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We have over 967 essays for "Juveniles"

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Juvenile Gangs Have Been Thorns on the

Words: 1041 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 89349132

Juvenile Gangs

Gangs have been thorns on the flesh of the citizens of the United States no wonder they have occupied a prominent position in American criminological literature. Gang wars between the Crips and the Bloods in Los Angeles are testament to the gang culture among certain communities in the United States. As opposed to the Dutch youth who are interested in music and romance of the West Side Story, especially the video clips and compact disc with gangster rap, the Americans juveniles appear to have negative associations (Klein, 2001). The language of the youngsters perceived to be engaging in juvenile gang activities is characterized by hyperbole and contains refers to competition and violence. The youth style personified by rappers like Tupac Shakur and Notorious B.I.G. who appeared to talk about the hard life in their neighborhoods referred to juvenile gangs. This research paper seeks to review literature on criminal…… [Read More]

References List

Defleur, L.B. (1967). Delinquent Gangs in Cross-Cultural Perspective: the Case of Cordoba.

Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 4(1), 132-141.

Flores, J.R. (2006). Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report. Retrieved from 

Klein, M. (2001). The Eurogang Paradox: Street Gangs and Youth Groups in the U.S. And Europe. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
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Juvenile Corrections Before the Expansion

Words: 2458 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 51190359

Juvenile facilities provide intensive and specialized therapeutic programs with brilliant results. The juvenile placed in juveniles' corrections enjoy an education-centered curriculum and trained staff that functions exclusively with the juvenile offenders' population. On the contrary, those juvenile held in adult jails and prisons do not enjoy these services (Siegel 2009, 671). Understanding that juveniles hold different emotional, safety, social and physical requirements from adult offenders, guidelines requiring certified juveniles to get placements in divergent setting other than adult prisons and jails is paramount. More than sixteen states in America hold certified juveniles in juvenile corrections and not in adult prison until these offenders reach eighteen years.

Six states hold juvenile in juvenile facilities until they attain the age of 21. Pennsylvania and Virginia passed the laws requiring that juveniles, regardless of their crime, get placement in juvenile correction facilities and not in adult jails (Dietch 2011, p.11). This is because…… [Read More]

Reference List

Deitch, M 2011. Juveniles in the adult criminal justice system in Texas. The University of Texas at Austin, school of Public Affairs.pp.1-44.

Elrod, P., Ryder, C 2011. Juvenile justice: A social, historical and legal perspective. Michigan: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Roberts, a., Springer, D 2007. Social work in juvenile and criminal justice settings. Texas: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.

Siegel, L 2009. Introduction to criminal justice. New York: Cengage Learning.
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Juvenile Injustice How the Juvenile

Words: 1841 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47448693

, 2009). While there are schools in the juvenile system, some of these Hispanic children may come in so behind in their educations that they will requires special services to bring them current in their educations. Therefore, educational and mental health concerns are highlighted for Hispanic youth entering into the juvenile justice system.


The juvenile justice system in the United States is out-of-control. While Fairfax County, Virginia's juvenile justice system is not experiencing the same problems as other areas, it would be erroneous to assume that its system is still the best way of dealing with juvenile offenders. Fairfax County has a large Hispanic population, and Hispanic youth are overrepresented in its juvenile justice system. One must assume that a lack of cultural sensitivity has helped contribute to this problem. Ensuring that Hispanic youth and their families have access to the same quality of non-penal services as other youth…… [Read More]


Chambers, B. (2009, June 11). Latino youth in the juvenile justice system -- key facts.

Retrieved October 11, 2011 from Reclaiming Futures website: 

County of Fairfax Virginia. (2011). Delinquency (juvenile criminal cases). Retrieved

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Juvenile Total Institutions Total Institutions Prisons Jails

Words: 1797 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65920440

Juvenile Total Institutions

Total Institutions ( prisons/jails) juveniles. A. Discuss history B. Goals C. programming youth held . D. Issues/Problems Present facilities Below Guideline paper. 1. Students expected draw information class material scholarly sources journal articles, government websites, NPO websites.

Bortner and Williams (1997)

define a total institution as a physical location such as a prison or a reformatory where all the total needs of the residents are met. The needs of the individuals are mostly physical such as health, clothing, nutrition, shelter, etc. For juveniles, total institutions must be able to meet their educational and psychological needs as the youth. For an institution to quality as a total institution, the totality of the care that is provided in the institutions must be reflected in the round the clock confinement of the residents including holidays and weekends Shoemaker, 2009.

Goffman (1961)

argues that in many different ways, correctional institutions also…… [Read More]


ABA Division for Public Education. The History of Juvenile Justice. In ABA Division for Public Education (Ed.), Dialogue on Youth and Justice (pp. 1-8). Chicago, IL: American bar association.

Austin, J., Johnson, K.D., & Weitzer, R. (2005). Alternatives to the Secure Detention and Confinement of Juvenile Offenders (pp. 41). Rockville, MD: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Dept of Justice.

Bortner, M.A., & Williams, L. (1997). Youth in Prison. New York: Rutledge.

Commonwealth v. Fisher, No. 213 48 (1905).
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Juvenile Corrections

Words: 1407 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 10711731

Juvenile Corrections

Juvenile delinquency is a common phenomenon in the globe today. Owing to the severe crimes, committed, different states handle the matter differently. On one hand, some states utilize the "punitive approach" that prioritizes crime control, punishment, and incarceration; on another, the restorative model, which stresses human rights, youth development research, and restoring the community. In the United States, the law does not tolerate juvenile delinquency; this explains the utilization of the "punitive approach" when handling juveniles. In addition, policies in the U.S. are becoming more punitive; therefore, juveniles have found themselves tried in the adult legal system. However, in the recent past, the U.S. has re-considered the death and life without parole sentences for juveniles, which it has termed as unconstitutional. Apparently, the state is gradually applying some human rights principles in relation to juvenile justice policy, a positive move, indeed (Caldwell, 2011).


During the 19th century,…… [Read More]


Abrams, L.S., Kim, K., & Anderson-Nathe, B. (2005). Paradoxes of treatment in the juvenile corrections. Child and youth car form, 34(1), 7-25.

Caldwell, B. (2011). Punishment vs. restoration: A comparative analysis of juvenile delinquency law in the United States and Mexico.

Hirth, D. (2001). Early intensive help for high-risk juveniles. Corrections today, 80-83.

Perlin, M. (2013). Collaborative justice. Criminology and Law Enforcement, 1-3.
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Juvenile Court Juvenile Criminal Justice System Has

Words: 1312 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 64626816

Juvenile Court

Juvenile criminal justice system has enforced laws, which govern the rules for determining whether a juvenile criminal is eligible for a sentence or a counseling period is mandatory to alter the behaviors of such individuals. This system has been effectively placed for children less than the age of 21 who have reportedly committed crimes in various forms such as sex offenders; murderers etc. (Whitehead & Lab, 2012). In this aspect, several crimes have taken place in USA marking the statistics in the country by 32% of the total juvenile crime statistics (Whitehead & Lab, 2012). In this essay, a case study of one of the most fierce juvenile crime acts have been presented which explains a situation where the juvenile criminal was at first ordered to be treated as an adult for the sentence purposes due to committing first degree of the crime. However, later due to his…… [Read More]


Bell, S.J. (2011). Young Offenders and Youth Justice: A Century After the Fact. Toronto: Cengage Learning .

Jones, B. (2012, April 13). /news. Retrieved from
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Juvenile Delinquents

Words: 2220 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54718429

Juvenile Justice

Juvenile delinquents

Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims

Juvenile justice:

Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims

The adult justice system in America has long focused upon retribution and community restoration as well as rehabilitation of offenders. Victims must be 'made whole,' not just offenders within the adult system. However, the juvenile justice system has had a far less clear focus upon the restoration of justice to the community than that of its adult counterpart. This is partially due to the oft-expressed view that juveniles are less morally responsible than adults. Juvenile records are usually 'wiped clean' after the adolescents have served their time in probation or prison. The focus of the juvenile justice system is always on the improvement of the life of the juvenile and to reduce the likelihood of recidivism, rather than outright punishment.

On the other hand,…… [Read More]


Balanced and restorative justice. (2010). OJJDP report: Guide for implementing the balanced and restorative justice model. Retrieved July 4, 2010.

Giacomazzi, Andrew L. (2005, February). Review of Restorative justice by Ruth Ann

Strickland. (New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2004). LPBR. 15.2: 139-142. Retrieved July 4,

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Juvenile Drug Abusers

Words: 2362 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56135135

e. school, religious activities, sports, family involvement)." ("Juvenile detention," 2005, p. 11-12). These negative affects of increased usage not only directly affect juvenile drug abusers with increased occurrence of detention, but also make less effective rehabilitation programs needed for these young offenders.

Prevention Programs:

Over the last two decades, there have been a plethora of clinical trial research that have identified effective adolescent substance use prevention programs.

Sadly, funding for drug use prevention services has decreased over recent years, partly due to the increased need for drug user treatment for young people. As an example, in 2002, Congress reduced funding for community drug prevention studies at the U.S. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), by $50 million, in order to increase drug user treatment studies at the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. With reduced funding, it is of even greater importance that prevention programs are as effective as possible. Kumpfer,…… [Read More]


Bilchik, S. (1997). From the administrator. Retrieved September 21, 2007, at .

Juvenile detention as a disposition. (2005). Journal of Juvenile Justice Services, 20(2). Retrieved September 21, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Kumpfer, K., Alvarado, R., & Whiteside, H. (Jul 2003). Family-based interventions for substance use and misuse prevention. Substance Use & Misuse, 38(11-13). Retrieved September 21, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Lexcen, F. & Redding, R. (2000). Substance abuse and dependence in juvenile offenders. Retrieved September 21, 2007, at .
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Juvenile Delinquency Juvenile Delinquents in

Words: 1672 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 67903924

Economic conditions that have forced both parents to work and have caused teenaged unemployment have also been associated with delinquency, as children are not only unsupervised, but also unoccupied. In addition to this, children who face undue hardships, such as physical and sexual abuse, as well as failure to perform academically, also often turn to delinquency (oberts, 2005). Like Kim and Kim (2008) point out for South Korean children, stress is a likely culprit for the fact that dealing with difficult situations turns into delinquency in youth. This problem is further compounded if the youth has not had instruction in making good choices from parents and teachers (oberts, 2005).

Thus, although they are on separate sides of the world, the United States and South Korea face many of the same problems when it comes to juvenile delinquents. In both countries, the lack of a definite role for criminal justice personnel…… [Read More]


Kim, H. & Kim, H. (2006). Discriminative Factor Analysis of Juvenile Delinquency in South Korea. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe chi, 36(8), 1315-1323.

Kim, H. & Kim, H. (2008). Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime. New York: Nova.

Library of Congress (2009). A Country Study: South Korea. Retrieved August 18, 2009,

from the Library of Congress Web Site:
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Juvenile Rights Comparisons of Protections

Words: 994 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23604736

In the United States of American court systems, juvenile courts still proposes juvenile delinquents in aspects that are more paternal other than diagnostic. The adult counterparts cannot access such diagnostic processing as juveniles do. Adults are treated separately unlike juveniles within the jury and the constitutional accordance that assures the difference has been assured to the individuals.

The IV Amendment Search and Seizure Clause

The Fourth Amendment is one of the most prolific archives of constitution litigation in the United States of America. The application to the state through the process of Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment is unique and comprehensive to the American court systems dealing with juveniles. This amendment is depicted by issuance of connotation that protected individuals from unnecessary seizures and searches while in court proceedings. The amendment has much respect to juveniles and juvenile courts since most juveniles do not have to be apprehended…… [Read More]


Bueren, G.V. (1998). The international law on the rights of the child. Dordrecht [u.a.: Nijhoff.

Detrick, S. (1999). A commentary on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Hague [u.a.: Nijhoff Pub.

Kumar, a. (2006). Human rights and sustainable development. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons.

Siegel, L.J., & Welsh, B. (2012). Juvenile delinquency: Theory, practice, and law. Australia: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
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Juvenile Rights at the Time

Words: 800 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42268713

Juveniles may commit crimes on the same level as adults do, but they are of a special case because of their age and relative psychological immaturity. The purpose of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate the minors and help them integrate better into the society. As research shows, police officers come into contact with different kinds of juveniles offenders. They may be mentally ill or handicapped. Some of them come from disorderly families, or are routinely abused physically and sexually by parents or other family members. Others may be simply neglected or have no family support when they are in need (Bartollas & Miller, 2008, pp. 101-2; Cole & Smith, 2007, p. 554). These unique circumstances make juveniles a special case.

As Lawrence and Hemmens (2008) write, police officers need to take special measures in treating juveniles during and after arrest especially because "young persons' views and attitudes toward…… [Read More]


Arundel, a. (2010) Arrest and Custody of Juveniles. Retrieved on February 17, 2011, from 

Bartollas, C., & Miller, S.J. (2008) Juvenile Justice in America (5th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Cole, G.F., & Smith, C.E. (2007) the American System of Criminal Justice (11th edition). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

"Juvenile Arrest and Detention" (n.d.) Criminal Law Free Advice. Retrieved on February 18, 2011, from
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Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas

Words: 2898 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91314490

Juvenile Delincency in Urban Areas

Juvenile delinquency is a contemporary term for an old problem. One of the oldest relevant studies of the phenomenon was 'social disorganization' theory, which was developed by the Chicago school of sociology in the 1920's. This theory posits that there exist areas in a city in which traditional institutions have little or no control. This was studied in Chicago using a system of 'Concentric Zones' which demonstrated that most of the crime in the city occurs within certain areas that are typically associated with poverty. According to studies conducted by Shaw and McKay in the 1940's, "a preponderance of the delinquent boys lived either in areas adjacent to the central business and industrial district or along the two forks of the Chicago River, ack of the Yards, or in South Chicago, with relatively few in other outlying areas." (Jacoby, 13)

Shaw and McKay discovered a…… [Read More]


Carlin Wong. Clifford R. Shaw and Henry D. McKay: The Social Disorganization Theory. Center for Spacially Oriented Social Science. 2002.

Terence Morris. The Criminal Area: A Study in Social Ecology Routledge & Paul, 1966

Robert C. Trojanowicz, Merry Morash, and Pamela Schram. Juvenile Delinquency Concepts and Control, 6th Edition. Prentice Hall: 2000.

Walter B. Miller. The Growth of Youth Gang Problems in the United States: 1970-98. U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. April, 2001.
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Juvenile Court Philosophy the Office

Words: 1751 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24143843

They must also determine what types of delinquent behavior and youth violence are causing the greatest concern in the community. (Medaris, 1996, para.# 5)

As can be seen from the above statement of the first step in implementing the SHOCAP program in any community, first look at statistics on juvenile crime and second ask the community what it is most afraid of with regard to juvenile crime. This intention seriously contradicts the intention of the juvenile justice system to demonstrate focus on individual cases of each juvenile offender and give it adequate time for understanding of all mitigating circumstances, rather than seeking to understand outside fear of crime. Many factors contribute to public opinion of crime and not all of those factors are realistically and truly connected to real crime occurrences and/or statistics. The "mitigating" factors of public crime fear are in dire need of reevaluation, starting with unrealistic and…… [Read More]


Cothern, L. (November 2000) "Juveniles and the Death Penalty," Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Accessed July, 10, 2008 

Medaris, M (August 1996) "Serious Habitual Offender Comprehensive Action Program. (SHOCAP)" Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Factsheet Accessed July, 10, 2008,
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Juvenile Competency the Author of

Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19660564

The forensic psychology sphere can use the competency of juvenile discussion in a number of ways. First, any competency hearing of a juvenile needs to take into account that the offender's mind is still forming and finalizing and it is not the same thing as assessing a person who is, for example forty years old. That being said, younger offenders do typically know right from wrong and it is possible in a clinical sense to determine whether the offender is able to defend himself or herself. The rub is that it has to be done in a specific way and in a way that is tangibly different than with typical adult offenders. After all, though, there is not a huge difference between assessing a 17-year-old and a 18-year-old and one of those two offenders is legally and criminally an adult.

Another dimension that is going to be prevalent in a…… [Read More]


CBS Sacramento. (2012, July 31). Xbox Chat Leads To Violent Attack In Oakley -- CBS Sacramento. CBS Sacramento. Retrieved August 12, 2013, from 

Harvey, A. (2011). Juvenile Courts and Competency to Stand Trial. Sociology Compass, 5(6), 439-451. doi:10.1111/j.1751-9020.2011.00377.x
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Juvenile Delinquency Is One of the Most

Words: 311 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27379594

Juvenile delinquency is one of the most serious social concerns facing the American society today. In 2010, for instance, juvenile offenders accounted for approximately 8% of all reported homicides. For a society that still considers itself conservative, this figure is relatively high. It is these statistics that spur the researcher's interest in investigating the reasons why juveniles engage in crime, particularly juvenile crime. Past studies have shown that most juvenile crimes are committed between 3 p.m and 7 p.m., the period when a child has left school and is primarily under the care of the parent. The current study thus focuses on showing, using the social control and social disorganization theories of crime, that the lack of social support in the home environment…… [Read More]


Burfeind, J.W. & Bartusch, D. (2011). Juvenile Delinquency: An Integrated Approach (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Crime Solutions. (n.d.). Juveniles. Crime Solutions. Retrieved 5 February 2015 from 

Heide, K.M. (1999). Young Killers: The Challenge of Juvenile Homicide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Sandra, W. (2007). Understanding Criminology: Current Theoretical Debates (3rd ed.). Berkshire, England: McGraw Hill.
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Juvenile Delinquency the Phenomenon of

Words: 538 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 7843045

Finally, for the purposes of this research proposal we will refer to a third study that suggests education could be at the heart of reducing juvenile delinquency statistics but the conditions in which the child is raised impacts their ability to choose between right and wrong (Hindelang, 1981).

Method and design

The goal of this study is to add to the literature that demonstrates that there is a correlation between poverty and juvenile delinquency. This researcher will begin by reviewing the available statistics provided by the state judicial system related specifically to the number of juveniles currently incarcerated at state facilities as well as the youths' offenses. Once this information has been compiled the next step will be to chart the level of income brought in by the adults within each home as well as to determine if the families live rely on welfare or government assistance for their daily…… [Read More]


Hindelang, M; Measuring Deliquency. Sage Library of social research; Vol. 123.

Lewis, D; Violent Juvenile Delinquents: Psychiatric, Neurological, Psychological, and Abuse Factors. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry. Vol 18, Issue 2

Loeber, R.; Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review. Vol. 10, p. 1-41. 1990.
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Juvenile Delinquency Has Long Plagued

Words: 1015 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 29069253

In this form of punishment, authorities find infractions, encourage compliance and reward or punish and take away rights depending on the individual's response. In 1957, Fritz edl and David Wineman (as cited in Vander Ven, 2009) wrote about another approach in their book, the Aggressive Child, which proved to be much more successful at their juvenile residence Pioneer House. However, for various reasons, their methodology never received much of a following (Vander Ven, 2009).

Now, residential institutions are revisiting edl and Wineman's approach, which has greater credibility due to insights in the behavioral sciences over the past several decades. The distinction between typical youth and those who hate and are filled with anger, say edl and Wineman, is that while neither always behave perfectly, typical children will respond to interventions that remind them of what is good behavior. However, even these "normal" children under certain types of stress may not…… [Read More]


Edmondson, V.C. (2009) a new business: redirecting Black youth from the illegal economy

Reclaiming Children and Youth 18(3), 16-21 Hide details

Edwards, D.M. (2002). From illegal to legitimate professions: Alternatives to low-wage employment. UAB McNair Chronicle 3, 42-47.

Peterson, S.B. (2009) Made in America: the Global Youth Justice Movement: with more than 1,200 local youth and teen court programs in America -- Europe, Australia, Asia, and Canada are now implementing this model to harness the positive peer influence of youth volunteers to reduce juvenile crime. Reclaiming Children and Youth 18 (2), 48-53
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Juvenile Arrest List and Explain the Factors

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97624148

Juvenile Arrest

List and explain the factors that affect a police officer's decision whether or not to arrest a juvenile.

One of the primary responsibilities of police officers is in the investigation of crime and the arrest of suspects. Taking a person into custody is always a serious matter and that is why officers must make sure that they have the right suspect before taking this drastic step. Even if a person is later found to be not guilty of a crime, the arrest will still impact them psychologically and sociologically, and may even follow them throughout the rest of their lives. Guilt or innocence and the punishment that a person is to receive are determined by the court system. The officer's job is to find the person responsible and to bring them in. From an emotional perspective, the responsibility can be burdensome and so every officer tries to make…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Davis, S. (1971). Justice for the juvenile: the decision to arrest and due process. Duke Law

Journal. (1971:5). 913-37.

O'Neil, R. (2010). Police policies on arresting juveniles. OLR Research Report.

Patterson, C. & Kaba, M. (2011). Arresting justice: a report about juvenile arrests in Chicago
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Juvenile Offenders and Recividism

Words: 1280 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 45219755

Juvenile delinquency has been an ever-evolving issue in the United States. From aims focused on prevention and rehabilitation that resulted in the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974; to a reverse trend beginning in the mid-1970's, the present has brought on a more prevalent tendency to try juveniles as adults. No more have courts taken to giving juveniles delinquents a second chance through rehabilitation (Schmalleger, 2016). In recent years, juveniles have faced life sentences without parole like an adult would. If the trend continues, will the number of juveniles tried as adults grow? Is it the responsibility of the juvenile justice system to prevent crime by enacting harsh penalties on the troubled youth of the country? From a Judeo-Christian perspective, everyone in one way or another, sins. It is up to the government and the community to help sinners see their wrongs and allow them a chance for…… [Read More]


Casey, S., & Day, A. (2015). Accountability in Juvenile Justice: A Framework to Assess Client Outcomes. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 60(14), 1645-1668. doi:10.1177/0306624x15586767

Kretschmar, J. M., Butcher, F., Flannery, D. J., & Singer, M. I. (2016). Diverting Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth With Behavioral Health Issues From Detention. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 27(3), 302-325. doi:10.1177/0887403414560885

Mody, S. (2008). Juvenile Justice. Childhood Education, 1-3.

Schmalleger, F. (2016). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the twenty-first century (14th ed.). NJ: Pearson Education.
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Juvenile Diversion in the Juvenile

Words: 1398 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38269181

The juvenile diversion system was established with funding from the iverside County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act of 2000, approved by the California Board of Corrections. This was a multi-year evaluation research project and was divided into five distinct areas to evaluate programs approved by the Board of Corrections, these being the Community-Based Probation Diversion, Youth Accountability Teams, the Gang Prevention-Project BIDGE, and the Family Violence Prevention Program-P.A.C.T., Youth Accountability Boards, and Youth Courts. The evaluation was meant to collect baseline data and follow-up data to measure the success of each program, with the data including juvenile arrest rates per 100,000; arrest rates for program participants; incarceration rats; rate of completion of probation; probation violation rate; rate of completion of restitution; rate of completion of community service; and rates of truancy and family violence for those to which these apply. Performance benchmarks were to be developed for each program (iverside…… [Read More]


Johnson, J.E. (1979, April 6). "The Impact of Juvenile Diversion: An Assessment Using Multiple Archival Perspectives."

Retrieved May 24, 2007 at .

Nadell-Hayes, S. & Macallair, D. (1995) Restructuring Juvenile Corrections in California: A Report to the Legislature. Retrieved May 24, 2007 at .

Riverside County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (a.B. 1913) Projects (2007). Retrieved May 25, 2007 at .
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Juvenile Drug Courts

Words: 3028 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8841439

Juvenile drug courts are among the most recent innovations in the treatment of substance-involved adolescents in the justice system. Their emergence in the 1990s was driven by the rising rates of substance abuse among adolescents -- a 2000 report by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, for instance, showed that substance usage among high school students had risen substantially in the 1990s, with almost 9.5% being cocaine users; a third being binge drinkers, and 14.6% being inhalant users (Office of Justice Programs, 2003). In line with these statistics, the rate of juvenile crime rose by a massive 145% during this period compared to the rate reported in the last decade (Office of Justice Programs, 2003). Juvenile drug courts were established after it became apparent that the traditional juvenile court system did not deal effectively with substance abuse, mental illness and other related problems owing to its lack of specialization…… [Read More]


Chassin, L. (2008). Juvenile Justice and Substance Use. The Future of Children, 18(2), 165-183.

Cooper, C.S. (2001). Juvenile Drug Court Programs. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved August 10, 2015 from 

Office of Justice Programs. (2003). Juvenile Drug Courts: Strategies in Practice. Office of Justice Programs. Retrieved August 10, 2015 from 

United States District Court for the District of South Carolina. (2015). BRIDGE Program: Mission Statement and Policies. United States District Court for the District of South Carolina. Retrieved August 10, 2015 from
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Juvenile Delinquency Wrong Turn Predisposing

Words: 1470 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 19484770

, 2008). Respondents to the study were 250 persons, aged 19-24, recruited at birth between 1979 and 1984 and pregnant women in four clinics in Cincinnati, Ohio. The pregnant women lived in areas with high concentrations of older-type of lead-contaminated dwellings (Wright et al.). Commendable efforts have been expended to reduce exposures to tobacco and environmental lead at this time. ut millions of young people continue to be exposed to them in levels sufficient to put them at risk of persistent violent and criminal behaviors (raun et al.).


Studies conducted with a wide range of age groups, populations and types of trauma showed that traumatized children and adolescents face a high risk of developing different behavioral, psychological and neurobiological problems (Caffo et al., 2005). Early traumatic experiences can have strong and lasting behavioral and psychological consequences in the young. These include Post Traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD, depression, anxiety…… [Read More]


Bartlett, R., et al. (2007). Problem behaviors in adolescents. 33 (1): 13-18 Pediatric

Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc. Retrieved on February 15, 2010 from 

Braun, J.M., et al. (2008). Association of environmental toxicants and conduct disorder in U.S. children. 116 (7): 956-962 Environmental Health Perspectives: National Institute

of Environmental Health Sciences. Retrieved on February 15, 2009 from
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Juvenile Offenders and Rehabilitation

Words: 4448 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 35811849

Juvenile offenders have grown to become a serious problem in many countries, especially the United States. Like adult offenders, juvenile offenders are more likely to reoffend, especially without the proper guidance and assistance they need in order to live a law abiding life. esearch within the last five years has led to identification of specific program models as well theory-based intervention approaches that not only assist juvenile offenders in leading productive lives but also keeps them from potentially re-offending. This paper will focus on rehabilitation programs for juvenile offenders and prevention programs that help in lessening the number of potential juvenile offenders by proposing alternative means of coping with hardship and stress.

Farrington's Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential Theory will be examined within the context of juvenile offenders and how this framework may be applied to understanding Juvenile motivations for engaging in criminal activities Importance of rehabilitation will be emphasized because…… [Read More]


Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. 

Barnes, A., Campbell, N., Anderson, V., Campbell, C., Onifade, E., & Davidson, W. (2015). Validity of initial, exit, and dynamic juvenile risk assessment: An examination across gender and race/ethnicity. Journal Of Offender Rehabilitation, 55(1), 21-38. 

Borduin, C., Dopp, A., & Taylor, E. (2013). Evidence-Based Interventions for Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders. An Evidence-Based Approach To Assessment And Treatment, 192-210. 

Brooks, M., & Khan, R. (2015). Psychosocial influences that motivate young offenders to engage in a non-custodial community intervention. The Journal Of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 26(3), 351-367.
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Juvenile Court

Words: 1269 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37471800

Another factor to consider when determining if Jason should be tried in an adult court focuses on the child's ability to respond to treatment. It is important to understand that juvenile court is much more adapted to the rehabilitative aspect of corrections than the adult court, where little mercy and stiff penalties are the norm in today's prison culture society.

The focus should then shift to Jason's individual characteristics and abilities to see if he requires extra special attention in the form of a transfer to adult court. Jason's family life needs to be understood in greater detail as well to get a better picture on how Jason reacts in that type of environment. Any other information should also be sought after to help paint a more complete picture of Jason. These things should include his habits, friends, social networks, diet siblings and tendencies. A physical medical examination should also…… [Read More]


Allard, P., & Young, M.C. (2002). Prosecuting juveniles in adult court: The practitioner's perspective. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 2(2), 65-77.

Bryan-Hancock, C., & Casey, S. (2011). Young People and the Justice System: Consideration of maturity in criminal responsibility. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 18(1), 69-78.

Bryan-Hancock, C., & Casey, S. (2010). Psychological maturity of at-risk juveniles, young adults and adults: Implications for the justice system. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 17(1), 57-69.
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Juvenile Offenders and Possibility of Mentorship Program

Words: 513 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 57850144

Juvenile Offenders, an Intervention Analysis

The challenge of juvenile offenders, what prompts them into crime and what factors contribute to the repeat of same misdemeanors that led them to the juvenile prison are issues that have for long attracted protracted discussions and even detailed researches. There has been little attention however given to the possible role of mentor programs in keeping the young people off crime. This research proposal hence looks into the role that such a schedule can play in ensuring there is lesser juvenile delinquency.

The research will delve into the possibility of having each juvenile delinquent identifying the hero or mentor in their life at the time that they are being booked in to the rehabilitation facilities and then the facility officials contacting the mentor with the aim of having them regularly visit the juvenile in the facility to help in mentoring them into their dream career.…… [Read More]

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Juvenile and Criminal Justice Systems

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69171380

Juvenile and Adult Justice

Juvenile and Criminal Justice Systems

Similarities and differences: Juvenile and adult criminal justice systems

The goals of the juvenile justice and the adult criminal justice systems are fundamentally distinct. The goal of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate the offender and to provide aid and assistance to the juvenile, enabling him or her to become a more productive adult (La Mance 2010). In contrast, the purpose of the adult system is one of fact-finding, and is designed to see 'justice' done on a societal level: in the case of a guilty offender, this usually means him or her 'paying a debt' to society in the form of some kind of punishment. However, the adult system still does offer many rehabilitative programs for the majority of convicts, including educational and vocational training. And, depending on the state, if the severity of the crime is deemed significant…… [Read More]


Chapter 4: Juvenile justice system structures and processes. (1999). Juvenilia Offenders and Victims: National Report. Retrieved: 

Juvenile law: status offenses. (2013). Nolo. Retrieved: 

Komisaruk, Kami. 92007). Differences between juvenile and adult court. Just Law Collective.
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Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong

Words: 1770 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62195901


Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong

Juvenile Offenders

Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong

The increase in juvenile delinquency has become a world-wide phenomenon, especially in many developed countries. This trend is also evident in cities like Hong Kong and can be seen in a recent report which asserts that the age of juvenile offenders in Kong is getting younger. This study by Pang (2008) states that, "Some juvenile delinquents are now as young as 10 and 11..." (Pang, 2008).

According to the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, another disturbing indication of the increase in youth crime was the number of crimes committed by young females, which increased in 2006. "The young girls, mostly aged 13 to 14, usually like to commit crimes with their friends, like stealing accessories or cosmetics"..." ( Pang, 2008). Furthermore, this study notes that there was a thirteen percent increase in crimes committed by children…… [Read More]


Broadhurst R. ( 2000). Crime Trends in Hong Kong. Retrieved from 

Cagape E. ( 2008). Why I think juvenile offenders are getting younger. Retrieved from 

Edwin H. Sutherland: Differential Association Theory. Florida State University.

Retrieved from
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Juvenile Courts

Words: 1459 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63160490

Juveniles as Adults: Pros and Cons

Severe and continuing juvenile offenders are progressively being tried as adults in criminal court all over the country. These juveniles face incarcerations in adult correctional facilities and the dangers that come from being with an adult criminal population. This type of movement poses significant inquiries for policy makers. To what degree do trials in criminal courts and imprisonment in adult reformatories endorse or hinder community security and the answerability and reintegration of juvenile offenders? This research paper deliberates on the legal consequences of adjudication in criminal court and offers a comprehensive review of research discoveries on the preventive effects of transfer laws, sentencing patterns and conviction and recidivism rates in juvenile as opposed to criminal courts, and programming and conditions in juvenile as opposed to adult correctional facilities. The pros and cons of trying juveniles as adults are discussed along with the evidence to…… [Read More]


Bartol, C.R., & Bartol, A.M. (2011). Chapter 6 Consulting with Juvenile and Civil Courts. Introduction to forensic psychology (3 ed., pp. 187-219). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Cooper, D.K. (1997). Juveniles' understanding of trial-related information: are they competent defendants?. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 15(2), 167-180.

NCIDS. (n.d.). Chapter 3: Juvenile Court Jurisdiction and Parties to Juvenile Proceedings. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from

Ojo, M., & Olufemi, D. (2012). A SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW OF ISSUES ON JUVENILE DELINQUENCY. Journal of International Social Research, 5(21), 468-482.
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Juvenile Offenders' Ability to Understand Their Legal

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28498517

juvenile offenders' ability to understand their legal rights and one issue related to their ability to participate effectively in their own defense.

Ability to understand legal rights: Competency

Ability to participate effectively in their own defense: Treating juveniles differently

According to U.S. criminal law, part of the right to counsel includes the notion that a defendant must be able to participate in his or her defense (Sandborn 2009: 137). However, schizophrenics, persons with low IQ, and many other individuals who might seem otherwise unable to discern right from wrong have been found competent to assist in their own defense, even persons later found to be insane. The question of juvenile competency is particularly vexing given that juveniles have an innately 'different' status under the law. The focus of the juvenile justice system is rehabilitation, and to a lesser extent, restitution, while the focus of the adult justice system is usually…… [Read More]

Juveniles in the juvenile justice system often lack an understanding of Miranda Rights. This is the first contact most juveniles have with the legal system. Empirical studies investigating juveniles' comprehension of the Miranda warning indicate that they tend not to understand the warnings, which has significant implications for a " knowing and intelligent" waiver of such rights under the totality of circumstances test (Colwell, 2005).

According to Erik Erikson, normal psychosocial development includes the development of trust (birth to 12 months), autonomy (1 to 2 years), initiative (3 to 5 years), industry, identity (12 to 18 years), intimacy, generativity, and ego integrity (60s and above) (Crain, 2011). Development begins in infancy and progresses as the infantile ego interacts with the environment (Crain, 2011). In order for a child to progress from one stage to another requires full mastery of the previous stage. Attributes of autonomy in psychosocial maturity are self-reliance, work orientation, and identity (Greenberger, 1984). Attributes of social responsibility are social commitment, openness to sociopolitical change, and tolerance of individual and cultural differences (Greenberger, 1984).

When evaluating psychosocial maturity, juvenile justice professionals must be able to full understand the juvenile. Examples of questions a professional might ask include: Do you accept responsibility without being reminded or pressured? Are you sympathetic and responsive to what others need? Do you cope with change? Do you show confidence to handle situations that come
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Juvenile Delinquency Crime Statistics From Chicago Illinois

Words: 2934 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37388382

Juvenile Delinquency

Crime statistics from Chicago, Illinois testify to the increasing number of youth offenders. In 1989, the Chicago police reported that 64% of 274,000 their crimes were committed by individuals under the age of 25; 40% of these crimes were committed by teenagers under 18." (Malmgren, Abbott, & Hawkins, 1999)

The recent headlines show that more and more kids are being expelled from schools for carrying guns, knives and for getting into fistfights. These antisocial acts have become quite common. Not to mention, inner city minority kids used to be the only kids exposed to gang violence or open gang recruiting. But the best 'Gangsta apper' today is white. Eminem is targeting suburban America with his Slim Shady message. And the gangs and the gangsta lifestyle seem to be in vogue. In the wake of the Columbine High School shootings a few years ago where two juvenile delinquents terrorized…… [Read More]


Balousek, Marv (1995). Human Touch Key To Saving Juveniles - Experts: Punishment Not Sole Solution. Wisconsin State Journal.

Day, David M. & Hunt, Ann C. (04-01-1996). A Multivariate Assessment Of A Risk Model For Juvenile Delinquency With An 'Under 12 Offender'. Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders. Vol. 4, pg. 66.

Edwards, Willie J. (1996). A Measurement Of Delinquency Differences Between A Delinquent And Nondelinquent Sample: What Are The Implications?. Adolescence. Vol. 31, pg. 973(17).

Maag, John W. & Irvin, Deborah M. (1994). Prevalence and predictors of substance use: A comparison between adolescents with and without... Journal of Learning Disabilities,.
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Juvenile Probation

Words: 967 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26502240

I wish to pursue a career in the juvenile probation area of law enforcement, as a juvenile probation officer. Mcmahon (2016) defines 'juvenile probation' as a type of juvenile sentence wherein a juvenile lawbreaker is allowed to reside within his/her communities, instead of being sent to a new home or to prison. Numerous reasons may be cited as to why juvenile lawbreakers are allowed such leniency. It is up to the court to decide whether any juvenile offender is entitled to probation or not, as well as the probation terms. Probation as a whole, forms a rather critical area of criminal justice. At times considered a test, probation enables lawbreakers to serve their sentence partially or entirely outside of jail. From the incarceration system's perspective, probation reduces costs incurred by the state, enabling prisons to concentrate on punishing dangerous and vicious criminals. Probation for juveniles in the preferred sentence as…… [Read More]

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Juvenile Offenders in St Louis

Words: 660 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57240158

Missouri has seen a rise in African-America juveniles tried as adults. Statistics from 2009 state 64% of the juveniles tried as adults were of African-American descent. This is almost double of the amount in 2001 which was 36%. (Cooper) This brings to light an increase in racial disparity and the nature of prosecution in Missouri. Many of the cases of the African-American juvenile offenders certified as adults are prosecuted in St. Louis. "From 2001 to 2009, St. Louis certified 39% of the black juveniles prosecuted as adults statewide. St. Louis County accounted for 29%." (Cooper)

One such case is Ledale Nathan Jr. At the age of 16, Nathan and an accomplice broke into a house in St. Louis' LaSalle Park neighborhood back in October of 2009. Nathan killed a 34-year-old woman by the name of Gina Stallis and wounded a firefighter and off-duty city police officer. His conviction resulted in…… [Read More]

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Juvenile Delinquency Drug Crimes

Words: 9197 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69293543

Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes

Researchers are now focused on developing and evaluating programs designed to break the drug-crime cycle that is common in juvenile delinquents. This paper will summarize existing literature about programs designed to prevent the juvenile drug-crime cycle and, based on that literature, identify interventions that offer the best chances for success. This paper will also provide guidelines and recommendations for developing a comprehensive juvenile justice system that can best address the needs of juvenile offenders involved with drug crimes.

This thesis is expected to make a contribution to the selection of successful interventions and the development of collaborative partnerships in the juvenile justice system, drug treatment programs, and other agencies as they attempt to break the cycle of drugs and crime afflicting U.S. juveniles.


With the prevalence of drug crimes among juveniles and the complexity involved in their treatment, which must involve both the child…… [Read More]


Abuse and Dependence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 5 (1): 201-211.

Allison, M., and Hubbard, R.L. (1985). Drug abuse treatment process: A review of the literature. International Journal of the Addictions 20:13211345.

Anglin, M.D., and Hser, Y. (1990). Treatment of drug abuse. In Drugs and Crime, vol. 13, edited by M. Tonry and J.Q. Wilson. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Ball, J.C., Rosen, J.A., Flueck, J.A., and Nurco, D.N. (1981). The criminality of heroin addicts: When addicted and when off opiates. In The Drugs-Crime Connection, edited by J.A. Inciardi. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
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Juvenile Delinquency Essay

Words: 3215 Length: Pages Document Type: Paper #: Array


In the past, there was no such term as “juvenile delinquent” or “juvenile delinquency” within the justice system. As frightening as it is to consider, over a hundred years ago, children who committed crimes were thrown into prisons with adults and some children were even sentenced to corporal punishment or even death (, 2000). Reformers of the justice system were the ones who pushed for a distinct court system for the treatment of juveniles, with the underlying notion being that these young people could potentially be helped and reformed. “Central to the concept of juvenile court was the principle of parens patriae. This meant that instead of lawyers fighting to decide guilt or innocence, the court would act as a parent or guardian interested in protecting and helping the child” (, 2000). These reforms were novel at the time, and helped to enact changes such as closed hearings for…… [Read More]

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Juvenile Treatment Program Evaluate the Best Practices

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74547920

juvenile treatment program. Evaluate the "best practices" it exhibits and note which areas of the program might need improvement. In addition to this week's Learning Resources, support your evaluation by citing an academic journal article.

Juvenile treatment programs: Useful programs

According to Mincey (et al. 2008) as well as supportive family members and positive strategies, rehabilitative programs that are successful also enhance the connection of offenders to their school environment. his sets the stage for positive future interactions with academic authority figures and gives young offenders a positive outlook upon the future. Effective school relationships also support vocational advancement in the near and far future. Juvenile offenders on average read at a fourth grade level (the median age of juvenile detainees is fifteen and 1/3 read below the 4th grade level) Learning disabilities and conduct disorder compound their problems and without appropriate academic support, reintegrating into a law-abiding community and…… [Read More]

To build more positive connections between youth and university environments, Evergreen State College has fostered a program called Gateways for Incarcerated Youth with the juvenile detention centers at Green Hill and Maple Lane. Evergreen students work as co-learners and learning assistants with the juveniles. They discuss college-level texts, assist the juveniles in writing assignments, and act as mentors (Gateway, 2011, Prison Studies Project). What is so noteworthy about this program is the positive mutual relationships it fosters, ones which are social as well as academic. Academic aspirations are nurtured and fostered with positive peer role modeling. For juveniles with longstanding negative issues in their relationship with adults, the program is particularly valuable. Rather than acting in a judgmental way, the program conveys to the juvenile detainees that they can have a future if they work hard and commit to their education. It also shows the juveniles that they can lead a different way of life, demonstrating to them that college is a very real possibility, and 'real people' go to college.

The unconditional positive regard conveyed by the program is designed to also rehabilitate the self-esteem of the juvenile offenders. Rather than breaking them down, the program seeks to build up the offenders' sense of positive self-worth. Although the appropriate emphasis of juvenile programs will vary in terms of the type of offenders the programs focuses upon, overall the aim of the juvenile justice system is rehabilitation not punishment. Concentrating upon education and worthwhile activities is a critical component of honoring the rehabilitative aspect of juvenile detention. However, this rehabilitation is not without some demands upon the incarcerated students. They are asked to study, to devote themselves to their classes and are held to high standards in terms of their achievement and efforts. The high expectations communicate the need for and the possibility of change; the educational environment creates a new community for the juveniles and enables them to envision a world beyond the one which they currently inhabit. It also connects them to an environment outside of the prison walls -- m any of the incarcerated juveniles keep up the friendship with the Evergreen students even after they have been released.

Making positive demands upon students and encouraging them to change rather than punishing students
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Juvenile Offender Case You Selected From News

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79670834

juvenile offender case you selected from news reports in your own community. Synthesize how your state's (or locale's) juvenile laws and codes would apply to your selected case. Be specific and cite your state's (or locale's) relevant laws and codes.

Juvenile justice in Indiana: Trying juveniles as adults

One of the most controversial issues in juvenile justice is the question of when a juvenile can and should be tried as an adult. In the state of Indiana, children as young as age ten can be tried in adult court. "That's younger than many states, but then some states have no age limit" (King 2012). One of the most controversial, recent examples of this phenomenon in Indiana is the case of Paul Henry Gingerich, who was convicted of murder when he was only twelve years old. Paul "pleaded guilty to conspiracy to commit murder after he and a friend fired four…… [Read More]

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Juvenile Justice Interventions to Parental Intervention and

Words: 900 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 85951983

juvenile justice interventions to parental intervention and readiness for change. The study evaluates Parenting with Love Limits (PLL) group therapy program to determine its effect on adolescent behavior and its effect on parent factors as well as parent adolescent relationship and readiness for change.

The methods and procedures used in conducting this study are descriptive and experimental. It also involves statistical analysis of data. It also reviews previous studies that relates to it. It is descriptive in the sense that it gives a reader an insight into what terminologies like recidivism, re-adjudication, and community based intervention mean with regard to reducing adolescent oppositional and conduct disorders. The design was experimental in the sense that it used The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to measure behavioral problems and social competencies of children as reported by their parents. The parents are reported to have completed the CBCL by themselves. The CBCL integrates 118…… [Read More]

References List

Sells, S.P., Early, K.W. & Smith, T.E. (2011). Reducing Adolescent Oppositional and Conduct

Disorders: An Experimental Design Using the Parenting with Love and Limits Model. Professional Issues in Criminal Justice 6(3&4), 9-30.

Warr, M. (2005). Making delinquent friends: Adult supervision and children's affiliations.

Criminology, 43(1), 77 -- 106.
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Juvenile Offenders and Reoffending

Words: 11154 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 46175369


Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are an important problem facing the United States criminal justice system. For more than one hundred years, states held the belief that the juvenile justice system acted as a vehicle to safeguard the public via offering a structure that enables the rehabilitation of children growing into adulthood. States identified the difference of children committing crimes versus adult offenders (Loeber & Farrington, 2012). For example, the states saw them as less blameworthy with a higher capacity for longstanding, true change. Therefore, states have founded a distinct court system especially for the handling and rehabilitation of juvenile offenders along with a separate and different youth-based service delivery system that offers additional aid not found in the adult justice system.

The juvenile justice system offers the study of criminal justice an important area to develop proper rehabilitation techniques that will help juvenile offenders and reoffenders find a means…… [Read More]


Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. 

Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. 

Burfeind, J. & Bartusch, D. (2015). Juvenile delinquency (p. 158). Routledge.

Cale, J., Smallbone, S., Rayment-Mchugh, S., & Dowling, C. (2015). Offense Trajectories, the Unfolding of Sexual and Non-Sexual Criminal Activity, and Sex Offense Characteristics of Adolescent Sex Offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal Of Research And Treatment.
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Juvenile Recidivism Rates and Analysis

Words: 12874 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 40811758

Dugan: Should be on its own page.

Juvenile recidivism is a prevalent problem in the criminal justice system. Tackling reoffending remains a complex task requiring several strategies and aims. It involves research, acknowledgement of causes, factors, exploration, and evaluation of subgroups to generate long-term, positive changes in the lives of juvenile offenders. From gang violence to Interactive, Constructive, Active, and Passive (ICAP), researchers discover some of the reasons why juveniles reoffend and the kinds of intervention methods that may help or worsen the problem of juvenile recidivism. Intervention philosophies like surveillance, discipline, close monitoring may increase recidivism rates. estorative programs, counseling, skill building programs, as well as multiple coordinated services decrease recidivism rates. Comment by Max Dugan: I would put evaluation at the end of the list vs. first. Comment by Max Dugan: Need to spell out all acronyms before using in APA format.


Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are…… [Read More]


Aalsma, M., White, L., Lau, K., Perkins, A., Monahan, P., & Grisso, T. (2015). Behavioral Health Care Needs, Detention-Based Care, and Criminal Recidivism at Community Reentry From Juvenile Detention: A Multisite Survival Curve Analysis. American Journal Of Public Health, 105(7), 1372-1378. 

Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. 

Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. 

Bates, K. & Swan, R. (2013). Juvenile delinquency in a diverse society (1st ed.). SAGE Publications.