the preferred sentence as…… [Read More]
Juvenile delinquency is a common phenomenon in the globe today. Owing to the severe crimes, committed, different states handle the matter differently. On one hand, some states utilize the "punitive approach" that prioritizes crime control, punishment, and incarceration; on another, the restorative model, which stresses human rights, youth development research, and restoring the community. In the United States, the law does not tolerate juvenile delinquency; this explains the utilization of the "punitive approach" when handling juveniles. In addition, policies in the U.S. are becoming more punitive; therefore, juveniles have found themselves tried in the adult legal system. However, in the recent past, the U.S. has re-considered the death and life without parole sentences for juveniles, which it has termed as unconstitutional. Apparently, the state is gradually applying some human rights principles in relation to juvenile justice policy, a positive move, indeed (Caldwell, 2011).
During the 19th century,…… [Read More]
Juvenile Total Institutions
Total Institutions ( prisons/jails) juveniles. A. Discuss history B. Goals C. programming youth held . D. Issues/Problems Present facilities Below Guideline paper. 1. Students expected draw information class material scholarly sources journal articles, government websites, NPO websites.
Bortner and Williams (1997)
define a total institution as a physical location such as a prison or a reformatory where all the total needs of the residents are met. The needs of the individuals are mostly physical such as health, clothing, nutrition, shelter, etc. For juveniles, total institutions must be able to meet their educational and psychological needs as the youth. For an institution to quality as a total institution, the totality of the care that is provided in the institutions must be reflected in the round the clock confinement of the residents including holidays and weekends Shoemaker, 2009.
argues that in many different ways, correctional institutions also…… [Read More]
Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims
Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims
The adult justice system in America has long focused upon retribution and community restoration as well as rehabilitation of offenders. Victims must be 'made whole,' not just offenders within the adult system. However, the juvenile justice system has had a far less clear focus upon the restoration of justice to the community than that of its adult counterpart. This is partially due to the oft-expressed view that juveniles are less morally responsible than adults. Juvenile records are usually 'wiped clean' after the adolescents have served their time in probation or prison. The focus of the juvenile justice system is always on the improvement of the life of the juvenile and to reduce the likelihood of recidivism, rather than outright punishment.
On the other hand,…… [Read More]
According to Lawlor, Connecticut has "developed a flexible approach geared toward immediate intervention and proven results" (Lawlor). He explains that not every teenaged car thief with a record of several arrests should be sent to prison, just as not every 10-year-old first time truant needs to be simply sent home to his parents (Lawlor).
The state of Connecticut has sole responsibility for all probation, adult and juvenile, and all graduated sanctions programs are operated by the state or by private, non-profit organizations funded by the state (Lawlor). For more than twenty years, the term 'juvenile' in the state of Connecticut refers to only youths under the age of sixteen; youths who are sixteen years and older are treated as adults for all crimes (Lawlor). In 1995, before the graduated sanctions were implemented, the most serious violent juveniles were the focus of the juvenile court, and all other cases were for…… [Read More]
The actual court proceedings in a juvenile court consist of the arrest procedure, search and seizure, and custodial interrogation (Calderon 2006). The concept has been that the delinquent is a child rather than a criminal. Hence, rehabilitation rather than punishment is the court and the system's goal. ut the major aspects of the juvenile justice system continue to hound its supporters. One is the cause of serious juvenile crime. Another is that young offenders need to be rehabilitated under a surrogate entity of the parens patriae concept. Another is a recent redefinition of young violent offenders as adults and their transfer to adult courts and the criminal or adult justice system. There has been increasing belief that they pose a serious and genuine threat to the safety of other young people and the community as a whole. An increase in serious juvenile crimes warrants more severe punishment. ut moving them…… [Read More]
List and explain the factors that affect a police officer's decision whether or not to arrest a juvenile.
One of the primary responsibilities of police officers is in the investigation of crime and the arrest of suspects. Taking a person into custody is always a serious matter and that is why officers must make sure that they have the right suspect before taking this drastic step. Even if a person is later found to be not guilty of a crime, the arrest will still impact them psychologically and sociologically, and may even follow them throughout the rest of their lives. Guilt or innocence and the punishment that a person is to receive are determined by the court system. The officer's job is to find the person responsible and to bring them in. From an emotional perspective, the responsibility can be burdensome and so every officer tries to make…… [Read More]
The juvenile diversion system was established with funding from the iverside County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act of 2000, approved by the California Board of Corrections. This was a multi-year evaluation research project and was divided into five distinct areas to evaluate programs approved by the Board of Corrections, these being the Community-Based Probation Diversion, Youth Accountability Teams, the Gang Prevention-Project BIDGE, and the Family Violence Prevention Program-P.A.C.T., Youth Accountability Boards, and Youth Courts. The evaluation was meant to collect baseline data and follow-up data to measure the success of each program, with the data including juvenile arrest rates per 100,000; arrest rates for program participants; incarceration rats; rate of completion of probation; probation violation rate; rate of completion of restitution; rate of completion of community service; and rates of truancy and family violence for those to which these apply. Performance benchmarks were to be developed for each program (iverside…… [Read More]
Juvenile drug courts are among the most recent innovations in the treatment of substance-involved adolescents in the justice system. Their emergence in the 1990s was driven by the rising rates of substance abuse among adolescents -- a 2000 report by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, for instance, showed that substance usage among high school students had risen substantially in the 1990s, with almost 9.5% being cocaine users; a third being binge drinkers, and 14.6% being inhalant users (Office of Justice Programs, 2003). In line with these statistics, the rate of juvenile crime rose by a massive 145% during this period compared to the rate reported in the last decade (Office of Justice Programs, 2003). Juvenile drug courts were established after it became apparent that the traditional juvenile court system did not deal effectively with substance abuse, mental illness and other related problems owing to its lack of specialization…… [Read More]
Juvenile offenders have grown to become a serious problem in many countries, especially the United States. Like adult offenders, juvenile offenders are more likely to reoffend, especially without the proper guidance and assistance they need in order to live a law abiding life. esearch within the last five years has led to identification of specific program models as well theory-based intervention approaches that not only assist juvenile offenders in leading productive lives but also keeps them from potentially re-offending. This paper will focus on rehabilitation programs for juvenile offenders and prevention programs that help in lessening the number of potential juvenile offenders by proposing alternative means of coping with hardship and stress.
Farrington's Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential Theory will be examined within the context of juvenile offenders and how this framework may be applied to understanding Juvenile motivations for engaging in criminal activities Importance of rehabilitation will be emphasized because…… [Read More]
juvenile justice requires evidence-based interventions and corresponding policy. This intervention analysis research is rooted in antisocial potential theory, a subset of cognitive theories of criminality and social behavior. Antisocial potential theory suggests that at-risk populations, in this case youth, exhibit antisocial tendencies and that those tendencies can be mitigated via evidence-based interventions. The following annotated bibliography draws primarily from the disciplines of psychology and sociology, with a goal of informing evidence-based intervention policies and strategies. However, the research also includes empirical criminal justice research studies illustrating the relationship between juvenile psycho-social development and offender outcomes.
Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012
This article approaches juvenile justice and intervention from a criminal justice perspective. Prior research has clearly shown that adverse childhood experiences and…… [Read More]
Juvenile and Adult Justice
Juvenile and Criminal Justice Systems
Similarities and differences: Juvenile and adult criminal justice systems
The goals of the juvenile justice and the adult criminal justice systems are fundamentally distinct. The goal of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate the offender and to provide aid and assistance to the juvenile, enabling him or her to become a more productive adult (La Mance 2010). In contrast, the purpose of the adult system is one of fact-finding, and is designed to see 'justice' done on a societal level: in the case of a guilty offender, this usually means him or her 'paying a debt' to society in the form of some kind of punishment. However, the adult system still does offer many rehabilitative programs for the majority of convicts, including educational and vocational training. And, depending on the state, if the severity of the crime is deemed significant…… [Read More]
The Court found that the procedures used in Gault's case met none of these requirements' (Oyez, 2009). In re inship (1970) the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that it was not acceptable to find a juvenile guilty of a crime by a 'preponderance of evidence' standard when, for an adult a conviction for the same crime would require a standard of 'beyond a reasonable doubt" (Oyez, 2009).
Parity between adult and juvenile rights was established In re Gault and In re inship, while the special status of certain rights of juveniles, such as the provisions of The Juvenile Court Act was upheld in Kent. It should also be noted that the Gault decision mandated the notification of both the parent and the child of the child's right to an attorney, in deference to the child's possible inability to fully understand his or her legal rights.
Kent v. United States…… [Read More]
Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes
Researchers are now focused on developing and evaluating programs designed to break the drug-crime cycle that is common in juvenile delinquents. This paper will summarize existing literature about programs designed to prevent the juvenile drug-crime cycle and, based on that literature, identify interventions that offer the best chances for success. This paper will also provide guidelines and recommendations for developing a comprehensive juvenile justice system that can best address the needs of juvenile offenders involved with drug crimes.
This thesis is expected to make a contribution to the selection of successful interventions and the development of collaborative partnerships in the juvenile justice system, drug treatment programs, and other agencies as they attempt to break the cycle of drugs and crime afflicting U.S. juveniles.
With the prevalence of drug crimes among juveniles and the complexity involved in their treatment, which must involve both the child…… [Read More]
In the past, there was no such term as “juvenile delinquent” or “juvenile delinquency” within the justice system. As frightening as it is to consider, over a hundred years ago, children who committed crimes were thrown into prisons with adults and some children were even sentenced to corporal punishment or even death (Yale.edu, 2000). Reformers of the justice system were the ones who pushed for a distinct court system for the treatment of juveniles, with the underlying notion being that these young people could potentially be helped and reformed. “Central to the concept of juvenile court was the principle of parens patriae. This meant that instead of lawyers fighting to decide guilt or innocence, the court would act as a parent or guardian interested in protecting and helping the child” (yale.edu, 2000). These reforms were novel at the time, and helped to enact changes such as closed hearings for…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice: Juvenile Delinquency
Juvenile delinquency is described as the participation of minors, usually under the legal age of 18, in criminal activities. Cases of juvenile delinquency have increased at an alarming rate in recent years. According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, OJJDP (2015), juveniles under the age of 18 are responsible for about 10% of all homicides. In the period between 1990 and 2003, violent crimes by juveniles declined significantly - but after 2003, the previous trend continued and about 30% of murder crimes were attributed to delinquency. Today, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) incarcerates more than 33000 minors under the age of 18 for different criminal offenses (OJJDP, 2015). The fight against juvenile delinquency is often inconvenienced by recidivism. ecidivism occurs when juvenile offenders relapse back to their criminal ways after they are released from residential care. Majority of juvenile offenders are rearrested…… [Read More]
Dugan: Should be on its own page.
Juvenile recidivism is a prevalent problem in the criminal justice system. Tackling reoffending remains a complex task requiring several strategies and aims. It involves research, acknowledgement of causes, factors, exploration, and evaluation of subgroups to generate long-term, positive changes in the lives of juvenile offenders. From gang violence to Interactive, Constructive, Active, and Passive (ICAP), researchers discover some of the reasons why juveniles reoffend and the kinds of intervention methods that may help or worsen the problem of juvenile recidivism. Intervention philosophies like surveillance, discipline, close monitoring may increase recidivism rates. estorative programs, counseling, skill building programs, as well as multiple coordinated services decrease recidivism rates. Comment by Max Dugan: I would put evaluation at the end of the list vs. first. Comment by Max Dugan: Need to spell out all acronyms before using in APA format.
Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are…… [Read More]
Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are an important problem facing the United States criminal justice system. For more than one hundred years, states held the belief that the juvenile justice system acted as a vehicle to safeguard the public via offering a structure that enables the rehabilitation of children growing into adulthood. States identified the difference of children committing crimes versus adult offenders (Loeber & Farrington, 2012). For example, the states saw them as less blameworthy with a higher capacity for longstanding, true change. Therefore, states have founded a distinct court system especially for the handling and rehabilitation of juvenile offenders along with a separate and different youth-based service delivery system that offers additional aid not found in the adult justice system.
The juvenile justice system offers the study of criminal justice an important area to develop proper rehabilitation techniques that will help juvenile offenders and reoffenders find a means…… [Read More]
Juvenile Justice Compare
The author of this report has been asked to do a compare and contrast of the juvenile justice system of three different states. While all states have a juvenile justice framework, each state does things at least a little differently and thus these differences and outliers should be explored and explained. The three states that will be compared and contrasted are New York, California and Georgia. While these three states have stark similarities, they also have ways that are entirely different from each other for whatever reason.
New York has a decentralized framework when it comes to the handling and adjudication of criminal justice cases for juveniles. The detention and probation supervision of juveniles in New York is done by the Local/Executive branch of government. The Juvenile Corrections arm of law enforcement resides in the statehouse while after-care supervision is done by a combination of the state…… [Read More]
Xander, an Illinois Juvenile Criminal Justice Case Study
The Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority (ICJIA, 2012) operates under a statutory mandate to improve the administration of the criminal justice system in the State of Illinois. In order to perform this function the agency must be aware of all the operational details related to the Illinois juvenile criminal justice system (ICJIA, n.d.). The Illinois juvenile criminal justice system consists of 102 county systems that operate semi-independently from state agency oversight; therefore, the procedures of probation, detention, and corrections are the responsibility of the county juvenile systems. A distinct juvenile criminal justice system (JCS) in Illinois is relatively new, having been created in 2005 by the state legislature to separate adults from juvenile offenders within prisons and jails. A few years earlier (1998), legislation was passed that mandated a criminal justice policy of balanced and restorative justice.
According to the…… [Read More]
The significance here, of course, is that the government will continue seeking ways to streamline care and services, and that if a foster care program is clinically proven to be beneficial in deterring criminal behavior amongst Native American juveniles, there will be an increased tendency to remove youngsters from their homes and Native American families in lieu of enforced foster care. This would be consistent with the liberty the government has exercised in removing Native American children from their homes since the 19th century.
It is, therefore, incumbent upon the Native American communities to exercise their own preventative and interventions aimed at curbing and resolving juvenile criminal behaviors. It is the only alternative to what is today the only way that society can continue to remove Native American children from their family and Native American communities.
Eddy, J.M., Whaley, .B., & Chamberlain, P. (2004). The Prevention of…… [Read More]
Loud I Shout
Edward Humes' book follows the cases of seven teenage boys as they work their way through the juvenile justice system. It is clear from the title of Humes' book that something was amiss, something was terribly wrong, in the juvenile justice system in Los Angeles, California, in 1994. Readers don't know what reforms have been instituted subsequent to 1994, but that is not as priority in this assignment. hat is being conveyed and critiqued in this paper is what Humes reports from that era, and it opens up numerous issues and questions for an alert reader to contemplate.
The question that will be addressed in this paper is (1): hen you look at kids who land in adult court, you often find that they've been bouncing through the system for years, basically getting a free pass for lesser crimes until they commit a horrific act. Discuss how…… [Read More]
In numerous states, specific laws which govern how juvenile offenders are treated in the court and prison systems are separate "from the criminal code used for adult offenders," a situation which can often be found in other state correctional systems. Of course, all those convicted of crimes against society "must be held accountable for their actions," yet when dealing with young offenders, most state courts seems to stress this idea to the maximum while also taking in account that "the basis of a sound juvenile justice system lies in getting to the root causes of delinquent and law-breaking behavior," meaning that early intervention is far more important for young offenders that it is for older offenders. Basically, much more emphasis is placed on treatment programs, education and "preparing juveniles to re-enter" society as responsible adults than in adult correctional systems ("Juvenile Services," 2007, Internet).
Also, there are a number of…… [Read More]
While the subject's rationale for blaming his most recent victim for dressing provocatively may reflect "normal" (Macionis 2002) social conditioning (particularly among adolescent males), his complete lack of empathy (as distinct from responsibility or fault) is more consistent with pathological indifference and lack of empathy often observed in serial rapists and other sociopaths who display a clinical indifference to their victims (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).
Subsequent analysis will distinguish whether the subject's relative immature statements about the connection between video game violence and the real world are the result of low intelligence and delayed cognitive skills in the area of logical reasoning and responsibility or functions of repressed rage directed at all females.
viable intervention strategy must emphasize intensive psychological counseling to address the subject's past sexual victimization, the rage associated with it, and the direction of his anger at all females. Behavioral psychotherapy will be necessary to…… [Read More]
eforming the Juvenile Justice System: In Search of Justice and Accountability
While the overall crime rate has steadily decreased over the last decade throughout the country, there is one segment of crime that has been increasing: criminal offences committed by juveniles (National Criminal Justice eference Service: 2002). In the last 15 years, according to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the incidence of criminal offences committed by juveniles (under the age of 15) increased 94%. While a number of these juveniles were convicted of committing petty crimes such as vandalism and theft, there has been a significant increase in the number of serious juvenile offences such as robberies, weapons offences, assaults, and murders. However, there is something that is not quantitatively measured in these crime statistics -- the increasing brutality and ruthlessness of the crimes committed by juvenile offenders. Over the last two decades, we have seen an increasing string of…… [Read More]
Virginia Juvenile Justice Process
In 1800's the juvenile justice system was created to reform U.S.A. policies regarding youth offenders. United state's original intent of juvenile justice system has shifted due to a number of reforms aimed at both protecting the "due process of law" rights of youth, and creating an aversion towards jail among the young, these reforms has made the system more comparable to the adult system
History of Juvenile Competency Services in Virginia:
After a year long study conducted by the Virginia commission on youth the juvenile competency statutes were enacted. there were individuals from different groups that participated in the study, these individuals were from the Office of the Attorney General, juvenile court judges, prosecutors, public defenders, children's advocates, faculty from the University of Virginia and the University of ichmond, and senior administrative personnel from the state department of mental health, the state department of juvenile justice,…… [Read More]
Future Directions of Juvenile Corrections
he Failing Juvenile Correction System in America
History, Statement of the Problem, and Proposed Solutions
One of society's most difficult problems to solve is that of crime, and juvenile crime is a particularly difficult situation. he current juvenile correction system has many failings, and it is not improving society or curbing crime. Juveniles are being abused emotionally, physically, and sexually in detention facilities. his report introduces readers to the situation, gives a historical overview of how juvenile corrections has evolved in America, and states the problems that currently plague the system. Proposed improvements for the system, as well as examples of current programs and initiatives being taken to improve juvenile corrections, are given as well.
ABLE OF CONENS
ii Abstract iii.able of Contents
v Historical Perspective
Statement of the Problem vii....Proposed Future Directions viii...Summary and Conclusion
Crime has existed since…… [Read More]
As Schmalleger explains, the American juvenile-justice system was designed a century ago to reform kids found guilty of minor crimes, but more and more, the system has to cope with more violent crimes committed by younger people. The response on the part of lawmakers has been largely to siphon the worst of these young people out of the juvenile system by lowering the age at which juveniles charged with serious crimes can be tried in adult courts, a trend that seems to increase around election time. The underlying philosophy of early juvenile courts was parens patriae, which means that the courts took the role of parent and protected the rights of the child. Shifting the child to adult court reduces his or her rights rather than increasing them and also bring son harsher punishments. As Daniel P. Mears notes, the creators of the juvenile court system thought it would…… [Read More]
Community Corrections as a Social Service
With around 2 million Americans incarcerated in the nation's prisons and jails at a cost of tens of billions of dollars each year, policymakers are scrambling for alternative solutions and many have identified community corrections as a viable option. Using parole and probations programs, community corrections provide a valuable social service to the country by giving juvenile and adult offenders the opportunity to rejoin mainstream society in meaningful and productive ways that reduce recidivism rates and restore the integrity of the family unit. This paper reviews the relevant literature concerning these programs to demonstrate that community corrections represents an important social service that should be expanded to reduce prison and jail overcrowding rates and provide offenders with the chance they need to rebuild their lives. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning community corrections as a social service are presented in…… [Read More]
This was not a compilation of current rules and regulations, but rather adjustments to the current laws. It contains over 6,500 words of detailed fine-tuning (Florida ar, 2004). While these changes may well have been necessary and important, it also highlights the complicated rules and procedures those dealing with juveniles must follow. Meanwhile, individual municipalities and states, such as St. Louis and Texas, grapple with the practicalities of making juvenile probation do its job of rehabilitating youth and protecting society. It seems likely that Texas will not find the funds necessary to provide the type of program offered in St. Louis, since St. Louis can only accommodate 28 youth at a time. In addition, their approach still does not reach 35% of participants, so it is not the entire answer. Perhaps good research can suggest a way to offer rehabilitative probation to youth in a way that is financially feasible…… [Read More]
hat are the roles of a juvenile police officer, a judge, and a probation officer in the juvenile system?
The juvenile police officer's role is to arrest those under the age of 18 who commit crimes, and according to an article in the Houston Chronicle, that officer must determine if the offender should be referred to the juvenile court or to an adult court. The juvenile police officer questions the alleged offender, fingerprints the offender, officially books the offender into the juvenile justice facilities and basically handles the case at the start of the process (Bolden-Barrett, 2011).
The statistics show that about 83% of court referrals for juveniles come from police officers; the remaining 17% come from parents, from schools, from the victims of crimes and from probation officers. Federal law requires that the arresting juvenile police officer can keep an under-18 offender in custody "…no more than six…… [Read More]
As a conclusion I must state that I agree with the philosophies of the ARJ method. I believe that all people must receive equal chances. I am sure that the children usually do not intend to act in a criminal way. I believe that those who adopt this type of conduct are either doing it because of the bad conditions within the family or because of the other influential factors (like the group of friends). However, no matter of the influence, the important fact is for the child to recover. ARJ offers him the change to gain certain skills and to be able to use them in the future, in the process of his professional development. In addition to that, by reestablishing the order inside the community and by letting the child do some community work, the court is making sure that there will be fewer chances for him to…… [Read More]
Shielding einforce Crimes
This next argument may have already been cited in the previous paragraph but I wish to put more emphasis, to explore, and to build on this point. By shielding serious crime offenders, they become more confident when committing crimes because they know that they will not be deported. This is the time when more than ever we need tougher rules, not crime-reinforcing actions. Knowing that a threat of deportation awaits criminal offenders, we believe that this would result to lower crimes. Tougher deportation rules end the very pull factors that resulted to illegal immigration. This move can hit two birds with one stone. Firstly, it is expected to reduce crime rates committed by young illegal immigrants and secondly, it helps deal with the problem of illegal immigration by and large.
Shielding: A Misappropriation of Public Funds
We also believe that shielding is a misappropriation of the taxpayer's…… [Read More]
At one point he confronts the gangster Godfrey, saying "I've come to talk to you about the madness"
I think the primary motivation for Rio's family not to call the police was a combination of not trusting the police, and not wanting to start a battle that could end up in a full scale gang war. I think the families were trying to be supportive overall, even though Ricky's mother kicked him out of the house.
According to Families Helping Families "All children, including those with mental, emotional, or behavioral problems, continuously require the support of their parents, siblings, and other family members. The family's culture and values provide the context in which the child develops and influences the way the child thinks, feels, acts, and responds to the world." Definitely, support and looking out for "their own" is a huge part of the urban community, however I believe in…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice Research Review
Ricciardelli, R., Bell, J., & Clow, K. (2009). Student attitudes toward wrongful conviction, Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice, 51(3), 411-427.
There has been considerable research addressing the underlying factors regarding wrongful conviction; however, minimal research has been completed that investigates attitudes toward wrongful conviction. First and third year Canadian undergraduate students in criminal and non-criminal justice majors were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward various facets of wrongful conviction, the need to educate criminal justice personnel regarding contributing factors to wrongful conviction, the Blackstone ratio ("better that ten guilty persons escape than that one innocent suffer), and the question as to whether wrongful conviction causes individuals to lose faith in the criminal justice system.
The problem was sufficiently narrowed down into a researchable problem, and is certainly formidable enough to warrant formal research efforts. The authors complete a significant comparison to the most…… [Read More]
Alternate Practice Therapy Experiment
The truant individual also tends to manifest through dangerous behaviors and travel a path of extremity with sad endings and wasted lives. This chapter will serve to review literature that speaks to and of the problem of the truancy that is so highlighted in schools at the top of the 21st century. Extremely a progressive problem that is firmly within the very root of belief, thought and process as the truant has through reactionary events and then formation of environment. Then there were those who made a difference in the very experientially gained concepts or expressions of purpose.
The students love her and called her their teacher with red hair. Mrs. lack, the teacher who loved to read and then you follow. Those teachers who are of the teaching essence as so to captivate the child's mind are often barred from governance within the educational practice…… [Read More]
They began to outline an issue of the journal which they tentatively called Contemporary Criminology: A Journal of Ideas Predisposed Toward Radical Democratization. It was hoped that the first issue might arrive during the Fall of 1996.
About the same time, Sullivan and Tifft also spoke about creating a new association for scholars, activists, and practitioners that would serve as an alternative to the conventional academic criminology and criminal justice organizations. It was suggested that the members of this association might come together each year and share their ideas and discuss their current work in mostly plenary sessions. Great emphasis would be put on the participation of everyone present through extensive discussions. An invitation would be extended to all those associated with the restorative justice community who, though they met periodically around the globe, had no permanent home or community with which to share their ideas and find support.
It…… [Read More]
Gangs in Public School
Many schools especially in urban and suburban areas continue to register gang-related activities within their premises and involving their students. This study appreciates the dangers associated with such gangs to the schools and other stakeholders around them. Various laws and regulation have been passed in different states in the U.S. allow parents to withdraw their children from certain public schools. Schools reputed for gang-related problems stand to lose students. This paper provides the scope of action steps in which schools take to intervene, prevent, and suppress the scope of violent gang activity while establishing crisis response plans. The strategies are developed to address potential actions of school violence including gang activity.
Gang members bring in their attitudes, behaviors, and conflicts to the school compounds. The dangerous gang issues and activities of a given community take place within local schools. Gang members take on each other within…… [Read More]
The author of this report is asked to answer several questions relating to the handling of treatment of juvenile criminal offenders and how some alternatives to some current practices might yield better efficacy and benefits than simply throwing them in juvenile facilities and/or treating them like adult offenders committing the same crime. In question are the historical and economic reasons behind the quest of alternatives for housing and rehabbing juvenile offenders, three alternatives to incarceration that are currently used and the significant societal and individual benefits that can be reaped from these efforts as well as others. While some horrific crimes are committed by teenagers and younger, most juvenile offenders should be given ample chance to rebuild their life and self-esteem so that they can become contributing members of society.
egarding the underlying historical and economic reasons for treating juvenile offenders differently than just throwing them…… [Read More]
(387 U.S. 33). Furthermore, the notice requirement meant that allegations had to particular. (387 U.S. 33). The juvenile and his parents did not get notice until the hearing on the merits, which meant that it was not timely notice. Furthermore, Arizona had no provision protecting children's right against self-incrimination, but the Court determined that a juvenile is at greater risk of self-incrimination than an adult.
The Court also looked at the Sixth Amendment, which provides that:
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed; which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have…… [Read More]
Over the last decade there have been rising overcrowding in prisons and other correction facilities making them costly and dangerous for the inmates. There has been also a need to better manage the crime levels in the community as well as reduce crime, and give fair sentencing to adult offenders. These are the main factors that led to development of intermediate sanctions (Caputo G., 2004).
Discuss the evolution and use of boot camps. What are the purposes of shock incarceration?
The increased crime rates among the juvenile in the late 70s and early 80s led to the development of the boot camps with first being set in 1980. They are owned by the government or by private sector. It is estimated that there are almost 100 boot camps in the U.S.A. today. Shock incarceration is the alternative to incarceration which leads to earlier liberation from confinement. They are…… [Read More]
sold to law enforcement as a way to implement stringent policing structure while at the same time ensuring that community safety is maintained at minimal cost to the department and without job loss or reductions in force due to economical policing practices. In addition the plan should be sold as a way for the police department to re-build it's reputation among community members, and strengthen its reputation for working in a productive and collaborative manner. The cost savings benefits of building a stronger community with less crime in an efficient manner should also be emphasized as a primary benefit of the program.
There are many opportunities existing that lend support for the plan. For example, the report notes that a number of juvenile gangs are evolving within the community, a problem that is new for a community that had been relatively stable in the past. The police department can gain…… [Read More]
A cursory glance at job market statistics offers a grim picture, leading many to pessimistic conclusions. The United States Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics points out that increasing numbers of young people are graduating from college and entering the job market now, leading to increased competition in many job sectors (1). Likewise, rates of unemployment have been at near-record lows, especially for young men (United States Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics 1). Baeurlein also points out the problem that many college students have with debt accumulation from student loans, making it difficult for them to get a foothold on their careers. Yet not all graduates are doomed to flounder in the labor market. I am pursuing a career in adult probation and parole. On reason why I am optimistic about my future prospects is that working in corrections is a public service sector job that does…… [Read More]
Until recently, schools had steered away from those types of teachings and focused primarily on standardized testing and basic skills. While these things are still a major part of modern education, they now tend to be supplemented by character education as well (Prestwich, 2004).
The modern juvenile court system has headed in a more caring and facilitative in modern times as well. Not only are juveniles afforded more rights since the Kent and Gault cases discussed above, but they are constantly being tested for improved rehabilitation structures such as boot camps, work release programs and a variety of alternative sentencing methods.
It is interesting that as both our educational system and our juvenile justice system are becoming more interested in 'fixing' the emotional problems that accompany youth development, there has not really been any marked improvement in delinquent behavior. Then again, the retributive approach was not very successful at producing…… [Read More]
estorative justice is something that has become more and more prominent within the criminal justice sphere. The use of the concept and practice has emerged in its own right within the juvenile justice realm. The efficacy of restorative justice when it comes to juvenile offenders is a very important topic because being able to top the patterns of crime, addition and deviance in general is something that should absolutely be stopped and regulated early on in an offender's life due to how hard it becomes to do the same as an offender enters and reenters the justice system over the course of their life. It is important to create and retain a connection between these young offenders and the victims that suffer at their hands so that the connection is not lost and the offender becomes ambivalent or even hostile about the feelings, suffering and toil that their crimes take…… [Read More]
He also felt gratified that his work and philosophy had touched the lives of other LSWs and that his determination to uphold high professional standards had resulted in better service to all of the people in need in the counties served by the LSWs he monitored and instructed.
What do you like least?
Bureaucracy could often limit Ramos' creativity and flexibility in dealing with both the LSWs and clients.
The part that interested me most of the work roles the interviewee described.
It was interesting to hear Ramos' perspective, given that so much of his work was devoted to training other LSWs, and ensuring that they were upholding a high standard in their work. Ramos was very candid about the need for monitoring other LSWs, and showed a refreshing honesty about the profession -- it is a profession with many selfless individuals, but also with a high range of error,…… [Read More]
The problem of how to treat and processing juvenile offenders through the court system has been an issue before the establishment of the first juvenile court in 1899. Before it was recognized that minors needed their own court system, they were processed through the adult court and often received harsh punishment. Separate juvenile courts became evident within all states by 1945. However, the juvenile court system was based upon the adult system and was one that consisted of medical and rehabilitative measures to correct unacceptable behavior. The original goals of the juvenile court were to investigate, diagnose, and prescribe treatment for offenders, not to adjudicate guilt or fix blame. With this philosophy came the doctrine of parent's patriae. Under this doctrine, the state would become an acting agent in place of the parent and act on behalf of the misbehaving juvenile.
Juvenile court proceedings were usually informal and…… [Read More]
(Kilgore; Mede, 64)
Of course as a program approaches the end, much interaction have concentrated around how to return to the home environment and foster relationships with positive influences and make positive selections. Boot camps unquestionably generate a scope for the boys to become part of a positive peer environment, and this environment is likely to be one of the keys to each boy's success at the camp. (Kilgore; Mede, 65) Further Boot camps have shown that the society has a great liking for the functioning of the Boot Camps. Against the environment where serving in the military is considered as a valuable gain of knowledge and training, the society also appears to intuitively understand the valuable cause inherent in the programs. (Smylka; Selke, p. 93)
Cons of Boot Camps:
The inmates of boot camp appeared to be less vulnerable to re-offend after liberation in comparison to that of other…… [Read More]
studied, John can be used as a success for first time offenders. The reason why is because, he has been through different rehabilitation programs that have helped to change his focus. John is a first time offender with violent tendencies. This is coupled with substance abuse and possible gang affiliations. After spending time in the program, he now wants to give back to the community (i.e. working with first time offenders). This is a success due to the fact that John has made positive changes in the direction of his life. If he had been sent to jail, the situation may have made him more anti-social.
Some of the tools that were utilized on John will be applied to the juvenile justice system in the future. This is because there has been an emphasis on having stiffer penalties for juveniles in the last few years. The problem with this approach…… [Read More]
Offender Reentry Program Proposal
The concept of offender "reentry" is beginning to take the corrections world by storm -- a much overdue storm. Reentry is the process of prisoners reentering society after a period of incarceration in a prison, jail, or detention facility. But it doesn't signify just "letting them go." It connotes that offenders are "prepared" to be released. It means that they are much better off at the time of release than at the time of their admission. (Anderson, S)
It suggests that their period of community supervision will contribute to their crime-free lifestyle. An estimated 100,000 youth are released from secure and residential facilities every year and because the length of incarceration for juveniles is shorter than for adults, a relatively greater percentage of juveniles return to the community each year. In addition, research indicates that a small percentage of juvenile offenders commit the overwhelming majority of…… [Read More]
Sneaky Pete Case
Answers to Jake Law's Questions
Jake Law is the prosecuting attorney in the armed robbery case of Sneaky Pete. In the current negotiation, Jake must resolve his issues with the defense attorney, Chris Vaughn and the Judge as well. It is important for Jake to remember his role as an officer of the court and do what is right for the jurisdiction he represents and not simply for his own personal benefit. Unfortunately for Pete, many of these attorneys are very unsympathetic to anything other than their career.
Prosecuting attorneys serve the public by representing local, state or federal governments in criminal court cases. They participate in the investigation of criminal activity and fight for justice and represents the court. They must also have an understanding of their communities' needs and the motivations driving law breakers. Successful prosecution can lead to an individual's loss of rights, and…… [Read More]
Family Law Midterm
Instructions: Please respond to each question in essay format. Each question highlights the week in which the subject matter was covered but please do not forget to include the subject matters (and themes) covered in week 2. Also, please include "practice points" wherever practical. Please read each question first before starting to answer. For each question, you should assume that you have told your client that he/she should consult a lawyer but you are giving advice learned from this class.
Each question is worth 25 pts.
We learned about the laws of child support in New York State. You have a client who is 21 years old who has been dating a woman who is also 21 years old. Your client tells you that his girlfriend is pregnant. The couple is not married and do not live together. Your client has mixed emotions…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice Theory and the Los Angeles County Probation Department
Criminal and antisocial behaviors have been studied in the field of criminology for many years. Criminologists are very interested to learn what types of things cause specific criminal and antisocial behaviors. hile criminal behavior and antisocial behavior are not always related, they often have close ties. Criminologists and other researchers are looking to find commonalities between certain genetic makeups and deviant behavior. They believe that many people are genetically predisposed to be violent, and if these people can be located they can be treated.
That does not mean that criminologists are in favor of testing everyone's genetic makeup on the planet to see if any of them show violent tendencies. hat they are interested in doing, however, is studying criminals who already have a history of violent and deviant behavior to see what other traits they have, and what their…… [Read More]
individuals who suffer or are harmed by juvenile crime have, in the past, been excluded or minimally involved in the adjudication (specifically the sentencing) of their cases for reasons of confidentiality rights accorded to accused juvenile offenders. However, this trend in recent years has changed. As the public has become more aware of the frequency and effects of juvenile crime, there has been a call from the citizenry to develop policies and practices that will not only prosecute those juveniles who have committed offences, but to include those who have been victimised in the court procedures. This move towards the establishment of victims' rights has made a fundamental modification to the juvenile justice system - victims are no longer viewed as passive onlookers, but involved participants in the system.
According to a joint project commissioned by the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges and the U.S. Department of…… [Read More]
Antisocial ehavior in Females with Comorbid Diagnoses of ADHD
Detention centers and residential treatment facilities are replete with male and female youth that have been in and out of the juvenile justice system for many years. Although the majority of the populations in these facilities are male, the number of female juvenile offenders is continually increasing. Many of the children in these facilities have a history of behavioral difficulties that may or may not have been diagnosed during much of their childhood.
Antisocial behaviors are acts that violate social rules and the basic rights of others. They include conduct intended to injure people or damage property, illegal behavior, and defiance of generally accepted rules and authority, such as truancy from school. "These antisocial behaviors exist along a severity continuum (Clark, et al., 2002). When childhood antisocial behaviors exceed certain defined thresholds -- the diagnostic criteria specified in the Diagnostic and…… [Read More]
Green County Drug Court
The Green County court system has finally decided to implement a "drug court" to bring about some much-needed changes in the current system. The county has authorized a new judge and is debating the merits whether that individual should be elected or appointed. The court is also considering the questions of whether it should operate on a due process model or a crime control model and whether juveniles should be adjudicated.
Green County elects its judges, but in this instance it is recommended that the drug court judge be appointed. The primary reason is expedience. Political campaigns, in addition to being costly in terms of money, are costly in terms of time. Green County needs to address its drug problem immediately and can do so by appointing a judge.
Election campaigns can also take the focus away from an issue. The recent brouhaha over President Obama's…… [Read More]
Kristin Died -- Case Study
On May 30, 1992, a young woman named Kristin Lardner was shot by her ex-boyfriend, Michael Cartier. Cartier had a long history of violence and criminal activity, not to mention several convictions of domestic violence. At the time of the murder, in fact, Cartier was on probation and under the auspices of a restraining order. A number of public agencies had the task of keeping Cartier away from Kristin, but unfortunately, this did not happen. The gist of the matter deals with the element of bureaucracy, the way they are set up, what keeps them going, what incentives they use to measure efficacy, and what factors inhibit their ability to be responsive.
Within the rubric of public administration, there seems to be at least two theoretical precepts that apply to the case of Kristin Lardner. First, there is the idea of public bureaucracy and the…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice ystem Components Analysis
Research the questions below for each of the three criminal justice system components: police, criminal courts, and correctional agencies. Prepare a table or chart that compares and contrasts the information you gather on the components. For example:
Criminal Justice Components
management structure bureaucratic structure with hierarchy of authority and strict regulations
A collection of federal, state, and local public agencies that deal with. They are interdependent
Traditional organizational structures. The chief executive officer is at the top, with other functions dispersed at various layers down through the pyramid
The differences between the organizations in this component as compared to the other two?
The purpose of the police is to maintain order, enforce the criminal law, and provide services.
Courts are the place where defendants / the accused / plaintiffs come to have their please adjudged by judge and jury.…… [Read More]
The Criminal Type
What do you think of when someone talks to you about the 'criminal type'? Is there a specific 'type' of person that can be construed 'criminal?' According to Jessica Mitford, "Americans are preoccupied with crimes of the poor and as such the 'criminal type' has surfaced in American consciousness as a social creation." This paper is going to examine the concept of 'criminal types' and argues that anybody has the potential to be a criminal under certain definitions. We will also examine the concept of 'American ias' towards certain racial and socio-economic groups within the American justice system.
The word 'criminal' according to the Oxford Modern English Dictionary (1996) is "a person who has committed a crime." A crime, in the same dictionary is defined as, "a serious offence punishable by law" (Oxford, 1996). So it would be safe to assume from these definitions that…… [Read More]