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Formative assessment offers much potential to make both teaching and learning more nuanced and effective for students, particularly students who are attempting to master a new language. Integrating formative assessments into instruction for English Language Learners offers specific opportunities, empowering teachers to better attend to the students’ needs in learning and content, and more effectively helping these students develop the skills they need to master grammatical concepts and communicate with confidence. As their core, the most effective types of formative assessments are the ones that inherently promote student learning, making certain they put students at the center of the educational process (Alvarez et al., 2014). Formative assessments require that the teacher both consider the students needs, achievements, general and specific comprehension while bearing in mind the areas of English they still need to master in order to reach a higher level of English mastery. This essay will examine two specific…
Psycholinguistics: A eview
Gamez, P., Lesaux, N., izzo, A. (2016). Narrative production skills of language
minority learners and their English-only classmates in early adolescence. Applied Psycholinguistics, 37: 933-961. DOI: http://dx.doi.org.proxy.tamuc.edu/10.1017/S0142716415000314
The study by Gamez, Lesaux and izzo (2016) compares early-adolescent Spanish language speakers to same-age English-only language speakers in terms of narrative production skills. The researchers provided the subjects with picture books and then asked them to produce a narrative based on the pictures. What the researchers found was that the Spanish language speakers and the English language speakers utilized the same story structure in the creation of their narratives. Both groups produced narratives that had a "goal -- action -- outcome framework" (p. 952). However, the Spanish language speakers had less grammatical diversity than the English-only speakers; they demonstrated a tendency to revise and to commit errors when using prepositions; also, their narratives were longer than those produced by…
Gamez, P., Lesaux, N., Rizzo, A. (2016). Narrative production skills of language
minority learners and their English-only classmates in early adolescence. Applied Psycholinguistics, 37: 933-961.
When it comes to present perfect, it is important to note that the tenses of verbs and the specificity via which a prior event is describe is pivotal. Indeed, under the present perfect paradigm, it is important to use the words "has" or "have" but one would not be more specific than that when it comes to the timing of the event as that would be outside the present prefect framework. For example, to say that "I have seen that movie about ten times" would be an example of present perfect. For someone to say "I saw that movie last week" would not be (English Page, 2016).
The language of English is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. However, it is also one of the toughest to learn. Because so many parts of the world use English as a primary or supplementary language, it is…
Action Research Proposal
The number of school-age English Language Learners in the state of Alberta is increasing at a fast pace. As these students begin studying, they experience a great deal of challenges, which can impact the acquisition and learning of the English language (New York University, 2018). In particular, one of the key challenges faced by these students is pronunciation. What is more, unlike mathematics, English language does not have a material set of rules or guideline as to what sound every letter of the alphabet signifies. For instance, the letter e can be pronounced as e, eh. In addition, the tenses of verbs can also hamper learning. Cultural differences also play a key role in acquisition of the English language (Wold, 2006). There have been deliberations regarding the most efficacious approaches of second language instruction. Picture seeing texts and hearing sounds that do not correspond with those that…
Language and Language Practices
Language is the written and verbal method by which people communicate with one another. It employs sounds or written designs that are understood by others to create words, phrases, and sentences. Other species have language, as well, but it is not believed to be as complex as the language used by human beings (loomfield, 1914; Deacon, 1998). There are many facets to language, and there are nuances and subtleties that are often overlooked. This is especially true with people who are just learning a language, whether they are children first learning to speak or second-language learners being exposed to a new and different language for the first time. People who study languages are involved in what is called linguistics. They may study a particular language, but more often than not they study multiple languages and the construction of those languages. What they do is very different…
Bloomfield, Leonard. 1914. An introduction to the study of language. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
Deacon, Terrence William. 1998. The Symbolic Species: The Co-Evolution of Language and the Brain. New York W.W. Norton & Company.
Kandel, ER; Schwartz, JH; Jessell, TM. 2000. Principles of Neural Science (fourth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Katzner, K. 1999. The Languages of the World. New York: Routledge.
Crawford begins the article by highlighting problems associated with second language instruction in American classrooms. According to the statistics cited most approaches used in these classrooms are inadequate to provide students with the necessary skills to communicate in the target language outside of the classroom. The reason for this is a lack of focus on communication skills, combined with an inflated focus on form rather than function. Despite efforts to improve upon this by methods such as the total immersion approach and the audiolingual method, results are still shown to be poor. Chomsky, Krashen and Cummins's theories are shown to have revolutionized language acquisition theories, and thus also language teaching methods. Furthermore Crawford shows that a child's inherent feelings about his or her own culture, and consequently about the culture represented by the target language, have a significant impact upon second language learning. It is then suggested that…
Further, it is in this stage that instructors have the ability to widen the instruction significantly to incorporate many activities that allow students to practice their new knowledge in a variety of different ways and with focus on a variety of different subject matters.
In viewing the basic theoretical and practical-use background of the Natural Approach of Language Teaching and Learning, one can understand that basic functions that allow students the ability to hone new skills in a non-threatening environment. However, despite significant praise in the teaching community regarding the success of the Natural Approach, the method's critics still exist. Due to this, it is crucial to understand the advantages as well as the disadvantages that exist when the Natural Approach is employed in a language learning environment, especially in dealing with English as a second language.
Advantages and Disadvantages
In beginning to understand the overall value of the Natural…
Canale, Michael and Swain, Merrill. 2002. "Theoretical Basis of Communicative
Approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing," Applied Linguistics: 1(1): pp. 1-47. Retrieved from: https://segue.atlas.uiuc.edu/uploads/nppm / CanaleSwain.80.pdf [Accessed on 17 February 2012].
Clandfield, Lindsay and Meldrum, Nicola. 2012. "One-to-one methodology: advantages and disadvantages for students." Retrieved from: http://www.onestopenglish .com/business/teaching-approaches/teaching-one-to-one/methodology/one-to-one-methodology-advantages-and-disadvantages-for-students/144655.article [Accessed on 19 February 2012].
Gebhard, J., Gaitan, S. And Oprandy, R. 1990. "Beyond Prescription: The Student
GAP stands for Guadalupe Alternative Programs and stands to serve St. Paul's Latino youth living on the West Side for the last fifty years. Programs like GAP have existed to promote the wellbeing of St. Paul's, Minnesota's Latino student population by offering services like counseling, educational programs, emergency resources, and job assistance (GAP, n.d.). While GAP still assists the Latino student population, times have changes and the Latino population has decreased, opening GAP services to diverse ethnic backgrounds. This has led to a recent issue of understanding the needs of the current population of GAP students.
The current population consists of English language learners, refugees (Karen refugees), and low income students. Social work interns at GAP recognized external factors that may affect GAP students. This has led to the desire to promote wellness among the current student GAP population. This research study is meant to provide an understanding of what…
Sometimes students have obstacles to contend with as they enter school. One such barrier can be language. The student I worked with is a Chinese first year student who is attempting to assimilate to AP class schedules. He is a 14-year old interested in learning the English language and is having problems not only learning the language but balancing out the needs of his identity versus the American culture. English Language Learners often must contend with several influences and deal with a new culture that may seem dauting and stressful[footnoteRef:1]. His name is Bo. [1: Larry Ferlazzo, English Language Learners: Teaching Strategies That Work (Santa Barbara, Calif: Linworth, 2010)]
Bo recently immigrated to the United States with his family two years ago. While Bo has learned conversational English and some grammar, he still has problems writing in English. The way to write simplified Chinese is different than English and so…
Progression and Foundation of Language
Learning of primary language complements skills development; this includes learning about language, as well as learning other subjects in the school curriculum via language. Language learning facilitates general literary skills and allows children to revert to, and strengthen skills and concepts studied through their first language (The National Strategies Primary, 2009).
Curriculum is enriched by language learning. Teachers as well as children find it fun and challenging, and display enthusiasm towards language; this leads to creation of interested learners and the development of positive attitudes towards learning languages, all throughout one's life. A natural link exists between language and other curricular areas, and this enriches the overall teaching-learning experience. Proficiencies, understanding, and information learned through language contribute greatly to literacy and oracy development in children, as well as to better understanding of one's own and others' cultures. Language is also integral to community and…
(n.d.). Anticipatory Set/Hook. Weebly. Retrieved from: http://ed491.weebly.com/uploads/8/4/6/1/8461140/anticipatorysets.pdf
(2013). Arizona Early Learning Standards. Arizona Department of Education. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED486135.pdf
(n.d.). Developing Lessons with Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0136101259.pdf
Huppenthal, J., Stollar, J., & Hrabluk, K. (n.d.). Arizona State Literacy Plan. Arizona Department of Education. Retrieved from: http://www.azed.gov/standards-practices/files/2012/06/arizona-state-literacy-plan-compiled-doc-9.29.11.pdf .
Second language proficiency and academic achievement can be challenging to develop simultaneously. Krashen's (2010) work illustrates the various systems of learning, including the learning that takes place subconsciously and the learning that takes place more by rote methods. Likewise, Gottlieb (2006) differentiates between social and academic language proficiency and academic achievement for students. The acquisition of the language entails different cognitive processes than the acquisition of subject-specific knowledge. Educators armed with a more thorough understanding of academic versus language proficiency can better help their students succeed on both levels.
Krashen (2010) points out that each human being learns language in the same way. Individual differences may be important for current scientific paradigms, but for educators, a more universal approach will be far more helpful in creating a classroom environment and pedagogical approach that will be effective. After all, human biology is universal; so, too are the cognitive processes involved in…
Gottlieb, M. (2006). Assessing English Language Learners. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Krashen, S. (2010). On language acquisition. Retrieved online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NiTsduRreug
"Nebraska: ELL Resources," (n.d.). Colorin Colorado. Retrieved online: http://www.colorincolorado.org/ell-basics/resources-state/nebraska
As language may be viewed as a vehicle by which a student can better achieve academic success (Gottlieb, 2006), language proficiency assessments are ways in which the teacher can review whether or not the student is developing language proficiency rather than just content understanding. Thus the idea that students who are learning an additional or second language will seamlessly bridge into grade-level content once they reach the highest level of proficiency is a simple extension of the reality that language affords the user: it is the means by which understanding and success in a culture wherein that language is used can be obtained. Thus, if an ELL develops a true understanding and grasp of the language, the grade-level content that the student should be able to grasp is made available to him: it opens up because the language proficiency acts as the key what would otherwise be a…
AdLit. (n.d.). Building Trust with Families. Retrieved from http://www.adlit.org/media/mediatopics/ells/
Gottlieb, M. (2006). Assessing English language learners: Bridges from language proficiency to academic achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
What I know about language is that it is essential in life and in learning. We use it to communicate ideas, feelings, needs, and thoughts. Being social creatures, we use language to bond with people, to create bonds of affection, and to create pillars of support for each other and for society as a whole. Language is something that can unite people; but if it is not known, it can also isolate those who do not know it.
How I learned what I know about language has come from my experience as a learner. What I remember learning about learning my native language is a real reticence to actually begin speaking: I was 5 years old before I started actually speaking; I would listen to my two older brothers have conversations and from them I learned both English and Spanish. Since my family and friends mostly spoke in…
Adichie, C. (2009). The danger of a single story. TED. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/chimamanda_adichie_the_danger_of_a_single_story
Gottlieb, M. (2006). Assessing English language learners: Bridges from language proficiency to academic achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Levien, R. [mediathatmatters]. (2009, June 16). Immersion [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I6Y0HAjLKYI
North Clackamas Schools. (2013). SIOP Components and Features. Retrieved from http://www.nclack.k12.or.us/Page/1563
Consider the fact that the Iroquois are said not to have had a strong word for the singular "I," and that they subsequently developed what was arguably the longest lasting communal representative democracy the world has ever known. The Inuit, whose culture revolves around the arctic world, have dozens of words for snow - this sort of technical knowledge allows quick and accurate transmission of conditions and training in survival.
In Western terms, one remembers that Jesus Christ was said to be "The Word," yet in the original Greek this indicates not only a spoken word but also the Logos - the root term for intellectual reason, for Meaning within context (be that the context of a sentence, a life, a history, or a universe); logos was rational order. The difference between saying that a religious figure is the Word (which at its most profound seem to indicate a kind…
Atkins, J.D.C. (1887). Report of the commissioner of Indian affairs. House Exec. Doc. No. 1, Pt. 5, 50th Cong., 1st Sess. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Boston Language Institute. "TEFL FAQ http://teflcertificate.com/faq.html
Ethnologue. "English http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng
Macha, Freddy. "Tanzanian Independence Day Abroad. http://www.unclesamofafrica.com/TanzaniaGuardian.htm
When presented with a teaching situation, one of the major challenges teachers must deal with is the various and often divergent sets of needs inherent in each student. Nevertheless, the University of Alberta (2001) emphasizes that teaching should be conducted around learners and their needs rather than around the text or teacher. Hence, learner analysis is a vital component of teaching effectively.
According to the University of Alberta (2001), there are various perspectives on conducted learner analysis, also known as audience analysis, in the classroom. Often, these begin with an assessment of the basic characteristics in learners that are considered to be important in an analysis of their needs. Some, for example, identify two basic types of learner-related characteristics: Prerequisite knowledge, skills and attitudes, and other learner characteristics such as their demography, psychology, aptitudes, experience, learning styles, and so on. Both these basic sets of characteristics should be…
Cleman, K.A. (2011) Applying Audience Invoked Models to Instructional Design Methods. Retrieved from: http://orange.eserver.org/issues/2-1/kcleman.htm
Daigre, R.M. (2011) Chapter 4: Instructional Analysis: Analyzing the Learners. Retrieved from: http://www.angelfire.com/la2/learners/learners.html
Eastham, N. (2008). Cognitive Load Theory. Instructional Design Course. Retrieved from: http://www.unco.edu/cetl/sir/clt/index.html
Intulogy, Ltd. (2010). Learner Analysis. Retrieved from: http://www.intulogy.com/addie/learner-analysis.html
auditoy leanes), motivation and pesonality such as extovesion vs. intovesion, although the aticles' authos suggests that tailoing mateial to expessed leane pefeences ae not always the best ways to achieve positive outcomes. Leanes ae not always clea as to thei tue leaning oientation and leane styles ae not 'fixed' but may vay accoding to the type of media used and the subject mateial. Using a vaiety of media may be a moe effective appoach fo educatos, and thinking in tems of 'appoaches' that can change, athe than fixed student leaning styles.
One fequent fustation expessed by online instuctos is the absence of immediate feedback fom thei students. Undestanding individual students can help the teache modify instuction, even without the immediate esponse povided by eye contact in the classoom. It is essential that moments exist within the online pocess when students can communicate that they do not undestand, while in the…
references alone but must keep a real-world and virtual ear upon the students to shift his or her learning strategy. Understanding overall learning process required of the subject material and the need to modify the learning approaches to meet the unique demands of the instruction in its particular venue and format is essential. Simply knowing a learning 'style' of a student is not enough, and a label can be misleading. As more students must learn independently, greater knowledge of how the learner functions and the use of different settings are required, and the article calls for more extensive into how to create a more effective learning environment that uses a diversity of approaches to convey content.
Being aware of these different types of learners in the classroom will help the teacher plan ways to motivate students and promote a positive attitude.
Motivation and attitude in the classroom is frequently linked to other factors in the students' lives such as culture, ethnicity, language skills, and socio-economic issues ("Analyze Learners," 2001). Being aware of the diversity in the classroom will assist the teacher when designing the program. For instance, different cultures place value of different things. It is the teacher's and the district's responsibility to be aware of the ways that certain cultures perceive learning and education. If teachers are not familiar with this information about a group of students in their building, the district should provide some staff development to assist teachers in understanding the culture. Providing this kind of support should not stop at culture and ethnic differences, but it should extend to socio-economic factors. As…
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (August, 2001). Analyze Learners.
Retrieved October 19, 2006 at http://www.ieee.org/organizations/eab/tutorials/refguide/als01.htm
speaking in the target language is the expectation that a proficient speaker will sound like a native speaker. Is this an appropriate or realistic expectation?
Not a long while after the emergence of the subject of second language acquisition (SLA), which most of the scholars think came around the time of initial years of 1970s, there has been a need to develop ways by which to measure the development of the second language, aside from the usage of detailed homogeneous skill tests which were mostly appropriate to fulfill other objectives.
As per Freeman's (2009) information, the first declaration of this need was made by Kenji Hukuta (1976). Kenji Hakuta was concerned in knowing the path of his subject Ugusiu's English language development over a period of time. Besides the aforementioned practitioners, other L1 acquisition scholars had carried out for the pupils learning English as a national language. In the research…
Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Dornyei, Z. (1998). Do language learners recognize pragmatic violations? Pragmatic vs. grammatical awareness in instructed L2 learning. TESOL Quarterly, 32, 233 -- 259.
Bialystok, E. (1991). Achieving proficiency in a second language: A processing description. In R. Philipson, E. Kellerman, L. Selinker, M. Sharwood Smith, & M. Swain (Eds.), Foreign/second language pedagogy research: A commemorative volume for Claus Faerch (Vol. 64, pp. 63 -- 78). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Bialystok, E. (1993). Symbolic representation and attentional control in pragmatic competence. In G. Kasper & S. Blum-Kulka (Eds.), Interlanguage pragmatics (pp. 43 -- 59). New York: Oxford University Press.
Bouton, L.F. (1988). A cross-cultural study of ability to interpret implicatures in English. World Englishes, 7(2), 183 -- 196.
Chinese as the native language and culture to research. Include such information as the need to communicate, social organisation (tribes, cities, etc.) contacts with other cultures, development of a written language, nonverbal aspects of language (such as inflection and body language), changes over the centuries, etc.
Chinese culture and language
Chinese cultural values play an important role in shaping the community's social norms, with the majority of individuals in China being inclined to take on attitudes that are in accordance with their traditions. Chinese language needs to be understood as being much more than a dialect, as it has a strong socio-cultural effect on its speakers and as it affects individuals in a cognitive-linguistic way. The impact of such ideas on concepts such as people, families, and communities can be observed by addressing the way that they function with the language as a central model facilitating better connections between bodies.…
Gu, S. (2011). "A Cultural History of the Chinese Language." McFarland.
He, A.W. & Xiao, Y.(2008). "Chinese as a Heritage Language: Fostering Rooted World Citizenry." Natl Foreign Lg Resource Ctr.
Postiglione, G.A. (1999). "China's National Minority Education: Culture, Schooling, and Development." Psychology Press.
Wang, Y. (2013). "Language, Culture, and Identity Among Minority Students in China: The Case of the Hui." Routledge.
An orthographic definition is one which is formalistic in the sense of being bound to the form of a word in a particular medium. It is not sensitive to distinctions of meaning or grammatical function. To this extent it is not complete" (1998, p. 4). Therefore, in an effort to help complete the definition, a reference to Webster's advises that a word is simply "something that is said" (1999, p. 2633).
Unfortunately, this formal definition does little to clear the muddied waters with respect to what a word is, and Carter (1998) suggests that, "It may be more accurate to define a word as the minimum meaningful unit of language. This allows us to differentiate the separate meanings contained in the word fair in so far as they can be said to be different semantic units" (p. 5). Furthermore, this definition fails to embrace the polysemous nature of many words.…
Carter, R. (1998). Vocabulary: Applied Linguistic Perspectives. London: Routledge.
Cervatiuc, A. (2007). "Assessing Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge." International
Forum of Teaching and Studies, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 40-42.
Flippo, R.F. & Caverly, D.C. (2000). Handbook of College Reading and Study Strategy
The groups were distinguished by those who participated in language acquisition activities employing enhanced reading with word-based activities and those who participated in what the researcher called 'narrow reading,' which occurred without this supplementary instruction. The two groups were asked to retain the same scope of fifty selected vocabulary words. Min would find that those in the former group, denoted as the "RV" group, performed significantly better than those in the "NR" group. In interpretation, Min tells that "the results show that the RV group demonstrated significantly more knowledge about the target vocabulary than the NR group on the acquisition and retention tests. The researcher concludes that reading plus focused vocabulary exercises are more effective and efficient than the narrow reading approach in enhancing target vocabulary acquisition and retention among EFL secondary students." (Min, p. 75)
Min would go on to suggest that the value in this study rests in…
Laufer, B. & Rozovski-Roitblat, B. (2011). Incidental vocabulary acquisition: The effects of task type,-word occurrence and their combination. Language Teaching Research, 15(4), 391-411
Min, H.T. (2008). EFL Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention: Reading Plus Vocabulary Enhancement Activities and Narrow Reading. Language Learning, 58(1), 73-115.
Learning an L2 is important because it gives an individual an opportunity to not only learn the way in which a people communicate but also the chance to understand the culture of the community in which the immigrant lives. Language is the expression of culture and the avenue by which all people advance to social, academic and economic success. This paper discusses the meaning of learning a new language in cultural and socio-economic terms and why it is so imperative that people have the supports they need to acquire linguistic skills.
Culture, Identity, and Language: Uncovering Human and Social Capital
As Cok and Novak-Lukanovic (n.d.) point out, language is not just the way we use words to communicate -- it is an expression of the totality of our personhood: our culture, our experience, our identity and our awareness. When learners do not become proficient in their L2, they lack the…
Cox, l. and Novak-Lukanovic, S. (n.d.) Languages as Social Cohesion and Human
Capital. Retrieved from http://www.fm-kp.si/zalozba/ISBN/961dash6486dash71dash3/079dash089.pdf
Hannum, E.C. and Cerug, H.S. (2014). Linguistic Capital, Information Access and Economic Opportunity among Rural Young Adults in Western China. Retrieved from http://repository.upenn.edu/elmm/11
Reardless or whther the second language learner is a child or an adult there must be a concerted effort put for the to understand the cultural context of the second language. This responsibility lies with instructors and students. The instructor has te responsibility to teach certain cultural nuances ad habits and the learner has the responsibility of having an open mind so that the culture can be acquired. Failure to do so make it extremely difficult for an individual to acquire a second language. The impact of second language acquisition is that it serves as a conduit between the first culture and the language of the second culture. Once cultural context is understood the individual understands how to use the language and how to understand pothers when they use the language. This ability to communicate is often an aspect of language acquisition that is difficult to understand because the rules…
Bowlin, Carla Mackenzie Culture and language: communication barriers for Hispanic immigrants working in the U.S. And their Anglo-managers. Appalachian State University, 2006. Print
Citron, James L. "Can Cross-Cultural Understanding Aid Second Language Acquisition? Toward a Theory of Ethno-Lingual Relativity." Hispania 78.1: (1995) 105-113. Print
Hidasi .Judit The Impact of Culture on Second Language Acquisition. http://www.childresearch.net/RESOURCE/RESEARCH/2006/exfile/HIDASI.pdf
Ilieva, R. . "Exploring culture in texts designed for use in adult ESL Classrooms." TESL Canada Journal, 17.2 (2000):50-63.Print
Age and Learning a New Language
hat is the ideal age for a person to be able to learn a new language? hat are the dynamics (besides age) that contribute to SLA? This paper delves into those subjects using scholarly articles as resources.
The Literature on Learning a New Language and Age
"…Early beginners, through their longer exposure to L2, reach the necessary competence levels in their two languages sooner to allow transfer in both directions…" (Djigunovic, 2010).
hy are very young students especially gifted to pick up new languages quickly? The scholarship shows that younger learners "…have no awkwardness or inhibitions with the new language" and don't get too upset when they make mistakes (Cenoz, 2003, p. 77). As to whether or not younger learners "…soak up new languages" simply because the soak up information like a sponge soaks up water, Cenoz has his doubts. Indeed studies show younger…
Cenoz, Jasone. (2003). "The Effect of Age on Foreign Language Acquisition in Formal
Contexts. In Age and the Acquisition of English As a Foreign Language, M. Mayo, and M.
Lecumberri, Eds. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Cummins, Jim, and Davison, Chris. (2007). International Handbook of English Language
Grammar Error Correction
Grammar Correction Best Practices
The art and science of grammar correction has seismic implications on native and new speakers to English alike. The ability to communicate in a clear and cohesive fashion, both verbally and in writing, whilst using the proper syntax, punctuation, sentence structure and spelling is vital for the message to be clear. Further, it is seen as a sign of intelligence or lack thereof for someone to use the obviously wrong words and sentence structure while communicating in writing or via speech. hile grammar and languages teachers are perhaps fighting a losing battle right now given the fairly sloppy nature of many people including supposed language professionals like writers and journalists, there are indeed some verifiable and known best practices that can and should be used to help combat the grammar failures that pervade the sphere of communication in the United States as well…
Chan, Alice Y.W. "An Algorithmic Approach To Error Correction: An Empirical
Study." Foreign Language Annals 39.1 (2006): 131-147. Education Research
Complete. Web. 31 July 2014.
Chodorow, Martin, Michael Gamon, and Joel Tetreault. "The Utility of Article And
The pogam pimaily suppots the local Chinese communities to maintain younge geneation's heitage backgound, and speading Chinese cultue in the U.S. The classes ae nomally held two to thee hous on weekends with Chinese language lessons and othe taditional cultual and at activities. Most students have high levels of oal poficiency in Chinese, but needed to enhance skills in liteacy. Chinese heitage schools ae mainly suppoted by two goups: the National Council of Associations of Chinese Language Schools (NCACLS) which is founded by Taiwan o Hong Kong immigant and heitage communities, and the Chinese School Association in the United States (CSAUS) that is connected with immigant and heitage communities fom mainland China. Accoding to Scott McGinnis's (2005) compiled statistics, the combined enollment of NCACLS and CSAUS was aound 150,000 in 2003. The numbe of students in the heitage schools is lage than in othe CFL pogams acoss the U.S.
references for the researchers and educators that may lead to some recommendations in developing a better learning environment in future foreign language education. The data collected from the surveys will be treated as confidential by me, and all the collected data will be anonymous. The data will be only applied directly to this study and not in other use, nor is it available for other parties. A letter of consent form will be sent to all participants to be aware to the purpose and the use of this study from the collected data. All collected data will be protected by the researcher during the study.
A survey developed by the researcher of this study includes two sections of questions which relate to the foreign language learning. The first part of the questions is based on the participants' background and their children's background relating to their cultural and language background. The second section includes questions about the reason of sending their child to CFL program; what level do they want their child to complete Chinese language learning, and what area do they want their child to apply the language. The participants choose from the options provided that applies to them the best. There are three open ended questions, allowing for free comments. (See appendix a).
The research is a qualitative research design that investigates the similarities and differences between parental motivations towards CFL learning between diverse ethnicities by using an online survey to explore the two essential questions in this research.
Linguicism and Its Implications for Assessing English Language Learners (ELL) For Suspected Disabilities
(a) Define The Term Linguicism And Explain It In Your Own Words,
Throughout the 1980s, a period of language conservatism resurfaced, with federal officials giving up their proactive position and advocating more decision making be moved to local control. The 1980s in addition saw the increase of the official English or English-only movement, which sparked the contemporary debate around the language and which shaped new tensions for educators teaching linguistically assorted students (Banks, 2006). During the 1990s, the sociopolitical environment became openly antagonistic toward the linguistic rights of non-English speakers with the passage of California Proposition 227 (Doppen & Tesar, 2008). The California proposition made sure that all children be placed in English-language classrooms, despite their English-language ability. Non-English-speaking, immigrant children were permitted to participate in ESL classes for 1 year (180 school days). The proposition's objective…
Banks, J. A. (2006). The historical reconstruction of knowledge about race: Implications for transformative teaching. Educational Researcher, 24(2), 15-25.
Banks, J., Cookson, P., Gay, G., Hawley, W., Irvine, J., Nieto, Schofield, J., & Stephan, W. (2001). Diversity within Unity: Essential Principles for Teaching and Learning in a Multicultural Society. The Phi Delta Kappan, 83(3), 196-198, 200-203.
Calderon, M. E., & Wasden, R. (2012). Preparing secondary school teachers to teach reading, language and content: A look at professional development programs. In J. Coppola & E. Primas (Eds.), One classroom, many learners: Best literacy practices for today's multilingual classroom (pp. 251-270). Washington, DC: International Reading Association.
Colombi, M. C. & Schleppegrell, M. J. (2002). Theory and practice in the development of advanced literacy. In M. C. Columbi and M. J. Schleppegrell (Eds.), Developing advanced literacy in first and second languages, (pp. 1-19). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
The graph on figure 2 of Collier and Thomas' article (p. 8) also attests to the efficacy of two way immersion classes, perhaps even more so than the first graph. This is primarily due to the fact that there is a greater disparity in the average test scores for students who were enrolled in these classes, versus those that are not. Furthermore, since the learning of English is the principle objective for dual language learners, this graph attests to the value in students enrolling in two way immersion courses in which they learn both Spanish and English.
Another fact that this second graph alludes to, and which is noted in comparison efforts with the first graph, is that there is a relationship between achievement in Spanish and achievement in English. This is particularly true for non-native English speakers. Learning basic fundamental aspects of their own language naturally correlates to a…
Collier, V.P, Thomas, W.P. (2004). "The astounding effectiveness of dual education for all." NABE Journal of Research and Practice. 2:1.
(Farah and idge, 2009)
The successful shift from textbook, memory-based curriculum to a standards-based curriculum is therefore dependent on three things: the development of national standards and goals for curriculum; the development of corresponding assessment tools; and the re-education of teachers towards the objective of altering teachers' attitudes and views of their role in the education system. ather than simply drilling memorized facts, words or phrases into a student's consciousness-as is the case with a memory-based curriculum-teachers in a standards based, student-centered curriculum are responsible for helping students to apply such knowledge to practical situations for social success, over and above academic success.
English as a Second Language. (2010). etrieved December 30, 2010, from http://www.rong-chang.com/
English Teachers Network. (2010). Why Have a Standards-Based Curriculum and What are the Implications for the Teaching-Learning Assessment Process?. etrieved December 30,
2010, from http://www.etni.org.il/red/etninews/issue4/whystandard.html
Farah, S., & idge, N. (2009). Challenges to Curriculum…
English as a Second Language. (2010). Retrieved December 30, 2010, from http://www.rong-chang.com/
English Teachers Network. (2010). Why Have a Standards-Based Curriculum and What are the Implications for the Teaching-Learning Assessment Process?. Retrieved December 30,
2010, from http://www.etni.org.il/red/etninews/issue4/whystandard.html
Farah, S., & Ridge, N. (2009). Challenges to Curriculum Development in the UAE. Dubai
Learning Problems vs Language Problems
The objective of this study is to examine how learning problems and language problems are related. Specifically considered will be the fact that when students who are learning English as their second language and who are experiencing academic or behavioral difficulties that the teacher and the school's problem-solving teams must examine whether these problems are related to learning a new language or whether the problems may be due to cognitive delays or developmental delay or disability.
The work of Fisher ( nd) entitled "Assessing English Language Learners for a Learning Disability or Language Issue" states that English language learners all "with learning disabilities...too often...fall through the cracks." (p.13) The reason stated for this is that these learners are often considered to be "slow English learners, or they may be in a school district that does not have enough resources to test them in their L1…
Recommended Practices for Assessment, Diagnosis, and Documentation of Learning Disabilities (2014) Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario. Retrieved from: http://www.ldao.ca/documents/Assessment%20Protocols_Sept%2003.pdf
Special Education and English Language Learners: Guidance for LEA Staff
An Overview of the ELL/SPED Programs and the Identification Process
(Webinar #1) (nd) Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. Retrieved from: http://dese.mo.gov/sites/default/files/webinar/documents/ELL-QandA-12-09-13.pdf
Auditory Computer Files Assist College Level ESL Learners
The objective of this study is to examine whether auditory computer files assist college level ESL learners.
Linda Dwyer writes that text-to-speech readers are not generally available "outside of the disability community and may be prohibitively expensive when obtainable." (Dwyer, nd, p.1) In addition, Dwyer reports that ESL instructors are often not aware of the research or the resources that are available. Dwyer states that reading pens that are able to read line-by-line and other assistive devices that can copy and article and then paste it to the computer for text-to-speech support are useful to students who are ESL students. According to Dwyer, "ESL instructors in higher educational settings have worked primarily with high achieving international students. As such, these instructors have occupied a niche treated as short-term remedial support rather than an academic sub-field within the academy. Many positions in both…
Casidy (1996) in: Kurzweil Educational Systems (2005) Scientifically-Based Research Validating Kurzweil 3000: An Annotated Review of Research Supporting the Use of Kurzweil 3000 in English Language Learner Classrooms. Oct 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.vocalinks.com/site/vocalinks/assets/pdf/K3000_ELL_Research.pdf
Chisholm and Beckett (2003) in: Kurzweil Educational Systems (2005) Scientifically-Based Research VAliding Kurzweil 3000: An Annotated Review of Research Supporting the Use of Kurzweil 3000 in English Language Learner Classrooms. Oct 2005. Retrieved from:
For both teachers, however, Boxer and Cortes-Conde highlight moments where the teacher talk lends itself to greater student interaction. At these moments, the teachers often fostered group discussions by asking students about their own cultural norms. When teachers took on the role of information brokers, students resumed the role of passive learners. The authors argue that open dialogue is crucial to fostering pragmatic and sociocultural competence, and that teachers can create this open dialogue and a place of comfort and still encourage pragmatic awareness. (Hall & Verplaetse, 2000, p. 15)
Stressing among new and existing foreign language educators the importance of classroom interaction as well as cultural expression is essential, as the manner in which context is delivered, as apposed to content lectured upon creates foundational interest and potential independent motivation to learn. Curriculum, must be inclusive and collaborative to engender individual motivation, which is essential to foreign language learning,…
Atanda, R. "Do Gatekeeper Courses Expand Education Options?" Education Statistics Quarterly 1:1 Retrieved October 10, 2007 at http://nces.ed.gov/programs/quarterly/vol_1/1_1/4-esq11-c.asp www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002451570
Belz, J.A. (2002). Social Dimensions of Telecollaborative Foreign Language Study. Language, Learning & Technology, 6(1), 60. Retrieved October 17, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002451570
Christian, D., Pufahl, I., & Rhodes, N.C. (2005). Fostering Foreign Language Proficiency: What the U.S. Can Learn from Other Countries. Phi Delta Kappan, 87(3), 226.
Creswell, John (1997) Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing From Among Five Traditions. New York: Sage Pulications.
Foreign Language Learning
In DeJong's Foundations for Multilingualism in Education, the idea that multilingualism should not be viewed as a specialty but rather treated as a norm is a good one, as Dutta indicates in his experience of growing up using various languages, believing them to be one entity not separate as they are viewed in the West (DeJong, 2011, p. 1). For instance, the UK's tendency to "teach" a separate language in one class but to ignore it in all other occasions does not help to support the actual learning or usage of that language. Yet schools still have a tendency to feel the need to label students and language learners as though they needed to be marked as special or different. It should be the norm for all to learn multiple languages especially at a younger age in order to develop skills and open doors for later careers.…
DeJong, E. (2011). Foundations for Multilingualism in Education: from Principle to Practices. Caslon Publishing.
Samway, K and McKeon D. (2007). Myths and Realities: Best Practices for Language
Minority Students. Heinemann.
TESOL: Oral Language
Language form, communicative function, and social context all combine to affect students' oral language performance in the classroom, as each plays a part in applying a certain pressure on the student. For example, in the classroom, a student will naturally want to use the correct language form as it is a formal setting. At the same time, the conscientious student may also be aware that formal language is not typically used by peers, so there may be a reluctance to demonstrate a use of language that is not so common, especially if an ELL is having a hard time to fit in. Communicative function is also a factor in the students' performance in the classroom, as it relates to the concept of conveying meaning in whatever way possible. Just as a child will seek to get what it wants through oral commands that are not necessarily grammatically…
Gottlieb, M. (2006). Assessing English language learners: Bridges from language proficiency to academic achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Peregoy, S., & Boyle, O. (2013). Reading, writing, and learning in ESL: A resource book for teaching K-12 English learners. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Climate of Creativity: Teaching English to Young Learners Through the Art of Drama
Several learning and involving learning experiences emerge for the early childhood students when both drama and movement are incorporated in the daily syllabus (Chauhan, 2004). Apart from being "fun" for majority of the kids, kinesthetic activities are capable of assisting the young students, particularly those learning the English language, improve interpretation skills, vocabulary, fluency, speech knowledge, syntactic knowledge, and meta-cognitive judgment (Sun, 2003). When drama and movement are employed in the teaching of language skills, the learners are provided with a framework for listening and significant language production, offers chances for writing and reading improvements (Chauhan, 2004), and engages learners in writing and reading as significant communication procedures. Other than the improvement of resourceful judgment and expression, fine and gross motor organization skills, problem tackling, social dealings, cooperative performance, rhyming, and rhythm skills can be developed (ieg…
August, D., Carlo, M., Dressler, C. And Snow, C. (2005). The critical role of vocabulary development for English language learners. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice 20 (1): 50 -- 57.
Brouillette, L. (2012). Supporting the Language Development of Limited English Proficient Students through Arts Integration in the Primary Grades. Arts Education Policy Review, 113(2), 68. doi:10.1080/10632913.2012.656494
Chauhan, V. (2004). Drama techniques for teaching English. The Internet TESL Journal, 10().
Courtney, R. (1980). Dramatic Curriculum. London: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd.
Curriculum and Policy
DaSilva Iddings, Combs, and Moll (2012) discuss policies surrounding English language learners in the United States (ELL). The article begins by considering the nature and prevalence of this population, postulating that students from this category have come to outnumber native English speakers in American schools. This emphasizes the importance of effective English language instruction for such learners, since it would empower them to access better opportunities in the future and to become contributing members of society. According to the authors, however, educational policy in certain states hinders the ability of these students to access adequate language learning in English.
In Arizona, for example, the policy is based upon Proposition 203, which was approved for Arizona in November 2000. This initiative essentially replaces bilingual education in the state with what was known as "Structured English Immersion (SEI), by which students are to learn English only by means of…
DaSilva Iddings, A.C., Combs, M.C., and Moll, L. (2012). In the Arid Zone: Drying Out Educational Resource for English Language Learners Through Policy and Practice. Urban Education, 47:495
As an analytic method it varies from the syntactic syllabus in simliar way as the practical and procedure syllabi, particularly in the supposition that the learner learns best when using language to converse about something. TBLT also is different from the two other logical curricula in a lot of ways. It differs from the procedural syllabus in that it stresses the importance of carrying out a needs analysis prior to instruction.
Identifying likely bases of task complexity certainly is an essential precondition for making ethical choices regarding the grading and sequencing of functions, upon which many of the worth of the TBLT will rest. Grading and sequencing of pedagogic errands is certainly a chief test for the task-based syllabus creators.
Principles and features of task-based language teaching.
Prabhu's observations, stated at the beginning of the project, guide to the first belief of task-based interaction that "language is a basically just…
Alex, J., 2001. Recognizing Task Designs. Journal of Education, 2(5), pp. 23-34.
Breen, M., 2004. Process syllabus for the language classroom.. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Breen, M., 2005. Learner contributions to task design.. Chicago: Penguin.
Candlin, C.N., 1984. Syllabus design as a critical process, ELT Documents. Cambridge: Pergamon & the British Council.
Traditional Methods of Language Teaching
The paper discuses the various traditional methods of language teaching, namely:
Grammar Translation Method
The Audio-lingual Method
The Direct Method
The Silent Way
The Communicative Approach
Cognitive code learning
The Natural Approach
Functional-Notional Approach and The task-based approach
The paper discusses each approach in details and describes its various chief principles and how it helps both teachers and students to teach, understand, learn, and practice all the skills they learn through these approaches.
Grammar Translation Method
This method involves the learner to spend a lot of time in understanding the language structure. Though both listening as well as speaking suffer because of it. However, grammar and vocabulary are being stressed throughout the teaching method.
The grammar translation method has been derived from traditional approaches to the teaching of Latin and Greek in the nineteenth century (Selected Lesson Plans). It was originally used to…
Benstein, Patricia. Explaining concepts behind the Silent Way. Wanadoo Communiquer. www.wanadoo.fr
Communicative language teaching. Sil International.
Capes - History of Language Teaching 2. Club Internet.
feature of language and why?
The most important key feature of any language is grammar. Grammar provides structure and meaning to sounds. Without a grammatical framework, it is unclear if a word is referring to a noun or an adjective; an adverb or a verb. Even a computer language must have a grammatical construction to be read and to be comprehensible. Many words between different languages sound very similar (such as Latin and Portuguese, for example) but without grammatical rules the distinctions in use between those sounds is unclear. Grammar also is part of the social 'situation' of a language. For a language to be effective, it cannot exist in a vacuum. "No commonly-spoken language is fixed. All languages change over time. What we call 'grammar' is simply a reflection of a language at a particular time" (What is grammar, 2014, English Club). Over time certain grammatical rules may become…
Factors that influence the acquisition of a second language. (2014). ESL. Retrieved from:
Language learning by adults. (2013). Linguistics 201. Retrieved from: http://pandora.cii.wwu.edu/vajda/ling201/test4materials/secondlangacquisition.htm
What is grammar? (2014). English Club. Retrieved from: http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/grammar-what.htm
Many studies show that one should start foreign language studies as soon as possible, and the peak age of learning the second language is said to be on or before the child reaches the age of 10. After the baby is born, and eventually learned his/her native language, it now gradually starts having its full capacity to learn another or new language just by imitating and hearing his/her environment. The earlier he/she hears the accents and sound of another language, there is much more possibility that he/she will develop it. Added to this, if he/she is also given chance to be exposed in the language, and the opportunity to speak it, chances are that he/she will be able to speak it fluently. This way, the child would treat both the mother tongue and the foreign language equally (http://www.snn-rdr.ca/snn/2003apr/bilingual.html,2003).
One high school principal was quoted saying "A child has only one…
Baker, Colin. (1993).Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Multilingual Matters Ltd.
Bialystok, Ellen. (1991). Language Processing in Bilingual Children. Cambridge University Press.
Bilingual. 2004.WordIQ.com. http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Bilingual
Davis, Laura and Keyser, Janis. Parenting Experts: Bilingual Family Pros and Cons. ParentsPlace.com
com). Having English sound 'stressed' correctly is often a challenge for French speakers.
Compared with some other languages, French and English have fairly similar grammatical structures. Both languages, for example, have auxiliary verbs, participles, active/passive voice, past/present/future tenses. But "there are frequent occasions when French uses a different tense to convey a particular meaning than English. Some common examples are the following faulty sentences: I have played tennis yesterday. I can't play now. I do my homework. I live in London since last year. I will tell you as soon as I will know" (Vu 2008).
Difficulties in English dialects may also pose a challenge to French speakers who have learned English in a 'normalized' fashion, denuded of regional accents. "Variation in English presents considerable challenge to schools, grounded as they are in standard English norms" (Adger 2009). French speakers, who have heard English mostly from television and in school,…
Adger, Carolyn Temple. (2009). Issues and implications of English dialects for teaching English
TESOL Professional Papers #3 Retrieved March 25, 2009 at http://www.tesol.org/s_TESOL/sec_document.asp?CID=403&DID=1061
Differences between French and English. (2009). About.com. Retrieved March 25, 2009 at http://french.about.com/library/bl-differences.htm
Vu, Nguyen Ngoc. (2008). The differences between English and French. University of Phoenix.
Foreign Language Education in High School
The world has about 6,000 different languages, give or take a few. Linguists predict that at least half of those may have disappeared by the year 2050, which means languages are becoming extinct at twice the rate of endangered animals and four times the rate of endangered birds. Predictions are that a dozen languages may dominate the world of the future at best. (Ostler, 2002) For Americans, that's probably a good thing, since we are seemingly genetically engineered to maintain an appalling ignorance of other languages, and have narrowed down the choices we offer our young people to approximately one, Spanish, viewed by many to be the easiest foreign language to learn. It has been described in various places as having an 'impoverished vocabulary,' which means less work for Dick and Jane. The American education system so far is doing nothing to reverse the…
Clark, Leon E. "Other-Wise: The case for understanding foreign cultures in a unipolar world." Social Education, Vol. 64, Issue 7, 2000.
Garrett, Nina. "Meeting national needs: the challenge to language learning in higher education.
Change, 1 May 2002
Gramberg, Anne-Katrin. "German for business and economics." The Clearing House, 1 July 2001.
With insertion, sounds are added to words that are not apparent in spelling or slow pronunciation (Scramm, 2001). This can provide confusion to learners of a new language since the way they are instructed to pronounce certain words do not correspond to how they perceive the words visually. A couple of examples of insertion in the English language are words like "hamster," which is usually pronounced "hamster," or "month," which is usually pronounced with an exaggerated "t" sound - "mon-t-th" (Scramm, 2001).
The final category of phonological rules is deletion. This type of rule deals with processes of pronunciation in which sounds are left out, or deleted (Scramm, 2001). With the process of deletion, confusion may arise when the pronunciation of a word diverges from the way it is spelled and becomes very similar to the pronunciation of another word with completely different meaning. An example of this is the…
Johnson, M. (1984). A discovery procedure for certain. phonological rules. In COLING-84, Stanford, CA, pp. 344-347.
Ferguson, R. (2006). Basic processes in reading: Can Functional Phonological Recoding be blocked? Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology.
Schramm, a. (2001). Phonological Rules. Retrieved 6/09/2007 from http:www.hamline.edu/personal/aschramm/linguistics2001/9phonrlz.html.
Learner-centered curriculum' in TESOL
The most important learning processes in any school anywhere in the world involve the use of several different means of communication. The communication methods may be verbal or non-verbal. Verbal communication involves the use of oral and written symbols that can communicate a message to the student, and non-verbal involves the use of, primarily, among other means, body language. Without communication there can be no means of telling the other person what one person wants or needs, and communication is used between teachers and parents, between groups, between the parents and the community, and also for the formation of interpersonal relationships and as the medium of instruction in a school. Any sort of behavioral problems in school would be dealt with by effective means of communication, and it can be stated that without communication there would be no education.
However, the culture or the background of…
Bacon, Suzanne. "Communicative Language Teaching" Retrieved From
http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/comlangteach/index.htm Accessed on 15 November, 2004
Counihan, Gerard. (July 1998) "Teach students to interact, not just talk" The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. IV, No. 7. Retrieved From
http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Counihan-Interaction.html Accessed on 15 November, 2004
, notes at that there has been a "paucity of studies" on the effectiveness of video in teaching culture through foreign-language programs. Herron investigated whether students retain more ("little c") cultural "practices" or ("big C") cultural "products" by watching video in a second-language program (Herron, 1999, p. 522). Thirty-eight students were given a pretest before watching the 10 videos that were part of the French-language curriculum. Immediately afterward they were given a post-test. Interestingly, in terms of their evolving understanding of French culture, in 8 of the 10 total post-video quizzes, the students gave higher scores to their "little c" (understanding cultural practices) than to "big C" (cultural products). And 84.2% of the 38 students believed that the 10 videos showed "a lot or a vast amount" of little c (cultural practices in France) presented and 42.1% believed that "a lot or a vast amount" of big C (cultural products…
Herron, Carol, Dubreil, Sebastien, Corrie, Cathleen, and Cole, Steven. (2002). A Classroom
Investigation: Can Video Improve Intermediate-Level French Language Students' Ability
To Learn about a Foreign Culture? The Modern Language Journal, 86(i), 36-53.
Herron, Carol, Cole, Steven P., Corrie, Cathleen, and Dubreil, Sebastien. (1999). The
These different perspectives were based upon their language learning experiences from the past, their language proficiency, their current academic needs, and also their future career choices. To bridge the gap, the teachers engaged in dialogue with the students to determine the best ways to engage the students individually (Pazaver, and Wang 35).
In a study in the International Journal of English Studies, the authors used ELT materials in order build of a reliable instrument to help in the potential for the promotion of implicit and explicit components in ESL learning by students. The found that implicitness and explicitness were promoted equally by the ESL teaching units in three different textbooks (Criado Sanchez, Sanchez Perez, and Cantos Gomez 129). In an article in the journal of Applied Linguistics, .W. Schmidt analyzes issues that impact upon explicit learning modalities. He concludes that subliminal language learning is impossible. Also, he notes that it…
Akakura, Motoko. "Evaluating the Effectiveness of Explicit Instruction on Implicit and Explicit L2
knowledge." Language Teaching Research. 16.1 (2012): 9 -- 37.
Criado Sanchez, Raquel, Aquilano Sanchez Perez, and Pascual Cantos Gomez. "An Attempt to Elaborate a Construct to Measure the Degree of Explicitness and Implicitness in ELT
Materials." International Journal of English Studies. 10.1 (2010): 103-129.
Speaking in the Target Language Is the Expectation That a Proficient Speaker Will Sound Like a Native Speaker
One of the most important aspects when talking about the impact of class size, level, student age and purpose of class in Iraq is the concept of 'willingness to communicate' between and amongst the teachers and students in the L2 setting. Research on WTC within the context of France, have previously been based around initial testing of teachers and students' enthusiasm in learning a L2 are more predisposed to depend on information gathered at one point of time, often gathering through a sole instrument and to regard only numeric conclusions. For instance, the wide cross sectional research by MacIntyre et al. (2002) which sought to identify the impacts of age and sex on WTC, employed a questionnaire that required the respondents to rank themselves on eight scales. It was carried out with…
Lam (2000) noted that the top-down implementation of technology by administration and senior staff may make teachers resent and avoid its utilization. He added that concern regarding legitimacy of the computer as an effective educational tool has an influence on teacher adoption. He suggested that language teachers are not technophobes, as some believe, but do not incorporate technology because institutions and programs fail to notice the importance of training teachers and matching their goals with the tools they wish to use. Differences in acceptance and adoption of technology also occur in students, with some being more accepting of computer-aided learning than others. According to Na (2001), male students frequently have more confidence in computer technology than females. It is also known that students have different learning styles (VanZile-Tamsen & Livingston, J.A., 1999; Sankaran et al., 2000). There is thus a need to match course formats with students' attitudes and learning…
Auditoy Leaning Types
Accoding to Leanativity.com (2002), thee is inceasing evidence that auditoy leanes can be distinguished accoding to two types, the listenes, and the vebal pocessos. Both types pefe spoken messages, but the way in which they pocess this infomation best is distinct fom each othe. It has been indicated that auditoy leanes pefe to listen and to speak. Howeve, it is becoming inceasingly clea that not all auditoy leanes pefe to speak, and that some benefit moe fom listening and mentally pocessing infomation than fom also epoducing by speech of thei own. This goup of auditoy leanes ae geneally efeed to as "listenes."
In a classoom situation, the auditoy-vebal pocesso -- the leane who needs to speak aloud about the infomation -- has been somewhat misundestood in the past. They wee geneally peceived to be disuptive and disobedient. The cuent undestanding of auditoy-vebal pocessing has howeve bought a…
references of Bruneian students. Academic Exchange Quarterly. Database: FindArticles.com. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3325/is_2_7/ai_n29025447/pg_5/?tag=content;col1
Penn State York (2000, Jan 12). Auditory Learners. http://www2.yk.psu.edu/learncenter/acskills/auditory.html
Brain-Based Language Arts Lesson Plan:
Grade 2 -- "th" ords
Brain-Based Language Arts Lesson Plan: Grade 2 -- "th" ords
Cross-curricular link(s): Non-specific
Recommended Usage: Summary, entire class
Intended Learning Outcomes:
Identify common word strings;
Impress students with the fact that "t" and "h" written together make a different sound
State Standards (Perma-Bound, n.d.):
Spell common, frequently used words correctly
Identify and define new words and concepts.
Pronounce most words accurately.
Learning to Read Independently: Use knowledge of phonics, word analysis (e.g., root words, prefixes and suffixes), syllabication, picture and context clues to decode and understand new words during reading.
Healthy; Thump; Then; Threw; Together; Fifth; Tooth; Thread; Mother; Father; Think; Other; Truth; Seventh; Birthday; Teeth
Teaching/Learner Activities (Olsen, 2004):
a. Activity 1: 10 minutes:
Read a story to the class from their reading book. rite "TH" on the blackboard. Have the…
Hurtova, D. (Winter 2000). Feedback. Retrieved from Dana Hurtova's Web site: danahurtova.sweb.cz/files/kanam3/feedback.rtf
Language Arts Department: Mrs. Knutelsky, Supervisor K - 12. (2010, August 31). Lesson closure. Retrieved from Jefferson Township Web site: http://blogs.jefftwp.org/wordpress/rknutelsky/2010/08/31/lesson-closure/
Olsen, K. (2004). TH words | Smart notebook lesson # 592. Retrieved from Exchange.Smarttech.com Web site: http://exchange.smarttech.com/search.html?q=+th+words&subject=English+Language+Arts&grade=Grade+2®ion=en_US
Perma-Bound. (n.d.). Pennsylvania state standards for language arts: Grade 2. Retrieved from Perma-Bound.com Web site: http://www.perma-bound.com/state-standards.do?state=PA&subject=language-arts&gradeLevel=2
Ground Rules With Your Learners
There are several effective ways for establishing ground rules for learners. The most useful methods involve both classroom participation in the germination of such guidelines, as well as mandates dictated from the teacher which serve to underpin his or her classroom authority. As an authority figure, the teacher should always have a number of ground rules in mind before entering the classroom, but the prudent pedagogue (with enough time at his disposal) will involve a classroom discussion of these matters, and with his or her gentle prodding, help students feel as though they have determined these rules on their own. Classroom participation in this critical component of determining in-class behavior often helps students to follow these guidelines themselves, since students take a sense of accomplishment in carrying out directives which they feel they have helped determine.
For younger students, ground rules are established with the…
1. Budden, Joe. 2010, Teaching English, viewed April 7, 2011. .
2. Gorski, Paul C. 2010, Guide For Setting Ground Rules, viewed April7, 2011.
3. Keeley-Brown, L. (2007) Training to Teach in the Learning and Skills Sector. Pearson Education Limited.
4. Reece, I. And Walker, S. (2006) Teacher, Training and Learning, 6th Revised Edition. Business Education Publishers.
Kinesthetic Learners Achievement Levels in Technology Rich Classrooms
Hypothesis With Operational Definitions
Computers and Kinesthetic Learning
The Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project
Collaborative Visualization (CoVis) Project
Apple Classroom of Tomorrow Project
American Culture in Context: Enrichment for Secondary Schools
SchoolNet / Rescol Report: The emerging contribution of online resources and tools to classroom learning and teaching
Lehrer HyperAuthor Study
The Highly Interactive Computing Environments (HI-CE) Group
Interactive technologies that are appealing to kinesthetic learning such as multimedia, hypermedia, and visualization in virtual learning environments hold great promise for enhancing the learning experience. A variety of research studies have produced results ranging from the ability of interactive computing not only to enhance the student's ability to absorb complex information, but also to fundamentally reshape the learning process.
Interactive computing holds exciting potential to create student-controlled learning environments in which students are more responsible for their own instruction. And,…
About learning and power. Retreived March 14, 2003 from Power Learning
Network Web Site: http://www.powerlearningnetwork.com/main/about.asp#Multiple
Bracewell, R., Breuleux, A., Laferriere, T., Benoit, J., and Abdous, M.
1998). The emerging contribution of online resources and tools to classroom learning and teaching.
education and the teacher-learner relationship from a Christian-informed philosophical perspective. It begins with an explanation of the author's personal worldview, and then explores the various philosophical schools of education. Combining the two, the author explains how they have helped shape the author's approach to education. ather than relying on a single educational philosophy, the author intends to combine multiple philosophies in the classroom environment.
Describing the purpose of education is an interesting prospect because education is a cultural construct, and, as a result, what constitutes an education is dependent upon the surrounding culture. In a broad sense, an education is the instruction and learning that a person receives, in both formal and informal environments, which is aimed at preparing that person to live as an adult within the surrounding culture. When one views education as a means of adapting the individual to adult life in his or her own culture,…
Brekelmans, M., Wubbels, Th., & Brok, P. den. (2002). Teacher experience and the teacher-
student relationship in the classroom environment. In S.C. Goh & M.S. Khine (Eds.),
Studies in educational learning environments: an international perspective
(pp.73-99). Singapore: World Scientific.
This program will be offered in the Leadership Development Seminar in which students are offering challenging experiences as well as the areas of higher-level academic pursuits which includes a historical journey through the history of deafness related individuals.
Merrill Lynch has also developed a program targeting deaf students, which was released in a news announcement earlier this month of March 2005. The Merrill Lynch Entrepreneur Leadership Program is offering a program to prepare those interested in entrepreneurial leadership designed for individuals who are deaf and interested in becoming entrepreneurs. Modern technological online modules for learning will be utilized and will simultaneously deliver the information in both ASL and English.
It is clear that ASL Interpreters in classrooms is much needed for the student who is deaf if they are to experience a normal and successful education in the classroom setting. And as shown the student who is deaf and…
Lawrence, Constance (2001) Using Sign Language in Your Classroom 2001 Apr 19 ED459557.
Belka, Robert W. (2000) 'Is American Sign Language a "Foreign Language" ED339662.
Wallinger, Linda (2000) American Sign Language Instruction: Moving from Protest to Practice ED 449660
Toth, Anne (1999) Improving the Delivery of Sign Language Instruction for Program for Parents of Children Who is Deaf and Receiving Services form a School for the Deaf. ED 437755.
Mandarin a Necessary Language to Learn
In many regards, learning Mandarin can be considered a necessary task for a host of reasons, not the least of which may be found in the ever-fickle and competitive job market of today and of the future. There are several indicators that demonstrate that this statement is true, not the least of which can be found in the British school systems. At certain schools in Britain, both teachers and students are actively taking this language in efforts to be able to communicate with the native culture which many predict to be the economic power of the future -- perhaps even more so than the United States. When one pauses to consider that the majority of the people who live in China, which just so happens to comprise about 20% of the world's population, accounting for approximately 1.2 billion people which is more than can…
Arnot, C. (2006). "Mandarin For Starters." The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2006/jan/31/schools.uk1
Hazard, J. (2011). From The Asian Lawyer: Is Mandarin Necessary?." The AM Law Daily. Retrieve from http://amlawdaily.typepad.com/amlawdaily/2011/08/asian-lawyer-is-mandarin-necessary.html
Jubak, J. (2009). "Global Economy Depends On China." MSN Money. Retrieved from http://articles.moneycentral.msn.com/Investing/JubaksJournal/global-economy-depends-on-china.aspx
Ming, R. (2011) "Learning Chinese In China." Beijing Gateway Academy. Retrieved from http://learningchineseinchina.wordpress.com/2011/05/20/learning-mandarin - -- -outlining-three-major-benefits/
Lesson Plan for Pre-School English Learners
Annotated Lesson Plan
Objective of this project is to develop a lesson plan for pre-school English learners using the annotated lesson plan. The paper uses the SIOP model to teach children English language because young children have not yet developmentally ready to learn abstract concepts. Moreover, children are not yet ready to listen to teachers for a long time or carry out a paper and pencil task. In the early school year, the teachers need to engage children to talk about topic of interests, capitalize on their curiosity, singing songs, exploring new things and playing with materials. Thus, pre-school English learners should be taught to use and practice with new words, talking with peers in fantasy and real way. A teacher intending to use a SIOP model should use supplementary materials to teach young learners rather than relying on paper and pencil tasks. The…
Grey, P. (2013). Book Review --Making the Content Comprehensible for the English Learners, SIOP Model. Acta Didactica Norge. 6(22):
Raudenbush, S. (2008). The Brown legacy and the O'Connor challenge: Transforming schools in the image of children's potential. Educational Researcher. 38(3) 169-180
Richard-Amato, P. A. (2010). Making It to Happen: From Participatory to Interactive Language Teaching - Evolving Theory and Practice. Pearson Education.
nology to Support ADD and ADHD Learners (K-8)
November 6, 2005
Use of Technology to Support ADD and ADHD Learners (K-8)
The student with AD/HD is one that requires more specialized and individualized instruction. Technological possibilities present great potential in providing these instructional needs for the AD/HD learner. Technology implemented in the school and in the classroom is critically dependent upon collaboration in development and implementation which is inclusive of the participation of students, teachers, parents and the community at large. Some of these technological methods that are included in the curriculum are use of video, networking, PDAs, email, Internet access and other various technologies. The objective of this work is the research and review of technologies that have been effective as well as ineffective and finally the technologies that offer new promise to the teaching and learning initiative for students with disabilities in learning such as…
Works Cited 00- [HIDDEN] -291 4-01 2M.
ADHD: Interventions for Elementary School Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (2005) ADDinSchool.com Online available at: http://www.addinschool.com/elementary.htm
SNR Network Resources Copyright 2005
Semantics envisages language meaning and the term focuses on the interpretation of individual words and the denotations that arise from word combinations (Chapter 7, n.d.). The word 'song' can elucidate on this definition. The latter refers to a composition of words or a poem that individuals can sing. Additionally, the word 'song' can be used to show the element of possession, for example, ihanna's song. Semantics can be classified into two namely, receptive and expressive facets. eceptive dimension points to the understanding of language. On the other hand, expressive semantics denotes production of meaningful discourse (Chapter 7, n.d.). The classification of semantics engages the generality in objects, actions, and relations between objects.
Pragmatics alludes to the use of language. The term incorporates rules that dominate the engagement of language for social interaction (Chapter 7, n.d.). The rules of pragmatics are centered on influencing the actions and attitudes of the listener.…
Technology and the Learner-Centered Learning Environment
One of the primary goals of teachers and educators is ensuring that student learning is successful. The educational system within the United States is constantly being evaluated and re-evaluated to determine what technologies and programs are best suited to enhance student achievement. In modern times technology has become synonymous with progress, change, and advancement and learning. It has become a staple in the lives of every day citizens, in classrooms and in corporations.
Technology can impact the classroom in positive ways by helping educators and teachers in creating a team oriented learning community where participants are encouraged to explore the world by capitalizing on their own unique skills, abilities and interests. Technology can also help educators and teachers assess student's learning capability, learning style and knowledge frame of reference, all critical elements of a learner-centered classroom environment. The ways that technology facilitates the learner-centered…
Brown, D.M. (2003). "Learner-Centered conditions that ensure students' success in learning." Education, 124(1):99
Burns, M. (2002). "From compliance to commitment: Technology as a catalyst for communities of learning." Phi Delta Kappan, 84(4):295
Dare, D.E. (2001). Learner Centered instructional practices supporting the new vocationalism. New Directions in Community Colleges, 115. 81-91.
Duderstadt, J.J. (1999). "New roles for the 21st century university." Issues in Science and Technology, 16(2): 37
ESOL Learner's Language & Reading Skills
You are invited to participate in a research project being conducted by researchers from Western Governors University. The researchers are conducting research to determine the most effective ways to improve the English reading abilities of immigrant students.
The purpose of this research is to survey ESL teachers, students, and parents in order to identify how much time students spend speaking in their native languages and the impact this has on their fluency in reading English. This research project will require students to read sample chapters aloud on two different occasions. Students may also be asked to increase the amount of time spent using their English speaking skills. The research will be conducted over a week period, where parents, faculty, and students will be interviewed and provided with surveys. Students will be required to continue all of their routine classroom activities with two additions of…