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S. begins to spend billions on GDP, carbon credits and control devices and positive climate change progresses only slowly (Wojick, 2002).
In 2004 an international ad hoc Detection and Attribution Group looked at "natural drivers such as solar variability and volcanic activity" and decided that a large part of the entire warming trend over the past 50 years could be attributed to GHG increases, which backs up the IPC hird Assessment Report, concluding that "most of the global warming over the past 50 years is likely due to the increase in greenhouse gases" (IAHDAG, 2005, 1291-1314).
In 1999, MI did a study on the effects of the Kyoto Protocol on climate change and found that "a strategy for controlling multiple gases associated with greenhouse warming could reduce control costs by over 60%" compared with just controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) alone (Science Daily, 1999). Science Daily also has published an article…
The Kyoto Protocol includes a "flexible mechanism" which allows under-compensating economies to meet their limitations by purchasing GreenHouse Gas (GHG) emission reductions from those who have overcompensated and have excess allowances. These are called "carbon credits." To produce carbon credits for sale is desirable, compared to being obligated to purchase them because a country is producing too many GHG emissions (EIA, 1998). In the United States, because of the Kyoto Protocol, actual GDP losses are projected to "range from $102 to $437 billion dollars in 2010." Prices of offsets and carbon credits will skyrocket among those nations in the Annex I sector, setting the stage for a failure of the entire project. Seeing how as the effects on climate so far have been negligible, it is not hard to imagine how frustrating it is going to become when the U.S. begins to spend billions on GDP, carbon credits and control devices and positive climate change progresses only slowly (Wojick, 2002).
In 2004 an international ad hoc Detection and Attribution Group looked at "natural drivers such as solar variability and volcanic activity" and decided that a large part of the entire warming trend over the past 50 years could be attributed to GHG increases, which backs up the IPC Third Assessment Report, concluding that "most of the global warming over the past 50 years is likely due to the increase in greenhouse gases" (IAHDAG, 2005, 1291-1314).
In 1999, MIT did a study on the effects of the Kyoto Protocol on climate change and found that "a strategy for controlling multiple gases associated with greenhouse warming could reduce control costs by over 60%" compared with just controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) alone (Science Daily, 1999). Science Daily also has published an article stating the recent climate change might be attributable to the past 150 years, in which humans have released increasing quantities of GHG into earth's atmosphere, leading to increases in mean temperature. The IPCC has made the statement that "The balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate." This is in reference to British law in which a certain amount of proof is necessary to place the fact into a realm "beyond reasonable doubt." The problem with the arguments whether or not GHGs actually affect climate is that it is still too early to tell what is going to happen when GHGs are removed. It has taken humans 150 years to get to the point where the earth's atmosphere has
The Court recognized the practical effect of having certain nations applying the Union standard in regard to an environmental protection and others not applying them. This recognition resulted in the Court's developing a principle to by-pass this discrepancy. This principle known as "the direct effect" has been applied by the Court in cases where the provisions of the directive are (i) sufficiently precise and clear, (ii) the alleged rights are unconditional, (iii) the provisions thoroughly define the legal relationship (implementation and application requirements), and, (iv) the time allowed to a Member State for implementation of the directive has expired. The practical effect of this application by the Court is to afford parties to any litigation the full legal rights set forth in the Union directive even though the specific nation involved has not enacted the directive as controlling law. Unfortunately, the Court of Justice has used the "direct effect" rule…
Alternatives to the Kyoto Protocol
The effort to bring about effective changes in energy policy worldwide began with the emergence of scientific evidence showing greenhouse gas concentrations and global surface temperatures had both increased over a geologically short period of time, to unprecedented levels within the last 20,000 years (Betsill, 107). This evidence fueled a series of conferences during the last half of the 20th century. Midway through this series the first target for reducing greenhouse gas emissions was defined in Toronto, Canada, at the 1988 orld Conference on the Changing Atmosphere (Betsill, 106). The "Toronto Target" set a goal of reducing worldwide CO2 emissions to 20% below 1988 levels by 2005.
The Toronto conference may have set the first goal for mitigating rising surface temperatures, but getting countries around the world to agree has been extremely difficult. The structure within which global negotiations for reducing greenhouse gas…
Betsill, Michele M. "Global Climate Change Policy: Making Progress or Spinning Wheels?" The Global Environment: Institutions, Law, and Policy, 2nd Edition. Eds. Regina S. Axelrod, David L. Downie, and Norman J. Vig. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Inc., 2005. 103-124. Print.
Hass, Peter M. "Forum: Climate Change Governance after Bali." Global Environmental Politics 8.3 (2008): 1-8. Print.
Victor, David G. "Toward Effective International Cooperation on Climate Change: Numbers, Interests and Institutions. Global Environmental Politics 6.3 (2006): 90-103. Print.
Increased agriculture, deforestation, landfills, industrial production, and mining also contribute a significant share of emissions. In 1997, the United States emitted about one-fifth of total global greenhouse gases.
Global average surface temperatures have increased 0.5-1.0°F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century. Of these, 1998 was the warmest year on record. Snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere and floating ice in the Arctic Ocean have decreased. Globally, sea level has risen 4-8 inches over the past century. Worldwide precipitation over land has increased by about one percent. The frequency of extreme rainfall events has increased throughout much of the United States. Scientists expect that the average global surface temperature could rise 1-4.5°F (0.6-2.5°C) in the next fifty years, and 2.2-10°F (1.4-5.8°C) in the next century. Evaporation will increase as the climate warms, which will…
Environmental Protection Agency http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/Climate.html
National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/globalwarming.html
"A basic principle Economics comparative advantage: a country produces goods producing, bad. The traditional story includes relative endowments capital labor, capital intensity goods matters. Now add environmental externalities.
Comparative advantage in emissions trading: The environment and economics
Although it was not signed by the United States, at the time of its drafting, the Kyoto Protocol was considered a major advancement in attempts to curb global warming by limiting emissions. However, the international agreement also brought the controversial practice of emissions trading of pollutions credits to the forefront of the concerns of the world environmental movement. "Emissions trading, as set out in Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol, allows countries that have emission units to spare - emissions permitted them but not 'used' - to sell this excess capacity to countries that are over their targets" (International emissions trading, 2013, Kyoto). In other words, 'cleaner' nations could sell their…
Emissions trading. (2013). ITEA. Retrieved from: http://www.ieta.org/emissions-trading
International emissions trading. (2013). Kyoto. Retrieved from:
Ramsey, M. (2013).Tesla earns $40 million selling pollution credits. The Wall Street Journal.
A version of this is already in existence in the 17-nation Major Economies Forum. This has been a model of decorum and progress compared with what the world saw unfold at the climate talks (Sarwar and Chesterman, 2009).
One country in particular that did not come away from Copenhagen 15 with any warm and fuzzy feelings was that of Canada. Canada's once good reputation as an international leader has been seriously damaged because of its repeated failure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). While many of the COP 15 countries have successfully managed to reduce emissions since 1990, Canada's GHG emissions have increased 26.2% over the same period (Elston, 2009). Canada has never before seen its international reputation sink so low, with environmental groups and officials from many countries accusing Canada of obstructing an urgently needed world treaty on climate change (Lalonde, 2009).
Most feel that Copenhagen 15 was a…
COP-15 Copenhagen Climate Conference. (2009). Retrieved January 23, 2010, from tcktcktck
Web site: http://tcktcktck.org/events/major-moments/cop-15-copenhagen-climate-conference
Decisions adopted by COP 15 and CMP 5. (2009). Retrieved January 23, 2010, from UNFCC
Web site: http://unfccc.int/meetings/cop_15/items/5257.php
Hungary is located in Central Europe, northwest of Romania (CIA 2012, EEA 2012). It measures 93,000 square kilometers. It is bordered by Romania, Croatia, Austria, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine. Its capital is udapest (CIA, EEA).
Hungary has a Republican form of government (FCO 2012). Its Constitution was adopted on April 18 last year and took effect in January this year. Its four branches of government are the executive, legislative, judicial and a Constitutional court. The President is the head of state. The Prime Minister is the head of government. A cabinet is also part of the executive branch. The legislative branch consists of a National Assembly of 386 members with a four-year term. The judicial branch is a Curia or a Supreme Court. The President since August 6, 2010 is Pal Schmitt and the Prime Minister since May 29, 2010 is Viktor Orban. Hungary has 19…
BEEA. Hungary. Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs: U.S. Department of State,
2012. Retrieved on March 24, 2012 from http://www.sate.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/36566.htm
CIA. Hungary. The World Fact Book: Central Intelligence Agency, 2012. Retrieved on March 24, 2012 from http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/hu.html
EOE. Hungary. The Encyclopedia of Earth: Central Intelligence Agency, 2012. Retrieved
Emissions trading programs as a means of achieving targets under the Kyoto Protocol
The global problem of climate change is becoming increasingly apparent as populations and economies grow worldwide. The build-up of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere is cited as a prominent cause of climate change. There is a correlation between elevated concentrations of GHGs in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide (CO2), and global warming, which leads to extreme weather events such as droughts, floods, and melting of polar ice caps.
There is an international recognition of the immediate need to reduce GHGs and remedy the problem of global warming. The Kyoto Protocol was established in December 1997 as an agreement between over 160 countries to set targets for the reduction of GHGs, and determined available options to achieve them. The Protocol includes three Kyoto Mechanisms, which are three market-based instruments that enable nations to but or earn credits…
Canada and the Kyoto Protocol - Overview. Climate Change - Government of Canada. http://climatechange.gc.ca/english/whats_new/overview_e.html.
Emissions Trading. National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. Government of Canada. http://www.ntree-trnee.ca/EmissionsTrading.
This shows that media outlets have an extremely strong influence on individuals in their belief of global warming. The lack of knowledge in the real application of global warming is startling considering the real earnestness in which each of these individuals expressed their beliefs on global warming.
For the second group of individuals who do not believe in global warming, the results are just as mixed as previously. Although they all seem to very intelligent individuals, none of the three could provide a definition of exactly what global warming was. Although two of them pointed out that greenhouse gases plays a factor. They explained that their understanding or knowledge of global warming has come from multiple sources, and all professed a strong distrust of traditional media outlets as viable and truthful information. One of them interestingly cited the novel "State of Fear" as a strong impetus for why he does…
Barnett, T.P., Adam, J.C., and Lettenmaier, D.P. (2005). "Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in snow-dominated regions." Nature 438: 303-309
Gerald a. Meehl, et.al., Science Magazine, www.sciencemag.orgHow Much More Global Warming and Sea Level Rise?, 18 March 2005. Retrieved February 11, 2007.
Abarbanel, Albert, and Thomas McCluskey (1950). "Is the World Getting Warmer?" Saturday Evening Post, 1 July, pp. 22-23, 57-63.
Agrawala, Shardul (1999). "Early Science-Policy Interactions in Global Climate Change: Lessons from the Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases." Global Environmental Change 9(2): 157-69.
It is indeed sad to point out that the Kyoto protocol has not been enforced as a result of its rejection by the U.S. government and the ussian move of deferring it.
As pointed out by Hamada (2006).the process of controlling the global weather change should be done through a combined and unified effort of all nations. These must include the entire global community of the developed and the developing nations. It is therefore important to put aside political differences and then advance a sense of unity in coming up with an appropriate framework to be used in tackling global warming. A global strategy should therefore be put forward to tackle the problem. The design of the global strategy must accommodate the situation of all the participating nations. On the technical aspect, the strategy must involve the view of both social and natural scientist.
Encyclopedia of Earth (2010)."Global…
Encyclopedia of Earth (2010)."Global Warming"
Guardia (2009). Climate change increasing malaria risk, research reveals http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/dec/31/climate-change-malaria-kenya
Hamada, T (2006). How Should Global Society Address Climate Change? - The Kyoto Protocol
" (McDonald-Gibson, 2007) Therefore, although the entire planet suffers the consequences, it is a limited part of its inhabitants that perpetuates the crisis. From this perspective, developing nations demanded, on a regular basis even, the right to speak out their intentions and to have a unified position in terms of promoting sustainable development and implicitly the general environmental policies promoted by the UN.
Yet another element is in fact in relation to the previous two. Developed nations, although somewhat reluctant to their limitation of economic practices that would increase the limit of emissions, promised strategies and results for succeeding in reducing the greenhouse effects and all the additional side remarks. In this sense, throughout the debates on environmental policies, states such as Canada, France, and the United States would sponsor any initiative with the precise target. Therefore, there are some proposals for developing nations to reduce their need for fuel.…
European Union. The Kyoto protocol - a brief summary. European Union web site, accessed 19 June 2007, at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/kyoto.htm
Freestone, David, and Charlotte Strech. Legal aspects of implementing the Kyoto Protocol. Mechanisms. Making Kyoto work. Oxford: OUP.
Hohmann, Harald. Basic documents of international environmental law. International Environmental Law & Policy Series. Vol 1. London: Graham&Trotman, 1992.
Hollo, Erkki ed al. Legal aspects of climate change: Instrument choice and the Kyoto mechanisms. Retrieved 19 June 2007, at http://www.sci.utu.fi/projects/maantiede/figare/UGS/UGS-177.pdf
Criteria of buyer/investor on project type and location
A huge variety of CDM project locations, types and sizes exists and these are open to potential CDM investors. The national investment climate plus factors at the national level influence decisions on where, what type of projects to undertake as well as whether they ought to be developed as CDM projects. The investor's role in CDM project influences the physical spread of the CDM market. For instance, a technology provider who is offered payment partly via CE revenues may have a broad list of options of potential areas where to locate the project but a smaller choice of project type to engage in. Some funds set aside and intended for CDM funding have been decided upon as intended for specific project types and specific geographical areas. For example, the Spanish Carbon Fund directs its energies towards establishment of CDM projects in North…
Austin, D. And Faeth, P (2000). Financing Sustainable Development with the Clean
Development Mechanism. World Resource Institute, Washington, D.C.
Banuri, T., Gupta, S., (2000). The Clean Development Mechanism and Sustainable
Development: An Economic Analysis. Asian Development Bank, Manila.
But the supply far outstrips demand, Europeans are finding. The climate of this marketplace itself is decidedly cloudy. Advance prices have plunged by half.
At this point, one shouldn't portray it as a liquid, vibrant market," said Atle C. Christiansen of PointCarbon, a Norway-based research firm (Climate, 2004).
More than six years after governments negotiated the historic climate accord in Kyoto, Japan, the world is taking only halting steps _ not always forward, never in unison _ to follow through (Climate, 2004).
In fact, the Kyoto treaty itself is not yet in force, since it hasn't been ratified, as required, by industrial countries emitting a total of 55% of "greenhouse gases," such as carbon dioxide, that trap heat in the atmosphere that Earth otherwise would give off.
ussia's expected accession later this year would clear the 55% hurdle. But even a functioning Kyoto agreement would have little impact: Its limited…
Amazon rainforest destruction at 10-year high
By Raymond Colitt in Sao Paulo (accessed 5-19-05)
Published: May 20, 2005 03:00 | Last updated: May 20, 2005 03:00
http://news.ft.com/cms/s/4ea07b74-c8cd-11d9-87c9-00000e2511c8.html rainforest (accessed 5-19-05)
An American who spent sometime in Germany recounted his experience [Will Higher Gasoline Prices Inspire Lifestyle Changes, 2001] of energy prices in that country, "When I lived in Germany, the price of gasoline went from the equivalent of $2.50 per gallon to $3.25 per gallon over night. The Bundesregierung had added another $0.75/gallon gas tax, in addition to the existing $2.00 per gallon gas tax. (That's right: $2.75 out of every $3.25 per gallon was Federal taxes.)," He remembered the effect on prices on his use of transport, "I used the public transport system, easily the best in the world."
This is the direction our country will have to go too. Do we allow this country to be totally dependent on imported oil? Should we keep gasoline prices low to prevent development of alternatives or take necessary steps now to create a change in the present Gas Guzzling life style?…
Roberts, P., Bad Sports, Harper's Magazine. April 2001
Snead, M.C. And Martinez, R.D., Energy Prices and the Oklahoma Economy, Center for Applied Economic Research, Oklahoma State University, September 2004
Yetiv, S.A., America benefits from high oil prices, retrieved from Internet on 21st May 2006, http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20060206/news_mz1e6yetiv.html , February 6, 2006
The concepts of "green houses," and "green jobs" are more and more utilized in everyday's conversation and the media has already made people aware of some of the benefits of using alternative sources of energy such as solar energy. The short and medium term benefits lie not only in the relatively short period of depreciation of such an investment, but also in an increase in the quality of life of those depending no longer on a source that is pollutant as well as not renewable. I will also appeal to the advantages provided by this alternate source of energy in terms of international politics and economies. Using the immense potential of alternative energy resources our country provides us, we could become less dependent on foreign oil, thus less influenced by the foreign politics and fluctuations in the oil prices on the international market.
United States Environmental Protection Agency. Climate Change.…
Victor. D.G. The Collapse of the Kyoto Protocol and the Struggle to Slow Global Warming. Princeton University Press, 2001. viii
Victor. D.G. The Collapse of the Kyoto Protocol and the Struggle to Slow Global Warming. Princeton University Press, 2001. viii
Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability
This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. Given the threat posed by climate change, it makes sense that nuclear power would be increasing in share, not decreasing. This esearch proposal seeks to look at some of the issues facing nuclear power, and how it can overcome these issues to increase share going forward.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents v
List of Tables viii
List of Figures vii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Topic Overview 7…
Abokeng, A.K. (2005). Understanding Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90, 845-848.
Alic, J. (2012). Six things to do with nuclear waste: None of them ideal. Oil Price.com. Retrieved June 17, 2015 from http://oilprice.com/Alternative-Energy/Nuclear-Power/6-Things-to-do-with-Nuclear-Waste-None-of-them-Ideal.html
Alley, W. & Alley, R. (2013). Too hot to touch: The problem of high-level nuclear waste. Review by Konikow, L. (2013). Hydrogeology Journal.
Bangert-Drowns, Robert L. & Rudner, Lawrence M. (1991).Meta-analysis in educational research.Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 2(8). Retrieved September 4, 2008 from http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=2&n=8
This is because it was not officially ratified by the U.S. Senate. The reason why, was due to the underlying fears of the damage that it could cause to the economy. This would create the atmosphere that various provisions were unfair for the U.S., leading to its eventual withdrawal from Kyoto. (U.S. Withdraws from Kyoto Protocol 2001) When such a large country will no longer follow these different provisions, it creates an atmosphere of voluntary compliance. At which point, the other signatories will not follow the different provision of the treaty as strictly. Once this takes place, it means that any kind of efforts to address the problem is the equivalent of having no agreement at all. This will cause the various environmental issues to become worse, as the constant finger pointing and debate are only creating more problems. Evidence of this can be by looking at the total number…
Effects of Global Warming are Everywhere, 2007, National Geographic. Available from: . [27 September 2010].
Future Effects, n.d. UNFCC, Available from: . [27 September 2010].
Hurricane Katrina. 2010, Hurricane Katrina. Available from: . [27 September 2010].
NOAA Raises 2005 Hurricane Season Outlook, 2005, NOAA. Available from: . [27 September 2010].
At the time, the industry sought to examine both oil pollution in general and ocean dumping as well as land-based sources of ocean pollution. According to ang, "More significant was the rapid technological development in the design of large-sized oil tankers which required constant rule changes. By 1973 it was evident that the 1954 convention provisions were inadequate or outdated, and by then the likelihood of the 1954 convention coming into force was rather doubtful" (334).
The new protocol ultimately entered into force in January 1978. The 1973 version of MARPOL was comprised of 20 articles concerning general obligations under the convention (e.g., prohibition of violation of requirements, rules for ship inspection, enforcement, reporting on incidents involving harmful substances, and most importantly, five technical annexes or regulations on 1) oil pollution; 2) control of noxious liquid substances in bulk; 3) harmful substances carried by sea in package forms or in…
Advice on Impact of Reduction in Sulfur Content of Marine Fuels Marketed in the EU." (2002, January 1). European Commission Study C.1/01/2002.
Brewer, Stuart. (2005, March 15). "Marpol Annex VI sets sulphur test." DNV Germany. [Online]. Available: http://www.dnv.de/Publikationen/classification_news/class_news_1_2005/MarpolAnnexVIsetssulphurtest.asp.
Chasek, Pamela S. Earth Negotiations: Analyzing Thirty Years of Environmental Diplomacy. New York: United Nations University Press, 2001.
Consultation Paper regarding the European Commission's proposal for a Directive amending Directive 1999/32/EC as regards the sulphur content of marine fuels. (2003, July). European Parliament.
Multiple forms of pollution are quickly becoming a focal point of concern for many societies concerned with both human and natural environments. One of the primary difficulties with controlling pollution is that it frequently comes from many sources and possesses the power to contaminate numerous aspects of life. Additionally, companies and corporations are often very resistive to implementing pollution controls, as they can have substantial costs associated with them. Ordinary citizens, as well, tend to resist actions that potentially could help the environment simply because they are time consuming or conflict with other aims. Nevertheless, as the population of the earth grows and Americans continue to utilize an ever increasing amount of the world's resources and energy, pollution is reaching levels that threaten lives and the traditional functioning of society.
One form of pollution that has received increased attention in recent years has been noise pollution. Usually, the problem is…
Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. (2005). "Pollution: Smells Like Money." Financial Times, Feb. 18.
Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. (2005). "Too Little, Too Late to Check Pollution." Financial Times, Feb. 17.
Dodson, Stanley I. And Anthony R. Ives. (1998). Ecology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Edwards, Rob. (2005). "Study Reveals Cancer Risk to Unborn Babies from City-Center Air Pollution." Sunday Herald, Feb. 20.
Using this concept, further solutions to this problem can be solicited. By continuing to involve states, NGOs, and IGOs, a solution to this problem can be achieved eventually, but only through community response. Researchers can continue to work toward discovering scientific solutions, NGOs and IGOS can offer incentives for companies and individuals to adopt new greenhouse gas cutting policies, and governments can enforce these policies. The global nature of this problem, in addition to the global community response that fostered both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol exemplifies the importance of global community in dealing with this international issue.
A second global problem, the peak oil crisis, has established itself as a prime example of the need for global community and global community responses in this age of globalization. Since the use of fossil fuels for energy production first became mainstream, scientists and government officials knew…
This article serves as an important reminder of the frequent conflict between science and politics. Science suggests two different hypothesis -- one, that the Kyoto Protocols are feasible, another that they are not. Democrats, in defiance of an unpopular president who is largely viewed as sympathetic to big business interests and hostile to the environment; wish to pass more stringent mandatory requirements, as they are proud their new legislative majority. Industry analysts say these standards are impossible to meet. Environmental lobbying groups with a different political agenda challenge industry scientists. Much of the technology used to cut emissions is in an experimental stage, and it is uncertain if it is economically feasible or even effective. The report also suggests consumers purchase more hybrid cars, but consumer concern for fuel efficiency seems to be waning rather than increasing, unlike the presence of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Congress can limit consumer…
Field, Barry C. & Martha K. Field. (2006). Environmental Economics: An Introduction.
4th Edition. Boston: Irwin/McGraw Hill.
Wald, Matthew. (15 Feb 2007). "Study Questions Prospects for Much Lower Emissions."
The New York Times. Retrieved 16 Feb 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/15/business/15carbon.html?ref=science&pagewanted=print
While we know that global warming would no doubt, at the levels Epstein cites, be conditions for increased disease and even death; there is no sufficient data to suggest that global warming is going to reach the levels that Epstein is suggesting in his article. His article is alarmist in nature.
Schneider's (2002) article, in contrast to Epstein's, relies heavily on scientific data, pointing out that existing data is inconclusive as to what the future of global warming is (pp. 62-65). Schneider, who conveys the sense that he is resisting the temptation to be alarmist, is holding onto the principles of science, maintaining that there is insufficient evidence with which to make predictions on the future of climate changes at the levels discussed in the Kyoto Protocol.or that of a "non-scientific" study which is the focus of Schenieder's argument on the lack of evidence to support much of the published…
Schneider, Stephen (2002), Global Warming: Neglecting the Complexities, Scientific
American v286 no1 p62-5 Ja.
Epstein, Paul R. (2000), Is Global Warming Harmful to Health?, Scientific American v283 no2 p50-7 Ag.
tension between businesses interests in maximizing profits and the public's interest in receiving complete, truthful, and non-misleading information about products that they purchase.
The dangers against greenwashing are that consumers will have no confidence in the products or services they are buying. This means that they will not purchase specific items. As they feel they are being deceived and cheated through false labeling / misrepresentation. At the same time, there is the possibility that a firm could face penalties from government regulators who feel that they are engaging in false advertising. This will have a negative impact on the image of the organization and their ability to address the needs of customers in the future. ("Six Sins of Greenwashing," 2007)
For an executive; it is advisable to not practice these kinds of policies. The reason why is because it will hurt the brand image of the products they are selling…
Clean Air Act Summary. (2013). EPA. Retrieved from: http://www2.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-clean-air-act
Environmental Protections Rules and Regulations. (2012). Federal Register, 77 (32), 9304 -- 9513.
EPA To Set Modest Pace. (2010). EPA. Retrieved from: http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/6424ac1caa800aab85257359003f5337/d2f038e9daed78de8525780200568bec!OpenDocument
New Source Litigation. (2013). Southern Company. Retrieved from: http://www.southerncompany.com/about-us/suppliers/fuel-services/environmental.cshtml
The Japanese Government to usiness Model
The Japanese government has more direct control of private business. The difference is that it is doing so, as a partner to ensure that the business is able to maintain successful long-term economic growth. The government does not offer subsidies or any kind of bail outs. Instead, they help companies through loans, tax breaks and other forms of assistance. This helped to contribute to the success of the Japanese auto industry by allowing executives to focus on how their organization can grow in the future. (Johnson, 1985)
usiness, government and the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan
The Liberal Democratic Party helped to liberalize the relationship that the government would have with the auto industry. As it would be successful in helping Japan to eliminate protectionism; this is something that would allow Japanese cars to become more competitive in markets around the world.…
Automobile Industry Introduction. (2010). Retrieved May 6, 2010, from Plunkett Research website: http://www.plunkettresearch.com/Industries/AutomobilesTrucks/AutomobileTrends/tabid/89/Default.aspx
CAFE Overview. (2010). Retrieved May 6, 2010, from NHTSA website: http://www.nhtsa.gov/cars/rules/cafe/overview.htm
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Guidelines. (n.d.). Retrieved May 6, 2010 from NHTSA website: http://www.nhtsa.gov/cars/rules/import/fmvss/index.html
G8's Gradual Move. (2008, January 25). Retrieved May 6, 2010, Council of Foreign Relations website: http://www.cfr.org/publication/13640/
(Jordans, 2008) "Europe's unilateral approach will only lead to legal battles and trade wars," Bisignani also stressed. (Jordans, 2008) a hint of this contention occurring in the future was evidenced recently when 27 nations, including the U.S., China and 25 other countries, registered opposition to the EU's attempt to include commercial airlines in its cap-and-trade program by supporting an ICAO-run program. This signal confirmed united opposition to the European Union's intentions to develop a separate, regional emissions trading system. U.S. officials warn that the inclusion of U.S. And other non-European airlines in the EU cap-and-trade program "may break international aviation and trade laws." (Jordans, 2008) Although reasons differ, along with official warnings, scientists raise questions regarding the European program. Airlines, experts basically agree, contribute approximately 2% of man-made emissions of carbon dioxide, a gas reportedly contributing to global warming. Perceptions, nevertheless, differ regarding the impact of other gases aircraft emit,…
Aircraft emissions capped to tackle climate change." European Commission, 20 Dec. 2006. Retrieved June 17, 2005, at http://ec.europa.eu/news/environment/061220_1_en.htm .
Aviation and the Environment." Finance Wire, May 7, 2008. Retrieved June 16, 2005, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1474988211.html .
EPA to Revise Aircraft Engine Emission Standards." IHS, 30 Nov. 2005. Retrieved June 17, 2005, at http://aero-defense.ihs.com/news/2005/epa-aircraft-engine-emissionsstandards.htm .
FAQ on Aviation Emissions and Climate Change." HIS, 2 Jan. 2007. Retrieved June 17, 2005, at http://aero-defense.ihs.com/news/eu-en-airplane-emissions-faq-1-07.htm .
As sea level are on the rise, many millions will suffer more and more aggressive floods and entire coastal cities and industries will disappear unless significant investment is made in dam systems. Another socio-geographical effect is large fires due to high temperatures and winds that create disasters all over the planet. Also, freshwater systems in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, America, North America, Polar regions "showed an overall net negative impact of climate change on water resources and freshwater ecosystems." (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.2007)
Global warming effects also reach more developed countries with effects not necessarily connected with the food supply or health issues, but climate change. The increase of severe weather phenomena in the last 10 years is quite visible, although no direct match can be made at this point as not enough data has been collected. As an in example of global…
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. "Climate Change 2007: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaption and Vulnerability" IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007 Retrieved from http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch19s19-es.html ).
National Geographic. What is Global Warming? 2010. Retrieved from http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/gw-overview.html
Pachauri, R.K. "Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change" IPCC Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report Retrieved from http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_synthesis_report.htm
Pew Center on Global Climate Change. Katrina and Global Warming. 2010. Retrieved from http://www.pewclimate.org/specialreports/katrina.cfm
" (Impacts of sea level rise) In these areas, such as India and Indonesia, even a small increase in sea level could result in forced migration with resultant economic hardship. The point should also be reiterated that in our interconnected world, the economic and social problems of one area or region have an impact on other countries. This is also related to the fact that many of the suugested means of dealing with global warming would contradict and even negate economic policies that many industrialized nations already have in place. This aspect will be expanded on in the following sections.
The response from governments to the problem and reality of global warming has not always been positive or enthusiastic. The Reagan administration and the First Bush Administration in the United States tended to be politically optimistic about the global environment. Governments in developed countries have in general…
Alberts S. Obama boosts hopes of climate deal. 24 November, 2009.
Balaam David N. And Veseth M. Introduction to International Political Economy.
London: Prentice Hall, 1995
The Advantages of Biodiesel Distillation
The search for non-fossil alternative fuels has been conducted now for more than a decade. The impetus for this search has increased in more recent years mainly due to the talk of supposed global warming; the incidence of which is increased by the release of CO2 into the atmosphere by fossil fuels. Because of the Kyoto protocols, one of the primary processes being perfected is that of making biodiesel. This type of diesel can be made from any type of fat or oil, but there are problems associated with its production and use. To mitigate these issues, firms have begun using a distillation process which, in most ways, fixes the problems that have commonly been associated with biodiesel. The following paper discusses what biodiesel is, how the fuel is made, what the distillation process is, and what advantages distilled biodiesel has over non-distilled…
Lurgi. "Biodiesel," 2010. http://www.lurgi.com/website/fileadmin/user_upload/1_PDF/1_Broshures_Flyer/e nglisch/0301e_Biodiesel.pdf
Matallana, L.G., Gutierrez, L.F., & Cardona, C.A. "Biodiesel Production by Reactive Distillation." Enpromer 64 (2005): D2-0-5. Print.
Singh, Arvindar P., Thompson, Joe C., & He, Brian B. "A Continuous-Flow Reactive Distillation reactor for Biodiesel Preparation from Seed Oils." An ASAE/CSAE Meeting Presentation, 2004. Print.
SRS Engineering. "Biodiesel Distillation," 2010. http://c1- preview.prosites.com/37030/wy/docs/Biodiesel%20Distillation.pdf
It has given a clear signal to unscrupulous tyrants and murderous dictators around the world that they have no place to hide. Earlier, they could escape prosecution for their crimes by brow-beating or manipulating the judicial system in their own country; the expanding reach of international law has now made it possible for them to be answerable for such universally unacceptable crimes (Kenneth Roth).
The benefits of international law are also recognized by private business. For example the U.S. Apparel Industry Partnership has voluntarily agreed to a standard code of conduct that prohibits forced labor, child labor, and workweeks exceeding 60 hours. This has had a significant effect on the operation of U.S. companies in poor countries and helped to prevent the cruel exploitation of cheap labor (Ratner 71). The signing of the "Sullivan Principles" by more than 100 U.S. companies in 1977 that call for desegregation in the workplace,…
Hathaway, Oona a. "Two Cheers for International Law." The Wilson Quarterly Autumn 2003: 50+.
International law." The Free Dictionary. 2008. January 14, 2008. http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/international+law
Kissinger, Henry. "The Pitfalls of Universal Jurisdiction: Risking Judicial Tyranny." Foreign Affairs. July/August 2001. January 14, 2008. http://www.globalpolicy.org/intljustice/general/2001/07kiss.htm
Mcwhinney, Edward. "1. Shifting Paradigms of International Law and World Order in an Era of Historical Transition." International Law in the Post-Cold War World: Essays in Memory of Li Haopei. Ed. Sienho Yee and Wang Tieya. London: Routledge, 2001. 3-17.
oyal Dutch Shell PLC and Its Edge on the Global Market
The concept of financial analysis is a core indicator of the actual financial health of a given organization. The development of an accurate and dependable conceptual framework to be employed in the analysis of the global and corporate financial system has for quite a long time been an important issue in corporate accounting (Bodie & Merton,1990). An appropriate conceptual framework must be able to meet two main objectives: to effectively address the differences that exists in the institutional structures as well as to explain the main changes in the institutional structures over time. A review of extant literature has been dedicated to the concept of financial analysis. Most of these studies have dwelt on financial ratios. A study by Nenide, Pricer & Camp (2008) indicated that extant literature in accounting as well as finance indicate that the application of…
Chemical Market Reporter (2001) Energy markets poised for dramatic change, Chemical Market Reporter, 260(17), p. 8.
Datamonitor (2006). Royal Dutch Shell PLC.
Duval, Y (2005). Primary Data Collection Methods: Survey Design. ARTNeTCapacity Building Workshop on Trade Research Bangkok, Thailand, 22-25 March 2005
This is because congestion has become a problem and they want to discourage them from utilizing this form of transportation. Over the long-term, this will create a change in habits by making public transportation and other alternatives economically viable. (Davenport) (osenthal)
In the U.S., vehicles are a center of private transportation. This is because many cities were designed to accommodate cars. If there was a dramatic shift, these challenges could have an adverse impact on the auto industry, parts producers / suppliers and dealers. This would lead to a slowdown and possibly create a recession from a change in policies. (Davenport) (osenthal)
Moreover, the U.S. has not ratified and withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol. This means that they do not have to meet the same standards as Europe. To adjust for the increased amounts of traffic flow, there is a focus on using stop lights to effectively accommodate vehicles. (Davenport)…
Davenport, John. The Ecology of Transportation. New York: Springer, 2006. Print.
Rosenthal, Elisabeth. "Across Europe." NY Times, 2011. Web. 5 Apr. 2014.
Firstly, it is crucial to raise awareness and to actually make people listen, care and then act accordingly. verybody needs to understand that the environment should be everyone's concern because it truly affects all of us as we are all inhabitants of the same planet. This is achieved through information which in turn, is achieved through long-term campaigns which have the mission to reach as many people as possible. This is where the civil society needs to really step in and help improve the quality of information as not everything we hear or see on television is actually scientific information. In fact, spreading untrue or simply unscientific information can be very harmful to society and its attitude towards the environment because people do not know what to believe. On the other hand, there is the danger of over exposing a certain topic, in this case environmental issues, which leads to…
Europa (4 April 2007).
International Issues. Environment. Retrieved September 14 from Website: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/agreements_en.htm
European Environment Agency (29 Nov. 2005). The European Environment - State and outlook 2005. Retrieved September 13, 2007 from Website: http://reports.eea.europa.eu/state_of_environment_report_2005_1/en
Both the Trail Smelter and the Chernobyl episodes greatly affected the evolution of international environmental law. The smelter operation at Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company at Trail, British Columbia, had caused damages across the border in Washington State. Arbitration settlement resulted in Canada agreeing to pay the US $350,000 for damages accrued by the fumes from the smelting operation prior to 1932.[footnoteRef:2] With Chernobyl a half century later, the nuclear reactor meltdown and fallout damaged the environment in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, along with several other European states. Three consequences from these two episodes in shaping the new regime of international law were that: 1) they established harm principles, which 2) shifted to regime responsibility by the end of the century, which resulted in 3) the establishment of climate justice at the Paris Agreement of 2015. Each of these consequences can be seen in concrete ways, particularly when…
Akehurst, Chapter 16: Environment.
Ewing-Chow, Michael and Darryl Soh , “Pain, Gain, or Shame: the Evolution of Environmental Law and the Role of Multinational Corporations.” Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, vol. 16, no. 1 (2009), 195-222.
Mueller, Benjamin and Mark Landler, “UK Court Blocks Heathrow Airport Expansion on Environmental Grounds,” New York Times, 27 Feb 2020.
REPORTS OF INTERNATIONAL ARBITRAL AWARDS: Trail smelter case (United States, Canada). 16 April 1938 and 11 March 1941. VOLUME III. NATIONS UNIES - UNITED NATIONS (2006), pp. 1905-1982.
Schwartz, John. “In Strongest Climate Ruling Yet, Dutch Court Orders Leaders to Take Action,” New York Times, 20 Dec 2019.
Shaw, Malcolm. International Law. Cambridge University Press.
The Growing Consensus on Global arming
In the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy, many segments of the general public have begun to concede that global climate change and its various consequences are real. Moreover, as the New Jersey coast and the streets of New York experienced flooding and damage the likes of which had never been seen this far north, it has become difficult to deny that our weather patterns are changing. Global warming contends that these changes are as a result of manmade hazards. According to the Stanford Solar Center (SSC) (2008), a "panel convened by the U.S. National Research Council, the nation's premier science policy body, in June 2006 voiced a "high level of confidence" that Earth is the hottest it has been in at least 400 years, and possibly even the last 2,000 years." (p. 1) The discussion hereafter will demonstrate that the case for the…
Blue Marble. (2012). How to Help Stop Global Warming. Bluemarble4us.com.
Bryce, E. (2012). On Our Radar. The New York Times.
Lewis, M. (2012). Scientists Find No Trend in 370 Years of Tropical Cyclone Data. Globalwarming.org.
National Geographic (NG). (2011). What Causes Global Warming? Nationalgeographic.com.
Indirect Costs Imposed on the Future of Humanity
The days in which institutions could ethically overlook the negative externalities they inflict on society have long since vanished with the introduction of a scientific consensus on anthropogenic influences and the effects they have on the health of the planet. The principle-agent argument, such as what Milton Freedman and others have proposed, is not able address the exponentially growing complexities that arise when trying to steer humanity towards a path to a sustainable future.
Before embarking on a discussion of the state of corporate leadership in regards to their considerations of externalities, it is prudent to be clear about what the concept of externality actually entails. One definition of externality is as follows:
Externalities are indirect effects of consumption or production activity, that is, effects on agents other than the originator of such activity which do…
Browner, Carol. "Polluters Should Have to Pay." 01 March 2002. The New York Times. 21 February 2011 .
Dyer, G. Climate Wars. Scribe Publications, 2008.
Flaherty, P. "BP Oil Spill Commission Chief Counsel Blames BP ." 21 February 2011. Promoting Ethics in Public Life. 21 February 2011 .
Friedman, M. "The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits." 13 September 1970. The New York Times Magazine. 21 February 2011 .
An analysis of SAP in Australian energy infrastructure
In 2009 the Australian Government allocated $4.5 billion in support of renewable energy technologies with a target of 20% share of the entire energy market by 2020 (i.e. An increase from 20 terawatt hours to 60 terawatt hours). Ten years ago, during the nation's era deregulation, natural gas reserves were more than doubled from 19.4 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) in 1998 to 44.6 (Tcf) in 1999. At present, new liquefied natural gas (LNG) and gas-to-liquids (GTL) facilities, pipelines are core in national energy sales both in Australia and abroad. During the first several years, supplies of natural gas outpaced domestic demand. Much effort was put into enterprise systems (ES) as a strategy of change management, toward better operational control of facility and infrastructure as the industry ramped up to its present position in the energy market. Of particular utility was…
A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) (2004).Third Edition, Paperback. Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute.
Davis, B.J. (2005). Prepare: seeking systemic solutions for technological crisis management. Knowledge and Process Management, 12(2), 123-131.
Kritsonis, A. (2005). Comparison of Change Theories. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity 8 (1).
Origin Energy (2010). Retrieved from: http://www.originenergy.com.au/
Current events of the environmental ethics
Some of the major current events concerning the environmental ethics are the issue of global warming. One of the leading researchers (in the causes and effects of climate change; and in the field of allergies) in Europe has discovered that the burning of the fossil fuel that has increased over the recent past has resulted into the increase of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide facilitates the growth of the ragweed- an invasive plant- moreover; the hay fever is triggered of by this plant's pollen grains. Both early and long seasons of allergy are caused by the bloom of the birch trees as a result of the warmer temperatures (White, 1967).
Non-environmentally friendly behaviors currently such as the increased acts of war has not only affected the environment by impoverishing the natural resources but has also caused stress in…
Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. California: Houghton Mifflin.
Van, W., & Peter C. (1997). Primitives in the Wilderness: Deep Ecology and the Missing
Human Subject. New York: SUNY Press.
Varner, G. (1998). In Nature's Interests? Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental
Nu Star Energy L.P. is a limited partnership that is publicly traded and headquartered in San Antonio. It has 9,063 miles of pipeline, eighty-six terminal facilities, four storage facilities for crude oil and two refineries for asphalt. It is the second in size among independent liquid terminal operators in the United States. It operates in the U.S., Netherlands, Canada, United Kingdom, Antilles and Mexico. The entire system of the partnership can hold up to 86 million barrels in its storage infrastructure. It has refineries for asphalt, crude oil and has pipelines for refined products. Also present are terminals for refined products, a storage facility for petroleum, a terminal operation as well as storage facilities for crude oil. NuStar strives to protect the environment and continually works to improve its programs and processes so as to meet even the most stringent of environmental practices. This has resulted in better environmental performance.…
Becker, R., & Henderson, V. (2000). Effects of air quality regulations on polluting industries. Journal of Political Economy, 108(2), 379-421.
Bradbury, J. (2010). EPA, The Clean Air Act, and U.S. Manufacturing. Retrieved January 30, 2015, from http://www.wri.org/blog/2010/11/epa-clean-air-act-and-us-manufacturing
Deschenes, O., Greenstone, M., & Shapiro, J.S. (2012). Defensive investments and the demand for air quality: Evidence from the nox budget program and ozone reductions (No. w18267). National Bureau of Economic Research.
Environmental Decision Making, Science, and Technology. (n.d.). Retrieved January 30, 2015, from http://environ.andrew.cmu.edu/m3/s7/us_laws.shtml
urrently the United States consumes more than 19.6 million barrels of oil per day, which is more than 25% of the world's total oil consumption. Through its isolationist policy agenda, the U.S. government has been able to leverage its military and economic might to control most of oil production in South America. Instead of attempting to restructure the financial infrastructure of South American oil producers such as Panama, Ecuador and Peru, the United States has promoted a policy of singular reliance on U.S. aid. As a result, the United States receives the majority of advantages conferred by these country's vast oil supplies. Similarly, the United States has used its military might to create strong unilateral connections with OPE nations as well. Subtly, the United States has reached secret agreements with the Saud family of Saudi Arabia to maintain their current royal hierarchy with U.S. military protection as long as they…
Cole, Wayne S. (1981). "Gerald P. Nye and Agrarian Bases for the Rise and Fall of American Isolationism." In John N. Schacht (Ed.), Three Faces of Midwestern Isolationism: Gerald P. Nye, Robert P. Wood, John L. Lewis (pp. 1-10). Iowa City: The Center for the Study of the Recent History of the United States.
Schacht, John N. (Ed.). (1981). Three Faces of Midwestern Isolationism: Gerald P. Nye, Robert P. Wood, John L. Lewis. Iowa City: The Center for the Study of the Recent History of the United States.
Hanks, Richard K. "Hamilton Fish and the American Isolationism, 1920-1944." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Riverside, 1971.
Marketing (Water Fans, India)
The market in India for water fans or misting fans as they are also called is problematical at best. Without doubt, the climate (except in the northern mountains) is hot; the problem is, it is also quite humid. Still, the Indian people have been looking for ways to stay cool for centuries. It was India that gave the world the slatted shutter; when air comes in through small spaces (as in shutters, adopted in the American South before air conditioning, or in lattice-work walls as in parts of India), it is cooled. Still, they did not develop a cooling system like that of that ancient omans, which did use water running through channels to create condensation. The reason, of course, is the problem of water quality. While industrial pollution has now added immeasurably to the water quality problems in India, the sluggish flow of…
Establishing New Ventures: Hiring People. (2004) Indiamart Web site. Retrieved December 16, 2004 fromhttp://finance.indiamart.com/
India. (2004) CIA World Factbook. Retrieved December 16, 2004 from http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/in.html
India Profile. (2004) U.S. Department of State Web site. Retrieved December 16, 2004 from http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3454.htm
Sen, Soumik. (2004) The New Cold War. Rediff Web site, April 24. Retrieved December 16, 2004 from http://inhome.rediff.com/money/2004/apr/24ac.htm?zcc=ar
This was in keeping with the Marxist principle of a classless society. In the United Nations, the United States has had an equal standing with other nations such as ritain, France, and the Soviet Union. The United States has participated in United Nations actions and made a show of being a part of the international community while maintaining its superpower status outside of the United Nations' walls. In light of new global political conditions that emphasize global cooperation and governance, rather than government (aylis & Smith, 13), the United Nations still has an important role to play, and the United States has a role to play in it.
While the United States continues to be a member of the United Nations, it is no longer really a true team player. The United States, while still making a show of belonging to the United Nations, now more closely follows the principle…
Baylis, J & Smith, S 2005, The Globalization of World Politics, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Hirst, P 2001, War and Power in the 21st Century, Polity Press, Cambridge.
Janis, Irving 1982, Groupthink, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
Kaldor, M 1999, New Wars and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, Stanford University, Stanford.
Global Warming DQs
The determination of human contribution to the observed variations in Earth's climate includes making difficult decisions about the issues of climate systems that vary naturally. This is based on the interactions among different atmosphere parts with other concepts from an underlying concept. The natural variations exist on time scales from different years and decades. Shorter time spans for data records permit performance negotiations while separating systematic changes from human activities including greenhouse gas emissions and production of aerosol particles within natural variations (Victor, 2011).
Various natural climate fluctuations such as seasonal cycles are simple to develop and account for because they occur within well-known and fixed time scales. The alternative natural climate influence such as the El Nino and recurring warmth of ocean waters in tropical Pacific Ocean are difficult to identify within climatic datasets. The concept of warming refrains from occurring at fixed time intervals and…
Archer, D. (2011). Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Victor, D.G. (2011). Global Warming Gridlock: Creating More Effective Strategies for Protecting the Planet. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Casper, J.K. (2010). Changing Ecosystems: Effects of Global Warming. New York: Infobase Publishing.
Dincer, I., Midilli, A., Hepbasli, A.T., Karakoc, H. (2009). Global Warming: Engineering Solutions. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
Nobelprize.org). Pinter went on:
"The crimes of the U.S. have been systematic, constant, vicious, remorseless -- not to mention very effective. You have to hand it to America," Pinter explained, "It has exercised a quite clinical manipulation of power worldwide while masquerading as a force for universal good" (Pinter, 2005). He added, cryptically, "It's a brilliant, even witty, highly successful act of hypnosis."
The timing of his book (2003) prevents Kagan from realizing that his narrative on page 88 is incorrect. "There is little cause to believe that the United States will…begin to conduct itself in the world in a fundamentally different manner" than Bush did. Indeed, President Obama has already charted a more democratic course and has reached out to some of the cultures (namely Islam) that Bush relentlessly and ruthlessly attacked with words and bullets. I would enjoy seeing an updated version of Kagan's book, and see…
Delahunty, Robert J., and Yoo, John. 2009. The Bush doctrine: Can Preventative War
be Justified? Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 32 (3), 843-855.
Dunn, David Hastings. 2006. A Doctrine Worthy of the Name?: George W. Bush and The Limits
of Pre-Emption, Pre-Eminence, and Unilateralism. Diplomacy and Statecraft, Vol. 17,
This is important, because physics has allowed the combustible engine to provide the world with a cost effective solution for traveling long distance. Sadly, the electric car can only be used for short to medium distances. Then, there is another potential problem that could be developing with the lithium batteries that are used, where China control 95% to 100% the resources for these batteries (lithium). This is problematic because they could restrict how much they are exporting (which they already have) to ensure that there is enough supply for the country to meet its own internal demand. (ryce 2010)
Despite this dire news, there are increased effort within the industry to support the use and development of such new technologies, to work in conjunction with the combustible engine. An example of this support for such technologies can be seen by the fact several oil companies hold the patents on several…
2011 Volt, 2010, Chevrolet. Available from: [25 April 2010].
Exxon Mobil, 2010, Yahoo Finance. Available from: [25 April 2010].
Exxon Valdez Facts, 1999, Oceana. Available from [25 April 2010].
Fuel Efficiency Standard, 2009, MSNBC. Available from: [25 April 2010].
Prisoner's Dilemma situations are more common than some might actually think they are, as most people often come across them in their daily lives. Given the fact that Axelrod has a background in political science, he observed that PD is frequently encountered in the U.S. Senate. Senators are accustomed to helping out their colleagues, as they are perfectly aware that their assistance will materialize in their colleagues repaying them. The help that U.S. senators provide to their colleagues ranges from trading votes to attracting voters for them. One can actually claim that reciprocity is one of the most important factors in the U.S. Senate (Axelrod, p. 5).
However, it appears that matters in the senate were not always like this, and, that just a few decades ago senators seemed more willing to support concepts like deceitfulness and falseness instead of assisting each-other. Surprisingly, people in the U.S. Senate have become…
1. Axelrod R. (1984). The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books.
2. Baert Wiener J. (1999). Global Environmental Regulation: Instrument Choice in Legal Context. Yale Law Journal 108.4
3. Behreandt D. (18 Sept. 2006). "Global Warming Too Hot or Not? The Theory of Global Warming Proposes That Man's Activities Are Causing the Earth to Heat Up, but There Is Compelling Scientific Evidence That Does Not Support This Conclusion," the New American.
4. Clemons E.K. Schimmelbusch H. "The Environmental Prisoners' Dilemma or We're All in This Together: Can I Trust You to Figure it Out?" Retrieved May 6, 2010, from the Warton School of the University in Pennsylvania Web site: http://opim.wharton.upenn.edu/~clemons/blogs/prisonersblog.pdf
This tax would also concentrate of taxing large corporations as a result of the fact that they are among the most pollutant communities in the world.
The basic idea is that every individual who pollutes needs to take responsibility for his or her own actions. Also, a large amount of the money raised through taxing pollution would be invested in creating green technologies which would replace pollutant technologies in time. People need to understand that they are not being deprived of particular technologies through the fact that this tax is imposed, as they are actually heading toward a stage where technology is no longer pollutant, regardless of the level of comfort that it generates. Green cars can actually be much better than cars that run on fossil fuels, given that contemporary progress in the technological sector has made it possible for fossil fuels to appear like an obsolete source of…
Victor, David G. "Enforcing International Law: Implications for an Effective Global Warming Regime," Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum 10.1 (1999): 147
Victor, David G. The Collapse of the Kyoto Protocol and the Struggle to Slow Global Warming (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001)
Accordingly, text article notes that "international negotiation is often not just between individual people, but between large delegations, each of which is well organized and where every person has specialized and skilled work. There may be cultural experts, linguists and subject specialists as well as a chief negotiator and support negotiators. In a complex negotiation, there may be multiple and interlined sub-negotiations going on at the same time, for example where a trade negotiation includes deal involving various industries and interests." (Changing Minds, 1)
This denotes that negotiations are typically an extremely complex and nuanced process. Such mediation may occur over an extended period of time and require multiple face-to-face encounters and the constant recasting of terms and conditions. This is because such negotiation is confounded by the true challenge of establishing an equilibrium between parties. Ideally, a negotiation will produce a compromise that is viewed as essentially favorable to…
Changing Minds. (2002). International Negotiations. Changing Minds.org.
McMahon, H. (2008). Fact Sheet: International Negotiations on Climate Change. World Resources Institute.
Other perspectives, such as the realist perspective, find that the threats posed by climate change are still uncertain and largely unsubstantiated, and other factors such as the global geopolitical situation also lead them to believe that now is not the time to pursue major hanges in energy production or industry. As international cooperation becomes more and more difficult, it will also become more difficult for to agree on international climate change regulations and rules, let alone enforce them, making an establishments of these rules now premature and effectively useless, according to this view. The fact that this perspective persist in many minds is a major barrier to the passing of effective climate change legislation.
Finally, many businesses show very little interest in adjusting their activities without federal mandates to do so. Carbon trading has failed as a voluntary enterprise, and the businesses and regions that have banded together in attempts…
"Global air temperatures have been rising at a steady trend rate of 0.5 degrees Centigrade per century since about 1750, as the world recovers from the little ice age." (Evans, Global Research, 2009
Global temperatures cooled off from 1940 through the late 1970's, which refutes the casual relationship earlier defined by scientists between rises in CO2 levels and global warming. Tsonis also points to a Washington Post article from 1922 that reports Greenland glaciers to be fast disappearing and arctic seals not engaging their warmer waters. Subsequently the period from the 1980's to 2000 showed an aggressive rise in temperature. Tsonis does agree to an element of human activity and greenhouse gas that contributes to the MDO cycle but does not believe in predictions of catastrophe associated with Global Warming. He further states that we may see reports of an on setting ice age by the early 2030's, as the…
Environmentalists 'exaggerated' threat to tropical rainforests from global warming. David Derbyshire. November 10, 2010. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1328853/Environmentalists-exaggerated-threat-tropical-rainforests-global-warming.html
Global warming or global cooling? S. Anklesaria Aiyari. India Times. February 27, 2005. Retrieved from: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/sunday-toi/all-that-matters/Global-warming-or-global-cooling/articleshow/1034077.cms
Global Warming or Global Cooling? A New Trend in Climate Alarmism. Dr. David Evans. Centre for Research on Globalization -- GlobalResearch.ca. July 23, 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=14504
Skeptics on Human Climate Impact Seize on Cold Spell. Andrew C. Revin. The New York Times -- Science. March 2, 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/02/science/02cold.html?_r=3&ex=1362114000&en=ac4d3adc9cb328c1&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&oref=slogin&oref=slogin
A closer look at a soap bubble basically reveals swirling colors that are usually in motion with the forces that keep these colors swirling being likened to those that create weather. The weather is moved around by very delicate forces which are the variations between cool and warm areas and their slight variations in constituents. Similar to the complexity of these processes, it's difficult to understand the nature of human influenced climate change.
Carbon dioxide and methane which are primarily greenhouse gases are the derivatives of industrial activities. These greenhouse gases basically gather in the atmosphere and bring changes in the way the earth absorbs and discharge heat. One of the major examples of the effect of these gases is Venus than is hotter than Mercury regardless of the fact that it is farther from the sun. While human beings didn't create the greenhouse gases on Venus, the effects of…
"Disagreement on Human-caused Climate Change." (n.d.). Climate Change & Global Warming
Fact Sheet. Retrieved November 4, 2010, from http://climatechange.110mb.com/intro-debate-climate-change.htm
"Global Climate Change: Is it Human Caused?" (n.d.). Sierra County Prospect: 21st Century
News. Retrieved November 4, 2010, from http://www.sierracountyprospect.com/Global_Climate_Change.html
Week 6. China's Democratisation: Implications for International elations
Is it a fantasy to expect China's democratization through trade and engagement with the West?
It is rather difficult to consider trade as being a democratization tool. Indeed at the moment, political affairs and economic affairs are connected and interdependent. However, China represents a totally different political system and is one of the most important actors on the global economic scene.
The East -- West confrontation represented in the beginning an ideological confrontation between what communist and capitalism stood for in terms of human rights, economic practices, but most importantly political views. During the Cold War, the bipolar system of the world refused to accept any ties, other than symbolic UN -- type of communications between the two poles. Still the U.S., especially during the period of President Nixon reestablished ties with communist China, regardless of its ideological differences. This comes to…
David Zweig and Bi Jianhai, "China's Global Hunt for Energy," Foreign Affairs, vol. 84, no. 5 (2005), pp. 25-38.
They are both socially conscious and aware of what the advances in technology can bring. Bush's idea of advances in technology may seem primitive today, but back then the things he envisioned were probably thought by many impossible. Kelly's message gives us a bit of a warning that technological advances are necessary, but we cannot neglect the consequences that this can sometimes bring. For instance, we are now building more hybrid cars to cut down on pollution.
A CIO's perspective on how the government's counterterrorism efforts have impacted citizen's rights might be that after the events of 9-1-1, we have relied on technology more and more to aid us in our effort to counteract terrorist activity. After these events, the public received most of its information via the Internet or by watching the news on television. With electronic rulemaking, the public is no longer spoon fed information doled out by…
http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/10681/1/dp030022.pdf (Accessed on June 30, 2010).
on June 30, 2010).
http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/194507/bush (Accessed on June 30, 2010).
Additionally, Bollier further states the contrail emissions to cause warmer weather.
The duration of contrails in the atmosphere can last for days, according to (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010). Trails may last for days and spread over hundreds of miles. According to Patrick Minnis, senior research scientist at NASA's Langley esearch Center in Virginia, "It helped us get a very good handle on the relationship between natural cirrus clouds and contrails, and separate the two effects. We estimate that contrails have an overall warming effect which is at least the same as aircraft CO2 exhaust, if not more." (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010)
The white streaks (Murray, 2006), which characterize the contrail left by a flying aircraft is suggested by Murray to be removed as a contaminant by lowering the altitude of the aircraft during flight. Additionally, "because contrails are released at high altitudes, have a more potent effect on the environment…
Fast, E. 2002, "Can contrails alter climate?," Environment, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 7.
Beam, S. 2005, "The Trouble with Contrails," Environment, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 4.
Bollier, S. 2007, "High Flyers and the Grounding of Equality," Multinational Monitor, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 31.
Harris, P., Kuper, S. & Lebel, C. 2010, Sandals Optional: Stories - Environment - Insight; Not all heroes of the green revolution fit the left-liberal activist stereotype.., the Financial Times Limited.
Figure 3. Central England Temperature
Note: Blue bars indicates changes in CET annual values during the period 1877 to 2006 relative to the average over the 1961-90 baseline period (about 9.5 "C). Error bars enclose the 95% confidence range and the red line highlights decadal variations.
Source: UK Climate Projections 2011 at http://ukclimateprojections.defra.gov.uk / content/view/751/500/
As shown in Figure 3 above, the Central England temperature (CET) has increased by approximately one degree Celsius since 1980; in fact, the year 2006 was the warmest on record (Central England temperature 2010). Some salient trends represented by these historic weather patterns include:
1. Following a period of relative long-term stability for most of the 20th century, CET has increased by about a degree Celsius since the 1980s. This is a more rapid rise than that of the global average land-surface temperature over the same period, and considerably faster than that of the global…
Allen, R.D., Seaman, S.M. & Delascio, J.E. 2009 "Emerging Issues: Global Warming Claims
and Coverage Issues." Defense Counsel Journal 76(1): 12-13.
"A low-carbon UK." 2011 U.K. Department of Energy & Climate Change. [online] available:
Furthermore, Peterson, a correspondent for the Post Gazette, recently reported that, "Mr. udd has been seen as intent on balancing Australia's relations with China and those with the United States, a longtime ally and major trading partner. But he has argued recently that China should, to reflect the changing world economic order, have greater voting rights within the IMF and a greater say in how its funds are spent" (2009, 2). Based on China's role as Australia's largest trading partner and its proximity, Australia's current Minister for Foreign Affairs is using the Group of Twenty (G20) forum to advance these goals. In this regard, Peterson adds that, "Canberra's key ambitions heading into the G-20 summit go beyond the trilateral Australia-China-U.S. relationship. Mr. udd -- currently co-chair of the G-20's working group on IMF reform -- is arguing for a clear role for China in the management of the global economy"…
Australia (2010), CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html [date accessed: 1 December 2010].
Calvert, Ashton (2003), "Australia's Foreign Policy Priorities: Ashton Calvert Discusses Australia's Place in the International System and Its Relations with New Zealand in Light of the White Paper on Australia's Foreign and Trade Policy Released in February 2003." New Zealand International Review, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 25-27.
Darwall, Rupert (2005), "John Howard's Australia." Policy Review, no. 132, pp. 57-58.
Elliott, Lorraine, Greg Fry, William T. Tow and John Ravenhill. (2008, April). Australian foreign policy futures: Making middle-power leadership work? Canberra: Department of International Relations.
These effects would be unfairly harsh on developing nations, who had little to do with creating the problem; this is one of the reasons that recent international talks in Copenhagen have stalled (WGW 2009). Not only would these countries not be able to develop as quickly and have healthier populations and more stable governments, but industrialized nations would also see negative economic impacts, making many wary of making any major transitions without a more certain analysis of the problem of global warming, and of a human cause behind it.
The Effects of Global Warming
Even if global warming isn't real, or if human emissions aren't behind it, the possible consequences and tangential downsides to the continued release of carbon dioxide and an increase in global warming warrant taking steps to find cleaner fuels and sources of energy. Warmer temperatures would lead directly to more frequent and more violent storms and…
Bryner, J. (2006). "Climate Change Has Animals Heading for the Hills." LiveScience. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.livescience.com/environment/061214_animals_retreat.html
Howden, D. (2007). "Deforestation: The hidden cause of global warming." The independent 14 May. Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/deforestation-the-hidden-cause-of-global-warming-448734.html
JunkScience (2007). "The real "inconvenient truth." JunkScience.com. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.junkscience.com/Greenhouse/
NASA. (2009). "Global warming." World Book at NASA. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/global_warming_worldbook.html
It was hoped in the past there would be laws and regulations in place that required mandatory reductions in greenhouse gases that were put into the atmosphere. The Kyoto Protocol would have seen to this, but the U.S. rejected it. It still remains to be seen whether Obama's Administration will make renewable energy a real possibility and lower the number of greenhouse gases that are put into the environment.
Regulating greenhouse gases does not guarantee that climate change will stop or be reversed, but these kinds of gases are not good for people anyway, so there is nothing wrong with regulating them. However, the rising sea levels and rising temperatures could be cyclical and not really related to greenhouse gases or anything else that humans are doing. If that is the case, regulating the greenhouse gases and making other environmental changes will not help anything. Getting too worried about this…
Healy, J. Kevin and Tapick, Jeffrey M. (2004). "Climate change: It's not just a policy issue for corporate counsel -- It's a legal problem," 29 Columbia Journal of Environmental Law 89, 96.
In the past few years, there have been a number of key meetings of about environmental issues. The ongoing discussions with regards to the fate of the soon-to-be extinct bluefin tuna illustrate the frustrations of trying to reach environmental agreements. Nations responsible for the management of the resource ignore scientific advice and pursue their own interests to the detriment of the common good, and resist any effort to change the practice (Gronewald, 2009). Other conferences trend along the same line -- small groups of nations meeting to hammer out specific policy details. The Environmental Law Roundtable of Australia and New Zealand is one such example. The UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme) chemicals roundtable was a conference that discussed specific areas of concern with respect to chemical pollution.
There are many international agreements that govern the environment. The best-known is the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change,…
Roland, J. (1998). The meaning of "offenses against the law of nations." Constitution Society. Retrieved November 11, 2009 from http://www.constitution.org/cmt/law_of_nations.htm
Gronewold, N. (2009). Is the bluefin tuna an endangered species? Scientific American. Retrieved November 11, 2009 from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=bluefin-tuna-stocks-threatened-cites-japan-monaco
No author. (1979). Convention on Migratory Species. CMS. Retrieved November 11, 2009 from http://www.cms.int/documents/convtxt/cms_convtxt.htm
S. And hence disturb Australia's trade relations with China which could prove detrimental to its economy. Australia has to find a happy medium so that it would be viewed as a hostile neighbor in its own region: "while Kevin udd is not an alliance critic in the mold of Mark Latham he will take great care for his country not to be viewed by its Asian neighbors or extra-regional powers as a geopolitical sycophant or deputy sheriff for American agendas within or beyond the Asia-Pacific region. In some instances, a more independent Australian posture will be easier to establish and maintain… in other cases, it will be harder as Australia continues to struggle with the question as to whether it is increasingly a part of Asia." (Tow, p. 8)
It is difficult for Australia to choose its alliances and maintain cordial relations with both the Asian countries as well as…
William Tow, Still an Excellent Relationship: Australian-American relations in testing times, Feb 2006
Bruce Vaughn. (2008) Australia: Background and U.S. Relations. Specialist in Asian Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade.
Commonwealth Government of Australia, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, in the National Interest, Chapter 4 section 137, Canberra 1997.
4 Commonwealth Government of Australia, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Advancing the National Interest, Overview p. xvi, Canberra 2003.
But during the Bush Administration, great ideological and personal rifts occurred between members of the G8. The U.S. rejected the Kyoto Protocols on emissions, and refused to ratify the treaty. And "in September 2008, Russia's President Medvedev said Moscow did not fear being expelled from the G8 following criticism of its actions in Georgia," when "U.S. officials had said Russia's membership was at stake," in what ultimately emerged as an empty threat ("Profile: G8,' BBC, 2009). The Obama Administration, despite its great popularity, must work to mend these rifts and create consensus. But hostility to the U.S. has grown, as the current worldwide recession is largely seen as being caused by deregulation of the U.S. financial industry. Finally, the G8 meetings have been plagued by security issues as often violent opponents of globalization demonstrate outside of meetings decry the clout of an organization based upon the wealth of its members,…
"G8 -- The group of 8." Global Knowledge Contents. April 15, 2009
"Profile: G8." BBC News. August 18, 2008. April 15, 2009.