Progression and Foundation of Language During the initial new-language learning phase, writing may comprise accurate copying, writing words/phrases through recall (particularly words having accented characters), and labeling of items. Other approaches and templates, from initial foundation stage writing as well as key stage 1 activities, that primary teachers are familiar with are often useful in supporting learning and ensuring precision. Children write short pieces of text and small sentences from memory or by using a model/frame (The National Strategies Primary, 2009).
Learning of primary language complements skills development; this includes learning about language, as well as learning other subjects in the school curriculum via language. Language learning facilitates general literary skills and allows children to revert to, and strengthen skills and concepts studied through their first language (The National Strategies Primary, 2009).
Curriculum is enriched by language learning. Teachers as well as children find it fun and challenging, and display enthusiasm towards language; this leads to creation of interested learners and the development of positive attitudes towards learning languages, all throughout one's life. A natural link exists between language and other curricular areas, and this enriches the overall teaching-learning experience. Proficiencies, understanding, and information learned through language contribute greatly to literacy and oracy development in children, as well as to better understanding of one's own and others' cultures. Language is also integral to community and individual identity. Learning a different language can significantly influence children's notions in this key area, while granting them a fresh perspective of their native language (The National Strategies Primary, 2009).
Oracy: Appropriately teaching speaking/listening skills improves learning abilities and further raises children's standards (Independent Review, n.d.).
Listening: Through language learning, children can:
Acquire phonological skills, especially phonemic understanding for learning familiar as well as unfamiliar sounds;
Associate sounds with gesture, facial expression and mime; this enlivens language and helps in meaning consolidation;
Expand their grasp of how gestures, intonation and volume are applied by speakers of diverse languages;
Gather knowledge on how to gain meaning out of phonic information;
Have the opportunity to develop listening skills for gist as well as detail;
Brush up and enhance fundamental discrete listening abilities, for instance, looking at the speaker, ignoring any distractions, anticipating what may be said, utilizing the context for better understanding; (The National Strategies Primary, 2009)
Become exposed to different listening text genres (informational as well as interpersonal) and learn to discuss strategies for handling them;
Know the value and significance of repetitive text-listening to acquire a clearer picture of the text's content. This fosters diligence and determination in attaining an aim;
Develop skills to comprehend and execute both straight-forward and complex directions and commands (through a series of distinct messages);
Handle the unknown, such as unfamiliar content or language. Children can acquire the essential skill, in reading comprehension, of seeking familiar language in unfamiliar content and can consequently decipher the unfamiliar and unknown.
Language learning is especially beneficial and suited to students with special educational needs (SEN), and students who have English as an Additional Language (EAL). They can make the most of the targeted support and assistance offered to facilitate an understanding of foreign language listening texts (The National Strategies Primary, 2009).
Speaking: This forms the base in literacy development. By language learning, children can repeat sounds, form sentences/phrases, and converse in simple language (The National Strategies Primary, 2009). Through language learning, children can:
Understand that different sounds exist in different languages (French 'r', Spanish 'j', and German 'ich/ach'). This broadens their linguistic repertory;
Learn how important intonation, pronunciation and a language's informal and formal use are;
Become aware of the need to pronounce words distinctly and precisely for effective communication;
Develop significant presentation skills, and gain information on the importance of eye contact, demonstration and voice modulation;
Discuss and practice the non-verbal aspect of communication, which is an integral part of oral interactions;
Develop speaking skills, beginning from one-word responses and small phrases and going on to speak complete sentences involving subordinate clauses, ultimately being able to state small paragraphs involving connectives;
Gain the opportunity of role creation and sustaining, and scripting as well as enacting stories and plays (The National Strategies Primary, 2009)
Employ language in specific contexts, at first, and later personalize and employ it more creatively and freely;
Memorize material, including words, chants, short dialogues, songs and presentations, which forms a natural facet of learning;
Recognize the 'power of language', interact with natives, and come to the realization that native speakers can understand, get impacted by, and respond to their utterances;
Be encouraged to orally experiment with language without immediately being pressurized to be grammatically accurate (The National Strategies Primary, 2009).
Literacy: Oracy development is bolstered by, and supports reading/writing skills. Children understand the relation between graphemes and phonemes, and apply them in spelling and reading (The National Strategies Primary, 2009).
Reading: Children read, comprehend and enjoy various forms of electronic and paper texts, like ...
c. Lesson goals/objectives
To enable students to enhance skills in identifying familiar English literature genres, like acrostic poems, shape poems, jokes, haikus, calligram, simple texts of non-fiction, and pamphlets.
To enhance children's awareness of the differences between written and spoken text.
To establish the significance of paying attention to details while writing a piece of text.
To revisit and compare punctuation in English with those in the language being learned.
To allow students to interact with other nationalities' children via emails and letters.
To expand the presentation skills of children, by seeking and teaching cursive writing of other cultures.
To promote extreme attention to spelling accurately, particularly, in using accented characters.
To support awareness of punctuation and spelling conventions and general spelling skills (The National Strategies Primary, 2009).
D. Arizona State Standards (CCSS)
The Arizona State Standards are:
A system that provides a vital first step in formulating and selecting a high-quality, efficient pre-school syllabi;
Standard, mutually-established objectives and outcomes to teach and learn;
Building blocks for demonstrating the interconnectivity of social, language, emotional, physical and cognitive learning and development, which address the overall child;
Considering current research on early childhood, best practices and brain development;
A sequence of outcomes of learning for children in preschool;
An association between children's school readiness and early expectations regarding learning;
A system to link syllabus with subject matter, professional progress with evaluation measures for ensuring activities are age-appropriate, performance outcomes with targets for 3- to 5-year-olds;
Suited to every child irrespective of language, diversity of needs, or background;
Flexibility, or the ability to encompass alterations for meeting specific children's needs
A step to eliminate fragmentation in programs related to early education and childcare all over Arizona;
Separate domains, having mutually dependent and interconnected indicators. All should be woven into day-to-day activities, play and routines;
A tool for helping teachers, parents and caregivers to develop appropriate, meaningful preschool learning experiences (Arizona Early Learning Standards, 2013).
Arizona State has an all-inclusive, organized English-language development program for K-12 students; this is identified as ELLs (English Language Learners). Its purpose is employing well-qualified teachers with Arizona's English proficiency standards to fulfill ELLs' language needs. Speedy language acquisition is aimed at, so that children can cope with the demanding mainstream curriculum. Though the program is normally offered in organized, specialized English immersion classes, mainstream teachers can also contribute to ensuring that existing and former ELLs (who, after acquiring required skills, are categorized as FEPs or Fluent English Proficient) can access content instruction (Huppenthal, Stollar, & Hrabluk, n.d.).
National and Arizona regulations necessitate that Limited English Proficient (LEP) students be offered programs to enable them to gain assured access to the mainstream demanding academic content available to every other student. A survey, Home Language Survey (HLS), was devised for identifying which children needed to take English proficiency tests. Students proficient in the English language had enough English knowledge for success in age-appropriate, mainstream classes (Huppenthal, Stollar, & Hrabluk, n.d.).
Following identification of students through the HLS, English proficiency is identified by administering the Arizona English Language Learner Assessment (AZELLA). Proficiency levels go from minimal proficiency in English to proficient. In increasing achievement order, the levels are Pre-Emergent, Emergent, Basic, Intermediate and Proficient. All ELLs are annually administered the AZELLA. Those scoring below proficient level should attend special English Language Development (ELD) classes. Arizona's ELL program is shaped by the Arizona ELL Task Force's Structured English Immersion (SEI) Models. On attaining a 'proficient' score on AZELLA, children can enter mainstream classes. According to state law, these children's progress in academics and language is monitored for 2 years (Huppenthal, Stollar, & Hrabluk, n.d.).
e. Required materials
f. Introduction/anticipatory set
A set induction / anticipatory set is also referred to as an attention-grabbing 'hook'. At this stage, statements and actions of teachers are…
During the initial new-language learning phase, writing may comprise accurate copying, writing words/phrases through recall (particularly words having accented characters), and labeling of items. Other approaches and templates, from initial foundation stage writing as well as key stage 1 activities, that primary teachers are familiar with are often useful in supporting learning and ensuring precision. Children write short pieces of text and small sentences from memory or by using a model/frame (The National Strategies Primary, 2009).
general education SDAIE or Sheltered English lesson plan based on the approach described in the course Writing Effective Lesson Plan textbook in a content area of history based on both the California English Language Art Standards and English Language Development standards. This paper states appropriate goals and objectives, objectives, outcomes, rationale, describe content presentation methods, instructional strategies, learning activities, technology, assessment techniques and teaching materials. Class Description The lesson is for
Autism is a developmental disorder as it is marked with pervasive and severe impairment revolving around areas of development such as communication, imagination, reciprocal interaction and behavior. The diagnostic criteria for autism as incorporated by the DSM IV TR includes symptoms such as impairment in the use of nonverbal behaviors like eye contact, gestures, bodily postures during the normal routine social interaction, the inability to form good peer relationships, delay