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Leadership and Motivation
Leadership Traits, Skills, and Motivation
Over decades, business leaders, organizational researchers, and scholars have been endeavoring to come up with a perfect definition of leadership through personal experiences, findings, as well as the modern real-world situations and models. Therefore, they have come up with leadership theories, which stems from the multifunctional nature of leadership. These theories further drill deep into leadership traits, behaviors and skills, which may openly demonstrate the competency of a leader.
Competent leaders can be judged by their admirable leadership traits and skills, which may positively influence and motivate their subjects, as well as the other employees. A competent leader serves as a role model for ethics and integrity (Steve, 2009). Here, leaders have to be ethically upright, honest and always tell the truth. As a result, their employees would always be motivated to trace their footpaths in leadership morals and ethics. According to…
Maslow, A.H. (1943). A theory of human motivation.Psychological Review, 50(4), 362-395.
Steve, K.A. (2009). Leadership traits and behaviors that loyal employees trust.Human
Psychology and Leadership Review, 24(3), 117-129.
Perceptions of what makes a leader
Possessing leadership qualities entails more than simply having a leadership position with a title. In fact, some of the most effective organizational leaders may have no official designation as a leader at all; rather their source of leadership arises from the personal qualities which they radiate and their willingness to take effective action to realize organizational goals. Leadership is essential for the organization to function and to define its future path so most firms engage in leadership training and cultivation. However, the characteristics which define leadership can be extremely controversial and organization-specific. Leadership can be elusive and subjective in quality; although all organizations ultimately want leaders to help achieve their goals on one hand, on the other hand factors such as perceived dominance, the gender of the leader, and the organizational culture can all impact leadership perceptions.
One common concept of a leader…
Anderson, C. & Kilduff, G. (2009). Why do dominant personalities attain influence in face-to face groups? The competence-signaling effects of trait dominance. Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology, 96 (2) 491 -- 503.
Dries, N. & Pepermans, R. (2012). How to identify leadership potential: Development and testing of a consensus model. Human Resource Management, 51(3.)361 -- 385.
Luria, G. & Berson, Y. (2013). How do leadership motives affect informal and formal leadership emergence? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34, 995 -- 1015
In an effectively functioning organization, according to sociologist obert Jackall (as cited in Cohan, 2002), power is concentrated at the top in the person of the chief executive officer (CEO) and is simultaneously decentralized; that is, responsibility for decisions and profits is pushed as far down the organizational line as possible. At Enron the information did not go down the ladder, or up. Information did not go to the management team or the board of directors. "The board of Enron...appears to be analogous to the seventeenth century monarch - holding absolute power in theory, but cut off from access to information and thereby manipulated by the ministers who are its nominal servants." The hierarchal structure of Enron prevented personnel from obtaining complete understanding required to make informed moral decisions and from actually knowing what part they played in the totality of the corporate strategy.
At every company a certain culture…
Schwartz, J. (Feb. 4, 2002) as Enron Purged Its Ranks, Dissent Was Swept Away. New York Times. Journal of Business Ethics; Dordreeht; Oct 2002; John Alan Cohan
Cohan, J.A. (2002). 'I didn't know' and 'I was only doing my Job'; Has corporate governance careened out of control? A case study of enron's information myopia. Journal of Business Ethics
ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL LEADESHIP COMPETENCIES
Leadership competencies are some of the issues in the global environment that influence the way people interact in a multicultural environment. Competencies are defined in terms of certain personal values, knowledge, skills, behaviors, and traits within existing leadership frameworks (osen, 2000). Various traits within a given framework are replaced using the relevant and beneficial behaviors. Selection of appropriate competencies continues to generate an argument while relevance of such competencies has a common bearing on the varying tasks in an organization. The purpose of this paper is to establish global leadership competencies within the context of universal qualities (Bingham, Felin, & Black, 2000). The qualities enable people to perform their respective jobs away from their organizational and national culture irrespective of their ethical or educational backgrounds. The functional areas include the job description as represented by organizational performance.
One of the features of global business…
Bingham, C.B., Felin, T. & Black, J.S. (2000) 'An interview with John Pepper: what it takes to be a global leader', Human Resource Management, 39 (2/3), Summer/Fall, pp.287-292.
Hollenbeck, G.P. & McCall, M.W. (2001) 'What makes a successful global executive? Business Strategy Review, 12 (4), Winter, pp.49-56
Rhinesmith, S.H. (1992) 'Global mindsets for global managers', Training & Development, 46 (10), October, pp.63-68
Rosen, R.H. (2000) 'In growing global economy, boost cultural literacy', Computerworld, 34 (17), p.35.
And certainly those men and women that have the ability to be trained, and have the character and judgment and willingness to be led before they are ready to lead, are certainly ready become military leaders. And just as a diamond must have three properties to become a diamond -- carbon, head, and pressure -- a leader must have three properties as well -- "character, knowledge, and application" (UC).
In conclusion, inspiring troops as they go into harm's way is the solemn, august responsibility of military leaders. The traits that a leader must have in order to lead and inspire, include: engendering trust; be willing to assume the same risks as those he is leading; be competent and cooperative and have sound judgment; and have the character and knowledge to know what to do and when to do it.
Crandall, Doug. (2006). Leadership Lessons from est Point. Hoboken,…
Crandall, Doug. (2006). Leadership Lessons from West Point. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Harvey, Robert. (2008). Maverick Military Leaders: The Extraordinary Battles of Washington,
Nelson, Patton, Rommel and others. New York: Skyhorse Publishing.
Sweeney, Patrick J. (2010). Do Soldiers Reevaluate Trust in Their Leaders Prior to Combat
Leadership Trait Questionnaire (LTQ) is based on trait theory of leadership, which suggests that individuals possess specific personality or behavioral traits conducive to leadership like expressiveness, sensitivity, and determination. The questionnaire does not measure one's efficacy or effectiveness as a leader. ather, the questionnaire is designed to measure self-perceptions and perceptions of others. Because it takes into account both self-reports and the perceptions of others measured on the same scale, the LTQ is robust and reflects prevailing literature that shows that personality assessed using both self and observer ratings explains more variance in leadership than self ratings of personality alone," (Colbert, Judge, Choi & Wang, 2012, p. 670). Answers on the LTQ will reflect more about the leadership style one exhibits than one's innate abilities or prior successes as a leader.
Some of the qualities listed on the LTQ include self-confidence, trustworthiness, and sensitivity. Most of the qualities on the…
Colbert, A.E., Judge, T.A., Choi, D. & Wang, G. (2012). Assessing the trait theory of leadership using self and observer ratings of personality. The Leadership Quarterly 23(4): 670-685.
Zaccaro, S.J. (2007). Trait-based perspectives of leadership. American Psychologist 62(1): 6-16.
Leadership Path Goal Theory
The Boy Scouts" using the "path- goal theory
Path Goal Theory
Explain how the theory works and include an example
Explain the effect of power and influence that leaders have on followers in the organization
Are the followers receptive?
Would you recommend another strategy?
Evaluate the role of transformational and transformational leadership in the organization
Effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership in the organization
Assess the traits and characteristics of an effective team leader within the organization
Explain how the leadership supports vision, mission, and strategy in the organization
If you were the leader in the organization, what would you change and why?
The leadership theories are different in their relevance and approach, however, the importance of effective leadership cannot be undermined in operations of a successful organization. The boy scouts and other military organizations also…
Bolman, L.G., & Deal, T.E. (2011). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership. USA: Jossey-Bass.
Samson, D., & Daft, R.L. (2009). Fundamentals of management. Australia: Cengage Learning.
Winkler, I. (2010). Contemporary leadership theories. USA: Springer.
Leadership and Management Training Guide:
Leadership and management are terms that have been used interchangeably as many people assume that they are similar despite of their fundamental differences. The main reason attributed to this trend is the fact that these concepts must go hand in hand because they are complementary and linked together. Actually, attempts to separate leadership and management always contribute to several problems more than it solves. However, much has been written regarding the importance and difference between leadership and management. The effectiveness of managers and leadership abilities in a management team basically depends on their understanding of the differences between the two.
Differences in Leadership and Management:
Effective leaders and managers have become necessary for the successful operation of teams, organizations, and groups. This is because of the similarities and differences that exist between leadership and management for effective functioning of each. Leadership is basically described as…
Bacon, T.R. (2011, June 3). Five Deadly Leadership Power Drains. Retrieved May 6, 2012,
DiMaio, R.O. (2011). How To Be A Leader. Retrieved May 6, 2012, from http://www.leadershipinstitute.org/resources/writing.cfm?w=6
Ricketts, K.G. (2009, February). Leadership vs. Management. Retrieved from University of Kentucky -- College of Agriculture website: http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/elk1/elk1103/elk1103.pdf
I have grown fond of Mr. Joe Scott because of his ability to inspire his followers to do more than they would have expected to do. He has the capability of engaging his staff's commitment in a context of shared values and vision. He is capable of aligning the interests of the organization and its members. Those who have worked closely with him attest to his ability to inspire and motivate those who are working directly under him. He is capable is inspiring change because he's idealized influence, individual consideration, intellectual stimulation, and inspiration. He can maximize mutual interest and restrain in the process of exercising his power. His leadership style broadens and elevates the interest of the follower (Mind Tools, 2013). This ends up generating awareness and motivation towards the purpose and mission of the organization. His leadership traits bring the group purpose above individual needs for the…
Mind Tools (2013). Leadership Styles: Choosing the Right Style for the Situation. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_84.htm
Murray, A. (2013). Leadership Styles. http://guides.wsj.com/management/developing-a-leadership-style/how-to-develop-a-leadership-style/
Over the decades, much research has been devoted to studying leadership traits and the qualities of an effective leader. Some of the approaches to assessing leadership include personality theory, as well as the qualitative approach to leadership research.
In the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (1988), D.K. Simonton used the personality basis of leadership research that looks at the effectiveness of a leader as a result of particular personality traits. For this study, Simonton carried out an archival analysis of the personalities and personal histories of thirty-nine American presidents, and related that to their perceived effectiveness as Heads of State. An analysis of eight-two separate personality characteristics were ultimately reduced to five general categories; "The interpersonal, charismatic, deliberative, creative, and neurotic styles." (Simonton, 1988).
Simonton makes the point that research into leadership is frequently concerned with the question of whether a great leader is born, or becomes a…
Bryman, A., Stephens, M., & Campo, C. (1996). The importance of context:
Qualitative research and the study of leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 7(3),
Simonton, D.K. (1988). Presidential style: Personality, biography and performance.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55(6), 928-936.
It is the balancing of tools within the rubric of employee-supervisor roles that requires one use different managerial techniques in order to solve the problem at hand. Similarly, find ways to build and increase trust between members of the group and management and group.
Blake, . And Mouton, J. (1985). The Managerial Grid III.: The Key to Leadership Excellence. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company.
Boulgarides, J. And Cohen, W. (2001). Leadership Styles Vs. Leadership Tactics. The Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship. 6 (1): 59-73. etrieved from: http://www.stuffofheroes.com/leadership_style_vs%20leadership%20tactics.htm
Cronkite, J. (2006). Why is Leadership Style Important. Dirgo Consulting Group. etrieved from: http://www.dirigoconsulting.com/articles/WhyIsLeadershipStyleImportant.pdf
Porter, M.E. (1998). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior
Performance. New York: Free Press.
owe, A. And Boulgarides, J. (2998). Managerial Decision Making. New York: MacMillan Publishing.
Senge, P.M. (2006). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning
Organization. New York: Broadway.
Zeidan, H. (2005).…
Blake, R. And Mouton, J. (1985). The Managerial Grid III.: The Key to Leadership Excellence. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company.
Boulgarides, J. And Cohen, W. (2001). Leadership Styles Vs. Leadership Tactics. The Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship. 6 (1): 59-73. Retrieved from: http://www.stuffofheroes.com/leadership_style_vs%20leadership%20tactics.htm
Cronkite, J. (2006). Why is Leadership Style Important. Dirgo Consulting Group. Retrieved from: http://www.dirigoconsulting.com/articles/WhyIsLeadershipStyleImportant.pdf
Porter, M.E. (1998). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior
Self-confidence is one of the most universally agreed-upon traits of a leader. In order for the organization as a whole to have confidence, the leader must exude confidence. There will be moments in any initiative the followers cannot see the benefits of the initiative or do not feel that they will be able to execute the initiative. It takes the confidence of the leader in order to enable the rest of the organization to believe in the initiative.
Locke's knowledge, skills and ability form the second of the four key to leadership. These are relatively self-evident, but they are still important aspects of genuine leadership. Knowledge of the industry, for example, is built up over the course of years. This knowledge allows the leader to make the right decisions and forge the right strategies. In addition, the leader will also have more ability to instill confidence in their followers if…
Locke, E. (1991). The Essence of leadership: The four keys to leading successfully. New York: Lexington- Macmillan.
Website of Edwin A. Locke, Ph.D., various pages. (2009). Retrieved December 3, 2009 from http://www.edwinlocke.com/
Leadership for Organizations
The success of organizations and individuals' careers are influenced by the role of leaders. Nowadays firms seek leadership skills in individuals for all sorts of careers while recruiting. Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) believe that it has become critically important to nurture leadership approach at all levels of the organization (Lussier, Achua, 2009, p. 4).
The topic of leadership has been gaining tremendous attention of academic world and media (ass, Riggio, 2006, p. 17). Many experts have written about leadership and the challenges related to it as the subject is highly valued and at the same time a complex phenomenon (Northouse, 2009, p. 1).
In today's world individuals need to develop skills and capabilities required in professional world through personal development. They need to assess their strengths, weaknesses, leadership competencies and goals in order to achieve leadership capabilities (Rothstein 2010).
Leaders need to possess a wide range…
Adams, J.D. (Ed.). (1986). Transforming leadership: From vision to results. Alexandria, VA: Miles River Press.
Allen, K.E. (1995). Making sense out of chaos: Leading and living in dynamic systems. Campus Activities Programming, 52-59.
Argyris, C. (1970). Intervention theory and method: A behavioral science view. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Armstrong, S., & Armstrong, S. (1996). The conductor as transformational leader. Music Educators Journal, 82(May), 22-25.
Most conclusions on this approach were vague or indecisive in terms of social, psychological or mental significance (ice, 1978, 1981; Graen et al., 1972; Ashour, 1973).
Furthermore, over the years, many scholars have come to the realization that leadership is situational and hence there are many realistic settings like the environment, the employees, the resources, etc. that determine the characteristics needed in a leader as well as his/her business approach (Hershey and Blanchard, 1977, 1984). This is why it is important to first understand the different types of scenarios that a leader can face and then use those scenarios as the foundation on which most leadership techniques and approaches are built. This idea of leadership being situational is very helpful in outlining the methods through which leadership can be developed and has taken up a good part of the last three-decade of research (Mckenna, Boyd and Yost, 2007).
Adler, a. (1946). Understanding human nature. New York: Permabooks.
Ashour, a.S. (1973). The Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness: An Evaluation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 9: 335-76.
Bandura, a. (1997). Self-efficacy. The Exercise of Control. New York: W.H. Freeman. (Bass, B.M. 1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: The Free Press.
Bennis, W., and B. Nanus. (1985). Leaders. New York: Harper and Row.
Leaders step forward. That's now leaders become better leaders. That's how a "young" inexperienced" leader becomes a better leader. His or her qualities are formed such that he projects the need and desire to become better. Therefore, it happens. ut the leadership qualities that identified them as requiring more experience or a diversity of challenges to make them a CEO or CO are already present.
Is Leadership a "Learned" Set of Skills and Traits...
It may seem that we are answering the same question three times, and, perhaps we are. If we follow the logic of our previous answer, leadership itself is not a learned set of skills or traits. A leader becoming a better manager or executive or administrator involves a learned set of skills or traits. ut he or she has already displayed the traits of leadership -- those inherent personality characteristics, charisma, talents, and the vision that…
Gunn, B. (2001). Can leadership be taught? Retrieved November 17, 2009, from allbusiness.com: http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/employee-development-leadership/696129-1.html
Kurnik, E. (2009). Define leadership. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from hubpages.com: http://hubpages.com/hub/Define-Leadership
Zito, E., & Zimmerman, S. (2008, April 21). Can Leaders Be Taught? Retrieved November 17, 2009, from onveon.com: http://www.onveon.com/articles/learn-to-lead.htm
Leadership played a substantial role in the recent economic troubles. The banking industry suffered from leadership that was incentivized to pursue high-risk short-term policies that resulted in high levels of return but subjected the entire economy to substantial risk. In the automobile industry, leaders failed because they did not adequately anticipate industry trends and did not adjust the corporate culture soon enough to respond to changes in the external environment (Davis, 2009). The insurance industry suffered as the banks did from taking on too much risk, the result of leadership more concerned with short-term results that with long-term growth.
In order to select leaders to guide them out of the abyss, these companies must find leaders with different traits -- in the case of banking and insurance a more conservative mindset and in the case of automobiles a more progressive one. The shareholders should ultimately take responsibility for their investments,…
Davis, S. (2009). Obama blames failure of leadership for auto crisis. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 27, 2010 from http://blogs.wsj.com/washwire/2009/03/30/obama-blames-failure-of-leadership-for-auto-crisis/
Leadership in an International Business
Changing oles of Managers & Teams
Leadership and Employees Behavior in International Business
With the change in the structure of enterprises from national to international, the organizations are forced to hire talent from cross-cultural background. Due to this, a complexity for an organization while handling their human capital increases. In order to combat this complexity, it is important that the individuals inducted show an acceptance to diversity and eagerness to work in a cross-cultural environment. Similarly, the individual needs of such employees should also be satisfied in order to motivate them and enhance the effectiveness of their performance.
Where the nature of human resources changes in an international business, so does the role and responsibility of managers. Manager in such environment are expected to play a role of a leader who knows how to motivate his team, celebrate difference, handle conflicts effectively and improves overall…
Griffin, Ricky & Pustay, Michael, 2004, International Business, 4th ed, Prentice Hall.
Kets De Vries, Manfred.F.R. 2005. Characteristics of effective leadership. Management Today, 20 (10), 14-16.
Kotter, John, 2003. Leading change. What leaders really do? Management Today, 19 (3), 4-7.
Northouse, Peter G. 2004, Leadership: Theory and practice. 3rd ed. California. SAGE Publications.
Mr. Smith has been the president of our social club for a very long time. He has been reelected as the president unanimously for more than three times since he started his term. The reason as to why he has held this position is because of his effective leadership.
There are various traits that he holds which have made him an effective leader for this entire while. These traits include vision; he is a visionary leader. He looks forward to the future of the club with a lot of expectations. He has envisioned the club to be a success and attain a significant growth. He has an idea of the club which is clear and exciting of where the club is headed and at the same time try to accomplish the goals of the club. Secondly he is a courageous leader. This means that he is…
Mind Tools Ltd., (2013). Leadership Styles. Retrieved April 1,2013 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_84.htm
Cherry, K.,(2010). Lewin's Leadership Styles. Retrieved April 1, 2013 from http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/a/leadstyles.htm
University of Missouri, (2010). Important Personal Traits of Effective Leaders. Retrieved April 1, 2013 from http://web.missouri.edu/~campbellr/Leadership/chapter4.htm
Contingency leadership theories are based on the view that the situation dictates the ideal leadership style -- and how much of that style can be learned or not is variable.
There are elements of leadership, however, that cannot be taught. In particular, the inspirational aspect of leadership is very difficult to teach. Leaders can reach their subjects in a number of different ways, using a wide range of triggers. While to a certain extent these ways can be identified through scientific study -- psychology and sociology in particular -- there is an element of relating to other people than is entirely inherent. Some leaders are simply born with better charisma and interpersonal skills than others. The former in particular is nearly impossible to teach -- those with charisma that makes others want to follow seldom can identify what it is they do that makes them so charismatic -- they simply…
I see that in my own leadership style I am oriented towards a transactional style, but that in order to improve my leadership I need to weave the daily leadership actions together better with an eye to creating long-term organizational excellence. I feel that I have developed strong communications skills and healthy leadership traits in terms of being rational but also being able to deal with the emotional elements of the job. I perhaps struggle a little at listening, but I also can be short-sighted with my decision-making, such that months or years later I find my decisions have set an undesirable tone that must be corrected. These are the most significant deficiencies between the leader I am and the leader I wish to become.
Long-term strategy can also be considered somewhat of a weakness. There is certainly a gap between the specificity of long-term strategies that the organization has…
Schermerhorn, John. (2001). Situational Leadership: Conversations with Paul Hersey. Ohio University. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.situational.com/PdfViewer.aspx?pdfPath=~/Pdf/Conversations_With_Paul_Hersey.pdf
Fielder, Fred. (1964). A Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness. Academic Press, Burlington, MA.
Vroom, VH & Yetton, PW. (1973). Leadership and Decision-Making. Yale University. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.lederne.dk/NR/rdonlyres/E8715858-DCEE-4355-88BB-B3E82FE7DA9B/0/18VictorVroom2.pdf
Enos, Darryl D. (2007). Performance Improvement. CRC Press, p. 153
hether involvement is through full time employment or volunteer service, the challenges of today's fire service demand commitment to training, education, experience and self-development. One's professional development is a journey, not a destination. Remember Patience, persistence and perspiration make an unbeatable combination for success.
You've achieved success in your field when you don't know whether what you're doing is work or play.
First In, Last Out Review in Publishers eekly, Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. (2004)
International Association of Fire Chiefs Officer Development Handbook First Edition, November 2003, Published in partnership with the IAFC Foundation, (2003), New York: International Association of Fire Chiefs, http://www.iafc.org/associations/4685/files/OffrsHdbkFINAL3.pdf (Retrieved August 20, 2006).
Salka, John, and Neville, Barret. First In, Last Out: Leadership Lessons from the New York Fire Department (New York, Penguin Group, USA, Inc. 2004).
Thomas M. Cunningham, Emergency Services Information Site: Leadership…
First In, Last Out Review in Publishers Weekly, Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. (2004)
International Association of Fire Chiefs Officer Development Handbook First Edition, November 2003, Published in partnership with the IAFC Foundation, (2003), New York: International Association of Fire Chiefs, http://www.iafc.org/associations/4685/files/OffrsHdbkFINAL3.pdf (Retrieved August 20, 2006).
Salka, John, and Neville, Barret. First In, Last Out: Leadership Lessons from the New York Fire Department (New York, Penguin Group, USA, Inc. 2004).
Thomas M. Cunningham, Emergency Services Information Site: Leadership 101: Integrity, http://www.withthecommand.com/2002-Aug/MD-TMC-leader-integ101.html (Retrieved August 20, 2006)
Transformational leaders have the innate ability to motivate their team members by the vision of what they are trying to accomplish together (Hur, van den Berg, Wilderom, 591). Leaders at this level also show through personal effort why sacrificing for a goal is worth it (Pryor, Oyler, Humphreys, Toombs, 18). Contrasting my own leadership style, I have learned that being able to provide subordinates with an opportunity to take on a task their own way, master it, and find purpose in it is a major step in the right direction. The concepts of autonomy, mastery and purpose as the core of motivation is what I am working to achieve today as a leader. I am also on the journey to being a better leader on this dimension as well, working to show that sacrificing for a long-term goal is worth it.
Leadership is a skill set that must be…
Joaquin Camps, and Hannia Rodriguez. "Transformational leadership, learning, and employability. " Personnel Review 40.4 (2011): 423.
Hur, Y., P. van den Berg, and C. Wilderom. "Transformational leadership as a mediator between emotional intelligence and team outcomes. " Leadership Quarterly 22.4 (2011): 591.
Pryor, M., J. Oyler, J. Humphreys, and L. Toombs. "The people cried - a case of compassionate, transformational leadership. " Journal of Business Cases and Applications 4.(2011): 1-20.
Smith, M.. "Are you a transformational leader? " Nursing Management 42.9 (2011): 44.
Transactional leaders use the extrinsic motivators, to get goals met within an organization, as stated by Suliman (2009). This type of leadership used internal reward or punishment mechanisms to get employees to follow their directive. Transactional leaders usually leave the current organizational structure and goals intact, since the characteristic of these leaders is not effective in situations that require change. Suliman, (2009) also argue that some leaders are very passive and only get involved if the necessary actions are contrary to the overall goal or achievement of the organization.
Visionary leaders are usually characterized as individuals who do not compromise their personal integrity for the overall goal of any organization or process. These leaders do not portray ordinary character traits, since they are usually concerned with direction or organizing action based on new possibilities or a progressive agenda as argued by McIntosh and Tolson (2009). These are usually interested…
It is highly likely that I will be able to develop high quality leadership traits with the passage of time.
Values and personality:
It is hard to become familiar with your personality because you cannot see the flaws in yourself. No matter how hard you try the positive aspects will come forward leaving the negative ones far behind. But observing yourself every once in a while is the key to success. It helps you change your personality according to the situation. If I had to put my values and my personality on a piece of paper I would begin it by telling about my behavior with my closed ones, my associates and especially with the ones I deal with on daily basis. I believe on taking everyone with me and not being competitive as competitiveness leads you nowhere. It might lead you to success somehow but leaves you…
Adair, John (2009) Effective Leadership London. Pan Macmillan.
Montana, Patrick J.; Bruce H. (2008). Management. Hauppauge, New York: Barron's Educational Series, Inc.
Schultz, Duane P. Schultz, Sydney Ellen (2010). Psychology and work today: an introduction to industrial and organizational psychology (10th ed. ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Zaccaro, S.J. (2007). Trait-based perspectives of leadership. American Psychologist, 62, 6-16.
Leadership, Values, And Beowulf
The epic poem of Beowulf is a narrative a famous warrior who eventually becomes a powerful king. The story involves the exploits of a Scandinavian warrior-prince who comes from the land of the Geats, located in what is now southern Sweden. The poem may be divided into two periods of the Beowulf's life. These two periods exemplify the heroic life in youth and old age.
The poem starts by acquainting the reader with the problems of Hrothgar, King of the Danes, who is being threatened by Grendel, a monster who relentlessly has come to the kingdom night after night for twelve years to carry off and devour the vassals of Herot. Beowulf hears of this situation and resolves to defeat the monster. Eventually, Beowulf defeats Grendel in hand to hand combat tearing off one of the monster's arms. The following night Grendel's mother comes to avenge…
Anonymous. Beowulf. Ed. Michael Alexander. Penguin Books: London, 2001.
Hall, Lesslie (Trans.). Beowulf: An Anglo-Saxon Epic Poem." Boston, New York, Chicago: D.C. Heath & Co., 1892. Web. 30 May 2013.
Serriallier, Ian. Beowulf the Warrior. New York: Henry Walck Incorporated,1961. Print.
Stitt, Michael J. "Beowulf and the Heroic Code." English 477 Tolkien & Fantasy Literature, University of Navada, Las Vegas, (ND). Web. 30 May 2013.
Leadership -- Al Gini
Leadership is more than management; hence not all managers are leaders. Leadership involves the capacity to motivate workers and employee to work towards a common goal. Leaders also influence the employees towards certain behaviors they want. The modern organization should therefore acquire the best team of managers, who should have leadership traits and accept changes in the organization when necessary, including technological change. Management and leadership are most certainly not the same, despite the fact that many, even in business, use the terms in the same manner. In general, managers are more concerned with organizing people, plans, and projects. Managing gleans authority by a particular organization and must, in turn, utilize followers (subordinates). They may be in charge of a group or a project, but that definition does not make them leaders. Managers tend to operate in a manner in which they receive and depend upon…
Gini, Al. (1997). Leadership: An Overview. Journal of Business Ethics. 16 (2).
One reason has to do with the intellectual hurdles that senior executives jump in obtaining their jobs. It takes at least an IQ of about 110 to 120 to get an advanced degree such as an MBA. There is thus a high selection pressure for IQ in order to enter the executive ranks." (p. 250)
The text goes on to argue that the result is that there is not a great deal of variation in the intellectual properties possessed by most leaders. In a sense, this is a further confirmation that certain qualities are inborn, insofar as most leaders can be expected to fall within a specific range of proven intellectual capacity. To go a step further to this point though, Goleman et al. indicate that the difference between the excellent, the average and the inadequate leader will be founded on the high variance of emotional intelligence capabilities. This suggests…
Avolio, B.J. (2005). Leadership Development in Balance. Psychology Press.
Goleman, D.; McKee, a. & Boyatzis, R.E. (2002). Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence. Harvard Business Press, 1st Edition.
Koestenbaum, P. (2002). Leadership: The Inner Side of Greatness, a Philosophy for Leaders, New and Revised. Jossey-Bass; 2nd Edition.
Kouzes, J.M. & Posner, B.Z. (2003). The Leadership Challenge. Jossey-Bass, 3rd Edition.
The consequence of participative leadership can also be successful decisions suggested by specialists in the particular field. In this type of business management, the supervisor does not only engage team members, but can also take leadership from his peers (ampur, 2010).
One of the most appropriate participative leadership examples can be when a supervisor segregates project work in his team associates including himself converses the project necessities and prospects with the team manager and other associates, and then they work on it together. Participative leadership definitely augments worker approval, decreases the workload of administrators, and generates better collaboration; with all this ultimately contributing to high-quality work in the project (ampur, 2010).
The major advantage of participative leadership style is that this method encourages the resolve and progress of possible leaders who are already present in the team. Since this method of leadership and management necessitates all the team associates to…
Leadership Styles. (2010). Retrieved December 6, 2010, from Web site:
McCrimmon, Mitch. (2007). What is Participative Leadership? Retrieved December 6, 2010,
from Suite 101 Web site: http://www.suite101.com/content/what-is-participative-leadership-a23335
Leadership and otational Development Program for Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA)
Leadership development and rotational programs are crucial for building the potential, skills, and capabilities of new and existing employees. They provide employees with ongoing mentorship, in-depth experiences, as well as training across various functions within the organisation (Columbia University Centre for Career Education, 2016). Organisations rely on these programs to recruit and develop individuals for leadership responsibilities. This paper provides important guidelines for the design of a leadership development and rotational program for the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA). The program is aimed at fresh graduates with less than two years working experience.
Designing the Program
The first step in designing the leadership development and rotational program is to define the objective of the program (Donnelly, 2016). It is indeed a critical step. The objective should resonate with the overall objective of the organisation. It should clearly…
Columbia University Centre for Career Education (2016). Leadership development and rotational programs. Retrieved from: https://www.careereducation.columbia.edu/resources/leadership-development-programs
Donnelly, T. (2016). How to create a leadership development program. Retrieved from: http://www.inc.com/guides/2010/07/how-to-create-a-leadership-development-program.html
Gurdjian, P., Halbeisen, T., & Lane, K. (2014). Why leadership development programs fail. Retrieved from: http://www.mckinsey.com/global-themes/leadership/why-leadership-development-programs-fail
Pernick, R. (2002). Creating a leadership development program: nine essential tasks. Alexandria: International City/County Management Association (ICMA).
G. Lack of Strategic Vision
A strategic vision defines the desired or intended future state of an organization or enterprise in terms of its fundamental objective and/or strategic direction. It represents a long-term view of how things should be. Without a strategic vision, a company may achieve short-term tactical success, but is likely to struggle in the long-term (Greenfield, 2000).
Indeed, Salomon had been successful for many years as Gutfreund assumed the role of "senior statesman and public spokesman" for the bank. As such, his focus was constantly changing. He was rarely at headquarters due to his frequent international travel to support the company's growing investment banking business. A more strategic focus would have realized the importance of compliance in the financial services industry that demands strict adherence to the letter of the law and the company would have responded through the creation of a vision that embraced corporate…
Cunningham, T.M. (2002, August 27). Leadership 101: Integrity. http://www.withthecommand.com/2002-Aug/MD-TMC-leader-integ101.html
Greenfield, G. (2000, December). Achieving tactical success without a strategic vision. http://www.internationalviewpoint.org/article.php3?id_article=727
Leadership styles and bases of power. http://www.enotes.com/management-encyclopedia/leadership-styles-bases-power
Montana, P., and Charnov, B. (2008). Management (4th ed.), Barrons Educational Series, Hauppauge: New York.
Leadership and Development
Industry: Commercial Construction
Job Title: Regional Project Manager
Personal Leadership Assessment
Plan of Action
In examining myself for the position of project manager for Solomon builders, understanding the differences between leadership and management, and applying those subtle issues towards the task at hand are helpful. To reach my ultimate career potential within the workforce, it is important to identify and locate the principles that will have helped me attain this goal. My success is ultimately determined by the ability to synthesize and call upon certain trends within my educational background and its application towards the work's task as at hand. In this document I will examine in fine detail how this position coupled with my leadership and management skill base, will help affirm the principles and lessons of this educational course.
It is my recommendation that the project manager job at Solomon Builders suits my…
Gill, R. 2003,'Change management -or change leadership', Journal of Change Management, May Vol 3,4, pp 307-318.
Mumford, M. et al. 2000, 'Development of leadership skills: experience and timing', Leadership Quarterly, Vol 11,pp 87-114.
Palmer, B et al. 2001, ' Emotional intelligence and effective leadership', Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, Vol 22, pp 5-10.
Raclin, J. 1997, 'A model of work-based learning', Organization Science, Vol 8, pp 563-578.
According to Henry Fayol's (1841-1925) theory of management, leadership should possess an array of personal attributes that creates a positive environment for work and empower each employee. Notably, the theory encourages the managers and leaders in the enterprise world to promote employee independence, bestow responsibility and authority to junior staff in order to enhance their professional growth and responsibility (Morden 2004). Sadly, some leaders possess traits that are improper, discourage employee independence, and are a gross abuse of power.
Some of the undesirable leadership traits include dictatorial leaders, anti-social tendencies, non-cooperative, poor communicator and egocentric among many others. In the wake of modern business management, employee motivation is derived from the ability to perform activities on their own (Deming & Orsini 2013). They value independence and authority, with dictatorial leaders and management style, employees feels, threatened, intimidated, and often work to impress the bosses. Certainly, through dictating what,…
Deming, W.E., & Orsini, J.N. (2013). The essential Deming: leadership principles from the father of quality management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Morden, T. (2004). Principles of management (2nd ed.). Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate.
log 1: Theories and Models of Leadership and Management
An organization is a collection of multidimensional components and there are complex equations between all of these components. It encompasses various individuals, business practices, visions, missions, goals, performance standards, an organizational culture, ethical frameworks, hierarchies based on command and control, working methods, management styles along with relevant theories and models and a considerable number of other factors. Different organizations perform their operations under the influence of distinguished and diverse rules, conditions, circumstances, goals and factors (Cherry n.d.). Since the modus operandi and culture associated with every organization are tailored to its requirements, therefore, the models and theories allied with management style of an organization can also be also distinctive, unique and different from what accomplishes favorable outcomes for another organization.
Ibarra and Hansen (2011, p.p.71) reveals a research-based fact that has consistently shown that diverse teams produce better…
1. Kotter, JP (2007), Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail, Harvard Business Review.
2. Studzinski, J (2010), BVO - World class CEOs master the art of listening. Available from < http://bvo.com/topics/communication-skills-for-leaders/programmes/john-studzinskiworld-class-ceos-master-the-art-of-listening. > [16 July 2012]
3. Ibarra, H, & Hansen, M (2011), 'Are You a Collaborative Leader?' Harvard Business Review [online], 89, 7/8, pp. 68-74.
4. Kent, S (2005, November), Better behavior, PM Network, 19(11), 4+.
Politicians and politics are terms that usually elicit fascination in nearly every conversation and discussion. Actually, it seems like people have some fascination with evaluation of political leaders resulting in the fact that biographies of current political figures become best sellers. In addition, the tragedies and triumphs of political leaders attract huge public attention as they become newspaper headlines. One of the major reasons for the increased fascination is because of curiosity about the personal characteristics, individual preferences, decision making processes, and the beliefs and work of these leaders. However, most of the analysis and learning about the personalities and leadership styles of these leaders is always carried out in a cursory manner. People have been forced to rely on analysis of what political leaders say as a means of learning their individual characteristics and leadership styles (Hermann, 2002). Nonetheless, it's still important to examine and understand the…
Hermann, M.G. (2002, November 13). Assessing Leadership Style: A Trait Analysis. Retrieved November 28, 2013, from http://socialscience.net/docs/lta.pdf
Mascuilli, J., Molchanov, M.A. & Knight, W.A. (n.d.). Political Leadership in Context.
Retrieved November 28, 2013, from http://www.ashgate.com/pdf/SamplePages/Ashgate_Research_Companion_to_Political_Leadership_Intro.pdf
McKeown, L. (2012, October 23). 3 Lousy Leadership Traits from the Campaign Trail.
"Our leadership development and training programs push each and every delegate to gain a rigorous personal insight into what makes them tick and then, with that understanding of themselves, to stretch the boundaries of what's comfortable for them" (Leadership development - Leadership skills and training, 2008, Impact Factory). Leadership training through the organization stresses emotional rather than technical skills, unlike GE. Human perception, creativity and out-of the box thinking is what is defined as leadership skills by Impact Factory and by the companies that use its services to train new and older employees alike, employees defined as leaders, and lower level employees as well. Key to success for individuals and the organization as a whole include: "Determining how well you perceive what's going on around you...polishing interpersonal skills and communication skills" (Leadership development - Leadership skills and training, 2008, Impact Factory).
The influence of leadership theory of a 'great man'…
General Electric: Imagination at work. (2008). GE. Retrieved 1 Sept 2008. http://www.gepower.com/commitment/en/integrity.htm
Ethos. (2008). The Impact Factory. Retrieved 1 Sept 2008 at http://www.impactfactory.com/ factory.shtml
Impact Factory. (2008). Impact Factory Homepage. Retrieved 1 Sept 2008 at
He let them know truthfully and honestly what was expected of them, that the journey would be difficult, and that they would all be in the situation together. He was honest about the impending Civil War when he first took office, and he was honest with his cabinet about the difficulties they would face. This path-goal theory of management helped create a very supportive environment that is necessary when people are facing extremely difficult problems, such as Civil War. The leader must be strong and mature, but he must also be extremely supportive and nurturing, and Lincoln was, which commanded respect among just about everyone he dealt with. He worked very closely with his generals during the war, and he set specific goals for them, another aspect of the path-goal theory -- offering specific leadership advice and goals, and expecting the followers to take the appropriate action. He was supportive,…
Elshtain, J.B. (1999, November). Abraham Lincoln & the last best hope. First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 43.
Gienapp, W.E. (2002). Abraham Lincoln and Civil War America: A biography. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kumuyi, W.F. (2007, August/September). Seven communication tips an effective leader must have. New African 22+.
Rawley, J.A. (2003). Abraham Lincoln and a nation worth fighting for. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Use of Transformational Leadership Traits in Emergency Service Oversight
In the context of emergency service oversight, each of the four components of transformational leadership are critical in that each much be orchestrated with the other to ensure accurate, responsive and thorough support. The emergency service oversight areas of training and development, leadership and measuring results, all must resonate with these core values if employees and associates are to see value in their contributions. In emergency oversight, employees must see value in their contribution and take a very high level of task ownership in their jobs. They must be led to have an extremely high level of accountability and pride in performance. Only by combining the aspects of transformational leadership can the foundation be created to provide these employees with the opportunity to attain their own personal goals while delivering exceptional service to others. As the emergency service aspects of performance…
Millissa F.Y. Cheung, & Chi-Sum Wong. (2011). Transformational leadership, leader support, and employee creativity. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(7), 656-672.
Brian T. Gregory, K. Nathan Moates, & Sean T. Gregory. (2011). An exploration of perspective taking as an antecedent of transformational leadership behavior. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(8), 807-816.
Northouse, E.G. (2009). Leadership, theory and practice. Sage Publications, Inc. pp. 171 -- 201.
Jens Rowold. (2011). Relationship between leadership behaviors and performance. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(6), 628-647.
History of Modern Leadership Studies Since 1900
The evolution of modern leadership studies begins with the Great Man Theory, which originated in the 19th century and carried over into the 20th century. It came about as people looked at the world’s greatest leaders who stood out from the run of the mill individuals of their time and made a significant difference upon the course of human history. Individuals like George Washington, or Abraham Lincoln or Napoleon Bonaparte—they were seen as Great Men who were born with something special that made them into great leaders. The idea was promoted by Thomas Carlyle (1888) and other writers, such as Herbert Spencer (1896), who added his own twist on the theory by arguing that Great Men were as much products of their own day and age as anything else. Great Man Theory got the ball rolling in leadership studies, and out…
Avolio, B. J., & Gardner, W. L. (2005). Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root of positive forms of leadership. The leadership quarterly, 16(3), 315-338. Badshah, S. (2012). Historical study of leadership theories. Journal of Strategic Human Resource Management, 1(1), 49.
Carlyle, T. (1888). On Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History, NY: Fredrick A. Stokes & Brother.
Chaleff, I. (2015). Intelligent disobedience. ILA Member Connector.
DeRue, D. S. (2011). Adaptive leadership theory: Leading and following as a complex adaptive process. Research in organizational behavior, 31, 125-150.
Ghasabeh, M. S., Soosay, C., & Reaiche, C. (2015). The emerging role of transformational leadership. The Journal of Developing Areas, 49(6), 459-467.
Gibson, J. W., & Blackwell, C. W. (1999). Flying high with Herb Kelleher: a profile in charismatic leadership. Journal of leadership studies, 6(3-4), 120-137.
Katz, R. L. (1955). Skills of an effective administrator. Harvard Business Review, 33 (1), 33-42.
Lewin, K., Lippitt, R. & White, R.K. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates. Journal of Social Psychology 10: 271–301.
He was a second round draft pick, but he just couldn't seem to connect with the Falcons. However, he never gave up on his dream to be a number one quarterback in the league. His fan web site notes, "You know the lyrics to the song 'I get knocked down, but I get up again - you're never gonna keep me down!'? Brett might not either, but he sure lives by those words" (Editors). In 1992, the Green Bay Packers traded a number one draft pick to take Favre, a move that many thought was totally crazy. However, in his first game, he went in for the injured first-string quarterback, and ended up leading the team to a nail-biting victory over the Cincinnati Bengals, 24-23. In that same year, he became the youngest quarterback ever to play in the Pro-Bowl (23). He took over the head quarterback position after the…
Beowulf. Trans. Charles W. Kennedy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Editors. "Bio." OfficialBrettFavre.com. 2008. 14 Feb. 2008. http://www.officialbrettfavre.com/bio/
Editors. "Brett Favre: The Person. BrettFavre.com. 2008. 14 Feb. 2008. http://22.214.171.124/person.php
I have had leadership experiences in different settings such as schools, teams, and the workplace and through these I have had a better understanding about leadership qualities and behavior. One of my leadership qualities is communication. I am able to convey clearly and concisely what I want done, and this in turn makes it possible for me to relate my vision to my subordinates and therefore work towards the common goal. In addition, this open level of communication has enabled my team to know that they can easily trust and rely on me and therefore makes me able work harder (Prive, 2012). Another leadership quality that I have is commitment and drive. I am constantly working hard to ensure that the set objectives are achieved, even in times when we experience setbacks. In addition, another leadership quality I have is honesty and being ethical. In general, corporate governance…
Topic: How different personalities work together to achieve organizational goals.
Article: Bakker, A.B. (2015). Towards a multilevel approach of employee well-being. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 24(6): 839-843.
Annotation: Employee wellbeing is strongly associated with collaboration in the workplace and the collective commitment to reaching organizational goals, according to prior literature. Bakker (2015) builds on prior literature in the areas of personality diversity and organizational objectives. This article first outlines various theories of organizational psychology including job demands-resources theory, which shows how top-level management decisions can mitigate the detrimental effects of personality diversity on organizational commitment. At the same time, employee commitment can positively enhance team cohesion and the ability for teams to achieve their own and the organization’s main goals. Job crafting, the bottom-up, employee-driven behaviors, are linked with reduced stress, reduced rates of burnout, and greater work engagement, according to the author. The implications…
Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intecultual Communication
Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values
Impotance of the Team
Cuent Leadeship Reseach
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship
Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change
Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…
Allen, K.E., Bordas, J., Robinson Hickman, G., Matusek, L.R., & Whitmire, K.J. (1998). Leadership in the twenty-first century. Rethinking Leadership Working Papers. Academy of Leadership Press. http://www.academy.umd.edu/scholarship/casl/klspdocs/21stcen.html
Bennis, W.G. (1997). "The secrets of great groups." Leader to Leader, No.3. The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. http://www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/winter97/bennis.html
Crowther, F., Kaagan, S., et. al. (2002). Developing Teacher Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
Leadership / Leadership: What? So What? Now What?
Wart (2014) defines leadership as the ability to instill in others the drive to pursue a collective vision so that the pursuit of this vision is a joint effort that leads to joint success. Influencing others in this way can be in terms of social influence. It does not use power which can be viewed as autocratic. It inspires to even those who do not directly report to the leader to accomplish much. olfe's model of reflection will be adopted in this essay and its attributes which include, what, so what and now what will be explored (olfe, et al. 2001).
Leadership as a concept and as a practice has many theories that seek to explain it. Each of these highlight specific attributes. Understanding these attributes is key to attaining goals. Some of these theories are highlighted below as they relate…
Bass, B.M., & Avolio, B.J. 1994, Improving Organizational Effectiveness through Transformational Leadership. USA: SAGE Publications.
Bass, B.M., & Riggio, R.E. 2006, Transformational Leadership. USA: Psychology Press.
Brayman A. 1992, Charisma and Leadership in Organizations. London: Sage.
Chemers, M. 2014, An Integrative Theory of Leadership. New York: Psychology Press.
To be modest and be known for personal humility means the person is "never boastful" and acts with "calm determination" (Collins, 142). Those who know the teaching and learning environments can fully appreciate how this personality type would be a good leader in a university, high school or elementary school as well.
The quiet professional leader in a learning setting channels his or her ambition into the school, and is preparing students for their own ability to be leaders. On page 142 Collins offers the "Yin and Yang" of level 5, and the leader in the "Personal Humility" side of this illustration is perfectly willing to take the blame for mistakes and is known for "…shunning public adulation." As for the professional will side of the illustration on page 142, while those characteristics match up for a business leader, they also apply to a person in an educational setting and…
Collins, Jim. (2005). Level 5 Leadership: The Triumph of Humility and Fierce Resolve.
Harvard Business Review. 136-146.
This essaydescribes the meaning of leadership and defines the characteristics and qualities of effective leaders. It discusses the manner in which leadership skills can be developed and assesses the importance of leadership in organizations seeking to achieve specific aims. Leadership styles, such as servant leadership and transformational leadership, are analyzed and qualities such as boldness, good judgment and emotional intelligence are examined to show how they support effective leadership. The paper concludes with a discussion of what leadership means to different people and how leadership styles can reflect an individuals own subjective take on leadership and how it should be demonstrated.
What is leadership?
How can leadership qualities be promoted?
How does a bad leadership experience impact a workplace culture?
Real-life leaders in the 20th century
Influential Leaders in Modern Times
Servant Leadership and Youth Programs
The Qualities That Define a Good Leader
Phase 3 Discussion Board
The article that I have selected is "A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science," by Turner et al. (2003). The authors advocate for a system that allows scientists to fully understand "the consequences of changes taking place in the structure and function of the biosphere." The authors argue that current vulnerability assessments are insufficient, and move the discussion towards an enhanced framework.
Sustainability science is defined as "an emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems" so this paper fits in with key elements of that definition. First, the paper reflects the need to understand the planet's life support systems in a complex way. The interactions between elements of these…
Eagly, A. & Johnson, B. (1990). Gender and leadership style: A meta-analysis. Digital Commons @ UConn. Retrieved October 23, 2014 from http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010&context=chip_docs
Gardiner, M. & Tiggemann, M. (1999). Gender differences in leadership style, job stress, mental health in male- and female-dominated industries. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. Vol. 72 (3) 301-315.
Kruse, K. (2013). What is authentic leadership? Forbes. Retrieved October 23, 2014 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/kevinkruse/2013/05/12/what-is-authentic-leadership/
Kushell, E. & Newton, R. (1986). Gender, leadership style, and subordinate satisfaction: An experiment. Sex Roles. Vol. 14 (3-4) 203-209.
A case study is an examination of the problems of a given company situation and proposed
recommendations in response to those problems from a leadership perspective, based on textbook
readings, video lectures, and personal experience. The specific data for each of the four case studies
can be downloaded from the Moodle site. They are posted with that weeks work. An adequate
response for each case study can usually be contained within 2 - 3 single-spaced typewritten pages,
executive summary style. Quality of the response is more critical than limiting the response to 3
pages. The outline of the case study summary is as follows:
I. Introduction. In three or four sentences give a brief description of the focus of the
case. What are the key facts?
II. Problems. Identify key issues that are present in the case and link those issues to at
least 10 concepts from the…
Definitions / Descriptions of Trait Leadership
According to Peter Northouse's book, trait leadership focuses on identifying several qualities: intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity and sociability. Published in 2009, Northouse's book (Leadership: Theory and Practice) goes into great detail as to what constitutes trait leadership and what behaviors and values do not qualify vis-a-vis trait leadership. Northouse isn't alone in providing narrative that defines and describes trait leadership. A University of Cincinnati publication (Army Leadership Traits & ehaviors) explains that leadership trait theory focuses on a leader's: a) values and beliefs; b) personality; c) confidence; and d) mental, physical, and emotional attributes (www.uc.edu).
In the book The Anatomy of Leadership (West, 2000), the author asserts that trait leadership "makes the assumption" that there are "distinctive physical and psychological characteristics" -- above and beyond standard leadership -- that account for the effectiveness of a leader. Those traits include "height, attractiveness, intelligence,…
Bazerman, Max H., and Tenbrunsel, Ann E. 2011. 'Ethical Breakdowns,' Harvard Business Review. Retrieved January 10, 2013, from http://hbr.org .
Dowie, Mark. 1977. 'Pinto Madness,' Mother Jones. Retrieved January 10, 2013, from http://www.motherjones.com .
Gioia, Dennis A. 1994. 'Pinto Fires and Personal Ethics: A Script Analysis of Missed Opportunities', in The Ford Pinto Case: A Study in Applied Ethics, Business, and Technology, D. Birch and J. Fielder, Eds. State University of New York: Albany, NY.
Leggett, Christopher. 1999. 'The Ford Pinto Case: The Valuation of Life As It Applies To The Negligence-Efficiency Argument,' Retrieved January 10, 2013, from http://www.wfu.edu .
Create a hybrid theory/philosophy which combines the common elements found in the thinking of Case, Kouzes, and Drucker. In your philosophy, be sure to include the new definition of entrepreneurial leadership presented in Understanding Entrepreneurial Leadership in today's Dynamic Markets.
The new definition of entrepreneurial leadership as defined by the article Understanding entrepreneurial leadership in today's dynamic markets is a leader who is enterprising, transformational and who "operates in a dynamic market that offers lucrative opportunities" (Tarabishy, Fernald Jr., Solomon, p. 5). These words are rather ludicrous on their face, due to the fact that this is not a new definition whatsoever; it is a definition that has been around for decades, if not centuries. Therefore to base a 'new theory' on such an old theory makes no sense at all. Instead, the author will focus on using the words of Case, Drucker and Kouzas as a foundation for…
Drucker, P.F. (1983) Concept of the Corporation, 1983 edition, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers
Fu, P.P.; Tsui, A.S.; Liu, J.; Li, L.; (2010) Pursuit of whose happiness? Executive leaders' transformational behaviors and personal values, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 55, Issue 2, pp. 222 -- 254
George, B.; Sims, P.; McLean, A.N.; Mayer, D.; (2007) Discovering your authentic leadership, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 85, issue 2, pp. 129-138
Kouzes, J. & Posner, B.; (2007) The Leadership Challenge (4th ed.) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers
Autocratic leadership is the style of leadership in which the leader assumes total control of the entire decision making process. Whatever the leader says is what goes. This style of leadership is seen in very hierarchical settings, such as the military, where there is a clear chain of command: the leader at the top passes down the orders to those below, who pass them on out to their subordinates. There is no room for questioning the leader or for inserting one’s own will into the process: one gets orders, and one obeys them. As De Cremer (2006) points out, there is no room for latitude—one must stick to commands as they are.
Autocratic leadership traits are most often associated with masculinity or with male-dominated organizations (Eagly & Johannesen-Schmidt, 2001). This style of leadership is often associated with bullying, perhaps for that reason (Hoel, Glasø, Hetland, Cooper & Einarsen,…
Leadership and the ole of Sex and Gender
Previous studies have revealed that gender roles and gender may both be predictors of the emergence of leadership. This paper will examine the impact of the above variables, using role congruity and expectation states theories. With respect to gender, males will most likely emerge as the leaders in case of gender-neutral and masculine tasks, while females more likely dominate the domain of feminine tasks. The process may be explained in terms of performance expectations the society has for females and males with regard to specific tasks. In the gender role context, androgynous and masculine personalities will most probably come forward in the leadership role across a range of tasks. This arises out of congruence between androgynous and masculine gender roles, as well as the stereotypical example of the leadership role. It appears that (in western societies, at least), model leaders remain stereotyped…
Catalyst, (2016). Women CEOs of the S&P 500. New York. Retrieved from http://www.catalyst.org/knowledge/women-ceos-sp-500 on 19 May 2016
Dawson, M., Burrell, D. N., & Rahim, E. (2010). Deep Dive into Understanding the Theory of Military Organization, Military Leadership, Skill Transfer, Aspects of Program Management, and Decision Support Systems. International Handbook of Academic Research and Teaching, 33.
KENT, R. & MOSS, S.E. (1994). EFFECTS OF SEX AND GENDER ROLE ON LEADER EMERGENCE. Academy of Management Journal, 37(5), 1335-1346.
Laurence, J. H. (2011). Military Leadership and the Complexity of Combat and Culture. Military Psychology, 23, 489-501. doi:10.1080/08995605.2011.600143
Leadership Training Program
In an organizational setup, "managers" and "leaders" are often used interchangeably. However, it must be emphasized that, that is often not always true or accurate. The key difference between managers and leaders is that the former have others working for them whereas the latter have others following them. Leadership deals with getting others (i.e., one's subordinates or followers) to comprehend and accept one's vision and cooperate to attain common goals, whereas management deals more with administration and ensuring everyday activities happen as they ought to (go2H, 2016).
Numerous characteristics make up an efficient leader; some major leadership traits are:
Integrity and Honesty
Communication Skills and
Ability of Challenging Followers
Some key characteristics of effective managers include:
Ability to Direct
Ability of Executing a Vision
Process Management (go2H, 2016)
Firms require strong leaders for being optimally-effective. Organizational leadership addresses expert tactics and human psychology.…
Bonnstetter. (2007). Leadership Development Program. Retrieved from http://www.insights2improvement.com/file/sites . Facilitator_Sample.pdf
Go2HR. (2016). Understanding the Differences: Leadership vs. Management. Retrieved from https://www.go2hr.ca/articles/understanding-differences-leadership-vs.-management
Heck, T. (n.d.). Top 4 High Impact Team & Leadership Development Activities. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/trisanshrestha/top-4highimpactteamandleadershipactivities
MSG Management Study Guide. (2013). Organisational Leadership. Retrieved from http://managementstudyguide.com/portal/about-us
Leadership Development Plan
I am an informed and inquisitive leader, and have sufficient command over functional knowledge and subject matter. esides this, I can easily grasp ideas and concepts. Paying attention to what others have to say, and supporting them, is a rather easy task for me. I like to take on novel challenges regularly so as to be able to learn new things. I look to multiple sources for inspiration, and my zeal as well as all the knowledge I have amassed aids me in leading by example.
Trust is one "superpower" I possess. People usually place their trust in me easily, and set store by whatever support I give them. They perceive me to be a credible, knowledgeable and reliable leader. Another task that I find easy to do is build confidence among team members.
In spite of the aforementioned strengths, there are some areas in which I…
Alvarez, A., Butterfield, L., & Ridgeway, D. (2016). Building Group Cohesion in the Workplace. Retrieved from cpancf.com: http://cpancf.com/articles_files/buildinggroupcohesionintheworkplace.asp
Baldoni, J. (2011). How a Good Leader Reacts to a Crisis? Retrieved 2016, from https://hbr.org/2011/01/how-a-good-leader-reacts-to-a
Piccolo, R. (2012). Extraversion and Leadership. Retrieved from http://ron-piccolo.com/2010/11/27/extraversion-and-leadership/
Technical, interpersonal, and conceptual skills
Interpersonal skills entail knowing how to interact with others. No employee desires to have a boss who is inconsiderate or rude or one who has poor human skills. All these could reduce productivity and employee morale. Managers with effective human skills tend to have subordinates who have positive attitudes and strong desires to increase productivity. Managers are always expected in any organization to have harmonious relationships with those below them like supervisors, peers, and subordinates (Yukl, 2012).
Conceptual skills refer to an individual's aptitude to formulate ideas. These skills include formulating abstractions, thinking creatively, understanding issues, solving problems, and analyzing complex situations. Within the business context, these skills are viewed as integral prerequisites for top executive positions. Conceptual skills differ from technical skills and interpersonal skills. The three types of skills assume vital roles for certain purposes and in certain situations. However, conceptual skills…
Phillips, D. T (1993). Lincoln on Leadership: Executive Strategies for Tough Times. Warner Books, Inc.
Yukl, G.A. (2012). Leadership in Organizations. 8th Ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education
Leadership: Enhancing Lessons Experience
According to Johnson, & Giorgis (2002), Leadership is the process in which an individual influences actions of others towards common goals, Formulates policies, strategies, and influence people towards achievement of the same strategies. Over the past decades, various changes in the world have led to various definitions of leadership. The fall of the Soviet Union, globalization and various advances have changed the world we knew. A woman in leadership positions is a new phenomenon; various leadership trainings are available, and leadership as a skill is now an asset for professionals. For African Universities to ensure knowledge transfer and observing millennium development goals, a good leadership structure is essential. A leader has exception skills and acts outrageously to situations (Padam, 2009).
Scholars have advanced various theories on leadership. Leaders' Individual personal attributes beat explains the trait theory, when one looks closely at Mahatma Gandhi and Hitler it…
Johnson, N.J., & Giorgis, C. (2002). Leadership. The Reading Teacher, 56(3), 315-316. Retrieved from http:/ / proquest.com/docview/203276035
Padam, S. (2009). Leadership: Theory and practice. South Asian Journal of Management, 16(3), 136-137. Retrieved from http://.proquest.com/docview/222728386
Ilgen, D.R., Hollenbeck, J.R., Johnson, M., & Jundt, D. (2005). TEAMS IN ORGANIZATIONS: From input-process-output models to IMOI models. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 517-543. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/205830055
Hanson, K., & Leautier, F. (2011). Enhancing institutional leadership in african universities: Lessons from ACBS's interventions. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 7(2), 385-417. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/20425961201000040
e. leadership (Pruyne, 2001, p. 6), but also that "determining how to abstract a set of leadership concepts that apply across contexts without sacrificing an understanding of how the conditions and qualities involved in leadership vary among those same contexts" remained elusive (Pruyne, 2001, p. 7). Experts provided extended series of examples, mostly from the 20th century, demonstrating how leadership characteristics change over time and vary with context. Therefore future, 21st-century leaders should learn from the confused, sometimes contradictory and still evolving historical development of the concept "leadership," in order to distill the useful concepts from mistakes and temporary analytical fads. What seems to persist from the development of leadership theory over the last three centuries, is that leaders can be made rather than born regardless of inherited socio-economic status, and that while certain traits may be more prominent or apparent in those who find themselves in positions of leadership…
House, R., Javidan, M., Hanges, P. And Dorfman, P. (2002). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business 37, 3-10. Retrieved from http://t-bird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/jwb_globe_intro.pdf
Kirkpatrick, K.A. And Locke, E.A. (1991). Leadership: do traits matter? Academy of Management Executive 5(2), 48-60. Retrieved from http://sbuweb.tcu.edu/jmathis/org_mgmt_materials/leadership%20-%20do%20traits%20matgter.pdf
Pruyne, E. (2002). Conversations on leadership. Harvard Leadership Roundtable 2000-2001, 1-
78 Center for Public Leadership, John F. Kennedy School of Government. Retrieved from http://www.morehouse.edu/centers/leadershipcenter/pdf/ConversationsOnLeadership.pdf
Leadeship Style Inventoy
Leadeship cises have been bewing since the past centuy. Evidently, the latest global economic lapses of financial makets aised a highe need fo an effective leadeship than it had been befoe. These cises led to a call fo contempoay oganizations to scutinize o assess the leadeship potential among thei employees and new ecuitments. Following the cuent changes in oganizational ules and business games, as well as andomly emeging competitions, the most fundamental pioity fo businesses and/o oganizations is to ascetain new leadeship potentials, develop them, and find the most appopiate ways to gow them. This pape theeby ecommends the need fo developing authentic and visionay leades by utilizing the "Leadeship Style Inventoy (LSI)" and matching the leadeship esults obtained, with distinguished job equiements. It futhe majos on the use of Kiesey Tempeament Sote and DiSC assessment as tools of evaluation, used in detemining an individual's leadeship competence…
references of cooperative extension faculty. Mexico: New Mexico StateUniversity.
Howell, R.E., Michael, J.A., & Wong, S.K. (1993). Leadership development in extension.
Journal of Extension, 31(1), 27-46.
Nahavandi, A. (2000).The art and science of leadership, 2nd Edition. Upper SaddleRiver, NJ:
Leadership is a complex process involving the ability of an individual to inspire, motivate and redirect ways of thinking. It refers to the ability to bring out the best in oneself and others. In any set up, there must be rules and regulations to guide the relationships between people and activities. In a set up like an organization, there are goals and objectives that the organization aims to achieve. These objectives and targets rely on the ability of a leader to organize and direct activities towards their attainment. Leadership is the ability of one individual to stir the sentiments and behaviors of others towards the achievement of the set goals. The leader does this by transforming the goals to be a common goal to others.
Methods used by leaders to influence group members
Leaders can use power to get things done. How a leader uses these powers determines the success…
Gitlow, L.A. Being the boss: The importance of leadership and power. Washington D.C: Beard
book, 2004. Print.
Hellriegel, D & Slocum, W.J. Organizational behavior. Mason U.S.A: Cengage learning, 2009.
The Role of Leadership in Excellence Initiatives
Leadership is often thought of as a quality that is innate to certain individuals, such as CEOs and Presidents who have demonstrated their tireless commitment to a specific cause. This belief is not entirely true, however, and must be examined so that what leadership entails can be fully understood. (Bennis, 2010) There are two theories of leadership, the trait theory and the process theory. The trait theory teaches that leadership 'resides' in people, and is based on a certain mixture of intelligence, extroversion, fluency, and even physical stature. The trait theory of leadership teaches that having these innate traits will directly contribute to one's ability to lead, and therefore the best leaders will combine the highest amount of these aforementioned traits. The process theory of leadership, however, teaches that leadership comes as a result the interactions of individuals in a group. The…
Bennis, Warren. (2010). Concepts of Leadership. Retrieved September 21, .
Myatt, M. (2012). A Leadership Job Description. Forbes Magazine. Retrieved September 21, .
No Author. (2012). A Definition of Leadership. Oxford University. Retrieved September 21, .
No Author. (2012). Our Definition of leadership. The Teal Trust. Retrieved September 21, .
un Tzu informs that we cannot punish people until they feel loyalty to us: namely, until they consider themselves members of our group.
10. Keep them guessing
This quality may be pertinent only to leaders of a business / corporation. Her un Tzu advises keeping one's strategies and plans concealed from one's competitor so that one retains competitive advantage.
The Art of War, maintains un Tzu, is "a matter of life and death, a road either to safety or to ruin. Hence it is a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected." (pt. 2)
The same goes for the Art of Leadership. It is also "a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected" and its qualities need to be known and inculcated in order to have maximum success in the field.
'Leader' as term may be inchoate, but as many entrepreneurs have…
Bateman, T.S., & Snell, S. (2009). Management: Leading and Collaborating in a Competitive World, Eighth Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Kotter JP. 1996. Leading Change. Boston, MA: Harv. Bus. School
Schein, E. (1985). Organizational culture and leadership. CA: Jossey-Bass.
Sun Tzu, (2001). The Art of War Wylie, TX: Pickard & Son, Publishers.