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Math Lesson Plan
Words: 486 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55777820
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Kindergarten Math Plan

Stage 1-Desired Results

Established Goals

Students will be able to count to 100 by recognizing, writing, and typing the numbers. Students will be able to count in multiples of 3, 5, and 10. Students will be able to understand how numbers represent groups of objects.


Students will be able to understand how objects, such as groups, interact with numbers and what each one means or represents.



Students will understand that numbers tell how much and how many is in a group. They will make inferences, such as how many students in the class.


Students will keep considering how many is in a group, and fewer, more, or equal to concepts.


Students will know how numbers interact with groups, fewer, more, or equal.

Students will be skilled at concepts of counting and fewer, more, or equal to.

Stage 2-Evidence


Evaluative Criteria…

Childhood Memory
Words: 1511 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14497830
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Kindergarten Memoirs

The First Day

The little fat girl cried on the first day of kindergarten. And not just a little snivel, but a loud full throated 62 pound ear shattering temper tantrum that clearly bespoke the message to anyone who was listening & #8230;GET ME THE HELL OUTTA HERE!....NOW! I remember my stomach churning like the ocean off the southern tip of the African continent. I can still see her in my mind; she wore a red dress and black shoes. Her hair was as dark as her mood.

I can see us now, Miss Klafkey's class, all dressed up with nowhere to hide. There was a general sense of anxiety amongst us all, a pervasive sense of doom. I think we were all wondering the same thing; what does she know that we don't know?

It wasn't long before others were crying too, including mothers. My fellow condemned…

Curriculum Content That Implements Strategies and Methods
Words: 1817 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99974665
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curriculum content that implements strategies and methods that enhance language acquisition. This is done in light of the relevant theories that surround the proper development of linguistics in kindergarten children from vast socio-cultural backgrounds.

The teaching of linguistics to Kindergarten children is indicated by Ellis and McCartney (2011) to be quite a challenge. This is more dominant for the wide range of linguistic diversity as well as literacy development that exists within the 21st century classroom setting (p.44). This challenge is most common among pre-service teachers and the diversity in linguistics is noted to transcend continents as in never limited to the United States (Gerald and Hussar,2003). The diversity is noted to be present in other places that bear the same demographic trends as noted by Portes and umabaut (2001).In this paper we develop a curriculum content that implements strategies and methods that enhance language acquisition.

Strategies and methods


Incidence in the Classroom
Words: 1680 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79085519
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Incidence in the Classroom

Critical Learning Experiences

One specific incident that is fairly eminent among the others that have taken place at ICCD where I am employed as a student teacher involved one of the general education pre-kindergarten students. This particular student was actually a twin, and both he and his brother were new to the class I was helping as a student teacher. On this one particular morning Haneef decided that he did not want to participate in the class instruction. What was interesting about this situation was that his twin brother, Habeeb, had no problem coming to the class and preparing himself for school that day. Haneef, on the other hand, was something altogether else.

He actually refused to enter the classroom facility when his mother attempted to bring both of the boys in. He hesitated at the threshold of the room, and made his brother go in…

Impact Analysis on Early Design
Words: 1591 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34122424
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online learning module with the goal of developing a stand-alone learning module designed to teach Kindergarten-level students the basic colors. This paper will also address some learning gaps that are associated with this learning module in general, and what some of the performance and knowledge gaps of a color-teaching program in particular. A description of a desirable learning environment is followed by a discussion of some of the implications of technology involved, including bandwidth availability, as well as hardware and software availability. An assessment of potential problems with the availability of student access to technology is followed by a discussion of the merits of providing such a stand-alone program as an online application or presented as a computer-based training module. Finally, a summary of the research will be provided in the conclusion.

eview and Analysis

Background and Overview. Learning colors and shapes are important steps for young learners in general;…


Albers, P., Austin, T., Begoray, D., Carr, K.C., Goldberg, M.R., Kinzer, C.K., Labbo, L.D.,

Leu, D.J., Jr., Mckenna, M.C., Miller, S., Pailliotet, A.W., & Richards, J.C. (2003).

Integrating multiple literacies in K-8 classrooms: Cases, commentaries, and practical applications. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Carter, J.D., & Swanson, H.L. (1995). The relationship between intelligence and vigilance in children at risk. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23(2), 201.

Pre-School What Are the Benefits of Having
Words: 3102 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 5816595
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What Are the enefits of Having Children Attend Pre-School Prior to Kindergarten?


This report covers the benefit of sending children to pre-school before kindergarten. Literature review is used to explore the research existing in this field. It will help us to understand what effect pre-school has on children. Such programs are also discussed in the paper which is conducting training for preschoolers for their development. This paper not only covers that academic aspect but also sheds light on the benefits preschool education has on social and emotional aspects of children's life. After collecting this information, it will be collaborated with the findings of this research paper using different research technique. In the end, the paper will be concluded along with some suggestions.


In this competitive world it is very important to train the children in such a way that they are not left behind. Study shows that…


Anderson, L.M., Shinn, C., Fullilove, M.T., Scrimshaw, S.C., Fielding, J.E., & Normand, J. (2003). The Effectiveness of Early Childhood Development Programs. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32-38.

Badian, N.A. (1994). Preschool prediction: Orthographic and phonological skills, and reading. Annals of Dyslexia, 44(1), 1-25.

Barnett, W.S., & Hustedt, J.T. (2003). Pre-School: The Most Important Grade. Educational Leadership, 54-57.

Bracey, G.W., & Stellar, A. (2003). Long-Term Studies of Preschool: Lasting Benefits Far Outweigh Costs. Phi Delta Kappan, 780-797.

Transition Assessment Planning Justin Is
Words: 2052 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86308447
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Several assessment tools are available, often using data collection sheets that include items such as direct observation and interviews with adults who closely interact with the student. In Justin's case, this group could include Carrie, the paraprofessional who works directly with Justin, in addition to the special education teacher, the speech and language specialist, other teachers who regularly interact with Justin (e.g., art, physical education, music and media), and Justin's parents.

Justin's tantrums are a cause of concern for their negative effects not just on Justin but on the classroom as a whole. An FBA can be done on Justin; managing these outbursts is the main goal for the kindergarten year so that more learning can take place. It is important that the target behavior descriptions are as specific as possible. For example, "has outbursts" does not provide as much information as "screams, cries, kicks and throws items when upset."…


Blair, K.C., Umbreit, J., Dunlap, G., and Gilsoon, J. (2007). Promoting inclusion and peer participation through assessment-based intervention. Topics in Early Childhood

Special Education 27(3), pp. 134-147.

Functional behavior assessment. (2010). Autism Classroom. Retrieved from

Kivi, R. (2011). Teacher tips -- Teaching autistic students. Bright Hub Education 11/24/2011.

Teaching as a Profession the
Words: 1319 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61373408
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As I began to realize that I was expecting less than they were capable of I realized that some of my preconceived notions about the teaching profession were coloring my viewpoint.

One example was the day a preschool student from the regular education class came to me and handed me a book that she wanted to read to me. I was surprised but let her open the book and begin reading. It reminded me not to assume the level of ability of any student as each student is an individual and develops at individual rates.

In observing the classrooms I found that problems can be dealt with by remaining flexible and keeping an open mind (Safer, 2003).

An example of this philosophy occurred when an autistic preschool student was included in the inclusion setting. "Tommy" did not respond to verbal cues nor was he a verbal child. The teacher made…






Designing an Early Years Learning Framework for
Words: 1503 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91225801
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Designing an Early Years Learning Framework for Kindergarten and Preprimary Pupils

The Australian Government's Department of Education, Employment and Workplace elations has launched an Early Years Learning Framework initiative that is designed to facilitate universal access to early childhood education resources. The initiative has been incorporated in the National Quality Standard in an effort to ensure consistent delivery of high quality educational services to young learners across the country. The Early Years Learning Framework initiative is also explicit in its guidelines concerning the need for respect of children from diverse and Indigenous backgrounds. This paper uses the Early Years Learning Framework to describe a literacy rich learning environment for kindergarten to preprimary year pupils that draws on Boori Monty Pryor and Jan Ormerod's children's book, Shake a Leg. A description of the learning environment is followed by a discussion concerning how the learning experience engages young learners to draw on…


Elliott, S. & Berlach, R.G. (2010, January-December). Conceptualizing planning in kindergarten

and preprimary settings: An exploratory study with preservice teachers. Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, 12(1-2), 67-71.

Murray, J. & Bamblett, L. (2011, Spring). Shake a leg. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 1, 113-115.

Pryor, B.M. & Ormerod, J. (2010). Shake a leg. London: Allen & Unwin.

Information Education
Words: 1743 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12264750
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Paterson Public Schools School 28 or Public School Twenty Eight was erected in 1962. The president is John J. Pasquale and the vice president is Leonard R. Jacoby. The general contractor for the school is Thomas Construction Company. PS28 is located in New Jersey. The school's address is 200 Presidential Blvd., Paterson, NJ 07522. The school's telephone number is [HIDDEN] . There are a total of 360 students in the school.

The school has several classrooms dedicated to specific areas such as pre-kindergarten, special education, and performing arts. The students range from pre-kindergarten all the way to grade 8. So the age range is around 4-13 years of age. Because New Jersey is located within the tri-state area, the population is diverse with black, Hispanic, Asian, and white students and faculty. The principal, Nancy Castro is Hispanic as well as the Assistant Principal, Victoria, Larosiliere. The majority of the students…

Raise Achievement Levels Raising Achievement
Words: 337 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62921193
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Drama, music, and the arts and experiential science learning are fun ways to teach students while avoiding the sense that students are in 'summer school.'

Step 3: Establish mentors for 7th and 8th grades in the high school. Have high-achieving high school students who present strong and realistic role models come to the school, talk about their success, and provide academic and/or emotional support to older middle school students.

Step 4: Providing tutoring assistance on the high school level for standardized tests needed for graduation and the SATs would be valuable. Reinforce the connection between expanded life opportunities and success in school by getting local speakers to come to the school to lecture about their profession, to encourage students to avail themselves of tutoring services. Create internship programs for qualified juniors and seniors within the community. Making students want to succeed in school and come to school in the first…

Lesson Plan an Introduction to
Words: 552 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 68486184
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For example, she might say, "Oh, the baby elephant is crossing the road here. I wonder where he is going. Maybe that castle in the background is his home." After flipping through the book, the teacher invites the students to try.

Main Activities

The teacher breaks the students up into groups of about three or four. Before the lesson started, she has already formed the groups, and tells the students to quickly go sit in the groups that she names. At the learning sites, that have already been set up with three or four picture books depending on the number of students. The teacher instructs students to perform a hands-on activity by picking up a picture book and using the illustrations to tell themselves a story, just as the teacher had done before. They take turns showing and interpreting their books to their fellow classmates. When they have completed this…

Crimonology Criminal Justice System Components Analysis Research
Words: 1257 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84548197
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Criminal Justice ystem Components Analysis

Research the questions below for each of the three criminal justice system components: police, criminal courts, and correctional agencies. Prepare a table or chart that compares and contrasts the information you gather on the components. For example:

Criminal Justice Components


Criminal Courts

Correctional Agencies

management structure bureaucratic structure with hierarchy of authority and strict regulations

A collection of federal, state, and local public agencies that deal with. They are interdependent

Traditional organizational structures. The chief executive officer is at the top, with other functions dispersed at various layers down through the pyramid

The differences between the organizations in this component as compared to the other two?

The purpose of the police is to maintain order, enforce the criminal law, and provide services.

Courts are the place where defendants / the accused / plaintiffs come to have their please adjudged by judge and jury.…


Barbaree, H.E., Marshall, W.L. (2008). An introduction to the juvenile sex offender: Terms, concepts, and definitions (2nd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Holmes, S.E, James, R.S & Javad K. (2001). Risk Factors in Childhood that Lead to the Development of Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, .31

Rozalski, M., Deignan, M., & Engel, S. (2008). The world of juvenile justice according to the numbers. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 24,143-147.

Perspectives of a Teacher and an Administrator on Education
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39903316
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Teacher/Administrator Interviews

Perspectives of a Teacher and an Administrator on Education

This is a report on the results of an interview with two veteran educational professionals, a 2nd grade teacher and an administrator. These interviews were conducted to better understand the subject's viewpoints on education and to gain insight as to why they chose to pursue their careers in education. The teacher reported she had been in the classroom for 24 years as a teacher and had experience as an instructional aide previously. The administrator stated he had taught for 19 years before he assumed his duties as a principal eight years ago. The teacher's highest level of education was a Bachelors Degree in Education plus 30 units of graduate work, while the administrator said he had a Masters in Administration and supervision. Both subjects revealed that they each had a sister in the profession and the teacher's mother had…

Education in Nabokov's Book Speak
Words: 756 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8833573
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Many times people can't remember anything before age 4. This is true for most, but it's always nice to try to remember. There's information available that states babies up until 3 months can only see in black and white and need to see black and white in order to develop their brains more.

I believe retrieving as much detail as possible from your early childhood is a great way to improve your own memory as well as connect events in your life. A lot of things you do now were shaped by what you did when you were little. For instance, your inquisitive nature back then, how you wanted to see through the hole and your sadness. Perhaps understanding why you cried so much before going to kindergarten could explain some of the sadness you may have now.

The book, Speak, helps readers build a sort of road map of…

Special Needs Transition Intervening to Place Children
Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98323143
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Special Needs Transition

Intervening to place children towards their appropriate levels of schooling is very important and requires certain and descriptive analysis. As a result of these changes, coping mechanisms are developed for the children that present new and different challenges for the both the educators and the parents and family of the child in question. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the factors involved that would promote or hamper a successful transition dealing with a child who has been learning in a center-based program to a more advanced program within an inclusion kindergarten program. I will additionally explore what factors are necessary for the likelihood of successful adjustment within the changing scenario.

Dunlap (2009) highlighted the legal necessities of a such a transition. He noted " transitions often involve major changes in routines. Federal laws ( in particular, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [ IDEA]) mandate…

Works Cited

Cook, R.E., Klein, M.D. & Chen, D. (2012) Adapting Early Childhood Curricula for Children with Special Needs. 8th Ed. Boston, Mass: Pearson

p. 124 -125

Dunlap, L.L. (2009). An introduction to Early Childhood Special Education.

NJ: Pearson. (ISBN: 978-0-205-48872-8) .

Early Childhood and Literacy
Words: 1522 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99088721
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Language Development in Young Children

Early Childhood and Literacy

Language is a physical link of a child to his outside world. Language acquisition is essential for a child's social, physical and cognitive development. It plays a vital role in developing an individual who would be able to express himself adequately to his family, friends and the world around him. A vast majority of the children can develop linguistic skills effortlessly, whereas some have difficulty in developing these essential skills. They are slow to learn a language and eventually struggle with academic and literacy skills throughout their educational career. The first few years of a child's life are important and critical for their performance.

This project examines the issues related to language development in first two years of a child's life. It also discusses the importance of the language and the role linguistics play in preparing a child for his academic…


Byrne, M. (1978). Appraisal of child language acquisition. Diagnostic methods in speech pathology, 102-177.

Clark, B.A. (1991). First- and Second-Language Acquisition in childhood. Retrieved from

CLLRNet. (2007, June). Early Childhood Learning. Retrieved from 

fund, O. o. (2007). The Language of Babies, Toddlers and preschoolers. . Retrieved from

Healthy Living Lesson Plan
Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12204658
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Healthy Food for Healthy Living Lesson Plans

The theme I have selected for this lesson or class is healthy food for healthy living, which is an important topic given the increased in lifestyle diseases that are mainly brought by eating unhealthy foods. Generally, there are many things to learn from this theme, which culminates in promoting learning and development towards healthy eating. Through this lesson, children will learn which foods are healthy and which ones should be consumed in small quantities. Children will learn the food pyramid and obtain awareness regarding the need for every individual to consume nutritious food for healthy living (Krak & Schexnaildre, n.d.). This theme will be taught through creating lesson plans that include learning activities that are aligned with the curriculum and ensure all learning domains are taught.

My first activity for this theme is food group game. In addition to helping children learn about…


"Empowering Kids to Choose MyPlate Lesson Plan." (2011). USDA MyPlate. Retrieved August 4, 2015, from

"Healthy Eating Activities." (n.d.). Chapter 1. Retrieved August 4, 2015, from 

Krak, J. & Schexnaildre, J. (n.d.). Healthy Food Makes Healthy Body. Retrieved August 4, 2015, from

Dreamer I Am the Creator
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19298566
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There was a daily ritual of pain and suffering that interrupted the events of my life with annoying frequency. Every morning, the doctor drew blood from my heel for a test and tubes went in and out of me.

This experience was repeated throughout my life as I had repeated illnesses some of which may be linked to the activities surrounding my birth and subsequent care in the hospital. I was hospitalized throughout kindergarten, and limited to a bed for long a period. I was too weak to do anything. The life of a normal child was not mine; all I had were my dreams to comfort me and give me a sense of hope. Where other children could go outside and play, I could not. Dreams became a necessary escape and provided me with the freedom that was not permitted because of my physical condition.

My physical ailment took…

Royal Highness As a World-Renowned
Words: 628 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 91183787
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In fact, 85% of all juveniles referred to and held in the custody of juvenile court system are illiterate. Moreover, the single most accurate predictor of criminal recidivism among the wider (adult) prison population who enter the system illiterate is whether or not those prisoners learned how to read and write during their incarceration. Those who do not are more than three times more likely to re-offend.

I am currently witnessing, first-hand, the deterioration of my community in Denver, Colorado in ways that improved access to age-appropriate literature for children could immediately help resolve. At Children's Haven, a program that serves infants, toddlers, and preschool children, we have a desperate need for age appropriate books. We have always been able to maintain the minimum amount of children's reading materials to help children in the past by relying on the charitable donation of unwanted books from community members. Because of the…

American and Japanese Early Childhood
Words: 14069 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63412707
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Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. y doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.

Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.

Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…


Adams, M.J., Treiman, R., & Pressley, M. (1998). Reading, writing, and literacy. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Child psychology in practice, 4, 275-355. New York: Wiley.

Albertson, L., & Kagan, D. (1988). Dispositional stress, family environment, and class climate among college teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 21(2), 55-61.

Amidon, E. (1980). Personal Teaching Style Questionnaire. Philadelphia: Temple University, College of Education.

Allison, Anne. (1996). Producing mothers. In Anne E. Imamura (Ed.), Re-imaging Japanese women (pp. 135-155). Berkeley: University of California Press.

Vian Paley the Objective of
Words: 484 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22921176
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In order to make sense of their experience children must see the connections between what they already know and what they experience in school and other settings. For example, a child who has had little experience with storybooks but who loves to tell stories and engage in dramatic play can be encouraged to act out a story that is read aloud. Increasing the continuity and congruence between children's home experiences and the school environment is particularly critical to the success of children from diverse cultures and social classes." (NWREL, nd)

Summary and Conclusion

The teacher must keep in mind the different methods of learning applicable and effective and model their practice with this consideration. While in many cultures the art of storytelling has been lost however in many of the minority cultures storytelling is still a major way that knowledge is imparted from parent to child and this is the…


Cooper, Patricia M. (2005) Literacy Learning and Pedagogical Purpose in Vivian Paley's 'Storytelling Curriculum" Journal of Early Childhood Literacy. Vol.5 No. 3 229-251 (2005). Online Sage publication at .

Culturally Responsive Teaching (nd) NWREL Online available at 

Vivian Paley

Mitten by Jan Brett Jan
Words: 1444 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 74845326
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Certainly, other types of animal flash cards could be used. An even better idea might be to have hand puppet or stuffed animal examples of the animals in the book to pass around for the children to look at. During their break, they could play with the toys as an added refresher for the animal concepts that they learned during the classroom and field trip sessions. Besides providing an excellent review, it would be a seamless method of integrating the reading with field trip sessions and prop and toy purchases. This type of activity will give the teacher indicators of the students' abilities as a class and individuals prior to beginning the reading unit. It might be wise to do the field trip as the follow-up idea to the book with Brett's work as preparatory for that activity.

Annotated Bibliography

1. Brett, J. (1989). The mitten. New York, NY: G.P.…

Works Cited

Brett, J. (1989). The mitten. New York, NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons.

Ibid, Board book edition.

The full-day early learning -- kindergarten program. (2010). Retrieved from

Parents Have Been the Most
Words: 403 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34731761
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My parents also instilled in me a love for science and reading, and have proven to be the best examples in the world. Our favorite family activity is to watch the game show "Jeopardy" together. We challenge each other to see who can answer the most correct questions, and whoever wins gets to choose the restaurant the family will eat at that weekend. And if I win, I am even allowed to invite friends to join us.

My parents are also very wise. I have come to understand from my high school psychology class why my parents never argued in from of me no matter how upset they may have been. My mother would always say to my father, "Can we go to the other room, there is something that I must talk to you about." feel very proud of my parents, especially when my friends make comments such as,…

Puff of White Chalky Smoke Assaulted My
Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9834957
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puff of white chalky smoke assaulted my lungs, I erupted in simultaneous laughter and explosive coughing. I guiltily glanced at my mom, who was seated behind her desk grading papers. Her familiar red pen in hand, she simply shook her head at me and barely suppressed her smile. I was only eight; what did she expect? "Just erase the board," she said before returning to her work. My mother always came home happy from work, if not a little tired and frazzled. A lifelong elementary school teacher, my mother's inspiration introduced me to the joys of teaching. Since the days when I would help my mom in her classroom after school by decorating or cleaning up, I have been both uplifted and let down by dozens of public school educators. Some teachers obviously love what they do. Like my mom, they bring with them not a sullen look of exasperation…

Math Education
Words: 947 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 34751312
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Children Learn

Math education, over the precedent years has been a contentious issue plaguing society at large. Many students, as they enter their preliminary schooling years, often have difficulty learning basic mathematical concepts. These difficulties compound as students proceed to upper levels of education. Throughout this process, math becomes more difficult for the student, often discouraging them from pursing math in a meaningful manner. Due to globalization, other nations are now becoming more competitive in regards to their overall workforce. They are now more educated, particularly in both math and science. Their respective countries are also very ambitious in teaching their children about the merits of math education. Competition now arises from all corners of the globe irrespective of geographic location. ealizing that global competition, market demands, and business needs necessitate the need for a mathematically oriented society, America has renewed its emphasis on math education. One such theory regarding…


1) Brousseau, G. (1997). The theory of didactical situations in mathematics: Didactique des mathematiques, 1970 -- 1990 (N. Balacheff, M. Cooper, R. Sutherland, & V. Warfield, Eds. And Trans.). Dordrecht: Kluwer.

2) Tiberghien, Andree. "Design Tools in Didactical Research: Instrumenting the Epistemological and Cognitive Aspects of the Design of Teaching Sequences." EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHER June 2009 vol. 38 no. 5 329-342

Looking Into Ells and Matching Books
Words: 1386 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73936442
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Matching Books with ELLs

Description of the Chosen Book

pages book Titles Barenstain Bears (fiction)

It is the classic story of Barenstain Bears. Lots of children love it. They particularly pick out the little bear that creeps into a box.

Interestingly, this adventure is told from a set of vocabulary of only twenty three words.

Berenstain S, Berenstain, J. (2007), Inside, Outside, Upside Down. London: HarperCollins Children's.

Contextualize the ELLs you intend to use the book with: Who are they? You can discuss their age/grade, cultural backgrounds, background knowledge, language proficiency levels, interests, etc.

I intend to use this book with kindergarten learners. These learners are at their critical period (3 to 5 years). During this period they can best acquire language skills and therefore it is very important to prepare them adequately for the task. Additionally, these children have not experienced language from many users apart from their family…


Berenstain S, Berenstain, J. (2007), Inside, Outside, Upside Down. London: HarperCollins Children's.

Goodman, K. S. (1986). Linguistics, psycholinguistics and the teaching of reading. International Reading Ass.

Lado, A. (2012). Teaching beginner ELLs using picture books: Tellability. Thousand Oaks, CA, Corwin Press.

Nessel, D. D., & Dixon, C. N. (2008). Using the Language Experience Approach with English Language Learners: Strategies for Engaging Students and Developing Literacy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Phonological Awareness
Words: 2667 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Chapter Paper #: 48574790
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Phonological Awareness and Literacy

It appears that in the last ten years that there has been a growing consensus on the range of skills that have been serving as the basis for reading and writing ability in the 3- to 5-year-old age group (Diamond K., 2014). In order to become a skilled reader before kindergarten, children need a language that is rich and they need something with conceptual knowledge base, and to be able to understand messages that are communicated through print. It is also important that children also must be able to develop the notion that spoken words are made up of smaller substances of speech (phonological awareness) before they enter kindergarten. (Gallagher, 2015)

Nonetheless to attain a high level of skill, the 3- to 5-year-old group need chances to change these strands, not in isolation, but then again interactively. Making the point, not sounds or letters, encourages the…


Baroody, A.E. (2015). Associations Among Name Writing and Alphabetic Skills in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Children At Risk of School Failure. Journal of Early Intervention, 35, 20-39.

Diamond, K. (2014). Links Among Home Literacy Environment, Literacy Interest, and Emergent Literacy Skills in Preschoolers At Risk for Reading Difficulties. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 32(2), 78-87.

Diamond, K.E. (2013). Implementation Fidelity of a Coaching-Based Professional Development Program for Improving Head Start Teachers' Literacy and Language Instruction. Journal of Early Intervention, 35(7), 102-128.

Gallagher, P.A. (n.d.). Progress in Language and Literacy Skills Among Children With Disabilities in Inclusive Early Reading First Classrooms. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education February, 33(12), 249-259.

Gap Early Childhood Intervention and the Development
Words: 6336 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82658447
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Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child

Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.

There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…

Works Cited

Bayley, N. (1970) "Development of mental abilities." In P.H. Mussen (ed) Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 1, New York: Wiley.

Bayley, N. (1955) "On the growth of intelligence," American Psychologist, 10, 805, Dec.

Burts, Diane C.; Hart, Craig H.; Charlesworth, Rosalind; DeWolf, D. Michele; Ray, Jeanette; Manuel, Karen; & Fleege, Pamela O. (1993). "Developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programs and academic outcomes in first grade." Journal Of Research In Childhood Education, 8 (1), 23-31. EJ 493-673.

Cooper, J.H. An Early Childhood Special Education Primer. Chapel Hill, NC: Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), 1981.

Narrative My Relationship With Reading
Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15858757
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I made standard cooing and crying noises as the situation warranted, but I never even appeared to be trying to sound out words even under encouragement (again, I have to take the word of my parents and siblings on this, as I was far too young to remember any of it). Urgings of "Say Mommy!" were rewarded, I am told, with smiles and coos, but no apparent understanding of what was being asked of me or any indication that I knew how to consciously produce sounds vocally that had any meaning to anyone else.

Then, pretty much overnight (as my mother tells it), I began speaking in complete sentences. I went from appearing developmentally challenged to speaking as well as or better than an average toddler without really going through any of the preliminary steps. One day, I couldn't be pressed into saying "mama," and the next I was lucidly…

Small Company and Brand From Scratch Owner
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small company and brand from scratch. Owner is a woman from outh America, with limited knowledge about business. he decides to go to college to learn economics while growing the company. Company produces organic products with raw material imported from outh America

ome problems: Import and customs problems, branding problems, trademark problems happened

Company establishes good reputation, solid returning customers thanks to the knowledge and strategies the owner learned in college

Discuss: Education helps but are there any other factors contributing the result?

There is a poem entitled "All I really need to know I learned from kindergarten" (Robert Fulghum) with the poet's shrift being that education plays only an insignificant part to success. There have been many business tycoons who have never graduated -- or even attended business school and been enormously successful, Henry Ford being one of them. And numerous others -- graduates of the Ivy Leagues --…


Daniel Goleman (1998) Working with Emotional Intelligence Bantam, USA

John Gottman (1997) Raising an Emotionally Intelligent Child. Simon & Schuster; USA

Robert Fulghum All I Really Need To Know I Learned In Kindergarten

Low Cost at Three Cost-Effective
Words: 1336 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16289036
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One of the challenges in determining A solutions for Amos is the lack of resources, both human and material, in the poor, rural district where he attends school.

Before Amos entered kindergarten in the fall, a team of educators met with Amos's parents to begin putting together an Individualized Education Plan (IEP). In attendance at the meeting were the kindergarten teacher, special education teacher, the school principal, the speech-language pathologist, and the school psychologist. he occupational therapist was unavailable for meeting. here are two grade schools and a middle school in the district; the three schools share the services of the O, speech-language pathologist and school psychologist (who is responsible for testing).

Amos is perhaps the most severely autistic student ever to attend his school. he speech-language pathologist, a recent hire, has considerable experience with children with autism because of previous work experience in a larger district. he rest of…

These are the most immediate needs seen by the AT team. As Amos progresses through kindergarten and the rest of his public education, team members will have the challenge of continually seeking solutions to meet the needs of Amos at any particular time. Because of his developmental age and lack of verbal ability, it is difficult to measure just how much Amos knows and how capable he will be in academics. His needs will evolve and AT solutions will have to evolve with him. The biggest challenge is not knowing for certain what will work until the solution is tried.


Beard, L.A., Carpenter, L.B., & Johnston, L. (2011). Assistive technology: Access for all students. 2e Kindle edition. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill.

Ed Transitions When Designing a
Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88343658
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While it is important for an educator to get to know a child through direct experience, it is necessary to get some background information from parents and others who have worked with the child, both to provide continuity and to gain a deeper understanding of the child's accomplishments, strengths and needs. Special educators and classroom teachers must likewise communicate in developing a transition plan for a student. For example, if the student spends time in the regular classroom, the teacher should share lesson plans with the special educator and discuss modifications. Likewise, f the student is pulled out for special services, modified lessons taught by special educators will help prepare the student for transition back to the regular classroom and help keep the student from feeling too isolated from peers.

osemary Karr, a professor of developmental mathematics at Collin College (Plano, TX), believes that the developmental educator must be a…


Barblett, L., Barratt-Pugh, C., Kilgallon, P., and Maloney, C. (2011). Transition from long day care to kindergarten: Continuity or not? Australasian Journal of Early Childhood

36(2), pp. 42-50. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.

Diaz, C.R. (2010). Transitions in developmental education: An interview with Rosemary Karr.

Journal of Developmental Education 34(1), pp. 20-25. Retrieved from Academic

Academic Profile of Home Schoolers a Case Study
Words: 16937 Length: 62 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 56680433
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Academic Profile of Home Schooling - a Case Study

Home Schooling vs. Traditional Educational Methods

Home Schooling Methodology

Focus of the Practicum


Area of Inquiry

Subject/Topic Areas

Home Schooling as an Alternative

Curricula and Materials Used for Home Schooling

The Success of Home Schooling

Evaluation Design

Conditions for Change



Legislative Information:

Maryland: A Legal Analysis

State Laws and Regulations - Maryland

Goulart and Travers vs. Calvert County

Home-schooled Kids Find Social Growth"

Home Schoolers in the Trenches"

Home School Academic Advantage Increases Over Time"

Home Schooling." ERIC Digest, Number 95.


The Academic Profile of Home Schoolers

Case Study

The focus of this applied dissertation proposal is to examine and analyze home school families' academic environment, the institutional materials they use, and to gain an understanding of their academic success.

Prince George's County Public School System is the nineteenth largest school system in the nation with a…


Monticello, IL.

Buchanan, Jim (1984). Home Instruction: A Growing Alternative to Public Schools. Monticello, IL.

Lande, Nancy (2000). Home school Open House: Interviews with 55 Home schooling Families. Bozeman, MT

Waring, Bill and Diane (1999). Emerald Books: A look back on what they learned along the way by veteran home schooling parents of varying approaches.

High Quality Preschool Fellow Citizens
Words: 2527 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99915657
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" And the third category was, c) a combination of the two earlier-mentioned approaches, with "early childhood education services provided in centers supplemented by parental education delivered in the same setting" or through visits by teachers into the homes.

hat were the verified benefits of these RAND-surveyed programs? At least one of the following "domains" showed benefits that were demonstrated to be "significant" and/or "sizable"; "cognition and academic achievement"; "emotional and behavioral "competencies"; "educational progression and attainment"; "child maltreatment"; health, delinquency and crime; social welfare programs; and "labor market successes."

The evidence from RAND's research indicated that longer-lasting benefits from high quality preschool opportunities include "substantial gains in outcomes" such as quality special education placement and grade retention; improved high school graduation rates; reduced crime incidents; job success; and also, parents often benefit in their own lives and careers from early intervention programs for their children.

Effective preschool programs also…

Works Cited

Capizzano, Jeffrey, & Main, Regan. (2005). Many Young Children Spend Long Hours in Child

Care. Urban Institute, Retrieved June 5, 2006, at .

Hodgkinson, Harold L. (2003). Leaving Too Many Children Behind: A Demographer's View

On the Neglect of America's Youngest Children. The Institute for Educational Leadership,

Goldenberg Et Al 2001 and Titled Cause
Words: 1202 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48342686
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Goldenberg, et al. (2001), and titled "Cause or effect? A longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents' aspirations and expectations of their children's school performance." (p. 547). The authors collected data using the longitudinal study from randomly selected immigrant Latino families whose children were mostly born in the United States. The research used the mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research, and the authors tracked N= 121 families of schools children in two Los Angeles school area districts, and the families of the children were tracked from "kindergarten to sixth grade." (Goldenberg, et al. 2001, p 547),

The procedures used in the research are by randomly selecting N= 32 families for the case study and the interviews were conducted for the families "10 times between the time their children were admitted into kindergarten and completed 6th grade." (Goldenberg, et al. 2001 p 554). The interviews were conducted within three years…


Goldenberg, C., Gallimore, R., Reese, L., et al. (2001). Cause or effect? A longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents' aspirations and expectations of their children's school performance. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 547-582.

Special Education From the Standpoint of the
Words: 4060 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5653440
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special education from the standpoint of the students' parents. The writer explores the opinions on the accessibility and quality of special education afforded their children in Massachusetts. The writer examines the opinions through the use of research project that is proposed here. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.

For the last four decades the nation has been steadily working to improve the special education system within its public schools. A Supreme Court decision in the 1960's mandated that special education children be given many more services than they had in the past and that they receive that education within the least restrictive learning environment possible. Over the last four decades as these changes have taken place there have been many articles published on the changes, and the success or failure of those changes. Massachussets has enjoyed the cutting edge of special education reform with prototype programs as…

Childhood Prejudices
Words: 1953 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45240383
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Childhood Prejudice

In an experiment, a Caucasian girl named Morgan was shown pictures of two girls - one white and one black.

hen asked who was smarter, Morgan pointed to the white girl. She was then shown a picture of a white and a black boy and was asked who threw garbage on the floor. She then pointed to the black boy (Stern-LaRosa and Bettman 2000).

Morgan is only three years old.

The experiment shows how early prejudice can affect people's perceptions, and the various negative ways in which they are manifested.

Morgan, however, is far from a lost cause. Experts agree that children often look to adults for guidance, and that there are many strategies to help children like Morgan work through their attitudes towards difference.

Definitions of prejudice

Studies of prejudice and discrimination usually center on a group of common ideas. Most experts begin with stereotypes, which are…

Works Cited

Cohen, Warren. 1999. "Sticks and stones." U.S. News and World Report. March 1, 1999, p. 61.

Doyle, Anne B. And Frances Aboud. 1995. "A Longitudinal Study of White Children's Racial Prejudice as a Social-Cognitive Development." Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 4(2): 209-228.

Powlishta, Kimberly et al. 1994. "Gender, Ethnic, and Body Type Biases: The Generality of Prejudice in Childhood." Developmental Psychology, 30(4): 526-536.

Stern-Larosa, Caryl and Ellen Hofheimer Bettmann. 2000. Hate Hurts: How Children Learn and Unlearn Prejudice. New York: Scholastic.

Phonemics and Its Assessment
Words: 1643 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66286153
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employed in case of a phonemic lesson plan, are discussed. Each assessment's suitability, pros as well as cons are discussed. Charting and data capture are also dealt with.

Assessment of lesson plan

Phonemic Awareness Assessment (Professional Development-Phonemic Awareness Assessment)

Stage of Literacy Development

Characteristics of This Stage

Phonological Focus Areas



Has partial knowledge of the alphabet

Inability to match voice with print (word concept)

No connection between sound and symbol in spelling (later in this step, may start with beginning or salient sounds)

Learned eadiness-nursery rhymes, preprimary 1 text




Awareness of Word

Awareness of Syllable



Can accurately track print

Employs knowledge of letter-sound for word deciphering

Development of sight vocabulary

Consistent use of starting and ending sounds while spelling words; also, learning digraphs, and medial vowels

Learned Preprimary-Primer text

Combining, manipulating and segmenting:




Early Instructional


Has large sight vocabulary…


(n.d.). Bright Hub Education Provides Teaching Tips & Lesson Plans, Homework Help & Study Guides, Homeschooling Advice & Much More. Pros and Cons of Dibels Reading Assessment. Retrieved June 25, 2015, from 

(n.d.). Emat634languageandliteracy [licensed for non-commercial use only] / EMAT634-LANGUAGE and LITERACY. Yopp - Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation. Retrieved June 25, 2015, from 

(n.d.). Homepage - ReadWriteThink. Building Phonemic Awareness With Phoneme Isolation - ReadWriteThink. Retrieved June 25, 2015, from 

(n.d.). Official DIBELS Home Page: UO DIBELS Data System. Training: UO DIBELS Data System. Retrieved June 25, 2015, from

Childhood Stress Between a Touchy
Words: 1992 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 23301403
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" (p. 420).

A study conducted by ekert et al. (2007) examined the following variables for 234 college students:

both mother and father care and overprotection, participant gender, family environment variables including conflict and control, adult attachment variables, attributional style and control-related cognitive variables, and symptoms of anxiety and depression.

The results of the study confirmed other studies' results regarding the impact of overprotection. As was found with the other studies, overprotection resulted in anxiety and depression among college students.


This paper has shown the detrimental effects of overprotective parenting. Overprotective parenting results from a desire from parents trying to maintain psychological control their children. This may be a result of the parents own anxieties which creates worrisome parenting. Parents attempt to protect their children from experiencing stress. However, in this attempt parents are actually creating many harmful effects. These effects may begin prior to birth and be exhibited…


Chorpita, B.F., & Barlow, DH (1998). The development of anxiety: The role of control in the early environment. Psychological Bulletin, 124(1), 3-21. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.124.1.3

Coplan, R.J., Arbeau, K.A., & Armer, M. (2008). Don't fret, be supportive! maternal characteristics linking child shyness to psychosocial and school adjustment in kindergarten Springer Science & Business Media. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9183-7

Giotakos, O. (2002). Parenting received in childhood and early separation anxiety in male conscripts with adjustment disorder Association of Military Surgeons of the United States. Retrieved from 

Hortrum, P., (1994). The age of anxiety (1994). Psychology Today. Retrieved from

Socio Dramatic Play in Early
Words: 2354 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 5953260
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At the same time, the pet shop influence should also be measured in terms of who takes the lead and who comes with the new play ideas.

3) the children will be placed in an environment where they can be exposed to elements from reality that can easily be taken into their dramatic play. One will favor elements to which children are susceptible at this age: puppets, dogs and pets in general, cartoons characters etc. Most likely, the best choice is something that will contain both a puppet theater (especially since puppets are inanimate objects) and a pet shop, due to the behavior of children with pets and the capacity to analyze how they will be integrating both the animals and the actual pet shop activity into their dramatic play.

4) the trips to the puppet theater and the pet shop will not be done during the same day. For…


Berk, L.E., and a. Winsler. 1995. Scaffolding children's learning: Vygotsky and early education. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children

Byrne, M., K. Deerr, and L.G. Kropp. 2003. Book a play date: The game of promoting emergent literacy. American Libraries 34(8): 42-44

Dickinson, David K., & Tabors, Patton O. (2001). Beginning literacy with language. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Katz, Jane R. (2001). Playing at home: The talk of pretend play. In David K. Dickinson & Patton O. Tabors (Eds.), Beginning literacy with language (pp. 53-74). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes

Young African-American Men Despite the Election of
Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11602278
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Young, African-American men

Despite the election of an African-American man to the presidency, young African-American men still suffer disproportionately from a number of social ills. This is most strikingly manifest in the disproportionate number of young black men in the nation's prisons, the evident disparities between the performance of African-Americans and whites manifest within the educational system, and the disproportionate difficulties young African-American males experience in finding gainful employment.

Although only 13% of the nation is African-American, 49% of prison inmates nationally are African -American. A black male born in 1991 has a 29% chance of spending time in prison at some point in his life, while the chance for a white male is less than one percent. The chance for a Hispanic man is 16% (Mauer 2011). The reasons for this are debatable: a culture of criminality within urban enclaves that normalize delinquent behavior may be partially the cause…


ACA Code of Ethics. (2005). Retrieved July 22, 2011 at 

Barbarin, Oscar. (2011). Ready or not: African-American males in kindergarden. UNC-Chapel

Hill. Retrieved July 22, 2011 at 

Fellner, Jamie. (2009). Decades of disparity: Drug arrests and race in the United States.

Ethnography of Special Needs Preschool Children
Words: 1806 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78853558
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LABB School

I chose the LABB School because it seems so innovative. They have a preschool program designed for children with special needs, but they also enroll children with no difficulties. Because of this, preschoolers who attend The LABB School get both specialized services and the normality of attending preschool with children who have no disabilities. I was very curious to see how The LABB School makes this concept work.

When I went in I expected to see the children with disabilities separated in some way from the children without disabilities. I also wanted to know how well both groups progressed. I observed in detail and interviewed a teacher, an occupational therapist and a teacher aid to gather information. I did not ask to interview a parent.

The LABB School is spacious and set against woods. The rooms are airy and bright. They have a playground that is brightly colored…

Culture of My Workplace a
Words: 1021 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31395265
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Many of these misgivings turned out to be untrue, and teachers found they could monitor the students using the computers with little difficulty. Now, it would seem unusual to find a schoolroom without at least one computer, but then, it was different, and change was met with resistance and even alarm by some of the teachers.

More recently, there has been an increased interest in the community to change kindergarten to a full-day instead of a half-day concept. Many of the staff and the teachers are not happy about this concept, and do not want their classrooms to change from half-day to full-day. They cite a variety of arguments, noting that these young students are too young for a full day of instruction, to their own resistance to working with 5-year-olds to a full day. Because there is also some resistance from the community, the teachers are also using this…


Rossman, G.B. "Change and Effectiveness in Schools -- a Cultural Perspective."

Use of Technology to Support ADD and ADHD Learners K-8
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nology to Support ADD and ADHD Learners (K-8)

Research Paper

November 6, 2005

Use of Technology to Support ADD and ADHD Learners (K-8)


The student with AD/HD is one that requires more specialized and individualized instruction. Technological possibilities present great potential in providing these instructional needs for the AD/HD learner. Technology implemented in the school and in the classroom is critically dependent upon collaboration in development and implementation which is inclusive of the participation of students, teachers, parents and the community at large. Some of these technological methods that are included in the curriculum are use of video, networking, PDAs, email, Internet access and other various technologies. The objective of this work is the research and review of technologies that have been effective as well as ineffective and finally the technologies that offer new promise to the teaching and learning initiative for students with disabilities in learning such as…

Works Cited 00- [HIDDEN] -291 4-01 2M.

ADHD: Interventions for Elementary School Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (2005) Online available at: 

SNR Network Resources Copyright 2005

Scooped as Many Facts as
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95673098
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In 2000, only 63% of students in the United States were enrolled in full-day kindergarten programs in both public and private systems, compared with 25% in 1979. 12 states require half-day kindergarten, 11 require none whatsoever, and the rest require some form of "full-day" kindergarten that extends between four and six hours each day during the child's fifth year of age, teaching the standard education basics of letters, basic arithmetic, spatial skills, and social relations necessary to garner the education premises of the First Grade. Others still offer universal pre-kindergarten, pioneered by Georgia. 5 states - Maine, New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Florida - require some form of Pre-Kindergarten for all students. 85% of American students attend public school, the rest go through either parochial or private systems. By the end of high school, most students have met the requirements to graduate, and 80.4% of Americans retain high school diplomas.…

While the differences between the United States education system and that of Australia are abundant, the most obvious difference in how students are taught is the standard timeframe. Because of the hemispheric separation, Australian students of all ages attend school with the first semester beginning in February and the second in July; by contrast, American students begin an academic year in September, resume it in January, and conclude it in June, before the second term in Australia has even begun. Yet, time frames are just the tip of the iceberg; teaching strategies, organizational differences, and education expectations greatly alter the models of systems used in both locales.

In the United States, children are required to be enrolled in school from the ages of six to sixteen, but in many states, the entrance age is far younger. The highly decentralized system allows for individual states to determine their own requirements for education so long as they comply with the newly introduced No Child Left Behind testing act, and some states require that children begin school with Kindergarten - typically at five years of age and operated in half and full day formats - while others only start with First Grade. In 2000, only 63% of students in the United States were enrolled in full-day kindergarten programs in both public and private systems, compared with 25% in 1979. 12 states require half-day kindergarten, 11 require none whatsoever, and the rest require some form of "full-day" kindergarten that extends between four and six hours each day during the child's fifth year of age, teaching the standard education basics of letters, basic arithmetic, spatial skills, and social relations necessary to garner the education premises of the First Grade. Others still offer universal pre-kindergarten, pioneered by Georgia. 5 states - Maine, New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Florida - require some form of Pre-Kindergarten for all students. 85% of American students attend public school, the rest go through either parochial or private systems. By the end of high school, most students have met the requirements to graduate, and 80.4% of Americans retain high school diplomas. 24.4% continued on to a four-year college from which they attained a bachelor's degree or pursued education higher than that.

As the states have control in the United States, the primary responsibility for funding education in Australia is left to the states and territories. The Australian government denotes its educational systems as non-governmental and governmental, with the latter the equivalent to the American public system. Overall, more students attend private ("public") schools in Australia than in the United States, with only 68% of students are enrolled in government schools. Of the 32% in non-governmental schooling, the Australian government estimates that two/thirds of the students are enrolled in catholic schools. Unlike America, new educational policy in Australia

Early Literacy in Preschool Development
Words: 820 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8141559
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Language and Literacy Development of Head Start Children: A Study Using the Family and Child Experiences Survey Database." The report opens with a description of the Head Start program, established in 1965, and sums up their goal: to provide a comprehensive development program for low socioeconomic status (SES) children and their families.

In 1995 it was decided to evaluate the Head Start program's quality and effectiveness. To that end, the study defined a conceptual model that defined school readiness in terms of five developmental domains:

Physical well-being and motor development

Social and emotional development

Approaches to learning

Language usage and emerging literacy

Cognition and general knowledge

The Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) was then developed to provide information about Head Start children and their families, and to gather data about the program. The study included four cohorts for collection periods 1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006, with each cohort consisting…

Functional Literacy Activities What Are Some Examples
Words: 2109 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95972034
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functional literacy activities? What are some examples?

Functional literacy activities refer to activities that focus on reading or writing in direct connection to actual tasks that can be easily applied or used in the real world. For example, functional literary activities might involve reading street signs, reading maps or drafting a grocery list.

What are ways to share literature with young children? What are important factors to consider when selecting literature to share and stocking classroom libraries? What are some effective story-reading strategies (read-alouds and shared reading)?

One way to share literature with young children would be to present it in the most dynamic and hands on approach possible. For example, using puppets or dolls or figurines when presenting a new book to students can be a way to help engage students' minds and imagination. Or dynamic follow-up activities which relate to the text can also be used with success:…


Golembeski, K. (2013). Preparing for Kindergarten Begins the Year Before. Retrieved from (2013, January). Shared Writing. Retrieved from (2003). What's the difference among phonological awareness, phonemic. Retrieved from