Motivate Private Kindergarten Teachers the Objective of Essay

Excerpt from Essay :

Motivate Private Kindergarten Teachers

The objective of this work in writing is to conduct a review of literature in the area of motivation and specific to motivation of teachers in private kindergartens. Towards this end, this study will examine motivation and specifically employee motivation as well as kindergarten and the previous research on private kindergarten.


Motivation is defined as "the act or an instance of motivating, or providing with a reason to act in a certain way" or the "state or condition of being motivated" or finally, as "something that motivates." (, 2012) The work of Cherry (nd) states that motivation can be defined as "the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. Motivation is what causes us to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce third or reading a book to gain knowledge." (p.1) Motivation is reported as involving the "biological, emotional, social, and cognitive forces that activate behavior." (Cherry, nd, p.1)

Private Kindergarten

The work of Alt and Peter (2002) entitled "Private Schools: A Brief Portrait" reports that private schools are those owned and governed by entities that are independent of any government -- typically, religious bodies or independent boards of trustees. Private schools also receive funding primarily from nonpublic sources: tuition payments and often other private sources, such as foundations, religious bodies, alumni, or other private donors. In contrast, state and local education agencies (districts) and publicly elected or appointed school boards govern public schools." (p.1)

Differences in Private and Public School Teaching

The work of Kyriakou (2012) compares private and public school teaching and states "based on a number of variables, such as educational standards, teachers' training and funding. For instance, public schools from K-12 generally follow standards set by local, state and federal governments, and rely on these governments for funding. Private schools, on the other hand, set their own educational standards, and are funded by tuition, alumni, grants and endowments. In terms of teacher training, public schools require educators to complete an accredited, state credentialing program. Private schools may or may not require credentials, and set their own teacher qualifications." (p.1)

Importance of Job Satisfaction

The work of Ololube (nd) notes that the "relevance of job satisfaction and motivation are very crucial to the long-term growth of any educational system around the world. They probably rank alongside professional knowledge and skills, center competencies, educational resources and strategies as the veritable determinants of educational success and performance." (p.1)

Differences in Public and Private Sector

The work entitled "Teacher -- Different Kinds of, Different Varieties, Preschool and Kindergartens, Elementary Schools, Secondary Schools, Special Educations" reports that kindergarten teachers are similar to preschool teachers in that "they work with young children. Some of these children have attended preschool, so they have learned what it is like to spend time in a classroom. For others, kindergarten is their first real experience with school. That means teachers must be prepared to work with children who have different levels of knowledge and social skills. Those who are shy or afraid require more of a teacher's time, until they become comfortable around other children." (CTI, nd) Elaine Kuegler, kindergarten teacher cites her largest challenge being to "help her students excel in tasks they feel they cannot do, as well as the tasks they enjoy." (CTI, nd) Kuegler states that it is challenging to "keep the advanced students busy and interested while she helps other learn basic math and reading skills." (CTI, nd)

Motivation: Pecuniary and Non-Pecuniary Factors

The work of Khan (nd) reports that teacher motivation is "determined by both pecuniary and non-pecuniary factors. Pay levels and other material benefits must be sufficient to meet basic human needs (food, clothing, housing, transportation, healthcare, education, and training) However, overall job satisfaction among teachers is also strongly determined by higher order emotional and social needs, most notably professional self-esteem, job security, interpersonal relations at work (between teachers, education managers, pupils and parents/committees), opportunities for career progression, the working environment, the workload and productivity/learning outcomes." (Khan, nd) Also stated as a factor is that of the level of accountability of teachers to their school managers, pupils, parents and wider community." (Khan, nd) Outcomes of low motivation among teachers is such as "high absenteeism and poor teaching quality." (Khan, nd) High attrition is reported among teachers in the private sector while among public sector teachers there is reported to be "high absenteeism due to weak accountability systems." (Khan, nd)

Case Study

The study reported involved a four-member team conducting the study on motivation and incentives for teachers in public and private schools. The study identified competence, motivation, and opportunity as the three core areas that impact teacher performance and four spheres of interaction were identified including the teacher, the school, local management and policy." (Khan, nd) Findings in the study report that key motivational factors are those of "recruitment, postings, transfers, and promotions." (Khan, nd) The prime cause of teacher de-motivation is reported to be that of an inadequate salary. (Khan, nd)

Job Satisfaction Linked to Motivation

The work of Shah, et al. (2012) entitled "Job Satisfaction and Motivation of Teachers in Public Educational Institutions" reports that job satisfaction "refers to the individual matching of personal needs to the perceived potential of the occupation for satisfying those needs. (p.272) Additionally stated in the work of Shat et al. (2012) is ." Job satisfaction is an extent to which employee feels positively or negatively about different aspects of job e.g. job conditions, timing, structure, compensation, tasks, and relationship with co-workers and responsibilities (Omme et al., 2009; Spector, 1997; Williams, 2004). Employee's satisfaction results in pleasant environment in an organization (Khan et al., 2011). Pay is thought to be a key factor behind job satisfaction besides promotion, recognition, job involvement and commitment. Job satisfaction is a feeling of an employee about his job (Kamal & Hanif, 2009)."

Rewards, Recognition and Job Satisfaction

The work of Ali and Ahmed (2009) are reported to have confirmed "the strong positive effects of rewards and recognition on job motivation and satisfaction." (cited in Shah, et al., 2012) Also reported in the work of Shah (2012) is "Same applied with the findings of Katou (2008) who stated that motivation and job performance of employees can be increased considerably if more attention is given on employees reward and their recognition (Satisfaction, motivation, knowledge, collaboration with partners and colleagues, dedications, holding and participation may be in the order of the most important aspects of human resource management results." (p.273)

Performance is reported in the work of Shah et al. As being such that "can be judged through a single yard stick and that is behavioral dimensions of an employee. There are no rules by which unusually good actions could be gauged and it can be pleasant behavior, helping colleagues or punctuality. Considering recognition, it can be said that it is an important factor affecting employee motivation. Recognition is a public expression of appreciation given by a group to individuals who undertake desired behaviors." (p.274)

Effective Supervision

The work of Predergast (2002) is reported to relate that another factor that is assumed to have an impact on job satisfaction "is effective supervision. The caliber of the leaders and supervisors has an effect on the working environment of the school." (p.274) The theory stated in the work of Shah, et al. (2012) is that satisfaction and motivation states that workers satisfaction depends on their need fulfillment." (p.274) Herzberg et al. (1959) is reported to have conducted different studies to determine the factors that enhance satisfaction and dissatisfaction among white-collar workers and states findings that the factors causing satisfaction are different from the factors contribute dissatisfaction. He termed factors associated with dissatisfaction as Hygiene factors such as Quality of supervision, Company policy and administration, Working conditions, Wages, salaries and other financial remuneration. On the other hand, employees showed satisfaction with the factors were named as Motivators such as Growth, Responsibility, Achievement, Advancement, Recognition and Work itself etc. Precisely factors affecting job satisfaction were comprised job content." (Shah, et al., 2012, p. 275)

The study reported by Shah et al. (2012) states the highest correlation observed was between "supervision and job satisfaction suggesting that when superiors handle the problems of subordinates and have care for them, then it ultimately foster satisfaction with jobs. Supervisor's consistency of behavior toward subordinates, showing concern for their career progression, team oriented and cooperative can influence employees? attitude in a way that they start enjoying their jobs and also wish to spend their career in the organization they are attached with. In nutshell, responses indicate that most of the teachers feel moral obligations to remain committed to their institution due to positive supervision." (Shah, et al., 2012)

Reported as a high relationship between reward and recognition and job satisfaction. The study reveals that if reward and recognition systems "are transparent then it establishes loyalty for the institution in a way that teachers perceive the problems of the institution as their own." (Shah, et al., 2012)…

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