Learning Disabilities Essays (Examples)

View Full Essay

Case Study of a Learning Disability Student ESL

Words: 1990 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31103051

Learning Disability Student ESL

There is an urgent necessity to help reading-disabled pupils read, since weak reading skills are linked to serious consequences. Children who fail at reading properly will be prone to dropping out of school and facing pervasive scholastic issues. To add to this scenario's urgency, standard instruction does not aid most pupils who fail to grasp adequate reading skills during their early elementary years even till they complete school. Further, premature basic reading issues often lead to limited time devoted to text reading, on account of which decoding issues can ultimately grow into a generalized deficiency in reading marked by poor proficiency, general knowledge and vocabulary, which further impair reading comprehension in pupils (Otaiba & Denton, 2015). eading/writing issues resemble dyslexia symptoms. That is, dyslexics can't be told apart from pupils suffering from general reading issues. The present age recognizes literacy skills and considers them crucial to…… [Read More]

References

Born, M., & Curtis, R. (2013). (Re)Discovering Retrospective Miscue Analysis: An Action Research Exploration using Recorded Readings to Improve Third-grade Students Reading Fluency. i.e.: inquiry in education.

Bus, A., Takacs, Z., & Kegal, C. (2015). Affordances and limitations of electronic storybooks for young children's emergent literacy. Developmental Review - Elsevier, 79-97.

Connor, C., Alberto, P., Compton, D., & O'Connor, R. (2014). Improving Reading Outcomes for Students with or at Risk for Reading Disabilities. Natioanl Center for Special Education Research - U.S. Department of Education.

Hamilton, S., & Glascoe, F. (2016). Evaluation of Children with Reading Difficulties. Retrieved from American Familyt Pysician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1215/p2079.html
View Full Essay

The Dangers of Misdiagnosing Learning Disability

Words: 2643 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57933959

Educational Diagnosis

The ethical dilemma of diagnosing a learner with a disability when there are other alternatives for support

esnik (2011) defines ethics as "norms for conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior." As in research, participants have data source rights, so too in teaching/education do students, parents/guardians, teachers and staff have legal rights that should be observed and respected in the course of ethical adherence. These rights include all Constitutional rights, as Bonauto (2008) points out. Thus, students have the right to attend school in safety, without facing harassment or discrimination, and have the right to equal access under the Equal Access Act, which is a further identification of the student's right of protection against discrimination. Teachers also possess the right of non-discrimination and enjoy the right to free speech. Teachers also have something called "academic freedom" according to Hosford v. School Committee of Sandwich, which vied that…… [Read More]

References

Bonauto, M. (2008). The legal rights of public school students and teachers in Massachusetts. Gay and Lesbian Advocates & Defenders: 1-26.

Bournot-Trites, M., Belanger, J. (2005). Ethical dilemmas facing action researchers. The Journal of Educational Thought, 39(2), 197-215.

Colorado Department of Education. (2011). Guidelines for Identifying Students with Specific Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from https://www.cde.state.co.us/sites/default/files/documents/cdesped/download/pdf/sld_guidelines.pdf

Dewey, J. (2013). The School and Society and the Child and the Curriculum. IL:
View Full Essay

Canadian Public Policy Education Learning Disability D

Words: 2563 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23922217

Canada Public Policy: ADHD and Education

Canadian Public Policy, Education Learning disability A.D.H.D

Struggle by Human ights Groups and Parents

Public Policy Canada: An Overview

Policy Implications

It has been estimated that almost five percent of School aged children out of population of 2.1 Million in Ontario are suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Contrasting other disabilities like autism or learning disabilities the ADHD was not in the special education previously. The students with ADHD were not included in the special education policy and thus the students and parents were suffering as they could not get the necessary interventions at School suggested by the doctor. (Andrea Golden, 2012)

ecently Education Minister of Ontario has announced to accommodate the students with ADHD and thus relaxed the parents as previously parents were spending from their pockets on theirs children with ADHD. A memorandum has been posted on the Ministry of Education…… [Read More]

References

Andrea Golden. (2012) Students with ADHD have legal right to supports in school Accessed online at http://www.thestar.com/living/article/1112930 -- students-with-adhd-have-legal-right-to-supports-in-school?bn=1

Castellanos, X.F. And Tannock, R. (2002). Neuroscience of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The search for endophenotypes. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, 617-628.

Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The Constitution Act, 1982, being Schedule B. To the Canada Act 1982 (U.K.), 1982, c. 11. Ottawa, ON. Government of Canada.

Dryer, R., Kiernan, M.J., and Tyson, G.A. (2006). Implicit theories of the characteristics and causes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder held by parents and professionals in the psychological, educational, medical and allied health fields. Australian Journal of Psychology, 58, 79-92
View Full Essay

Learning Disabled During the Course of a

Words: 1262 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24918403

Learning Disabled

During the course of a child's school years they will learn to define themselves as a person and shape their personality, sense of self-concept and perception of their potential for achievement for life (Persaud, 2000). Thus the early educational years may be considered one of the most impacting and important with regard to emotional, social and cognitive development for students of all disabilities. Labeling is a common by-product of educational institutions, one that has been hotly debated with regard to its benefits and consequences by educators and administrators over time. There are proponents of labeling and those that suggest that labeling may be damaging to students in some manner.

Students who are labeled at the elementary and middle school level as learning disabled may face greater difficulties achieving their true potential in part due to a decreased sense of self-esteem, self-concept and personal achievement (Persaud, 2000). The intent…… [Read More]

References

Beilke, J.R. & Yssel, N. (Sept., 1999). "The chilly climate for students with disabilites in higher education." College Student Journal, Retrieved October 19, 2004 from LookSmart. Available: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles.mi_m0FCR/is_3_33/ai_62839444/pg_3

Clark, M. (1997). "Teacher response to learning disability: A test of attributional principles." The Journals of Learning Disabilities, 30 (1), 69-79. Retrieved Oct 4, 2004 from LDOnline. Available:

 http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/self_esteem/teacherresponse.html .

Clark, M. And Artiles, A. (2000). "A cross-national study of teachers' attributional patterns." The Journal of Special Education, 32(2), 77-99.
View Full Essay

Learning to Read and Write Are Complementary

Words: 1445 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22351665

Learning to read and write are complementary skills. While in the younger years, writing depends on reading skills, by middle and high school, they are complementary skills: reading is necessary to do writing assignments, while writing about what has read increases comprehension of the reading materials. For this reason, separating reading and writing instruction from content areas is arbitrary and will eventually interfere with the students' progress in those content areas.

From the day children are born, parents are told by doctors, teachers and other experts to read to them, and to read to them every day. They are told to do this because hearing language that contains story lines, rich language and vivid imagery facilitates language development and develops a desire to read. From "The Poky Little Puppy" to Rudyard Kipling, children's literature exists that uses language in exciting and colorful ways. Good children's literature doesn't sound the same…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Erickson, Lawrence.Jan. 11, 1998. "Informational literacy in the middle grades." The Clearing House.

Foley, Regina M. Winter, 2001. "Academic Charateristics of incarcerated youth and correctional educational programs: a literature review." Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

Gardill, M. Cathleen, and Jitendra, Asha K.April 15, 1999. "Advanced Story Map Instruction: Effects on the Reading Comprehension of Students with Learning Disabilities." Journal of Special Education: Vol.33.

Nourie, Barbara; Livingston, Lenski, and Davis, Susan.July 17, 1998. "The (in)effectiveness of content area literacy instruction for secondary preservice teachers." The Clearing House: 71: 372-375.
View Full Essay

Learning Problems vs Language Problems

Words: 1303 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93484975

Learning Problems vs Language Problems

The objective of this study is to examine how learning problems and language problems are related. Specifically considered will be the fact that when students who are learning English as their second language and who are experiencing academic or behavioral difficulties that the teacher and the school's problem-solving teams must examine whether these problems are related to learning a new language or whether the problems may be due to cognitive delays or developmental delay or disability.

The work of Fisher ( nd) entitled "Assessing English Language Learners for a Learning Disability or Language Issue" states that English language learners all "with learning disabilities...too often...fall through the cracks." (p.13) The reason stated for this is that these learners are often considered to be "slow English learners, or they may be in a school district that does not have enough resources to test them in their L1…… [Read More]

References

Recommended Practices for Assessment, Diagnosis, and Documentation of Learning Disabilities (2014) Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario. Retrieved from: http://www.ldao.ca/documents/Assessment%20Protocols_Sept%2003.pdf

Special Education and English Language Learners: Guidance for LEA Staff

An Overview of the ELL/SPED Programs and the Identification Process

(Webinar #1) (nd) Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. Retrieved from: http://dese.mo.gov/sites/default/files/webinar/documents/ELL-QandA-12-09-13.pdf
View Full Essay

Learning the Role of Social

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95227898

n other words, it can be criticized for being somewhat discursive and for not providing any form of comparative analysis.

Alternatively, one could argue that methodologically the research falls into the category of a case study, a legitimate form of intensive qualitative research. n the final analysis the article does provide some illuminating insights into the possibilities of literature for social and emotional development in gifted students.

Article 3: The Connection between Social-Emotional Learning and Learning Disabilities: mplications for ntervention by Maurice J. Elias.

The author of this article identifies a number of problematic social and emotional areas for the learning disabled or special needs student. These include the recognition of emotions in self and others; the regulation and management of strong emotions and the recognition of strengths and areas of need ( Elias, 2004). The article also reviews the literature and theoretical positions on this topic. Furthermore, the author…… [Read More]

In order to deal with these problems, the author suggests that in the first instance these inabilities and difficulties in the student must be recognized by the teacher or the therapist. Once they have been recognized, a responsive and caring approach should be taken. The teacher becomes involved in the process of articulating "... The strategies that students must use when they feel the strong feelings that are preventing them from learning effectively..."( Elias, 2004). Furthermore, the teacher should help the student to recognize his or her strengths. This can go a long way to reducing any sense of guilt or inadequacy.

While this study does not provide any quantitative methodology or strategy it does provide a comprehensive overview of the theoretical aspects of the problems and the way that these problems can be addressed by the teacher. What is clearly implied throughout is that the innate talents and abilities of the special needs student enhanced by the caring and responsive techniques and strategies on the part of the teacher.

It could be argued that this study is possibly not as rigorous and methodologically intensive as the first article discussed in the present paper. However, what is clear from an analysis of the study by Elias is that the author provides a comparatively comprehensive overview of the issues and problems at stake and also supports this with practical examples of methods
View Full Essay

Learning Cognitive Theory of Learning

Words: 5035 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10711915

When children are given the option between a reward they would like and the internal desire to learn something, most children would rather have the reward. That is also true of many adults, whether they are in an educational setting or a business setting. Still, that does not mean that intrinsic interest cannot come along with extrinsic reward, or that operant theory is completely wrong. Many educators mix operant theory with cognitive theory in an effort to provide those with different learning styles more of an opportunity to learn and develop. This helps to reach the largest number of students per educator, improving the overall educational goal.

ognitive Theory of Learning

Introduction

The cognitive theory of learning has been part of education since the late 1920's, when a Gestalt psychologist focused on the issue of Gestalt teaching and learning, and what that could offer to students who were not learning…… [Read More]

Carton, J.S. (1996). The differential effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation: A comparison of cognitive evaluation theory and operant theory. The Behavior Analyst, 19, 237-255.

Cavalier, a.R., Ferretti, R.P., & Hodges, a.E. (1997). Self-management within a classroom token economy for students with learning disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 18, 167-178.

Davidson, P., & Bucher, B. (1978). Intrinsic interest and extrinsic reward: The effects of a continuing token program on continuing nonconstrained preference. Behavior Therapy, 9, 222-234.
View Full Essay

Learning Organization Peter Senge Is

Words: 2376 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82520132

This way of thinking and taking action has been evolving over many decades, but it reached its widest audience with the 1990 publication of 'The Fifth Discipline' by Peter Senge." (2003)

The Charter school has a unique opportunity to implement the principles of Peter Senge, and most particularly the principles associated with the 'learning organization' and from a perspective noted in the statement of Senge that it is very unlikely that the "deep systemic problems that afflict our institutions and society..." will find correction until "the ability to honor and integrate theory, personal development and practical results..." has been rediscovered since it is seemingly a lost ability. (Senge, 1997)

Senge states that change may very well involve "returning to an older model of community: traditional societies that gave respect to elders for their wisdom: teachers for their ability to help people grow, and warriors, weavers, and growers for their life…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Five Disciplines: Peter Senge (2008) Value-Based Management 25 Mar 2008. Online available at  http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_senge_five_disciplines.html 

Larsen, Kai, et al. (1996) the Learning Organization. Leader Values. Online available at  http://www.leader-values.com/Content/detail.asp?ContentDetailID=186 

Senge, P (1990). The Fifth Discipline. New York: Currency Doubleday.

Senge, Peter M. (1997) Communities of Leaders and Learners. Harvard Business Review September-October 1997. 75th Anniversary Edition. Reprint Online.
View Full Essay

Describing How a Selected Learning Theory Impacts Curriculum Design

Words: 1786 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89200484

Learning theories play a large role in the cultivation of curriculum within the realm of education. The purpose of this discussion is to describe how a selected learning theory influences curriculum. For the purposes of this discussion, we will focus on Social learning theory. Our research will contain a discussion of the learning theory, a description of how it affects curriculum design, and thoughts on the use of the theory in the 21st century schools.

Discussion of Social Learning Theory

There are many different learning theories that exist and are used to shape what students learn in the classroom. According to an article in the Journal of Youth and Adolescence, social learning theory asserts, "behaviors modeled by others may be imitated in other relationships. Specifically, behaviors of higher status individuals are more likely to be imitated by individuals of lower status (eese-Weber, 2000)." In other words, this theory asserts that…… [Read More]

References

Ewen, R.B. (1998). An Introduction to Theories of Personality (5th ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Horner, S.L. (2001). The Effects of Observational Learning on Preschoolers' Book-Related Behaviors and Alphabet Knowledge. Child Study Journal, 31(1), 1. Retrieved October 25, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Blackhurst, A.E. Keel, M.C., & Slaton, D.B.(2001). Acquisition of Content Area Vocabulary for Students with Learning Disabilities. Education & Treatment of Children, 24(1), 46.

Observational (Social) Learning: An Overview. Retrieved October 23,2004 from; http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/soccog/soclrn.html
View Full Essay

Learning Tasks There Is a

Words: 1950 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93500046

This study investigates how ESL students' perception affects the teacher-student interaction in the writing conferences. The multiple-case study explores: ESL students' expectations of the writing conference and factors contributing to the expectations, participation patterns of ESL students in the conferences, and ESL students' perception of the effectiveness of teacher-student conferences. A questionnaire, distributed to 110 (65 NS and 45 ESL) students enrolled in the first-year composition classes, examines students' previous writing experience and expectations of the writing conferences. Pre-conference interviews with 19 focus students (8 NS and 11 ESL) were conducted to verify the survey results. Students' participation patterns were investigated via the video-recorded writing conferences of the 19 focus students. Students' perceptions of the conference were investigated through the post conference interviews with the 19 focus students and follow-up interviews with six Chinese students.

esults of the research that Liu (2009) conducted determined that ESL students and NS students…… [Read More]

References

Beare, K. (n.d.). ESL Writing Workshop 2. Retrieved from http://esl.about.com/od/writinglessonplan/a/l_wwshop2.htm

Bitchener, J., & Knoch, U. (2009). The value of a focused approach to written corrective feedback. ELT Journal: English Language Teachers Journal, 63(3), 204-211. doi:10.1093/elt/ccn043.

Liu, Y.. ESL students in the college writing conferences: Perception and participation. Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Arizona, United States -- Arizona. Retrieved September 06, 2010, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text.(Publication No. AAT 3359771).

Matthews-Aydinli, J. (2008). OVERLOOKED AND UNDERSTUDIED? A SURVEY OF CURRENT TRENDS IN RESEARCH ON ADULT ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS. Adult Education Quarterly, 58(3), 198. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier database.
View Full Essay

Learning Journal Personal Reflection Personal Reflection Now

Words: 340 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25488777

Learning Journal: Personal eflection

Personal eflection

Now more than ever before, diversity is a real issue for the American society, and with this demographic change comes the need to develop strategies and techniques for making people more appreciative of the gender, ethnic, religious, and cultural differences that constitute the fabric of society. One's gender, ethnicity, race, religion, or sexual orientation does not define who they are and what their abilities are. These elements, therefore, ought not to be used as the primary bases for assigning positions, benefits, or advancement opportunities at the workplace. Just because someone is male is no guarantee that they will display better performance in a leadership or supervisory position than a female candidate would. We may consider men better-placed for such positions because we think of them…… [Read More]

References

Alonso, M. (2012). Best Inclusion Practices: LGBT Diversity. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan

Community Tool Box. (2014). Strategies and Activities for Reducing Racial Prejudice and Racism. Kaplan University. Retrieved 22 March 2015 from http://ctb.dept.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/culture/cultural-competence/reduce-prejudice-racism/main

O'Brien, R. (2013). Bodies in Revolt: Gender Disability and a Workplace Ethic of Care. New York, NY: Routledge

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2001). Affirmative Action. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 24 March 2015 from http://www.civilrights.org/resources/civilrights101/affirmaction.html
View Full Essay

True Disability There Has Been

Words: 1532 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81497618

The question is not whether the students are truly disabled but rather what constitutes a child who is a low achiever? Is there something in the pedagogy, the methodology or the manner of instruction that fails to tap into what the child is good at and expounds on that to improve learning? For those students who are non-native English speakers, is that a problem of the student or the teacher who may not be bi-lingual or impatient in his or her instruction? As suggested by Kaufman, Hallahan, ills and others, it is incumbent upon the educational system to determine a universal way to classify students as learning disabled and stop school systems from using it as a catch all for the students they find difficult to instruct.

orks Cited

Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. (2006). Introduction to response to intervention: what, why, and how valid is it? Reading Research Quarterly.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. (2006). Introduction to response to intervention: what, why, and how valid is it? Reading Research Quarterly.

Gresham, F., MacMillan, D., & Bocian, K. (1996). Learning disabilities, low

Achievement and mild mental retardation: more alike than different? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29, 570-581.

Hale, J., Naglieri, J., Kaufman, a., & Kavate, K (2004). Specific learning disability
View Full Essay

Universal Design for Learning and

Words: 4110 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99920686

..collaborative teachers also value and build upon the knowledge, personal experiences, language, strategies, and culture that students bring to the learning situation." (ibid)

This teaching procedure has the advantage of being multidirectional and not limited to the teachers directed knowledge only. This obviously allows for a more inclusive approach and for those student at different levels to express themselves in this environment.

The following is an example of how this process should work.

Consider a lesson on insect-eating plants, for example. Few students, and perhaps few teachers, are likely to have direct knowledge about such plants. Thus, when those students who do have relevant experiences are given an opportunity to share them, the whole class is enriched. Moreover, when students see that their experiences and knowledge are valued, they are motivated to listen and learn in new ways, and they are more likely to make important connections between their own…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Arnot C. (2003) The learning pod. Retrieved August 7, 2005. Web site: http://education.guardian.co.uk/curriculumonline/story/0,12708,902015,00.html

Bowe, F.G. (2000). Universal Design in Education: Teaching Nontraditional Students. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.

Byra, M., & Jenkins, J. (2000). Matching Instructional Tasks to Learner Ability: The Inclusion Style of Teaching. JOPERD -- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 71(3), 26. Retrieved August 9, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Cawley, J.F., Foley, T.E., & Miller, J. (2003). Science and Students with Mild Disabilities: Principles of Universal Design. Intervention in School & Clinic, 38(3), 160+.
View Full Essay

Technology in Learning of Elementary

Words: 10688 Length: 39 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41639691



For the purposes of this review, Web-based instruction is considered to be any educational or training program distributed over the Internet or an intranet and conveyed through a browser, such as Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. Java applet-based instruction is a special form of Web-based instruction.

Although there is very little research on comparing the effectiveness of Java applet-based instruction to the traditional face-to-face offering. However Web-based instruction has received enough attention that many studies are now available in the research literature.

Comparing the learning effects of Web-based learning with traditional face-to-face teaching and learning is emphasized in the research on the Internet as a medium in higher education. However, these research studies always produce conflicting results. esearchers found significant differences, positive or negative, in using different Internet-based approaches to facilitate teaching and learning.

This literature review explores three dominant themes: impact on student performance, student attitude, and student satisfaction.…… [Read More]

References

Rajshree Agarwal, a Edward Day. (1998). The impact of the Internet on economic education. Journal of Economic Education, 29(2), 99. Retrieved November 14, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 28501331).

Al-Jarf, a. & Sado, R. (2002). Effect of online learning on struggling ESL college writers. San Antonio, TX: National Educational Computing Conference Proceedings. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 475-920).

Anthony Basile, Jill M. D'Aquila. (2002). An experimental analysis of computer-mediated instruction and student attitudes in a principles of financial accounting course. Journal of Education for Business, 77(3), 137-143. Retrieved November 17, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 115217377).

Carey, J. (2001). Effective student outcomes: A comparison of online and face-to-face delivery modes. Retrieved November 14, 2008, at http://www.ed.psu.edu/acsde/deos/deosnews/deosnews11_9.asp
View Full Essay

Student With Intellectual Disability

Words: 967 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55372902

IEP

Student With Intellectual Disability

Goals and IEPs: Aiden

One of the critical components of any IEP is 'goal setting.' Goals are determined for each individual student and a specific instructional plan is designed to meet those goals. Goals are usually set annually but each annual goal has a series of short-term goals designed to facilitate reaching that objective. In the case of 'Aiden,' for example, a student identified as having ADHD, the first major goal was for the student to pass all of his classes. Despite testing with a near-normal IQ, Aiden struggled with paying attention in class and often acted as a distraction to other students. His grades did not reflect his abilities because of his difficulty in focusing. Short-term goals designed to achieve this long-term objective including turning homework assignments in on time, getting a C. Or above on all in-class tests and quizzes, and making a…… [Read More]

References

Helping the student with ADHD in the classroom: Strategies for teachers. (1998). LD Online.

Retrieved:  http://www.ldonline.org/article/5911/ 

Sample IEP goals. (n.d.). netreach. Retrieved:

 http://www.netreach.net/~bhohlfeld/thohlfeld/study_skills/iepgoal.html
View Full Essay

Attitude Toward Disability

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84926722

disabilities as 'deficits.' Even though I did not harbor prejudices against the disabled or regard people who had disabilities as 'inferior,' I viewed disabilities as challenges that had to be overcome. This class has helped me see persons with disabilities as people with particular conditions or differences, not as people defined by a singular characteristic. Everyone has personal deficits and strengths, but needing 'talking books' to read a book does not make a blind or dyslexic person defined by their condition any more than someone who needs glasses to see the same text. Defining persons with disabilities as people 'with' specific conditions, such as saying that Johnny is a child 'with ADHD' rather than a 'hyperactive kid,' much as you would say someone is 'a person who wears glasses' rather than a 'glasses-wearing friend' has been helpful in changing my mindset.

Before I took this course, I also had a…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Education Reading Disorders Reading Disabilities

Words: 3924 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77672184

In order to build an age-appropriate vocabulary in the English language, ESL students must learn words at a faster rate than normal (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005; Drucker 2003). This results in a widening gap between the reading and comprehension levels of ESL and non-ESL students if the needs of ESL students are not addressed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005).

Some ESL students come from a native language that poses more difficulties than others. For example, ussian and Arabic have alphabets that look very different from the English alphabet. Children must learn an entirely new coding system in order to proceed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005). Even when the alphabet is similar, the English language is difficult to learn due to the many inconsistencies in tense and individual word use. Because they may not be conversationally fluent, subtleties of the English language may take some time to master (Palmer, El_Ashry,…… [Read More]

References

Abu-Rabia, a., and Maroun, L. (2005). The effect of consanguineous marriage on reading disability in the Arab community. Dyslexia, 11, 1-21.

Davis, G.N., Lindo, E.J., and Compton, D.L. (2007). Children at risk for reading failureL Constructing an early screening measure. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(5), 32-37.

Drucker, M.J. (2003). What reading teachers should know about ESL learners. The Reading Teacher, 57, 22-29.

Hudson, R.F., High, L., and Al Otaiba, S. (2007). Dyslexia and the brain: What does current research tell us? The Reading Teacher, 60, 506-515.
View Full Essay

Child With Disability

Words: 1710 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59146135

Inclusion of a Child With Disabilities

Child With Disability

Inclusion of a child with disabilities into a general education class

Inclusion is a right that should be provided to all children. Parents fight for access to quality education to their children even though they have disabilities. This fight has contributed to the provision of equal access to quality education opportunities and equal opportunities oach & Elliott, 2006.

The passage of the PL 94-142 lessened the fight that parents had to fight for general education. PL 94-142 made a call for education of those children who have special needs in an LE (least restrictive environment) Terman, Larner, Stevenson, & Behrman, 1996.

What constitutes the LE has led to a huge debate on how to best include those children who have disabilities into the regular education system.

Additionally, the amendments that were made to IDEA of 1996 put further emphasis on inclusion…… [Read More]

References

Berry, R.A.W. (2006). Inclusion, Power, and Community: Teachers and Students Interpret the Language of Community in an Inclusion Classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 43(3), 489-529.

Cawthon, S.W. (2007). Hidden Benefits and Unintended Consequences of 'No Child Left Behind' Policies for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. American Educational Research Journal, 44(3), 460-492.

Conyers, L.M., Reynolds, A.J., & Ou, S.-R. (2003). The Effect of Early Childhood Intervention and Subsequent Special Education Services: Findings from the Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25(1), 75-95.

Cook, B.G. (2004). Inclusive Teachers' Attitudes toward Their Students with Disabilities: A Replication and Extension. The Elementary School Journal, 104(4), 307-320.
View Full Essay

Students With Disabilities in General

Words: 1985 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39606996



There is little doubt that students with special needs require more support services, and the article referenced above adds clarity to that assertion. hat also is true is that often students with disabilities are harassed, made fun of and even bullied because they are "different." An article in The Journal of Counseling & Development refers to emotional abuse that students (not necessarily students with disabilities but rather students that are "different" per se) are subjected to from teachers. This topic is not one that gets a lot of attention, the authors day, but in certain classrooms "…it can be a daily occurrence" (McEachern, et al., 2008, p. 3). Take Jason, he has had a fear of this one particular teacher and while he was "at the peak of his humiliation" because his second period teacher teased him in front of the class about the way he dressed, he finally got…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Elbaum, Batya, and Vaughn, Sharon. (2001). School-Based Interventions to Enhance the Self-

Concept of Students with Learning Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis. The Elementary School

Journal, 101(3), 303-329.

Letrello, Theresa M., and Miles, Dorothy D. (2003). The Transition from Middle School to High School: Students with and without Learning Disabilities Share Their Perceptions.
View Full Essay

Benefits for Students With Disabilities

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11042202

It also lists goals and objectives, which are used to measure a student's progress and determine whether the program and placement are appropriate" ("The IEP Cycle," DREF, 2007). Each student's IEP must be developed by a team of people who are knowledgeable and concerned about the student and must be at least reviewed annually. The team may include the child's teacher, the parents, the child, and agency representatives. "If parents disagree with the proposed IEP, they can request a due process hearing and a review from the State educational agency if applicable in that state" ("Guide to Disability Rights Laws," U.S. Dept. Of Justice, 2005).

IDEA lists 13 categories under which a student can qualify for special education services, including autism, deaf-blindness, deafness, hearing impairment, mental retardation, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairment, other health impairment, serious emotional disturbance, specific learning disability, speech or, language impairment, traumatic brain Injury and visual impairment,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Guide to Disability Rights Laws." U.S. Dept. Of Justice. (Sept 2005). Retrieved 18 Jun

2007 at http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/cguide.htm#anchor65310

The IEP Cycle." DREF: Disability Rights Education & Defense Fund. Retrieved 18 Jun

2007 at http://www.dredf.org/special_education/iep_cycle.shtml
View Full Essay

Facilitate Successful Learning Outcome for

Words: 2710 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34426099

However, though instructional adaptations are favored, students generally preferred that homework remain uniform for all students.

Students were very specific about the types of teacher practices that facilitated their understanding of grading, homework, and assignments, and provided recommendations to teachers regarding these practices. In general, students find textbook learning difficult and boring. Though they indicated that they learned a great deal from reading and answering questions, they did not like doing it. Students also were begging for strategy instruction that would assist them in learning from text and learning independently. Students liked activity-based instruction and while they did not call for an abandonment of textbooks, they wanted a balance between text learning and activity learning.

These studies teach us that students want teachers to be clear about the types of adaptations and accommodations that they intend to make and for which students. hen it comes to grading, teachers need to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bailey, D.B., SC Wolery, M. (1992). Teaching infants and preschoolers with disabilities (2nd ed.). New York: Macmillan.

Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., Battiato, a.C., Walker, J.M.T., Reed, R.P., Delong, J.M., & Jones, K.P. (2001). Parental involvement in homework. Educational Psychologist, 36, 195-209.

Lindsay, James. (2001). "A Model of Homework's Influence on the Performance Evaluations of Elementary School Students." The Journal of Experimental Education

Mahoney, J.L., & Cairns, R.B. (1997). Do extracurricular activities protect against early school dropout? Developmental Psychology, 33, 241-253.
View Full Essay

Teaching Math to Students With Disabilities Education

Words: 999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22146832

Education: Teaching Math to Students ith Disabilities

orking with students with disabilities (SD) can be quite challenging, especially for teachers working on a full-time basis. Almost every classroom today has one or more students dealing with either an emotional, educational, or physical disability; and teachers are likely to find themselves looking for resources or information that would enable them teach all their students in the most effective way. There are numerous special-education websites from which teachers and instructors can obtain information or lessons on teaching their respective subjects. Five websites available to the math special education teacher have been discussed in the subsequent sections of this text.

Teacher Resources

Teachers Helping Teachers: http://www.pacificnet.net/~mandel/

This online resource provides teaching information for all teachers, with a 'Special Education' segment that provides a number of activities meant specifically for instilling basic conceptual skills in learners with special needs. The activities are submitted by…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Oldham County Schools. "Instructional Resources for Math." Oldham County Schools, n.d. Web. 17 August 2014 http://www.oldham.k12.ky.us/files/intervention_resources/Math/Instructional_Resources_for_Math.pdf

Starr, Linda. "Teaching Special Kids: Online Resources for Teachers." Education World, 2010. Web. 17 August 2014 from  http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr139.shtml
View Full Essay

Hear the Word 'Disability the First Images

Words: 944 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9948249

hear the word 'disability, the first images that come to mind are people with obvious disabilities, such as physical limitations. But now I know that disabilities come in many shapes and sizes. Learning disabilities are not always immediately apparent to even the trained eye of a seasoned teacher. A student with ADHD can seem very normal running around on the playground, and it is not until the child is sitting in a classroom environment that his or her 'disability' becomes evident on a test.

The first words which come to my mind when I hear 'disability' tend to be negative words: it is difficult not to see a disability as a liability rather than simply as a difference, although from the point-of-view of a teacher it is better to view it as such, and is more empowering for the students to do so as well.

Question Box 2 on

Most…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Constructivism Is an Important Learning

Words: 1992 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59271883

(rier, 1992)

Constructivism in all forms faces many obstacles and hurdles in getting fair application in the classroom of schools today for many reasons. One reason is that when constructivism is applied properly and fully to a classroom environment, the teacher may find him or herself in the "backseat" while the students steer the direction of the learning process. It removes much of the inherent hierarchal power of the teacher vs. The student in the classroom. Students are allowed a very high degree of autonomy. There is a strong tendency in our society to subordinate children and to keep children submissive to the dominant adult figures in their lives, and within the school it is completely unheard of to treat students as equals to the teachers. This is due to the belief of both teachers and parents that children are not equal to adults. The rationalist myth of "cold reason"…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brier, S. (1992): "Information and consciousness: A critique of the mechanistic concept of information," in Vol.1, no. 2/3 pp. 71-94 of "Cybernetics & Human Knowing." Aalborg, Denmark.

Dougiamas, M. (1998) "A Journey into Constructivism." Accessed Jan 21, 2004 at http://dougiamas.com/writing/constructivism.html

Glasersfeld, E.V., (1992) "Aspects of Radical Constructivism and its Educational Recommendations." Scientific Reasoning research Institute. Presented at ICMe-7, Working Group #4, Quebec. Accessed Jan 21, 2004 at http://www.umass.edu/srri/vonGlasersfeld/onlinePapers/html/195.html

Glasersfeld, E.V. (1992) "Why I Consider Myself a Cybernetician" CYBERNETICS & HUMAN KNOWING. A Journal of Second Order Cybernetics & Cyber-Semiotics, Vol. 1 no. 1. Accessed Jan 21, 2004 from: www.flec.kvl.dk/sbr/Cyber/cybernetics/vol1/v1-1evg.htm
View Full Essay

Education Theories Knowledge of Learning

Words: 3781 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93366223



Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."

As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.

This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brandon, Thomas H.; Herzog, Thaddeus a.; Irvin, Jennifer E.; & Gwaltney, Chad J. (2004).

Cognitive and social learning models of drug dependence; implications for the assessment of Tobacco dependence in adolescents. Addiction, 99(1), 51-77.

Center on English Learning and Achievement. (2002). Scaffolding Student Performance of New and Difficult Tasks. Retrieved March 10, 2007, at http://cela.albany.edu/newslet/fall02/scaffolding.htm.

Demant, Meagan S, & Yates, Gregory C.R. (2003). Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Direct Instruction Construct. Educational Psychology, 23(5), 483-489.
View Full Essay

Culture on Learning Styles Multiculturalism

Words: 5049 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 583446

Following are Hofstede's four categories and what they measure:

Power Distance (PD) is the "extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally" (Hofstede 1998) with a small PD meaning more equality in the society, and a large PD meaning less.

Individualism (ID) defines whether the society expects people to look after themselves or not. Its opposite is Collectivism, which Hofstede (1998) defines as "the extent to which people in a society from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty."

Masculinity (MA) defines the degree of distinction of gender roles. High MA means men are supposed to be "assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life" (Hofstede 1998). Its…… [Read More]

References

Al-Mekhalfi, A.G. (2001). Instructional media for teachers' preparation. International Journal of Instructional Media, 28(2), 191. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Arab World (2005). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_arab_world.shtml

Australia. (2005) Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_australia.shtml

Bilimoria, P. (1995). Introduction to the Special Issue: Comparative and Asian philosophy in Australia and New Zealand. Philosophy East & West, 45(3), 151-169.
View Full Essay

Individual Learning Plans in Community

Words: 4463 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74917892



V. Government System RARPA

The government introduced the RARPA Program which is abbreviated for the:: "Recording and Recognition of Progress and Achievement Summary of the Evaluation Report" in relation to the Pilot Projects April 2003 to March 2004 Learning and Skills Development Agency National Institute of Adult Continuing Education 2004 August. Since 2002 the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) has focused its efforts on establishing an appropriate method of recognizing and recording the progress and achievement of learners that is non-accredited in nature. Development of a model called the 'Staged Process." The RARPA consists of the application "of an explicit and common staged process to the recognition and recording of progress and achievement, together with the validation of this process through a range of judgments about its consistent and effective application." The background of the project is stated to be that LSDA and NIACE were involved in preparation of work…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

McCallum, Myra K. (1999) "Strategies and Activities to Stimulate Adequate ESOL Instruction in Content Area Courses and Increase Honest Effort and Motivation Among ESOL Students Dekalb County School System, Decatur, GA 1999 November U.S. Department of Education: #FL026093.

Your Guide 2 Skills For Life Policy and Strategy (2005) Skills and Education Network March Online available at: http://senet.lsc.gov.uk/guide2/skill sforlife/G2skillsforlifeG028.pdf

English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) Case Studies of Provision, Learner's Needs and Resources, National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy Online at www.nrcd.org.uk ISBN 0 95456492 Kings College London, University of Leeds, Institute of Education, University of London and Lancaster University.

Fogel, H. & Ehri, L.C. (2000). Teaching elementary students who speak Black English Vernacular to write in Standard English: effects of dialect transformation practice. Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 25.
View Full Essay

Personal Learning Theory The Author

Words: 2003 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88212585

wilderdom.com/experiential/ExperientialWhatIs.html)."

Experiential education comes in many shapes and sizes

Experiential education is widely implemented across a range of topics and mediums - for example, outdoor education, service learning, internships, and group-based learning projects. Many educational projects are experiential, but don't refer to themselves as such (e.g., excursions, physical education, manual arts, drama, art, and so on)."

The value of experiential education is instrumental to my learning theory. I remember the first time I assisted in a classroom and saw how valuable it is when utilized correctly.

I was helping with a math lesson in a first grade classroom. The teacher had drawn an equation the board of 2 plus 3 equals 5. She had the students first discuss the equation and talk about things that could be added. The list was endless and fun and included pet dogs, cats, little sisters and brothers. It had the students laughing and paying…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Albert Bandura

http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/bandura.html

Passages by Albert Bandura (http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/effquotes.html)

Bandura: Beliefs, Bobo, and Behavior  http://www.psychologicalscience.org/observer/0701/keynote.html
View Full Essay

Boys and Girls Learning Differences

Words: 1278 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81337799

Boys and Girls Learn Differently! -- Michael Gurian and Patricia Henley

Michael Gurian's book has been a best seller and a much-discussed, respected handbook on the topic of boys vs. girls in a learning milieu since it was published in 2001. But more than its popularity and success in the market, Gurian's book has made a positive impact on parents, teachers, counselors and others interested in education and human development because it delves into the neurological, chemical and hormonal disparities between boys and girls. Gurian's book is a well-presented narrative and moreover it is based on the author's vast experience as a teacher, family therapist and researcher -- and his ability to relate those experiences well.

There are many significant points in the book that make it valuable in today's educational setting. For one, the author offers believable, reader-friendly narrative on why boys and girls process information differently. For another,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gurian, Michael, Henley, Patricia, and Trueman, Terry. (2001). Boys and Girls Learn

Differently! San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
View Full Essay

Teaching Historical Events with Students with Disabilities

Words: 2525 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21142833

Teaching Historical Events to Student With Disabilities

Our perspective of the concept of the passing of time and our place in the history of the world is important to us towards our growth and evolution. Lacking a sense of time and space, one is prone to be disconnected with the universe. While it can be frightening to be trapped in a moment in time and not be cognizant of the position in space you occupy, it is the experience people classified to have Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties (PMLD) go through (Tony Jones, 2013). Adolescents who have learning disabilities (LD) face a number of challenges with the strict application of Common Core State Standards for literacy when considering subjects such as social studies and history. Besides the challenges they have with reading, students with LD are required to take part in reasoning and thinking at a high level. For teachers…… [Read More]

References

Candy Bear, & Cheryl Mason Bolick. (2013). Teaching Social Studies in Middle and Secondary Schools. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill: Pearson.

Carole Boudreau, Anne Rodrigue, Veronique Parent, Julie Myre-Bisaillon, & Annick Tremblay-Bouchard. (2014). Teaching History to High School Students with LDs: Pedagogical Considerations & Strategies. LD School.

Janis A. Bulgren, Patricia Sampson Graner, & Donald D. Deshler. (2013). Literacy Challenges and Opportunities for Students with Learning Disabilities in Social Studies and History. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 17-27.

Tony Jones. (2013). History for Individuals Experiencing Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties. Nottinghamshire: Talksense.
View Full Essay

students and disabilities

Words: 1263 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64303270

deficits of students with mathematics disabilities?

Mathematical skills are definitely just as crucial as literacy and reading skills when it comes to succeeding at school and beyond. Of late, researchers and policymakers have focused considerably on reading; the latter's attention was manifest in the 2001 No Child Left ehind (NCL) Act. While reading deficiencies are commonly believed to be one among the main characteristics of learning-disabled pupils, mathematical disabilities pose an issue just as serious as reading in case of several learning-disabled pupils and might, in fact, be just as common as reading deficits.

Although cognitive skills (including intelligence quotient), educational experience, drive, etc. might challenge mathematical ability development, a major probable barrier is DD or Developmental Dyscalculia, a numeracy-specific developmental learning problem impacting roughly three to six percent of persons' school-level mathematical skill acquisition (Price, 2013). DD-related studies have revealed a broad array of mathematical skill-related behavioral deficiencies. ut…… [Read More]

Bibliography

MCUE. (2008). Culturally Responsive Classroom Management Strategies. New York: New York University.

Morin, A. (2014, March 10). Understanding Dyscalculia. Retrieved from Understood.org: https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/child-learning-disabilities/dyscalculia/understanding-dyscalculia

NASET. (2014). Characteristics of Children with Learning Disabilities. National Association of Special Education Teachers.

O'Connell, T., Freed, G., & Rothberg, M. (2010). Using Apple Technology to Support Learning for Students with Sensory and Learning Disabilities. WGBH Educational, 9.
View Full Essay

American Disabilities Act American's With

Words: 7288 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45502422

(Schall, 1998)

In addition to a lightened burden of proof and broader definition there were two additional changes resulting from the amendment which served to positively affect the impact and ultimate effectiveness of the legislation. This amendment clarified the fact that judges are not allowed to assess possible mitigating factors such as medication, corrective surgery, or specialized equipment in the determination of whether or not an individual is disabled. This change is directly related to the Sutton case. Further the amendments clarified the definition of major life activities. This amendment relates directly to the Williams case in which a judge deemed that Carpal Tunnel wasn't in fact a significant impairment to major life activities, it merely precluded her from successfully completing specific tasks in the work place. Though the language of the Act is still quite ambiguous, these changes help to clarify and protect the intention of the act.

Exceptions…… [Read More]

References

1. Disability Discrimination Act 1995. (c.50), London: HMSO.

2. Schall, C., 1998. The Americans with Disabilities Act -- Are we keeping our promise? An analysis of the effect of the ADA on the employment of persons with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 10(3), pp.191-203.

3. Stowe, M., 2000. Interpreting "place of public accommodation" under Title III of the ADA: A technical determination with potentially broad civil rights implications. Duke Law Journal, pp. 297- 329.

4. Grabois, R., Nosek, M., & Rossi, D., 2005. Accessibility of primary care physicians' offices for people with disabilities: An analysis of compliance with the American with Disabilities Act. Archives of Family Medicine, 8, pp. 44- 51.
View Full Essay

Cognitive Disabilities and Family Cognitive

Words: 1674 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83568746



One area that was missed in the literature was the effectiveness of various intervention strategies in reducing stress in families with persons with disabilities. It is not known what interventions have been tried and which ones were most effective in helping families to build coping mechanisms and reduce stress. This is the obvious next step into developing a thorough understanding of the topic area.

This literature review revealed several key trends into research regarding families and cognitive impairment. This area continues to be an area of interest. However, the focus seems to be shifting from a psychological perspective into a sociological based approach. There is much more interest in recent years regarding the issues of cognitive disability and its impact on society at large. In the area of persons with cognitive disability, having families of their own, politics will play a factor in the direction of research in the future.…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, V., Catroppa, C., & Haritou., M. et al. (2005). Identifying factors contributing to child and family outcome 30 months after traumatic brain injury in children. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 76(3):401-408,

Family Village. (2006). Cognitive Disability/Mental Retardation. Retrieved April 9, 2009 from http://www.familyvillage.wisc.edu/lib_cdmr.htm

Feldman, M., Varghese, J., Ramsay, J., & Rajska, D. (2002). Relationships between social

support, stress, and mother-child interactions in mothers with intellectual disabilities.
View Full Essay

Tall Buddies Peer-Assisted Learning Initiative

Words: 6521 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34945821

Methods for evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of peer-assisted learning programs are discussed as well, followed by a summary of the literature review.

Background and Overview.

The growing body of scholarly evidence concerning peer tutoring has been consistent in emphasizing the powerful effects that children can exert on the academic and interpersonal development of their classmates and/or other students (Ehly & Topping, 1998). For example, Bloom (1984) reported early on that one-on-one tutoring by a fully skilled peer was more effective than both conventional (i.e., teachers' lecturing) and mastery learning (i.e., student- regulated) methods of teaching. Across several replications of academic content and student age levels, Bloom (1984) reported that peer tutoring programs produced effect sizes on the order of 2 standard deviations above the mean of the control group (i.e., students receiving conventional lecture-based instruction), compared with 1.3 standard deviations for mastery learning (effect sizes larger than.25 of 1…… [Read More]

References

Adelgais, a., King, a., & Staffieri, a. (1998). Mutual peer tutoring: Effects of structuring tutorial interaction to scaffold peer learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 134.

Afflerbach, P., Baumann, J.F., Duffy-Hester, a.M., Hoffman, J.V., McCarthey, S.J. & Ro, J.M. (2000). Balancing principles for teaching elementary reading. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Arreaga-Mayer, C., Gavin, K.M., Greenwood, C.R., Terry, B.T., & Utley, C.A. (2001). Classwide peer tutoring learning management system. Remedial and Special Education, 22(1), 34.

Bloom, B.S. (1984). The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher, 13, 4-16.
View Full Essay

Federal Legislation Requires Students With Disabilities to

Words: 1007 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30635638

Federal legislation requires students with disabilities to participate in state assessments, partly because such assessments are important components of educational accountability. These assessments are used to classify students according to their educational needs, provide information regarding the progress of students with disabilities, and identify the extent to which students are attaining state academic standards. The large majority of classified students are classified under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). But classification is highly inconsistent, which should raise concerns about over-, under-, and misclassifying certain types of disabilities. Misclassification can result from failing to identify students with disabilities, from classifying students with disabilities they do not have, and from delaying classifying disabilities in students. Some of this inconsistency is accounted for by teachers and schools (McDonnell, McLaughlin, & Morison, 1997); however, when contrasting state classification data there are striking differences that indicate that state guidelines vary and lead to the…… [Read More]

References

Data Accountability Center (2009). Data Tables for OSEP State Reported Data, table 1-13, https://www.ideadata.org/arc_toc6.asp. May, 9, 2011.

Jimerson, S.R., Burns, M.K., & VanDerHeyden, AM. (2007). Response to intervention at school: The science and practice of assessment and intervention. In S.R. Jimerson, M.K. Burns, & A.M. VanDerHeyden, Handbook of Response to Intervention: The Science and Practice of Assessment and Intervention. New York: Springer.

Harry B. & Klinger, J.K. (2006). Why are so many minority students in special education?: Understanding race & disability in schools. New York: Teachers College Press.

McDonnell, L., McLaughlin, M., & Morison, P. (Eds.). (1997). Educating one and all:
View Full Essay

Social Deprivation Language and Learning

Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27424590

..set of critical stages for normal psychologic development." (2001) Kandel relates that prior to formal studies being conducted on material deprivation: "...a few anecdotal examples of social isolation were collected by anthropologists and clinicians. From time to time children had been discovered living in an attic or a cellar, with minimal social contact, perhaps spending only a few minutes a day with a caretaker, a nurse or a parent. Children so deprived in early childhood are often later found to be speechless and lacking in social responsiveness." (Kandel, 2001) According to the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities in the work entitled: "Issues in Learning Disabilities: Assessment and Diagnosis": Diagnosis, assessment and treatment must be in the nature of 'differential diagnosis' in making identification between varying disorders, syndromes and other factors that impact the acquisition of the skills of listening, speaking, reading, writing reasoning or mathematical abilities." (National Joint Committee…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kamhi, a.G. (1984) Problem Solving in Child Language Disorders. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in School Journal. Volume 15. October 1984.

Federici, R.S. (1999) Neuropsychological Evaluation and Rehabilitation of the Post-Institutionalized Child. Presented at the Conference for Children and Residential Care, Stockholm, Sweden May 3, 1999. Neuropsychological and Family Therapy Associated.

A de Valenzuela, JA (1999) the Social Construction of Language Competence: Language Socialization in Three Bilingual Kindergarten Classrooms. University of New Mexico. Dissertation Synopsis.

Thanasoulas, Dimitrios (2001) Language and Disadvantage - Article 70 - the Weekly Column. 2001 August.
View Full Essay

Accommodating Nursing Students With Disabilities

Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48019466

Accommodations for Disabled Nursing Student

There are roughly 54 million Americans with some form of disabilities, and one-fifth of those 54 million people have run up against barriers to employment, access to healthcare and education (Pischke-inn, et al., 2004). The nursing field has traditionally tried to welcome students with disabilities into nursing schools, and following the passage of federal laws regarding disabled people and employment there are legal requirements for employers and schools vis-a-vis accommodating those with disabilities. According to the Rush University Proceedings Manual, nursing students with disabilities should be accommodated (when practical and possible) in order that they may proceed into a career of helping others. In fact the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (as amended in 2008) requires that "reasonable accommodations for students with disabilities" should -- under certain circumstances -- be provided by the nursing school (Dupler, et al., 2012). The ADA requires students with "…sensory…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dupler, A.E., Allen, C., Maheady, D.D., Fleming, S.E., and Allen, M. (2012). Leveling the Playing field for nursing students with disabilities: implications of the amendments to the Americans with Disabilities Act. Journal of Nursing Education, 51(3), 140-144.

Job Accommodation Network. (2010). Occupation and Industry Series: Accommodating Nurses

with Disabilities. Retrieved April 17, 2014, from  http://askjan.org .

Pischke-Winn, K.A., Andreoli, K.G., and Halstead, L.K. (2004). Students with Disabilities:
View Full Essay

Teaching in an Inclusive Learning Environment

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90013919

Inclusion Programs

The purpose of this study is to evaluate academic achievement of special education students enrolled in Challenger Middle school's inclusion program and the fidelity measured by student progress in CST/CMA scores in reading/language arts and mathematics and the relationship and efficacy of behavioral support. The evaluation of Challenger Middle school's inclusion program will serve as criteria to determine if any adjustments needed in relation to providing adequate and equitable service for special education students in compliance with the federal mandates and regulations of NCLB & IDEA.

There will be three research questions for this study. The research questions are:

What is the success rate of the special education program of Challenger Middle school students in grades seven on the academic proficiency in writing as measured by California's CST/CMA scores?

What is the impact of the special education program designed for Challenger Middle school students in grades six, seven,…… [Read More]