But in the 30s, most waves of Korean migrants came in because of the policy of forced conscription. Japan's economy rapidly improved at the time and there was a huge demand for labor. This and industrialization led to the creation of a Japanese national mobilization plan. This plan, in turn, led to the conscription of roughly 600,000 Koreans. Japan's military forces continued to expand and the government had to regular the increase in the Korean population. They were required to carry an identification card. In 1942, the government promised them equal citizenship if they extended their work contracts. They became eligible to vote, run for public office and serve in election committees. Conscription was implemented in the same year. Despite official political equality, Korean inferiority remained prevalent. Yet they were expected to observe and practice Japanese culture as a condition to political equality (Minorities at Risk). These Koreans in Japan received political support from the government of South Korea and, in some way or extent, also from the government of North Korea. These groups cried out to the government of Japan for support and for these Koreans to become an authentic part of Japanese society. Aspects of their demand included greater participation in the political process, improved economic opportunities of employment, higher paying job opportunities, and access to better education for their children. These were calls for equal civil rights. One more demand was the preservation of their native culture, language and peculiar way of life. Koreans in Japan also needed protection from right-wing Japanese attackers (Minorities at Risk).
With the defeat of Japan during the Second World War, the U.S. administration in Japan had wanted to treat the Koreans as Japanese nationals (Minorities at Risk 2003). In 1946, American official policy stated that those who refused repatriation had to come under the jurisdiction of Japanese law. They again lost their right to vote despite their payment of Japanese federal taxes. In 1948, Korean schools were compelled to use Japanese textbooks and the Japanese language.
Many of the Korean schools refused to implement the Japanese. Schools, which refused to follow, were abolished. In the latter part of 1946, Japanese authorities ordered city resident Koreans to register and bring in their identification card with their picture and fingerprints. The Koreans protested. Implementation of the policy was thus delayed to 1955. The most turbulent issue between the Koreans minority and the Japanese government was on fingerprinting at the time. They refused to submit to fingerprinting from 1978 to 1980. Those who protested were often fined or imprisoned. The Japanese authorities were themselves in disagreement over the matter. The Foreign Affairs and Home Affairs ministries favored the abolition of the fingerprinting policy. The Justice ministry and police, on the other hand, stressed the importance of controlling illegal immigration and communist moves. Many local governments also disfavored the policy. The fingerprinting policy was eventually abolished after a series of reforms was introduced after negotiations in South Korea were held in 1991 (Minorities at Risk).
Although they were not a cohesive group, the Koreans were represented by many organizations, which lobbied for changes and improvement in the lives of the Korean population (Minorities at Risk 2003). They wanted to raise the level of awareness of the issues in all levels of society. These groups included human rights organizations and Korean associations. These Korean associations included the Korean Residents Union in Japan, Chogyon, Chosen Soren and Mindan. These ...
On account of their small population, there have hardly been reports of militant activity by Korean residents in Japan (Minorities at Risk 2003). They, however, conducted a few actions. It lobbied the government in the 90s against the disadvantaged treatment they have suffered from. They also held demonstrations and rallies against violence and the lack of acceptance shown them by the Japanese society as a whole (Minorities at Risk).
There are more than 650,000 Koreans living in Japan (Kichan 2001). Most of them are refugees and their descendants from the Korean Peninsula, driven to Japan during the colonial period. In Japan, they experience severe discrimination. Discrimination has provided a base for setting the ethnic boundaries for the first and second generation Koreans in Japan. But recently, the third and fourth generations have accounted for roughly 40% of the population. These young people's sensitivity to discrimination has also been lessened because most of them and their predecessors have been assimilated into the mainstream Japanese culture. Younger generation Koreans in Japan now find it quite difficult to distinguish themselves from the totally Japanese and the Japanese culture itself (Kichan).
Koreans who found their way into Japan and its culture have a full range of disadvantages suffered in the hand of their colonizer. But those in the current fourth generation can hardly feel the suffering and hardly discern the difference between what is Korean and what is Japanese.
Alvin, Koh Zhongwei. Koreans in Japan. National University of Singapore: NUS
History Society E-Journal, 2003.
Kichan Song. The Appearance of "Young Koreans in Japan" and the Emergence of a New Type of Ethnic Education. Vol 9 237-253. Kyodo University: Kyodo Journal of Sociology, 2001
Kyodo. Jong Raps Japan for Historical Crime Against Koreans. Asian Political News.
Kyodo News International, 2000
Minorities at Risk. Risk Assessment…
These Koreans in Japan received political support from the government of South Korea and, in some way or extent, also from the government of North Korea. These groups cried out to the government of Japan for support and for these Koreans to become an authentic part of Japanese society. Aspects of their demand included greater participation in the political process, improved economic opportunities of employment, higher paying job opportunities, and access to better education for their children. These were calls for equal civil rights. One more demand was the preservation of their native culture, language and peculiar way of life. Koreans in Japan also needed protection from right-wing Japanese attackers (Minorities at Risk).
economic interdependence among North Asian states overcoming historical animosities and improving their political relationships? The tendency to speak of "Asia" as a homogenous region in the West should not erase the memory of the deep historical animosities that have existed within the area. In the past, Japan has been an aggressor against both China and Korea. Recently, Japan has felt threatened by China's size and economic and territorial ambitions and
Still those who stayed in the Los Angeles area formed in solidarity Koreatown even though many were brutalized as being seen connected to the Japanese (Kim and Yu par. 5). During this time, settling in the United States meant many benefits to the Korean-American. It meant they no longer had to put up with Japanese imposed laws where traditional Korean language and culture was prohibited. In many cases, they could
Another consequence of the exploitative use of water resources is the destruction of mangrove forests and the fragmentation of the habitats of endangered species. The United Nations Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna listed 189 endangered species in China among the 740 in the world. Sand content is quite high in the Yellow River. In the dry season, sand rises and flies up with the
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus) Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy The "Chinese Model" of Investment The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework Operational Views The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus Trading with the Enemy Act Export Control Act. Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act Category B Category C The 1974 Trade Act. The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy The World Views and China (Beijing consensus) Expatriates The Managerial Practices Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus) China and western world: A comparison The China (Beijing
Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might Be Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises
NAFTA Historical Beginning of NAFTA (with specific bibliography) NAFTA Objectives What is NAFTA The Promise of NAFTA NAFTA Provisions Structure of NAFTA Years of NAFTA (NAFTA not enough, other plus and minuses).. Environmental Issues Comparative Statements (Debate) NAFTA - Broken Promises NAFTA - Fact Sheet Based Assessment NAFTA & Food Regulation NAFTA - The Road Ahead NAFTA in Numbers Goal Fulfillment Major Milestones Consolidated Bibliography This study set out to examine the inner workings of the North American Free Trade Agreement. The aim of this study is