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Language Policy and Planning Language Planning Refers
Words: 1581 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60978398
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Language Policy and Planning

Language planning refers to the efforts that are deliberately undertaken to influence how languages functions, are structured or acquired or the variety of languages in a given country. It is often a government responsibility by non-governmental organizations have also come to be involved in this. Grass-roots organizations and also individuals have been involved in this. The goal of language planning differs depending on the country. However, it generally includes planning, decision making and possible changes which benefit the communications system of the country. Language planning or efforts to improve the communication in a country can also bring about certain social changes such as shift of language, assimilation and therefore provide a motivation which plans the function, structure and acquisition of languages Woolard & Gahng, 1990()

Decision making in language planning

There are four dominant language ideologies which motivate the decisions that are made regarding language planning.…

References

Little, M.E.R., & McCarty, T.L. (2006). Language Planning Challenges and Prospects in Native American Communities and Schools. Tempe, AZ: Language Policy Research Unit.

Martin, J.J. (1988). An American Adventure in Bookburning in the Style of 1918. Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles Publisher.

Woolard, K.A., & Gahng, T.-J. (1990). Changing Language Policies and Attitudes in Autonomous Catalonia. Language in Society, 19(3), 311-330.

Wyburn, J., & Hayward, J. (2009). OR and Language Planning: Modelling the Interaction between Unilingual and Bilingual Populations. The Journal of the Operational Research Society, 60(5), 626-636.

Language and Language Practices Language Is the
Words: 1505 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7740802
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Language and Language Practices

Language is the written and verbal method by which people communicate with one another. It employs sounds or written designs that are understood by others to create words, phrases, and sentences. Other species have language, as well, but it is not believed to be as complex as the language used by human beings (loomfield, 1914; Deacon, 1998). There are many facets to language, and there are nuances and subtleties that are often overlooked. This is especially true with people who are just learning a language, whether they are children first learning to speak or second-language learners being exposed to a new and different language for the first time. People who study languages are involved in what is called linguistics. They may study a particular language, but more often than not they study multiple languages and the construction of those languages. What they do is very different…

Bibliography

Bloomfield, Leonard. 1914. An introduction to the study of language. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Deacon, Terrence William. 1998. The Symbolic Species: The Co-Evolution of Language and the Brain. New York W.W. Norton & Company.

Kandel, ER; Schwartz, JH; Jessell, TM. 2000. Principles of Neural Science (fourth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Katzner, K. 1999. The Languages of the World. New York: Routledge.

Language & Community How Language Circumscribes the
Words: 1124 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49759315
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Language & Community

How Language Circumscribes the World and Defines Community

The famous philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein wrote, "The limits of my language mean the limits of my world." Wittgenstein used his language to make this profound statement packed with a depth of meaning. Language, whether it is written language, spoken language, body language or sign language, is a fundamental aspect to the human condition. Language permits us to communicate with others, which is also a vital part of being human. Language also makes possible thought, speech, and writing. Without language, it would be exceedingly difficult for people to have relationships. Language comes in various forms and in huge varieties. Language additionally is a critical and prominent aspect to the definition of a culture. Every culture and subculture has characteristics that distinguish it as such; language is a characteristic at the forefront of defining or circumscribing cultures and communities. This paper…

References:

Bucholtz, M. (1999) "Why be normal?": Language and identity practices in a community of nerd girls. Language in Society, 28(2), 203 -- 223.

Eckert, P., & McConnell-Ginet, S. (19992) Think Practically and Look Locally: Language and Gender as Community-Based Practice. Annual Review of Anthropology, 21, 461 -- 490.

Garrod, S., & Doherty, G. (1994) Conversation, co-ordination and convention: an empirical investigation of how groups establish linguistic conventions. Cognition, 181 -- 215.

Ochs, E. (1993) Constructing Social Identity: A Language Socialization Perspective. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 26(3), 287 -- 306.

Language & Cognition the Relationship Between Language
Words: 1294 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40028872
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Language & Cognition

The relationship between language and cognition continues to be an area of science that is heavily studied and for which research builds in exciting ways (Aitchison, 2007). New learnings about cognition and language are intimately tied to technological advances as neuropsychologists and others probe the human brain ever more deeply and meaningfully (Aitchison, 2007).

Language and lexicon. Language is understood to be the symbolic representation of human thought (Yule, 2005). Language is the most complex method of human communication, whether written or spoken, in that it uses words in a structured manner and in conventional ways that are understood by those who speak, read, and write a particular language (Yule, 2005). Language can also take the form of nonverbal communication through facial and gestural expressions (Yule, 2005). The concept of lexicon takes two general forms: A dictionary of a particular language, and the vocabulary associated with an…

References

Aitchison, J. (2007) The Articulate Mammal: An Introduction to Psycholinguistics (5 rev edn) London: Routledge.

Bock, J.K. (1982, January). Toward a cognitive psychology of syntax: Information processing contributions to sentence formulation. Psychological Review, 89 (1), 1-47.

Williamson, G. (2009, October 13). Key properties of language. Speech Therapy Information and Services (STIR). Retrieved  http://www.speech-therapy-information-and-resources.com/key-properties-of-language.html 

Yule, G. (2005) The Study of Language (3 rev edn) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Language and Thinking Language Is the One
Words: 2480 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 35708581
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Language and Thinking

Language is the one aspect, which distinguishes human beings from lower species of life (Faccone et al. 2000). Sternberg (1999 as qtd in Faccone et al.) lists its properties as including communication, arbitrary symbolism, regular structure, structure at multiple levels, generation and production and dynamism. Sternberg assumes that language is most likely acquired naturally from the environment where a person is raised as an infant. The stages seem universal. The first is the cooing stage at two to four months. At this initial stage, an infant seems able to produce and possible phonemes or basic speech sounds. An infant's need to distinguish between phonemes of different languages gradually disappears around 8 months. This is when he recognizes the relationship between sound and meaning in his native language. This is how language begins to have importance to him. The findings of Sternberg's study reveal that human beings are…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Faccone, Claudia et al. The Effct of Language on Thought. The Psychology 20 Course:

University of Carolina, 2000. Retrieved on November 29, 2013 from  http://www.unc.edu/~jdumas/projects/languagethought.htm 

Hampton, James. A. Language's Role in Enabling Abstract, Logical Thought.

Commentary/Peter Carruthers. Psychology Department: University of London, 2002.

Language and Identity
Words: 904 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99910380
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Language/Identity

Language and Identity

A large part of culture has to do with the language that people speak. It is a unifying concept that allows a group of people to identify one another as belonging to the same group. It does matter how the group is bounded, usually more by geographical bounds than ethnic of racial, it matters more how the person related to the world through the spoken word. This paper looks at the culture of the Caribbean, especially those people who were brought to the region as slaves from the African continent, and how they have maintained their identity through the commonality of language.

Many examples exist in literature that solidify the notion that language and identity are very closely intertwined. As a matter of fact, one author states "Language and identity are inseparable. The quest for identity is another prevalent concern in Caribbean literature" (Dance 5). hy…

Works Cited

Bennett-Coverly, Louise. "Colonization in Reverse." 1966. Web.

Dance, Daryl Cumber. Fifty Caribbean Writers: A Bio-Bibliographic-Critical Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 1986. Print.

Morris, Mervyn. "On Reading Miss Lou Seriously." Caribbean Quarterly 28.1/2 (1982): 44-56.

Narain, Denise DeCaires. Contemporary Caribbean women's Poetry: Making Style. London: Routledge, 2002. Print.

Language as Gloria Anzaldua States in How
Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45400028
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Language

As Gloria Anzaldua states in "How to Tame a ild Tongue" from Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza, "Chicano Spanish sprang out of Chicanos' need to identify ourselves as a distinct people," (447). Chicano Spanish is a "secret language" of cultural bonding and binding. This is true for the many "forked tongues" that have sprung up in communities of opposition: patios tongues that become crucial to identity formation and preservation (Anzaldua 447). The dominant culture finds "wild tongues" to be inherently frightening, evil, and subversive (Anzaldua 446). The dominant culture does all it can to stamp out, suppress, and "cut out" the wild tongues that threaten social hierarchy and preserve patterns of oppression in non-white, non-Anglo, communities (Anzaldua 446). Suppressing language is a means of oppressing people. Therefore, clinging to language diversity is a political move. hen Anzaldua corrected her teacher's pronunciation of her name, and was sent to the…

Works Cited

All readings from: Augenbraum, Harold and Olmos, Margarite Fernandez. The Latino Reader.. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.

Thomas, Piri. Down these Mean Streets. Vintage, 1997.

Language and Culture in Many if Not
Words: 846 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76264782
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Language and Culture

In many, if not all, instances culture is not beneficial to its subscribers. Inherent within a culture is language. Language itself is very fluid and flexible and can elicit many emotions and feelings within a person or larger group of people. The purpose of this essay is to investigate the social influences of language by describing several issues that deal with interpersonal communication and more specifically the use of language to manipulate, hypnotize and ultimately inspire others. The essay will investigate the issues of jokes, speech laws, and specified slur-words to illuminate the qualities that language brings to society.

Humor is a gift that should be enjoyed by all. Laughing makes us feel good and provides a deeper psychological function. Lickerman (2011) agreed when she wrote "perhaps laughter could be most properly considered as a weapon against suffering and despair. If we can joke about a disappointing…

References

American Civil Liberties Union (1994). Hate Speech on Campus. December 31, 1994. Retrieved from  https://www.aclu.org/free-speech/hate-speech-campus 

Floyd, K. (2011). Interpersonal Communication 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, Oct 10, 2011.

Lickerman, A. (2011). Why We Laugh. Psychology Today, 23 Jan 2011. Retrieved from  http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/happiness-in-world/201101/why-we-laugh

Language Is the Perfect Instrument
Words: 4854 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34736050
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Consider the fact that the Iroquois are said not to have had a strong word for the singular "I," and that they subsequently developed what was arguably the longest lasting communal representative democracy the world has ever known. The Inuit, whose culture revolves around the arctic world, have dozens of words for snow - this sort of technical knowledge allows quick and accurate transmission of conditions and training in survival.

In Western terms, one remembers that Jesus Christ was said to be "The Word," yet in the original Greek this indicates not only a spoken word but also the Logos - the root term for intellectual reason, for Meaning within context (be that the context of a sentence, a life, a history, or a universe); logos was rational order. The difference between saying that a religious figure is the Word (which at its most profound seem to indicate a kind…

Bibliography

Atkins, J.D.C. (1887). Report of the commissioner of Indian affairs. House Exec. Doc. No. 1, Pt. 5, 50th Cong., 1st Sess. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Boston Language Institute. "TEFL FAQ  http://teflcertificate.com/faq.html 

Ethnologue. "English  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng 

Macha, Freddy. "Tanzanian Independence Day Abroad. http://www.unclesamofafrica.com/TanzaniaGuardian.htm

Language and Comprehension Are Both
Words: 1763 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 99663052
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Ketch asserts that it is through this natural process that students comprehend and become critical thinkers. Likewise, Pinnell seems to share similar beliefs about natural processes and educators allowing children to explore these processes. The author asserts that

"Concentration on skills draws attention away from the normal and self-reinforcing uses of language, and instruction often unnecessarily makes a natural everyday activity seem foreign and stilted. Language studies suggest that efforts should be redirected to take advantage of nature's most powerful incentive for developing facility with language -- the child's intention to communicate meaning to other people, the use of language for a variety of purposes (Pinnell."

Both of these assertions support the importance of oral language. Ketch encourages this by explaining the importance on conversation is developing critical thinking skills. Likewise Pinnell enforces this by explaining the importance of language use among children.

Conclusion

The purpose of this discussion was…

References

Ketch, a (2005). Conversation: The comprehension connection. The Reading Teacher, 59(1) 8-13.

Pinnell, G.S. (1975. Language in primary classrooms. Theory into Practice, 14(5), 318-327.

Language as it Relates to
Words: 1513 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84446572
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Rather, language may be more apt to change the way we see the world, rather than vice versa, at least according to Chomsky.

Meaning thus varies and shifts, some would say as the world shifts, others would say as language itself grows and generates new meanings -- while almost all would agree that the drive to communicate and make consistent and coherent meanings endures in all segments of the species. hile a stroke may damage the ability of some human brains to convey language and different people may have different levels of ability in using language effectively, or learning foreign systems of communication, the innate, structured, yet dynamic nature of human language lives on. Language exists on a biological, linguistic, and cultural level, although the degree to which these factors produce and affect language and meaning remains controversial.

orks Cited

Luger, G.F. (1994). Chapter 13: Language representation and processing. In…

Works Cited

Luger, G.F. (1994). Chapter 13: Language representation and processing. In Cognitive science: The science of intelligent systems. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Retrieved 22 Sept 2008.  http://www.jimdavies.org/summaries/luger1994.html 

Sowa, John F. (2005, Nov 27). "Lexicon." Excerpted from the book Knowledge representation. Retrieved 22 Sept 2008.  http://www.jfsowa.com/ontology/lexicon.htm 

Szab, Zoltan Gendler. (2004). Noam Chomsky. Dictionary of modern American philosophers.

1860-1960, in Ernest LePore (ed.) Bristol. Retrieved 22 Sept 2008.  http://www.chomsky.info/bios/2004-.htm

Language Is Fundamentally a Verbal
Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63717607
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If language is like food, then the ingredients are its words; the cooking process is its grammar; the nutritional value is its semantics. Some sentences are simple staples like rice and beans. Others are primarily aesthetic, finely crafted, and honed over time like a French sauce. Like the ingredients in any dish, the words of a language depend largely on geography. At the same time, we borrow words from other cultures just as we may borrow ingredients from other cuisines. Spanglish is like fusion food. Some cooking processes are rigid, time-consuming, and complex like proper grammar; others are looser and more flexible like everyday speech. There are some dishes you would serve your mother and others that are too spicy for her. Some language is long-winded and without substance; some is meaty; some is so packed with goodness that you return it again and again.

Ascription to the rules of…

Works Cited

Kemerling, Garth. "Language and Logic." 27 Oct 2001. Retrieved June 6, 2007 from  http://www.philosophypages.com/lg/e04.htm 

Schutz, Ricardo. "Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition." 20 Aug. 2005. Retrieved June 6, 2007 from

Language Cognitive Psychology Language Is
Words: 1095 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 27483814
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It includes morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics (Grammar, n.d.).

Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated; it is the ability to understand another speaker's intended meaning is called pragmatic competence; and an utterance describing pragmatic function is described as metapragmatic (Pragmatics, n.d.).

The ole of Language Processing in Cognitive Psychology

Jean Piaget, the founder of cognitive development, was involved in a debate about the relationships between innate and acquired features of language, at the Centre oyaumont pour une Science de l'Homme, where he had a discussion about his opinion with the linguist Noam Chomsky as well as Hilary Putnam and Stephen Toulmin (McKinney, & Parker, 1999). Piaget discussed that his cognitive constructivism has two main parts: an "ages and stages" component which foretells what children can and cannot understand at different…

References

Language. (n.d). Retrieved March 13, 2009, from Wikipedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language .

Lexicon (2001). Retrieved March 13, 2009, from Online Etymology Dictionary:

 http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=lexicon 

Lexicon. (n.d). Retrieved March 13, 2009, from Wikipedia:

Language and Sexuality
Words: 991 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 4008254
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Language and Sexuality from a Desire-Based Perspective

Anthropology -- Language & Sexuality

The broader theoretical treatment of the study of sexuality has long been recognized in the fields of linguistic anthropology and sociolinguistics. Historically, sexuality has been discussed in sociocultural studies of language over the long-term. In fact, this work and the research it generated make up the emergent history and the scope of research on language and sexuality. This analytical discourse on the topic of sexuality and language is socially oriented, to be certain, but the it has followed a path of convenience, resulting in piecemeal treatment and an underlying fragmentation of the body of work.

Discussion of the desire-oriented approach to sexuality and language, theorizing the motivation and development of the approach from a poststructuralist position.

Outline

Sexist language

Women and men's talk: single/mixed sex; private/public

Gender and politeness

Peer and classroom talk

5. Public and workplace talk…

Morrish, L., Morrish, E., and Sauntson, H. (2007, November 15). New perspectives on language and sexual identity. Palgrave Publishing.

Motschenbacher, H. ( 2011, November 11). Language, gender, and sexual identity: Poststructuralist perspectives. John Benjamins Publishing.

Sauntson, H. And Kyratzis, S. (Eds.) (2007). Language, sexualities, & desires: Cross-cultural perspectives. Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Macmillan.

Language Determines Thought The Creation of Social
Words: 546 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24747215
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Language Determines Thought: The Creation of Social Worlds Through Language

As a set of symbols that has specific and shared meanings within society, language is perhaps the most dynamic and oft-used artifact and element of human culture. Through language, humans are able to express their thoughts and emotions, limiting or empowering an individual's thinking process. Language assumes numerous characteristics and functions, which potentially alters and at the same time, develop human thought and expression. As a set of man- made symbols, language is rule-governed, which means that language is uttered not for the mere act of speaking alone, but because there is purpose why a particular word, phrase, or statement is spoken. These rules may be created concerning the order of words, meanings, and manner in which the language is delivered by the communicator/individual. Lastly, language is subjective, which leads to various interpretations and creation of 'worlds' or realities as…

Bibliography

Adler, R. (1998). Interplay: Process of Interpersonal Communication. NY: Harcourt Brace & Co.

Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.

Language and Memory Issues the
Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54281025
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Stages of Language Production:

While there is not necessarily a consensus among researchers as to the precise nature of human language production, one widely accepted view is the information processing approach (obinson-iegler, 422). In that framework, language production generally occurs in four specific stages: (1) conceptualization, (2) planning, (3) articulation, and (4) self-monitoring.

In that regard, the conceptualization stage refers to the internal process whereby the individual develops the desire to communicate a specific thought to others (obinson-iegler, 422). The planning stage consists of the decisions pertaining to how the thoughts to be communicated are organized into a linguistic plan within the framework of the language in which the individual hopes to communicate. The articulation stage involves the actual expression of the thoughts formulated in the conceptualization stage through the linguistic plan developed in the planning stage (obinson-iegler, 422).

Finally, the self-monitoring stage consists of the individual's purposeful awareness of…

References

Robinson-Riegler, G., and Robinson-Riegler, B. (2008). Cognitive Psychology:

Applying the Science of the Mind, Second Edition. New Jersey: Allyn and Bacon/Pearson.

Language and Language Diversity Play an Important
Words: 532 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58019228
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Language and language diversity play an important role in the critical thinking process because these components help the individual determine and identify under what category or perspective information should be assigned to. This means that given a set of concepts and perspectives that an individual has, through language, one can easily identify the kind of information given and determine whether this information is best understood and analyzed using a particular context or perspective. For example, an individual who knows how to speak both English and Chinese would have a different kind of critical thinking analysis when information is given to him/her in Chinese or English. Both languages are culture-bound, thus, there is a different kind of thinking among the Chinese and Americans: while the latter tend to subsist to a worldview that is mainly individualist, the former subsists to a more collective perspective. Language diversity allows an individual to become…

Language Autism Language and Children With Autism
Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57801154
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Language Autism

Language and children with autism:

Sources of cognitive deficits

Deficits in language development are one of the most commonly-noted, early signs a child may be autistic. Autistic children often fail to meet appropriate developmental milestones in language. High-functioning autistics or individuals with Asperger's Syndrome usually do not show developmental delays in using language, but may communicate in an inappropriate manner. "Autism is diagnosed on the basis of three primary areas of impairment: social functioning, language and communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests or activities...esearch on autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders suggests that the social and communication impairments are unique and specific deficits, that define the autism phenotype" (Tager-Flusberg 2006).

The extent to which social and communicative impairments in autism are interlinked remains hotly debated. It is generally agreed upon and noted by researchers and parents alike that there is a wide spectrum of difference in…

References

ABA therapy. (2011). Bright Tots. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at  http://brighttots.com/aba_therapy.html 

Engaging with the self. (2011). Bio Portfolio. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at  http://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/86890/Engaging-With-The-Self-Mirror-Behaviour-In-Autism-Down-Syndrome-And-Typical.html 

Schoenstadt, Arthur. (2011). Language development in autistic children emedtv.

Retrieved November 1, 2011 at http://autism.emedtv.com/autism/language-development-in-autistic-children.html

Language Is Arbitrary as You Are Reading
Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94896095
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Language Is Arbitrary

As you are reading these words, you are taking part in one of the wonders of the natural world," begins Steven Pinker's The Language Instinct. (Pinker, 3) In other words, it is a wonder that the human mind is able to create, from need and cognitive structure and instinct, a morphological structure of communication that can change over time from context to context, yet still be understood.

It is a wonder that is both natural yet arbitrary in its construction. For the syntax, or appearance and sound of a particular kind of piece of language is arbitrary, even though the semantics, or relational meaning of the language is not. Should you, the reader, doubt this proposition, consider that one solitary letter can mean the difference between an object being understood, in an English context, as a bat, a cat, or a hat respectively. One letter can be…

Works Cited

Frompkin, Victoria. (2002) Introduction to Language. Heinle: Seventh edition.

Pinker, Steven. (2000) The Language Instinct. New York: HarperCollins.

Language Growth How Does Language
Words: 320 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60530679
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These activities help children to learn the difference between contextualized and decontextualized language. "hen we write, read, and have conversations, we often use decontextualized language. This is language that is not tied to the immediate context. It may reflect past events, future events, or fictitious events. For example, decontextualized language is used in everyday dinnertime conversation, when adults tell stories of their childhood, or when children tell about their school day" (Cartwright, 1994).

By definition, reading print is decontextualized language, because children must use their developing mental abilities to represent ideas of things that are not present before their eyes. Thus positive and edifying spoken interactions with parents, teachers, and older children are essential for children to become good readers later in life.

orks Cited

Cartwright, Kelly. (1 Nov 1994). "Reading Development Beings at Birth."

Self-Help. Retrieved 2 Dec 2007 at http://www.self-helpmagazine.com/articles/parenting/literacy.html

Works Cited

Cartwright, Kelly. (1 Nov 1994). "Reading Development Beings at Birth."

Self-Help. Retrieved 2 Dec 2007 at http://www.self-helpmagazine.com/articles/parenting/literacy.html

Language and Literacy Every Workplace Without Exception
Words: 1463 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6884949
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Language and Literacy

Every workplace without exception relies on language as a primary means of communication. Therefore, all types of literacy are required in order for an organization to function properly. The different types of literacy range from multicultural awareness to written language to public speaking. For the purposes of this project, I examined and analyzed several different workplace environments for their usage of language and their different literacy demands. My personal workplace environment is a high-stress, hustle-and-bustle office. Phones are ringing constantly throughout the day, memos are being circulated on a near-daily basis, and most employees need to be familiar with company literature including quarterly financial reports. In addition to the rigors of interpersonal communication, which entails informal as well as formal conversations, we deal with inter-office communications with those who work at remote office locations, with offices located abroad, with clients, and with various others with which we…

Language Limits Our World
Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74407384
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Language Limits Our World

When Wittgenstein said, "The limits of my language mean the limits of my world," he was very likely speaking of philosophical limits, and not phenomenological ones. However, inherent in the very possibility of considering language and limitations is the possibility of a phenomenological meaning as well. Indeed, it one has language that is too impoverished to admit of various experiences, one is very unlikely to have them, or, if one does have those experiences, of recalling them. We recall our lives in language.

This may help explain, to use a completely pedestrian example, the idiotic answers people give to questions asked by Jay Leno on his Jaywalking segments. The ignorance shown by the interviewees is legendary, and it also involves mistakes with and misconstructions of language. For example, he might ask who wrote the Gettysburg Address, and he might get the answer, "The guy who founded…

Language Diversity and Education
Words: 337 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46023537
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Language Diversity and Education by Carlos J. Ovando, the author makes the point that the language diversity present in the United States has significant implications for all teachers and all students. He emphasizes the importance of both a person's first language and the dominant language in a culture. He notes the complexity of learning a second language: in addition to the cognitive mastery of vocabulary and grammar involved, fluency in a language involves discourse (structure of paragraphs and larger chunks of written language); appropriateness (adjusting language to the social setting); paralinguistics (body language, gestures, volume, pitch, etc.); and pragmatics (cultural norms involving language, subtle conversation skills). Even though ESL students may seem to be learning English rapidly, those language skills may be largely social and inadequate t the cognitive demands made on it in a classroom.

Ovando gave examples of true dialects in the United States -- creoles, or combinations…

Language Diversity
Words: 314 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50628534
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Language Diversity

Crawford begins the article by highlighting problems associated with second language instruction in American classrooms. According to the statistics cited most approaches used in these classrooms are inadequate to provide students with the necessary skills to communicate in the target language outside of the classroom. The reason for this is a lack of focus on communication skills, combined with an inflated focus on form rather than function. Despite efforts to improve upon this by methods such as the total immersion approach and the audiolingual method, results are still shown to be poor. Chomsky, Krashen and Cummins's theories are shown to have revolutionized language acquisition theories, and thus also language teaching methods. Furthermore Crawford shows that a child's inherent feelings about his or her own culture, and consequently about the culture represented by the target language, have a significant impact upon second language learning. It is then suggested that…

Language Teaching and Learning Methods
Words: 3071 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98946947
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Further, it is in this stage that instructors have the ability to widen the instruction significantly to incorporate many activities that allow students to practice their new knowledge in a variety of different ways and with focus on a variety of different subject matters.

In viewing the basic theoretical and practical-use background of the Natural Approach of Language Teaching and Learning, one can understand that basic functions that allow students the ability to hone new skills in a non-threatening environment. However, despite significant praise in the teaching community regarding the success of the Natural Approach, the method's critics still exist. Due to this, it is crucial to understand the advantages as well as the disadvantages that exist when the Natural Approach is employed in a language learning environment, especially in dealing with English as a second language.

Advantages and Disadvantages

In beginning to understand the overall value of the Natural…

Works Cited

Canale, Michael and Swain, Merrill. 2002. "Theoretical Basis of Communicative

Approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing," Applied Linguistics: 1(1): pp. 1-47. Retrieved from: https://segue.atlas.uiuc.edu/uploads/nppm / CanaleSwain.80.pdf [Accessed on 17 February 2012].

Clandfield, Lindsay and Meldrum, Nicola. 2012. "One-to-one methodology: advantages and disadvantages for students." Retrieved from: http://www.onestopenglish .com/business/teaching-approaches/teaching-one-to-one/methodology/one-to-one-methodology-advantages-and-disadvantages-for-students/144655.article [Accessed on 19 February 2012].

Gebhard, J., Gaitan, S. And Oprandy, R. 1990. "Beyond Prescription: The Student

Language Change the Evolution of
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The attendant rules for the words may, or may not be carried to the new language. For example, many French words carry their plurals into English, while some more recent additions adopt English rules for pluralization

So we create new words or meanings as needed, and we drop old ones as they become obsolete or lose their usefulness. Another way language changes is by attitude. Cultural influences make certain words taboo, so we develop euphemisms to replace the taboo word. When the euphemism becomes widely known, we change it. One example in English is the word for toilet: water closet->loo->lavatory->ladies' room-> rest room ad infinitum until finally, we stopped thinking of this particular place as taboo in western society, so now we use many of the previous euphemisms as our personal taste dictates, and most people understand us.

Language is so basically part of our culture that culture is probably…

MacNeil, Robert and McCrum, Robert 1986 "The Story of English" (1986) (mini)

Public Television miniseries.  http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0198245/ 

See Language in Thought and Action, Dr. S.I. Hayakawa, 1935 for more on this topic.

Language Arts
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Language Arts

There is a trend among some colleges and universities recently to cut back or eliminate their humanities major and courses, which includes language arts as well as history and philosophy. This has created a controversy over the importance of these areas of learning. It is not that the decision to include language arts in education is new. Appreciation of such learning stems back to the earliest humans. Among the earliest pieces of prehistoric sculpture is from 30,0000-25,000 BCE. The woman, who had exaggerated female parts, is believed to be a fertility symbol perhaps carried by a male hunter/gatherer as a reminder of his mate back home. Many here have heard of or seen the paintings on the caves in France from 15,000 to 13,000 BCE. Early humans struggled to survive against natural forces, animals, and one another. One of the most essential ways of survival was to pass…

References

Atwell, Nancie. In the Middle: New Understandings About Reading,

Writing, and Learning. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Publishers,

Inc., 1998.

Burke, Jim. The English Teacher's Companion: A Complete Guide to Classroom,

Language and What it Does
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Condors eat dead squirrels but the colossal birds also consume the poisons intended only for those squirrels. The Condors talk to each other, fearing extinction, introducing naturalism. In 1985 the last 22 Condors are plucked from their tortured habitat and taken to the San Diego Zoo and other venues for captive breeding.

Fast forward to 2012. n ristotelian plot structure with mind-bending irony -- first utilizing the reversal of fortune followed by society's recognition (anagnorisis -- a sudden discovery) that takes people from ignorance to knowledge -- could be a model useful for an enterprising screenwriter delving into the Condor's fate. The reversal of fortune is the demise of the Condor due to human interventions, intended and unintended. That many informed humans have gone from ignorance to knowledge completes the second part of ristotle's plot formula.

s to the irony in proposed ristotelian plot, take Oedipus Rex, for example. In…

As to the irony in proposed Aristotelian plot, take Oedipus Rex, for example. In the masterpiece by Sophocles, Oedipus launches an investigation into who murdered his father, and learns to his chagrin and shock that he alone murdered his father. A screenwriter in 2012 that is blending real-world reality with fictional / naturalism narrative would be to have the father of a little boy (who is fascinated with these enormous birds with the longest wingspan of any bird in North America) investigate -- at the urging of his son -- the reasons some recently released California Condors are seriously ill and dying.

It turns out the father is a member of the National Rifle Association (NRA), a group that refuses to accept the empirical science that shows Condors are poisoned when eating the carcasses of deer and other critters that have been shot with lead bullets. The father's investigation ironically points to his own organization as helping to kill Condors and he can't bear to tell his son, who is already heartbroken that some Condors are dying. This Oedipus-like irony could be considered Aristotelian. it's a father-son plot drenched in angst, descriptively genuine, written with the literary weapons of the future of hope colliding with history.

In conclusion, this not about a "Free Willy" plot. It is about a battlefield between the emerging conservation-minded generation now in middle school and those who are in benign denial as they kill natural world species. The details involve a restless adolescent revolution; thoughtlessness, greed, and adult resistance to good conservation are crushing the natural world. The brilliant, creative genius of a young boy -- who figures out a way to entertain the public (against the will of his parents) with a video that depicts not the toxic resistance of NRA members but the joy of a youthful future -- fits like a glove into the rough draft of a screenwriter searching for fresh themes in a world chocking on old themes.

Language as Mirror and Prism
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Apparently this view has much in its favor.

When we compare modern English with some of those Indian languages which are most concrete in their formative expression, the contrast is striking. When we say "The eye is the organ of sight, the Indian may not be able to form the expression the eye, but may have to define that the eye of a person or of an animal is meant. Neither may the Indian be able to generalize readily the abstract idea of an eye as the representative of the whole class of objects... (p. 64).

It does not seem to occur to Boas anywhere in the Handbook that such a way of talking about the world might not arise because the mind of the American Indians that he is writing about is "primitive" but rather because he or she is seeing the world in a very different way.

Boas…

References

Boas, F. (1911). The handbook of American Indian languages. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institute.

Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Boston: MIT Press.

Lewis, H. (2001). Boas, Darwin, Science and Anthropology. Current Anthropology 42(3): 381-406

Whorf, B.L. (1941). The relation of habitual thought and behavior to language in Language, culture, and personality, essays in memory of Edward Sapir. (L. Spier, ed.) Menasha, Wis.: Sapir Memorial Publication Fund.

Language of News Reporting in
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Instead, however, the headline does follow the sequence of events as they happened to present a more chronological overview of the event while still maintaining a good inverted pyramid structure. For example, take the head line of the news story in Appendix A: 'Iranian election uproar tests U.S.', this headline without giving specifics of the actual election result implies that the results were not great overall because of the impact that it has on the relations between U.S. And Iran. Hence, whoever reads this headline and know even the slightest bit about the background of the U.S.-Iran relations will interpret the possible results without actually reading about them.

Similarly, when analyzing the headline in Appendix B, 'Regime Change Brewing in Iran?' another format of headline comes to mine. The headlines can also be used to exhibit the actual strategic breakdown of the news story in a single sentence. This simply…

Paragraphing is also a very important aspect in the language use of any news troy as it not only breaks down the news story into separate parts but also allows the journalist to use transitional words like meanwhile or furthermore that allows the story to have a flow and simultaneously allows the journalist to represent different emotions and importance of facts through difference in language use form one paragraph to the next (Ghadessy, 1988).

Conclusion

In the paper we have discussed how in the modern era the text of and the

Language and Critical Thinking A
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In today's global society, such understanding has become vital to communicating effectively in both the social and business worlds.

Critical thinking and language can therefore not exist without each other. Critical thinking helps the participants in a conversation to understand the possible meanings in language, while language helps participants to gain clarity regarding these meanings.

Language serves both an empowering and limiting function in expressing thought. The expression "there are no words" denotes the limitations of language to express deep feelings on occasions where these occur. On the other hand, language is perhaps the most empowering force that human beings have at their disposal to express their thoughts.

When human beings are for example compared to the animal kingdom, the human language system takes the place of nonverbal clues such as gestures or hairs bristling. Human beings can share complex ideas and explain exactly the nature of their thoughts. In…

Bibliography

Harris, Robert (2001). Introduction to Critical Thinking.  http://www.virtualsalt.com/think/introct.htm 

Ruiz-Smith, Carlotta M. (2007). Role of Language and Language Diversity.  http://www.socyberty.com/Languages/Critical-Thinking-and-Language-Essay-Part-I  -- II.55272

Language and Culture
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Language and culture are inextricably linked. The ways in which one's culture is directly attributed to language development are well documented in the academic literature, though there seems to be little consensus on the processes involved in language acquisition and the ways that culture is manifested in both socialization and language development. One assertion, however, seems widely accepted; culture is a learned attribute that language helps convey to others. Because people use language to impart cultural beliefs and societal mores, the nexus between language and culture is an important consideration in the field of education and communication, especially concerning the varied pedagogical theories of child development. Much of what has been studied in the field of both communications and education concerning the connection between language and culture is attributed to a ussian born educator named Lev Vygotsky.

Lev Vygotsky

Vygotsky believed that children developed and acquired knowledge through the assistance…

References:

Kyratzis, A. (2005). Language and Culture: Socialization through Personal Story-Telling Practice. Human Development, 48(3), 146-150.

Miller, P.J., Hengst, J. Alexander, K., & Sperry L.L. (2000). Versions of personal storytelling/versions of experience: Genres as tools for creating alternate realities. In K. Rosengren, C. Johnson & P. Harris (eds.), Imagining the impossible: The development of magical, scientific, and religious thinking in contemporary society (pp. 212 -- 246). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Miller, P.J., & Mehler, R. (1994). Personal story-telling, socialization, and self-construction at home and in kindergarten. In A. Haas Dyson & C. Genishi (eds.), The need for story: Cultural diversity in classroom and community. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Vygotsky, L. (1978). Problems of Method (pp. 52-75). In Mind in Society. (Trans. M. Cole). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Language and Religion
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Language and Religion

I visited the Anglican Church in my community, who congregates every Sunday at 10am. To gain access, I telephoned the Secretary of the church, who explained to me that services were open to any members of the public. She indicated that I would be most welcome and she sounded very friendly as well. She invited me to also speak to the Reverend and gave me his number. I followed her advice and telephoned the Reverend with my request and the reasons for wanting to attend the assembly. Like the Secretary, the Reverend was extremely friendly and open to my request. He asked a few questions about my research as well, and seemed interested in what I had to say. He struck me as a very warm person who truly believed in what he was doing. So, the following Sunday, as decided, I woke up early, dressed according…

Language and Literacy
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Language and Literacy

Jeanne S. Chall was born in Poland on January 1, 1921. She moved to New York at a tender age of seven with her family. Jeanne S. Chall was one of the chief educators and researchers in the field of literacy during the past century. The Harvard Reading/Literacy Lab has recently been renamed in accolade of Dr. Chall.

hat follows is an account of Dr. Chall's life and work. Chall grew up in New York City, taught there, and received her bachelor's degree from City College in 1941. Due to a dearth of teaching posts open during the early 1940's, Chall took an assistantship at Teacher's College, Columbia University, subordinate to Irving Lorge, an intelligence-test researcher. It was there at Teacher's College that Chall first advanced a fascination and liking for educational research.

Chall then went on to seek her master's and doctoral degrees at Ohio State…

Works Cited

AboutTheAuthor

THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT CHALLENGE: WHAT REALLY WORKS IN THE CLASSROOM?

The Guilford Press, March 2000

http://www.markpaterson.co.uk/hieducat.htm

Language of Ordinary People Thomas Paine
Words: 1806 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74487215
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Language of Ordinary People

The American evolution could not have been as strong as it was if it were not for one man, Thomas Paine. He was the one who supported and fought for it with all his synergies, combined in the written form of most celebrated and valued book and pamphlet Common Sense and The American Crisis, which turned the tables for revolution and brought a vibrant change in the history of America. Thomas Paine spoke the language of common people through his words. This assisted them in being able to rise up for their individual rights. He believed that ordinary people should defend their liberty and this concept was written strongly in his top works of eighteenth century, which is still remembered and read throughout the America as an inspiring piece of inscription to raise the most necessary revolution to change America. This thesis tends to explain how…

References

"Hope for the Wrongly Accused." Voices for Freedom. 1-21, 2011.  http://voices4freedom.wordpress.com/2011/12/21/hope-for-the-wrongly-accused  / (accessed 7-6, 2012).

Marin., Lucian E. "Free Women from Domestic Violence." Voices for Freedom. 1-16, 2012.  http://voices4freedom.wordpress.com/2012/02/16/free-women-from-domestic-violence  / (accessed 7-6, 2012).

"Together We Can Change the World." Voices for Freedom. 12-13, 2011.  http://voices4freedom.wordpress.com/2011/11/13/toegther-we-can-change-the-world-volunteer  / (accessed 7-6, 2012).

Whittier, John Greenleaf. Voices of Freedom. london: BiblioBazaar, 2011.

Language in Clients With Schizophrenia
Words: 1736 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70660220
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"

Done, D.J. Crow, T.J. Johnstone, E.C. Sacker, a. (September 1994) Childhood Antecedents of Schizophrenia and Affective Illness: Social Adjustment at ages 7 to 11.BMJ, 309:699-703.

Teacher appraisal using the national child development study was utilized to examine differences between normal individuals and those who exhibit adult psychological disorders. "At the age of 7 children who developed schizophrenia were rated by their teachers as manifesting more social maladjustment than controls (overall score 4.3 (SD 2.4) v 3.1 (2.0); P

Harrison contends that there is a growing body of data, though as yet inconclusive, with regard to control and repeatability that shows some differences in brain MRI between patients with and without mood disorders. Interestingly the areas of the brain that are shown to be affected in those with mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder are areas of the brain which control language function, not in its source but in its ability to be transmitted by the patient. This could indicate some correlation, in behavioral indices where patients with bipolar disorder report a sense that they cannot think straight or communicate their thoughts effectively. "The neuropathology is postulated to contribute to the pathophysiology and dysfunction of the neural circuits which regulate mood and its associated cognitions, behaviours and somatic symptoms."

Done, D.J. Crow, T.J. Johnstone, E.C. Sacker, a. (September 1994) Childhood Antecedents of Schizophrenia and Affective Illness: Social Adjustment at ages 7 to 11.BMJ, 309:699-703.

Teacher appraisal using the national child development study was utilized to examine differences between normal individuals and those who exhibit adult psychological disorders. "At the age of 7 children who developed schizophrenia were rated by their teachers as manifesting more social maladjustment than controls (overall score 4.3 (SD 2.4) v 3.1 (2.0); P

Language of Choice Theory and
Words: 1409 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 95037421
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Moreover, all psychological problems are based on dysfunctional relationships; therefore, change must occur in the arena of personal connections (the William Glasser Institute, 2010).

g. What is the role of cognitions or thoughts?

According to Glasser, thoughts are just one aspect of "Total Behavior," which includes "acting, thinking, feeling, and physiology" (the William Glasser Institute, 2010). All human behavior is Total Behavior, and all human behavior is chosen. However, acting and thinking are the only two components of behavior a person can directly control. Therefore, a patient must indirectly control their feelings and physiology by directly controlling their thoughts and behaviors (Glasser & Glasser, 2010).

IV. What specific techniques are used in this theory?

Choice theory is based primarily on "Seven Caring Habits" and "Ten Axioms" (the William Glasser Institute, 2010). The Seven Caring Habits are: "supporting, encouraging, listening, accepting, trusting, respecting, and negotiating differences" with creativity (the William Glasser…

References

Erwin, J. (2004). The Classroom of Choice: Giving Students What They Need and Getting What You Want. . Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Glasser, W., & Glasser, C. (2010). The Language of Choice Theory. HarperCollins ebook.

The William Glasser Institute. (2010). Teaching the World Choice Theory. Retrieved 03-04, 2011, from the William Glasser Institute:  http://www.wglasser.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=92&Itemid=221

Language and Gender
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Language and Gender

Women's Words elate to Specific Interests

Women Use Adjectives of Approval

Women Use Weak Expletives

Using Tag

The world balks at the idea of gender discrimination, but the fact remains that gender differences are biological and there is no other way to deal with gender issues than to address them openly and seek better understanding.

As far as the linguistic capacity and the nature and cadence of conversations are concerned, women and men have been found to have various differences. Acknowledging these and working with them can allow better communication between the two genders so that the ubiquitous issue of men saying "we can't understand women' and women saying that 'men don't listen' can be alleviated.

esearchers in linguistics and speech patterns have tried to specify particular features that are different in the conversation mannerisms of women and men. Moreover, women talk differently in the company of…

References

Bailey, L.A., & Timm, L.A. 1976. More on Women's -- and Men's -- Expletives. Anthropological Linguistics, 438-449 .

Boe, S.K. 1987. Language as an Expression of Caring in Women . Anthropological Linguistics, 271-285.

Haas, A. 1979. Male and female spoken language differences: Stereotypes and evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 616-626.

Kennedy, L. 2011. IBM Names Virginia Rometty First Female CEO. More Magazine .

Language Growth What Factors Affect
Words: 351 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44479804
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The percentage of days a student was absent was the strongest negative predictor, however, of poor reading performance. Class size was another important factor in influencing reading achievement, especially amongst ESL students in the elementary grades. Individualized instruction to suit the student's needs was important but specific teacher qualifications had no statistically significant effects.

Early exposure to the written word, being read to as a child, and coming from a stable, reading-friendly environment, as well as participating in preschool and Head Start or other early socialization programs can contribute to reading success later in life. However, although the teacher cannot control all of the factors that help a student learn to read, some factors, such as fostering a positive peer environment and providing individualized instruction, are within the teacher's ability to control.

orks Cited

New Insights into School and Classroom Factors Affecting Student Achievement." (Aug 2003). Research Brief: Public Policy…

Works Cited

New Insights into School and Classroom Factors Affecting Student Achievement." (Aug 2003). Research Brief: Public Policy Institute of California. Issue 76. Retrieved 2 Dec 2007 at  http://www.hewlett.org/NR/rdonlyres/985FC747-BAB7-4E08-8133-F763472A37C8/0/ppicsandiegobrief.pdf

Language Department Thinking Critically About
Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 63729647
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Put us in the air and we can't do anything should anything happen to the plane. We, as humans, cannot fly on our own.

A: Chapter eight also talks about assessing intelligence and there are many ways to do so. Intelligence, however, doesn't just refer to more analytical type of thinking. In the article "Emotional intelligence: A promise unfulfilled?" authors Matthew, Zeidner and oberts (2012) discuss how emotional intelligence is a fairly new construct in differential psychology. There are many proponents of this construct and they have made powerful arguments for emotional intelligence's importance in both basic and applied psychology (2012).

Emotional intelligence is a bit different than what we might normally think of as intelligence. It is a collection of aptitudes, skills and competencies for dealing with emotions and emotional encounters (Matthew et al. 2012). Perhaps one of the reasons emotional intelligence isn't considered much -- or when it…

References

Matthews, G., Zeidner, M. & Roberts, R. (2012). Emotional intelligence: A promise unfulfilled? Japanese psychological research,54(2), 105-127.

Myers, G. (2012). Psychology in everyday life. Worth Publishers.

Language and Cognition Is Relatively
Words: 3138 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82941920
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Initiating joint attention related to activity in the frontal-cortical system, especially the left hemisphere and responding to joint attention to the parietal lobes. Heimann et al. (2006) found that that deferred imitation and joint attention both influence the development of language and communication skills in infancy. Deferred imitation at nine months was the strongest of the predictors of nonverbal communication at 14 months, but the predictive power increased significantly in situations when deferred imitation and joint attention were used together.

ecently studies have been conducted with other areas of cognitive behavior. For example, de Villiers (2007) has been looking at the association of language and what he calls Theory of Mind. Theory of Mind refers to the folk psychological theory humans use to predict and explain others' behavior on the basis of their internal workings: feelings, intentions, desires, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and point-of-view. In other words, people have to create…

References

Bowerman, M., & Levinson, S. C (2001). Introduction. In M. Bowerman & S.C. Levinson (Eds.), Language acquisition and conceptual development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Delgado, C.E.F., Mundy, P., Crowson, M., Markus, J., & Schwartz, H. (2002). Responding to joint attention and language development: A comparison to target location. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 715-719.

A de Villiers, J. (2007) Interface of language and theory of mind. Lingua 117 1858-1878

Doherty, M.J., 2006. The development of mentalistic gaze understanding. Infant and Child Development 15, 179-186.

Language and Memory
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Memory and Language

Semantic memory is part of a larger division of memory known as declarative memory which refers to items in memory that can be consciously retrieved or recalled such as factual information, memories of events, and other types of knowledge (Tulving, 1972). Semantic memory is the memory of meanings and concept-based knowledge that can be consciously recollected such as facts about the world, word meanings, and other related information, whereas the other component of declarative memory, episodic memory, refers to the memory of biographical and event-related information (Tulving, 1972). Semantic memory functions as a storehouse of knowledge that can be consciously retrieved and applied when needed in specific situations and comprises a large amount of what we learn about the world and out relations in it (Tulving, 1972). Semantic memories are language based.

Human language is a different form of communication that used by other species of animals.…

References

Bock, J.K. & Levelt, W.J.M. (1994.) Language production: Grammatical encoding. In Gernsbacher, M.A. (ed.) Handbook of psycholinguistics (pp. 945 -- 84). New York:

Academic Press.

Dudai, Y. (2007) Memory: It's all about representations. In: Roediger, H.L., Dudai, Y. & Fitzpatrick S.M., (eds.) Science of memory: Concepts (pp 13-16). New York: Oxford

Jakobson, R. (1963). Implications of language universals for linguistics. In Greenberg, J. (ed.)

Language Political or Historically Based
Words: 1090 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85876370
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Note that inflated English has been more characteristic of the centuries preceding Orwell and of Orwell's own time than on the latter part of the 20th century. There has been a shift in linguistics. As linguists and historians of language have noted, the Western model of language follows the monological approach. The monological approach has roots reaching back to Aristotle who saw communication as one of rhetoric, namely persuasion, where communication was a strategy for influencing people and helping them see reason, or the truth. In this way, the 'other' became viewed as object, communication was one way (monological) and the objective was how to best seduce the other to one's way of thinking. According to some linguists, such as Alfred Taylor, this reduction culminated in reducing conversation, depersonalizing words, and converting them into ideas rather than seeing the complexity of the speaker behind the words. It also led to…

Source Orwell, G. Politics and the English Language, Horizon, 1946

Language Instinct How Are the
Words: 1647 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92591422
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Pinker maintains that evolution follows a branching, rather than linear pattern. Many species develop concurrently, each with their own survival instincts. Humans, and their survival instinct of language, are just one branch of the evolutionary process rather than a pinnacle rung.

Holding the belief that we can, or might someday communicate with animals creates empathy, which leads to humane treatment of animals. A belief that animals cannot communicate with us due to inferiority leads to a sense of dominion over them.

This is also a pattern of belief and behavior that is seen with regard to humans who are perceived to have inferior languages or grammars. They are somehow less human, and therefore less deserving of humane treatment.

Pinker states that it is ridiculous to attempt to teach human language to animals. They are not biologically configured for human speech or sign. They have no need for human language as…

Bibliography

Pinker, Steven. The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1994.

Language-In-Use Whether it Is Presented as Text
Words: 2785 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42258460
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language-in-use, whether it is presented as text or speech. The meaning of the term is very heterogeneous and covers more than one approach to this subject. These approaches are very different with regard to their focus, purpose and techniques.

As far as focus is concerned, discourse analysis may concentrate on the conclusions of the discourse itself or on the social processes and structure in accordance to which the discourse is constructed. Systemic linguistics approaches are appropriate for the first category, as there is always a very well defined boundary between language and society, with emphasis on the former. On the other hand, the common discourse analysis in sociology and social psychology has a broader focus and usually rejects the artificial distinction between discursive and social actions -- since "all discourse is action and all action is discursive."

The differences in purpose are not specific to discourse analysis but to social…

Reference:

1 Zellig S. Harris, Discourse Analysis, Language, Vol. 28, No. 1 Jan.-Mar., 1952, 1-30

2. Goodin G., Perkins K, Discourse Analysis and the Art of the Coherence, Collefe English, Vol. 44, No. 1, January 1982, 57-63

3. Hutchby, I, Woofit, R. Conversation Analysis: Principles, practices and applications, Cambridge, 1998

4. Fairclough, N. 'Critical and descriptive goals in discourse analysis', Journal of Pragmatics 1985, 9, pp739-63,

Language of Geoffrey Chaucer and Its Relationship
Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58300789
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language of Geoffrey Chaucer and its relationship to the development of English

In both literature and language, Geoffrey Chaucer made an important contribution to the development of English. In terms of the development of the English language his works and their popularity are related to the importance of the Midland dialect. This dialect formed part of the Mercian dialect of Old English, which was to assume significance due to the fact that it,

developed into centers of university, economic, and courtly life. East Midland, one of the subdivisions of Midland, had by that time become the speech of the entire metropolitan area of the capital, London, and probably had spread south of the Thames River into Kent and Surrey. "(ibid)

This form of the English language was disseminated and popularized partly by poets in the 14th century -- including Chaucer. In essence the works of Chaucer therefore added to the…

Bibliography

Baugh, Albert C. A History of the English Language. 2nd ed. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1959.

Chaucer, Geoffrey 1340-400) August 15, 2005.

http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Biographies/MainBiographies/C/chaucergeoffrey/2.html

English Language. Encarta. August 16, 2005. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761564210_2/English_Language.html

Language Is Not Innate and
Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 8922248
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Due to this reality, language is continually developing in two directions, i.e. To convey our ideas very well and maneuver the globe and to better fix the compositions and roles of our different brain areas (Clark 193-194).

Basically, language is a combination of innate abilities. The capability to utilize language is an extremely significant element of human cognition. Actually, a number of people would dispute the fact that it is this ability which differentiates human from other animals. In spite of one's outlook of the ability of animals to make use of language or language symbols, the reality is that human beings have language abilities that are extremely advanced to those of the rest of the animals which cannot be overlooked. In spite of the widespread human linguistic ability, pinning down precisely how language assists human beings and how human beings make use of is not at all a simple…

Works Cited

Chomsky, Noam. Powers and Prospects: Reflections on Human Nature and the Social

Order. Boston: South End Press, 1996.

Clark, Andy. Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again. Cambridge,

Mass.: The MIT Press, 1997.

Language Affects People -- the
Words: 369 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1807077
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But words, because of their power, can also become dangerous implements. Consider the phrase "family values." Families are good things, this is a generally agreed upon principle within our culture, just as it is good to have a strong sense of values.

This phrase, in the mouths of certain politicians, has become a kind of loaded term, to refer to the superiority of a specific type of family and set of values. This shows how within a culture, certain simple words can take on more resonance than their dictionary meaning might suggest.

Likewise, adjectives like 'fat' might seem more hurtful and 'loaded' with power than they should, denoting criticism rather description than unlike fat's opposite of 'skinny' which might be interpreted in a more positive fashion, even though just like 'fat,' it is also merely a description. The weight, no pun intended, of certain words within particular cultural contexts, can…

Works Cited

Language Dictionary." (2006). yourdictionary.com. Retrieved 22 Sept 2006 at  http://www.yourdictionary.com/languages.html

Language Kuhl Et Al 1992
Words: 396 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 26716124
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Although seemingly impossible, bias was reduced according to the article: "Safeguards against bias on the part of the parent, the experimenter and the assistant were stringent to ensure that these individuals did not influence infants' HT's."

The authors believed that HTs by 6-month-old infants were significant data points to base a study upon. While I personally disagree with the methods of this research, the importance of this study does not appear to be lost. The age at which children do appear to be learning is very important but this article does not provide a significant argument to support this in this particular study. The conclusions of the study are muddled and incomplete as well, as not clear result was communicated. Ultimately the authors' concluded that "infants demonstrate a capacity to learn simply by being exposed to language during the first half year of life, before the time that they have…

Language Impairment Phonological Memory Deficits
Words: 1733 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 6488698
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The focus of academics continues to focus on finding a cause and on developing reliable interventions for children suffering from this condition. It is important to begin intervention as early as possible so that incorrect speech patterns do not become ingrained. In addition, it is important to make certain that other learning complications do not develop as a result of SLI.

The research conducted by ice, Wexler, & Cleave (1995) helped to draw attention to SLI as being different from other language deficiencies. Their work helped to identify and define SLI as its own subset of language delay symptoms. This important step led the way for research that explored causality and intervention. SLI is typically associated with deficiencies in verbal skills. However, research into non-verbal skills was also suggested by these and other study results. This avenue will help to further define and distinguish SLI from other language delays.

eferences…

References

Bishop, D., Bright, P. & James, C. et al. (2000). Grammatical SLI: a distinct subtype of developmental language impairment? Applied Psycholinguistics. 21-92): 159-181.

O'Brien, E., Zhang, X., & Nishimura, C. et al. (2003). Association of specific language impairment (SLI) to the region of 7q31. American Journal of Human Genetics. 72 (6): 1536-1543.

Rice, M., Wexler, K., & Cleave, P. (1995). Specific Language Impairment as a Period of Extended Optional Infinitive. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. 38: 850-863.

Sajanrimi, N., Suhonen, E., & Kontu, E. (2008). Verbal and non-verbal development in SLI children after early intervention. Early Child Development and Care. 02 May 2008. Abstract.

Language Teaching and Learning in
Words: 1321 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27270341
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As an analytic method it varies from the syntactic syllabus in simliar way as the practical and procedure syllabi, particularly in the supposition that the learner learns best when using language to converse about something. TBLT also is different from the two other logical curricula in a lot of ways. It differs from the procedural syllabus in that it stresses the importance of carrying out a needs analysis prior to instruction.

Identifying likely bases of task complexity certainly is an essential precondition for making ethical choices regarding the grading and sequencing of functions, upon which many of the worth of the TBLT will rest. Grading and sequencing of pedagogic errands is certainly a chief test for the task-based syllabus creators.

Principles and features of task-based language teaching.

Prabhu's observations, stated at the beginning of the project, guide to the first belief of task-based interaction that "language is a basically just…

Works Cited

Alex, J., 2001. Recognizing Task Designs. Journal of Education, 2(5), pp. 23-34.

Breen, M., 2004. Process syllabus for the language classroom.. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Breen, M., 2005. Learner contributions to task design.. Chicago: Penguin.

Candlin, C.N., 1984. Syllabus design as a critical process, ELT Documents. Cambridge: Pergamon & the British Council.

Language and Gender
Words: 874 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47337567
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Bergvall, Victoria L., Janet M. Bing, and Alice F. Freed. Rethinking Language and Gender Research: heory and Practice. New York: Addison Wesley Longman Limited, 1996.

Rethinking Language and Gender Research" is a compilation of articles and quantitative studies about the biological and cultural influences that gender differences have over language. Of vital importance is Bergvall and Bing's introductory chapter in the book, an article entitled, "he questions of questions: beyond binary thinking." his article summarizes the scholarly studies conducted over the years by social scientists and linguists in an attempt to explain how gender differences affect the language spoken in various areas and cultures. Bergvall and Bing explore this problem by explaining the language and gender problem through the biological and cultural approaches. he authors establish the fact that studies on gender effect on language is historically based on the premise that language is based on the strict dichotomy of…

This web page by the University of Pennsylvania Linguistic Data Consortium Web site is a comprehensive discussion of the differences between men and women language, supported by biological studies (illustrated by graphical representations) and research that proves how gender differences affects language. The cultural and psychological approaches are also used to explain the problem of gender difference in language. The web page also includes a proper distinction of the definitions of sex and gender for better comprehension of the readers.

Rosenfeld, Lawrence, and Ronald B. Adler. Interplay: The Process of Interpersonal Communication. New York: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1998.

The topic of gender and language can be found in second part, Chapter Five of the book, wherein Language is thoroughly discussed as a tool for communication. The discussion about gender and language mainly focused on research studies conducted that explains what are the primary factors that determine the differences and similarities among male and female communication and everyday language. The part on gender and language includes a study of the researches about the content, reasons for communicating, and communicating styles among men and women. The gender and language discussion if the book does not offer a critical study of the issue of gender and language, but is a useful resource for getting some research/study results about the dynamics and content of male and female communication and language.

Language and the Brain
Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 34417918
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Neuroscience and Linguistics

LINK AND COMMONALITIES

The Language-Ready rain

Linguistics authorities oeckx and enitez-urraco (2014) Theorize that modern man possesses a language-ready brain structure, which earlier homo species did not. This, they believe, came as a result of developmental changes shown by a more globular braincase in modern man from the time of the split of species from the Neanderthal-Denisovans. The development changes were primarily in the cortical level, accompanied by anatomical changes in the sub-cortical level, which resulted in this globularity. Modern man's resulting capacity for language can be gleaned from and explained by the functional consequences of these changes. These experts point to the thalamus, which is mainly responsible for the uniquely evolved language and human cognition of modern homo sapiens (oeckx & enitez-urraco)/

oeckx & enitez-urraco (2014) isolated a probable gene, which could be strongly influential in the unique development and connectivity of the thalamus as well…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Boeckx, C and Benitez-Burraco, A. (2014). The shape of human language-ready-brain.

Vol. 6 Article 292, Frontiers in Psychology: Boeckx and Benitez-Burraco: Research

Gate

Ge, J. et al. (2015). Criss-language differences in the brain network subserving intelligible speech. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science: National

Language Impairment Disorder Specific Language
Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 15198049
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The clearest evidence for genetic effects has come from studies that diagnosed SLI using theoretically motivated measures of underlying cognitive deficits rather than conventional clinical criteria (ishop).

Characteristics of SLI

Delay in starting to talk is evidenced by the first words not appearing until two years of age or later. Immature or deviant production of speech sounds is apparent, especially in preschool children. Use of simplified grammatical structures, such as omission of past tense endings or the auxiliary "is," exist well beyond the age when this is usually mastered. Restricted vocabulary, in both production and comprehension with weak verbal short-term memory, is evidenced in tasks requiring repetition of words or sentences. Difficulties in understanding complex language are apparent, especially when the speaker talks rapidly (ishop).

Treatment

Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) help children with the strategies and exercises that will help them navigate language. They are also the ambassadors of language who…

Bibliography

Bishop, Dorothy. "What Causes Specific Language Impairment in Children." 2006. Institute for Applied Psychometrics. 17 March 2009  http://www.iapsych.com/articles/bishop2006.pdf .

Davidson, Tish, Jill De Villers and Thomson Gale. "Specific Language Impairment." 2006. Healthline.com. 17 March 2009  http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/specific-language-impairment .

Ervin, Margaret. "SLI - What we Know and Why it Matters." n.d. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 17 March 2009  http://www.asha.org/about/publications/leader-online/archives/2001/sli.htm .

Language Use
Words: 1030 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91782153
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Standardization, Expectation, and Judgment in Language Use

We are often advised as college students to write our papers in "standard academic English." If we are putting together a resume or drafting a formal letter, we are expected to use "standard English" as well. In our daily speech patterns in formal situations, our parents or mentors have at some point encouraged us to use "proper" English in order to reflect well on ourselves and our education and background (and on them, of course). But what, exactly, is "standard" English? Who gets to decide? Must it be grammatically perfect? Are long, multi-syllabic words more effective than short, simple ones?

Is there a standardized language we are supposed to use for certain formal situations, and if so, what is it, and how do we learn it? For example, some English texts and teachers advise students to avoid ending a sentence in a preposition;…

References

Cutler, C. Crossing over. MacNeil/Lehrer Productions.

Retrieved May 1, 2012 from  http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/correct/gatekeeping/ 

Fought, J.G. Gatekeeping. MacNeil/Lehrer Productions.

Retrieved May 1, 2012 from

Language and Culture in Autobiography Language Culture
Words: 2019 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17786620
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Language and Culture in Autobiography

Language, Culture and Identity in the writings of Maxine Hong Kingston, Richard Rodriguez and Alfred Kazin: degradation of culture, family and self"

Through the three autobiographical works, "Talk," by Maxine Hong Kingston, "Hunger of Memory," by Richard Rodriguez and "Brownsville School Days," by Alfred Kazin a reader can plainly comprehend the difficulties associated with immigration and language learning and how those difficulties interact with a developing child's mind. Though the cultures and languages of all three of these authors are vastly different and the severity of internal and external reactions they have to the circumstances their emotional and intellectual responses to their challenges are strikingly similar.

The simple voices of these three children of different cultures become complex words and ideas issued forth through the phenomena of growing up as an outsider and immigrant and most importantly a non-native English speaker. In these three works…

Language Philosophy Advocates Teaching Children
Words: 1511 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 55574837
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.., 2004).

Direct Instruction (DI) is a model for teaching that emphasizes well-developed and carefully planned lessons designed around small learning increments and clearly defined and prescribed teaching tasks. It is based on the theory that clear instruction eliminating misinterpretations can greatly improve and accelerate learning (Stockard, n.d.).

ibliography

Clowes, G. (2001, February 01). "Whole Language" faulted for U.S. reading woes. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from the Heartland Institute: http://www.heartland.org/publications/school%20reform/article/10248/Whole_Language_Faulted_for_US_Reading_Woes.html

Hanson, G. (1999, February 08). Whole language, half an education? Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Find Articles at NET: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_5_15/ai_53744894

Jones, J. (n.d.). Learning to read and whole language ideology. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Parents Raising Educational Standards in Schools: http://my.execpc.com/~presswis/phonics.html

Jones, J. (2004, July 28). What the data really show: Direct instruction really works! Retrieved March 23, 2009, from JeffLindsay.com: http://www.jefflindsay.com/EducData.shtml

Reyhner, D.J. (2008, Dec 13). The reading wars. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Jon Reyhner, Northern Arizona…

Bibliography

Clowes, G. (2001, February 01). "Whole Language" faulted for U.S. reading woes. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from the Heartland Institute:  http://www.heartland.org/publications/school%20reform/article/10248/Whole_Language_Faulted_for_US_Reading_Woes.html 

Hanson, G. (1999, February 08). Whole language, half an education? Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Find Articles at BNET:  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_5_15/ai_53744894 

Jones, J. (n.d.). Learning to read and whole language ideology. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Parents Raising Educational Standards in Schools: http://my.execpc.com/~presswis/phonics.html

Jones, J. (2004, July 28). What the data really show: Direct instruction really works! Retrieved March 23, 2009, from JeffLindsay.com:  http://www.jefflindsay.com/EducData.shtml

Language Arts Instruction
Words: 1583 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78675790
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Teaching Language Arts: Description of How Oral Communication Skill May Be Developed Through Conversation, Storytelling and Oral Discussion

It is reported that the use of language in the early years of childhood teaches children not only about the world around them but how language and its use serves various purposes. This type of knowledge is known as pragmatic knowledge which in part is conversational skills. It is asserted in the work of Weiss (2004) that the development of conversational skills in childhood influences the child's ability to interact with others. Children inherently learn these skills however, the adult teacher or parent's role in assisting the learning of children in the area of conversations skills is critical to the ability of the child as a conversationalist. Storytelling is excellent in its ability to develop language arts among children because it requires them to be good listeners. Storytelling can be followed by…

References

Auditory Discrimination Skills Training Module (nd) Highreach Learning, Inc. Retrieved from: https://www.highreach.com/highreach_cms/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=mgL4impMvYY%3D&tabid=106

Critical Issue: Addressing Literacy Needs in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Classrooms (nd) Retrieved from: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/content/cntareas/reading/li400.htm

Effective Spelling Instruction: Teaching Children How to Spell and Helping Students Develop Spelling Skills. Right Track Reading. Retrieved from:  http://www.righttrackreading.com/howtospell.html 

Five Components of Effective Oral Language Instruction (2014) Professional Development for Preservice Teachers. Retrieved from:  http://www.pdst.ie/sites/default/files/Oral%20Language%20Booklet%20PDF.pdf

Language Barriers Among the Karen People
Words: 4083 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38498576
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GAP stands for Guadalupe Alternative Programs and stands to serve St. Paul's Latino youth living on the West Side for the last fifty years. Programs like GAP have existed to promote the wellbeing of St. Paul's, Minnesota's Latino student population by offering services like counseling, educational programs, emergency resources, and job assistance (GAP, n.d.). While GAP still assists the Latino student population, times have changes and the Latino population has decreased, opening GAP services to diverse ethnic backgrounds. This has led to a recent issue of understanding the needs of the current population of GAP students.

The current population consists of English language learners, refugees (Karen refugees), and low income students. Social work interns at GAP recognized external factors that may affect GAP students. This has led to the desire to promote wellness among the current student GAP population. This research study is meant to provide an understanding of what…