Among all the measures, sentence imitation illustrated the greatest power in discriminating poor and adequate readers (2010).
Another study conducted by Flax, ealpe-Bonilla, oesler, Choudhury, and Benasich (2010) studied the profiles of children with a family history (FH+) of language-learning impairments (LLI) and a control group of children with no reported family history of LLI (FH-) with the hope of identifying "which language constructs (receptive or expressive) and which ages (2 or 3 years) are related to expressive and receptive language abilities, phonological awareness, and reading abilities at ages 5 and 7 years" (2010). The participants consisted of 99 children (40 FH+ and 59 FH-) -- who received the exact same standardized neuropsychological battery at 2,3,5, and 7 years of age. As a group, the FH+ children had dramatically lower scores on all language measures at 2 and 3 years, on selected language and phonological awareness measures at 5 years,…… [Read More]
Either one of these things can lead to acting out. The students in her LD classroom are often grouped together during specific tasks, so they have others to talk to and work with. This helps them to be less frustrated and keeps them from feeling as though they are the only one who cannot understand a particular task. Sometimes, they can talk out their issues with a particular task with other students, and that lets them feel a sense of camaraderie and accomplishment. Keeping records can be more difficult this way, but scheduling these times of group interaction seems to keep the students interested, according to Williams (2009). These students are also more likely to pay attention to lesson plans and keep up with their homework because they know they are 'accountable' to their peers as well as their teacher. Williams (2009) believes grouping has made a big difference in…… [Read More]
For the new teacher, the most important factor in resolving issues concerning students with learning disabilities is to recognize the high incidence of depression and other emotional disturbances that go along with it. Early treatment and intervention can improve the outcome for the child. However, the teacher must first be able to recognize the signs of these disorders and to provide them with resources that will help them resolve these issues. The teacher can be the first step in obtaining the necessary intervention for the child.
The most important factor for the new teacher is realizing the importance of recognizing and obtaining treatment for emotional disorders in the child with learning disorders. The two are connected, but are seldom treated as such. Emotional disorders and learning disabilities have a compounding effect and their presence can affect the ability of the child to make progress with the development of coping…… [Read More]
Distance learning education provides a wide range of resources and learning experiences that are usually much more diverse than the traditional brick and mortar classroom can furnish. This makes this mode of learning more adaptable to a variety of needs by different learner.
The next article by Edmond addresses the requirements and standards that need to be met in order to provide adequate access to traditional educational environment for those with physical handicaps. Here Edmond distinguishes the difference between first generation of accessibility, which is in the realm of the designers of the software. It is there responsibility to make sure that the online classrooms and programs can be accessed adequately by those that are for instance visually impaired and need larger representations on the screen. Then there is the second generation of accessibility. This is provided by the teachers in the creation of the course plan and the course…… [Read More]
It did not tell students pomptly if thei equests wee ganted, did not communicate with students and paents about poviding easonable accommodations in a timely, inteactive, o sympathetic fashion, and adding the additional equiements fo students to pove thei LD status seemed destined to add futhe levels of bueaucacy to the pocess. Also, because leaning disabilities can be a spectum, someone with a mild leaning disability seeking modeate accommodation might be foced to engage in some vey 'majo' testing.
Students should be equied to submit some documentation, eithe fom thei school system (such as a histoy of easonable documentation, accommodations give fo standadized testing, etcetea), a licensed pofessional, o anothe qualified individual whose altenative cetification could be evaluated by the committee. On-staff specialists o specialists with efeences in the community could be povided fo individuals who lacked such documentation of a disability. Thee should also be a timely appeals pocess…… [Read More]
learning disabilities in the light of teaching children with this disorder. It uses 4 sources in APA format.
It is not easy to say who is a learning disabled. A lot of arguments have taken place for a certain time in order to classify the learning disabled. According to the term "specific learning disability" means 'a disorder in one or more basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations.
The term includes such conditions as perceptual handicaps, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia'. (Siegel, 1999). Students with genuine LDs who are set with children with imaginary complaints are denied of the education that needs to be given to them. If there is any kind of weakness when classifying a person with LD then, this…… [Read More]
memory on Learning Disabilities. I believe that there is a strong correlation between the two and that short-term memory is directly affected by Learning Disabilities.
Participants in this first study (Mastropieri, Scruggs, Hamilton, Wolfe, Whedon & Canevaro, 1996) included 29 students identified by their schools as having Learning Disabilities (LD) and were attending seventh- and eighth-grade special education classes in both urban and rural or small-town schools in a Midwestern state. On average, the 10 boys and 19 girls were 14 years 9 months old ( SD = 9 months) and had an average IQ (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-evised, Wechsler, 1974; Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition, Wechsler, 1991) of 87.7 ( SD = 13.0). Average reading grade equivalent, as measured by the Wide ange Achievement Test-evised, Basic Academic Skills Individual Screener, Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, or Woodcock-Johnson Psycho educational Battery, was 3.5 ( SD = 1.6); average…… [Read More]
Expounding upon a group that has received little attention, and in fact has only been acknowledged for a few years, Vaidya's article is beneficial to the teaching and learning community. Although the identification of such gifted/learning disabled students has occurred, few teachers understand how to best cater to them. Vaidya gives teachers and understanding of some of the techniques that teachers may use to help these students achieve to the heights of their ability. Knowledgably providing teachers with the understanding that students of this type need several different types of resources for success, Vidya gives teachers a practical guide to understanding and helping these children, as well as working with their parents, counselors, and others on their support team. Finally, Vidya's article not only gives teachers a practical resource to use with their students, but it also opens the dialogue so further works can be done regarding these students and…… [Read More]
The article is extracted from "Learning Disability Quarterly," a magazine specialised in researches on various aspects of learning disabilities. In addition, it has a high level credibility and is also extremely useful for researchers interested in this field, due to its amount of accurate details and pieces of information. Consequently, the intended audience consists in people that are familiar with the subject and that can use this study as a base for further researches.
The purpose of this study was to examine how college students with LD manage to compensate and overtake their deficits. Regarding this, the authors used a very practical method in order to emphasise their result: they compared two distinctive groups formed by students with and without LD, a procedure which is not met in the other sources. The result tested the hypothesis that students with LD compensate their deficits by relying on metacognitive strategies.
In terms…… [Read More]
learning disability dyslexia. It discusses the subject groups, the methods of investigation and the importance of the study.
Dyslexia is the most common disability and is the most widely studied learning disorder (Bigler 87). "Dyslexia is a language learning disorder that results in deficits in reading, spelling, and, often, written language" (Balise 135).
Classic dyslexia is associated with a phonological deficit (Das & Mishra 235). Dyslexics have difficulty with phonics, thus interfering with reading comprehension and making spelling less accurate and automatic (Balise 135). But children with dyslexia do not typically test low on IQ tests, except when test items require reading (Das & Mishra 235).
A study by J.P. Das and Rama Mishra published in the Journal of Learning Disabilities
(Vol. 27 April 01, 1994) compared average IQ and high IQ children with dyslexia and normal readers. Tasks that demanded both phonological coding and articulation correctly classified children…… [Read More]
ADHD and eading Difficulty
The Nature of the elationship between ADHD and eading Difficulty
The Nature of the elationship between ADHD and eading Difficulty
There is substantial evidence showing a strong association between reading difficulty and attention problems in children and adolescents (reviewed by Greven, ijsdijk, Asherson, and Plomin, 2012). This learning-related 'comorbidity' is believed to be primarily genetic in nature and several studies have presented evidence consistent with this theory. Since the association is so strong, some scientists have argued that the same genetic factor(s) is likely responsible.
Greven and colleagues (2012) agree that the evidence is indeed strong and therefore have a genetic origin, but not necessarily with the theory that a single stable genetic factor could be responsible. To support their argument, they point to evidence that suggests these traits are unstable over time. Although the authors discussed a recent twin study, which revealed these…… [Read More]
For my first grade class, I would use technology to help accommodate the needs of students with disabilities. Current classroom accommodations for students with disabilities include using an audio recorder to record lessons (the student can play them back at home and listen to them again), using audio books to help the student with reading comprehension (the student with the disability can listen to the book as it is read while he or she reads along), and using a word processor for certain assignments or exams.
Ideas for accommodations could include having class sessions recorded on a digital file that can be emailed to the student’s parents and watched again at home. This would accentuate what is currently available—the option of using an audio recorder to record the lessons given by the teacher. The disadvantage of an audio recording is that usually I use a lot of visual aids to…… [Read More]
Specifically, the parents want their son's teachers to help him not only learn, but to be able to receive instruction from others. So far, they are fairly pleased with the progress that they have seen their son make in the classroom, but wish the teachers could develop more large-group activities and take the time to really make sure their son was a full participant, which they feel would help him to progress socially more than the often individualized instruction he receives.
The difficulty, they acknowledge, is that individualized instruction is how he learns best, and with a class the size of his they understand that the teachers couldn't focus their attention on him during a large group project. Still, they are hopeful that new ideas might come up that will improve his situation even more, and they continue to work closely with the teachers regarding his progress.
LDA. (209).…… [Read More]
Adults ith Learning Disabilities
It has been estimated (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 that 50-80% of the students in Adult Basic Education and literacy programs are affected by learning disabilities (LD). Unfortunately, there has been little research on adults who have learning disabilities, leaving literacy practitioners with limited information on the unique manifestations of learning disabilities in adults.
One of the major goals of the (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 National
Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center (National ALLD Center) is to raise awareness among literacy practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and adult learners about the nature of learning disabilities and their impact on the provision of literacy services. This fact sheet provides: a definition of learning disabilities in adults; a list of common elements found in many useful LD definitions; and a list of areas in which LD may affect life situations of adults.
In 1963, the term "learning…… [Read More]
Lesson for Children With Learning Disabilities
Developing a Lesson for Children with Learning Disabilities
Learning disability is a term misused severally. In essence, it applies to students who have different learning challenges. Most people associate learning disability to the development of a child, thus assuming that it is a short-term condition and disappears as the person matures. The accepted definition, provided by the National Adult Literacy and Learning Disability Center states that; learning disability is generic and refers to a composite group of disorders that become evident in the person; through observing that they have challenges in the acquisition and use of speaking, listening, reading, reasoning and execution of mathematical concepts, as well as, understanding social skills. As teachers process the learning procedure in class, they encounter various children with varied challenges, which constitute the learning disorders (Aster & Shalev, 2007). Thus, they have the obligation to accommodate those children…… [Read More]
Inclusion of Disabilities in the Classroom
During the later years of the 20th century and the start of the new millennium, it has become abundantly clear that we are living in an increasingly diverse world. Indeed, the diversity of the world has increased not only in terms of race and nationality, but also in terms of ability and aptitude. So recognized have these differences become that that accommodations have been made for them in work, educational, and social settings. The same is true for persons with learning disabilities, or LD. Although there has been much controversy around including such children in general education settings, the trend has been to opt for this choice rather than excluding them from the general education classroom. Interestingly, studies such as the one by McLesky and Waldron have proved that such an idea may indeed be worth the considerable time and money involved in setting…… [Read More]
Tom: A Case Study
Three themes that emerge from the case study of Tom are 1) Parent advocacy is key to helping the student with a learning disability overcome obstacles, 2) Early referral is another factor in assisting in this achievement, and 3) Personal perseverance and will power are a third variable that impacts how the LD student overcomes issues.
As shown in the case study of Tom, my brother, a learning difficulty might often be termed a "hidden disability." Disabilities are difficult to diagnose in this respect, as there is often limited information to go on. Teachers may identify a problem, but there is not the research or time put into assessing the situation. eschly (1996) notes that there are specific procedures that should be implemented when identifying students with learning disabilities: parents should be interviewed along with other teachers and administrators within the school. A history of the…… [Read More]
Learning Disability Student ESL
There is an urgent necessity to help reading-disabled pupils read, since weak reading skills are linked to serious consequences. Children who fail at reading properly will be prone to dropping out of school and facing pervasive scholastic issues. To add to this scenario's urgency, standard instruction does not aid most pupils who fail to grasp adequate reading skills during their early elementary years even till they complete school. Further, premature basic reading issues often lead to limited time devoted to text reading, on account of which decoding issues can ultimately grow into a generalized deficiency in reading marked by poor proficiency, general knowledge and vocabulary, which further impair reading comprehension in pupils (Otaiba & Denton, 2015). eading/writing issues resemble dyslexia symptoms. That is, dyslexics can't be told apart from pupils suffering from general reading issues. The present age recognizes literacy skills and considers them crucial to…… [Read More]
memory, classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning. The paper also describes the effect of diversity issues on the learning process. In addition to that, the paper also summarizes the psychiatric disorders and their effect on learning and memorizing process. Lastly, the paper gives a comparison between various behavioral counseling approaches.
THEOIES OF LEANING AND MEMOY
Learning is an important topic in the field of psychology. Learning refers to a permanent change in the behavior and attitude of a person. The reason behind this change is experience and thus maturation or illness has nothing to do with it. This definition of learning as a permanent change and therefore it eliminates the temporary mood swings and illnesses from it. In this paper, we will be focusing on two types of learning: (Wood, 2010)
Instrumental Conditioning (Wood, 2010)
There are a lot of visuals and sounds that trigger certain emotions…… [Read More]
Social Promotion on Students With Learning Disabilities
Prospectus: Effects of Social Promotion on Young Students with Learning Disabilities
Social promotion in various learning institutions is a practice where the students are promoted to the next grade level even if they have not attained the required learning standards by the understanding material used. In most cases, social promotion has been contrasted with retention, which is a practice of holding students back to remain in the same class or grade if they fail to meet academic expectations. Students are always expet to show that they have attained the required learning standards or academic expectations before they are promoted to the next class of grade level (Chou et al., 2016). The practice is referred to social promotion in various learning institutions because as non-academic considerations factors like societal expectations and pressures influence promotions decisions made on students from one class to the next…… [Read More]
The ethical dilemma of diagnosing a learner with a disability when there are other alternatives for support
esnik (2011) defines ethics as "norms for conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior." As in research, participants have data source rights, so too in teaching/education do students, parents/guardians, teachers and staff have legal rights that should be observed and respected in the course of ethical adherence. These rights include all Constitutional rights, as Bonauto (2008) points out. Thus, students have the right to attend school in safety, without facing harassment or discrimination, and have the right to equal access under the Equal Access Act, which is a further identification of the student's right of protection against discrimination. Teachers also possess the right of non-discrimination and enjoy the right to free speech. Teachers also have something called "academic freedom" according to Hosford v. School Committee of Sandwich, which vied that…… [Read More]
Canada Public Policy: ADHD and Education
Canadian Public Policy, Education Learning disability A.D.H.D
Struggle by Human ights Groups and Parents
Public Policy Canada: An Overview
It has been estimated that almost five percent of School aged children out of population of 2.1 Million in Ontario are suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Contrasting other disabilities like autism or learning disabilities the ADHD was not in the special education previously. The students with ADHD were not included in the special education policy and thus the students and parents were suffering as they could not get the necessary interventions at School suggested by the doctor. (Andrea Golden, 2012)
ecently Education Minister of Ontario has announced to accommodate the students with ADHD and thus relaxed the parents as previously parents were spending from their pockets on theirs children with ADHD. A memorandum has been posted on the Ministry of Education…… [Read More]
Students individualized education program (IEP)
The term IEP is used to refer to the special program or plan that is created with a specific student in mind due to the disability that they have in class which prevents them to learn as fast or with ease as the others in the class. In this instance, the student has special learning disability and needs to be helped through the IEP in order to get an environment that is conducive for his learning and a team that is assistive as much as possible. The student has difficulty in reading skills and also has difficulty in decoding, comprehension and fluency. These predispose him to be socially removed from peers and there is need to have IEP that would help him in the subjects in class and the social life too.
The seven components of the IEP to be use for the student with…… [Read More]
fundraiser to benefit children with learning disabilities. The money raised from the event will be earmarked for needed equipment by the various local organizations that sponsor and maintain programs designed to assist these individuals. The site will need to accommodate between 130 -- 200 patrons in a comfortable manner and will also need to be large enough to allow for dancing and entertainment. The proposed date of the event is May, 2012 and the time will be from approximately 6 pm to midnight.
It was originally thought that this type of event would best be hosted by an outdoor facility, and in the long run that assumption might hold true. However, in the process of finding a facility, a large downtown hotel has expressed interest in hosting, and being a sponsor of the event. The hotel's contribution would be a number of conference rooms (to be decided) that could…… [Read More]
During the course of a child's school years they will learn to define themselves as a person and shape their personality, sense of self-concept and perception of their potential for achievement for life (Persaud, 2000). Thus the early educational years may be considered one of the most impacting and important with regard to emotional, social and cognitive development for students of all disabilities. Labeling is a common by-product of educational institutions, one that has been hotly debated with regard to its benefits and consequences by educators and administrators over time. There are proponents of labeling and those that suggest that labeling may be damaging to students in some manner.
Students who are labeled at the elementary and middle school level as learning disabled may face greater difficulties achieving their true potential in part due to a decreased sense of self-esteem, self-concept and personal achievement (Persaud, 2000). The intent…… [Read More]
Learning to read and write are complementary skills. While in the younger years, writing depends on reading skills, by middle and high school, they are complementary skills: reading is necessary to do writing assignments, while writing about what has read increases comprehension of the reading materials. For this reason, separating reading and writing instruction from content areas is arbitrary and will eventually interfere with the students' progress in those content areas.
From the day children are born, parents are told by doctors, teachers and other experts to read to them, and to read to them every day. They are told to do this because hearing language that contains story lines, rich language and vivid imagery facilitates language development and develops a desire to read. From "The Poky Little Puppy" to Rudyard Kipling, children's literature exists that uses language in exciting and colorful ways. Good children's literature doesn't sound the same…… [Read More]
Learning Problems vs Language Problems
The objective of this study is to examine how learning problems and language problems are related. Specifically considered will be the fact that when students who are learning English as their second language and who are experiencing academic or behavioral difficulties that the teacher and the school's problem-solving teams must examine whether these problems are related to learning a new language or whether the problems may be due to cognitive delays or developmental delay or disability.
The work of Fisher ( nd) entitled "Assessing English Language Learners for a Learning Disability or Language Issue" states that English language learners all "with learning disabilities...too often...fall through the cracks." (p.13) The reason stated for this is that these learners are often considered to be "slow English learners, or they may be in a school district that does not have enough resources to test them in their L1…… [Read More]
n other words, it can be criticized for being somewhat discursive and for not providing any form of comparative analysis.
Alternatively, one could argue that methodologically the research falls into the category of a case study, a legitimate form of intensive qualitative research. n the final analysis the article does provide some illuminating insights into the possibilities of literature for social and emotional development in gifted students.
Article 3: The Connection between Social-Emotional Learning and Learning Disabilities: mplications for ntervention by Maurice J. Elias.
The author of this article identifies a number of problematic social and emotional areas for the learning disabled or special needs student. These include the recognition of emotions in self and others; the regulation and management of strong emotions and the recognition of strengths and areas of need ( Elias, 2004). The article also reviews the literature and theoretical positions on this topic. Furthermore, the author…… [Read More]
When children are given the option between a reward they would like and the internal desire to learn something, most children would rather have the reward. That is also true of many adults, whether they are in an educational setting or a business setting. Still, that does not mean that intrinsic interest cannot come along with extrinsic reward, or that operant theory is completely wrong. Many educators mix operant theory with cognitive theory in an effort to provide those with different learning styles more of an opportunity to learn and develop. This helps to reach the largest number of students per educator, improving the overall educational goal.
ognitive Theory of Learning
The cognitive theory of learning has been part of education since the late 1920's, when a Gestalt psychologist focused on the issue of Gestalt teaching and learning, and what that could offer to students who were not learning…… [Read More]
This way of thinking and taking action has been evolving over many decades, but it reached its widest audience with the 1990 publication of 'The Fifth Discipline' by Peter Senge." (2003)
The Charter school has a unique opportunity to implement the principles of Peter Senge, and most particularly the principles associated with the 'learning organization' and from a perspective noted in the statement of Senge that it is very unlikely that the "deep systemic problems that afflict our institutions and society..." will find correction until "the ability to honor and integrate theory, personal development and practical results..." has been rediscovered since it is seemingly a lost ability. (Senge, 1997)
Senge states that change may very well involve "returning to an older model of community: traditional societies that gave respect to elders for their wisdom: teachers for their ability to help people grow, and warriors, weavers, and growers for their life…… [Read More]
This study investigates how ESL students' perception affects the teacher-student interaction in the writing conferences. The multiple-case study explores: ESL students' expectations of the writing conference and factors contributing to the expectations, participation patterns of ESL students in the conferences, and ESL students' perception of the effectiveness of teacher-student conferences. A questionnaire, distributed to 110 (65 NS and 45 ESL) students enrolled in the first-year composition classes, examines students' previous writing experience and expectations of the writing conferences. Pre-conference interviews with 19 focus students (8 NS and 11 ESL) were conducted to verify the survey results. Students' participation patterns were investigated via the video-recorded writing conferences of the 19 focus students. Students' perceptions of the conference were investigated through the post conference interviews with the 19 focus students and follow-up interviews with six Chinese students.
esults of the research that Liu (2009) conducted determined that ESL students and NS students…… [Read More]
Learning Journal: Personal eflection
Now more than ever before, diversity is a real issue for the American society, and with this demographic change comes the need to develop strategies and techniques for making people more appreciative of the gender, ethnic, religious, and cultural differences that constitute the fabric of society. One's gender, ethnicity, race, religion, or sexual orientation does not define who they are and what their abilities are. These elements, therefore, ought not to be used as the primary bases for assigning positions, benefits, or advancement opportunities at the workplace. Just because someone is male is no guarantee that they will display better performance in a leadership or supervisory position than a female candidate would. We may consider men better-placed for such positions because we think of them…… [Read More]
The question is not whether the students are truly disabled but rather what constitutes a child who is a low achiever? Is there something in the pedagogy, the methodology or the manner of instruction that fails to tap into what the child is good at and expounds on that to improve learning? For those students who are non-native English speakers, is that a problem of the student or the teacher who may not be bi-lingual or impatient in his or her instruction? As suggested by Kaufman, Hallahan, ills and others, it is incumbent upon the educational system to determine a universal way to classify students as learning disabled and stop school systems from using it as a catch all for the students they find difficult to instruct.
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. (2006). Introduction to response to intervention: what, why, and how valid is it? Reading Research Quarterly.…… [Read More]
..collaborative teachers also value and build upon the knowledge, personal experiences, language, strategies, and culture that students bring to the learning situation." (ibid)
This teaching procedure has the advantage of being multidirectional and not limited to the teachers directed knowledge only. This obviously allows for a more inclusive approach and for those student at different levels to express themselves in this environment.
The following is an example of how this process should work.
Consider a lesson on insect-eating plants, for example. Few students, and perhaps few teachers, are likely to have direct knowledge about such plants. Thus, when those students who do have relevant experiences are given an opportunity to share them, the whole class is enriched. Moreover, when students see that their experiences and knowledge are valued, they are motivated to listen and learn in new ways, and they are more likely to make important connections between their own…… [Read More]
For the purposes of this review, Web-based instruction is considered to be any educational or training program distributed over the Internet or an intranet and conveyed through a browser, such as Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. Java applet-based instruction is a special form of Web-based instruction.
Although there is very little research on comparing the effectiveness of Java applet-based instruction to the traditional face-to-face offering. However Web-based instruction has received enough attention that many studies are now available in the research literature.
Comparing the learning effects of Web-based learning with traditional face-to-face teaching and learning is emphasized in the research on the Internet as a medium in higher education. However, these research studies always produce conflicting results. esearchers found significant differences, positive or negative, in using different Internet-based approaches to facilitate teaching and learning.
This literature review explores three dominant themes: impact on student performance, student attitude, and student satisfaction.…… [Read More]
disabilities as 'deficits.' Even though I did not harbor prejudices against the disabled or regard people who had disabilities as 'inferior,' I viewed disabilities as challenges that had to be overcome. This class has helped me see persons with disabilities as people with particular conditions or differences, not as people defined by a singular characteristic. Everyone has personal deficits and strengths, but needing 'talking books' to read a book does not make a blind or dyslexic person defined by their condition any more than someone who needs glasses to see the same text. Defining persons with disabilities as people 'with' specific conditions, such as saying that Johnny is a child 'with ADHD' rather than a 'hyperactive kid,' much as you would say someone is 'a person who wears glasses' rather than a 'glasses-wearing friend' has been helpful in changing my mindset.
Before I took this course, I also had a…… [Read More]
In order to build an age-appropriate vocabulary in the English language, ESL students must learn words at a faster rate than normal (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005; Drucker 2003). This results in a widening gap between the reading and comprehension levels of ESL and non-ESL students if the needs of ESL students are not addressed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005).
Some ESL students come from a native language that poses more difficulties than others. For example, ussian and Arabic have alphabets that look very different from the English alphabet. Children must learn an entirely new coding system in order to proceed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005). Even when the alphabet is similar, the English language is difficult to learn due to the many inconsistencies in tense and individual word use. Because they may not be conversationally fluent, subtleties of the English language may take some time to master (Palmer, El_Ashry,…… [Read More]
Inclusion of a Child With Disabilities
Child With Disability
Inclusion of a child with disabilities into a general education class
Inclusion is a right that should be provided to all children. Parents fight for access to quality education to their children even though they have disabilities. This fight has contributed to the provision of equal access to quality education opportunities and equal opportunities oach & Elliott, 2006.
The passage of the PL 94-142 lessened the fight that parents had to fight for general education. PL 94-142 made a call for education of those children who have special needs in an LE (least restrictive environment) Terman, Larner, Stevenson, & Behrman, 1996.
What constitutes the LE has led to a huge debate on how to best include those children who have disabilities into the regular education system.
Additionally, the amendments that were made to IDEA of 1996 put further emphasis on inclusion…… [Read More]
However, though instructional adaptations are favored, students generally preferred that homework remain uniform for all students.
Students were very specific about the types of teacher practices that facilitated their understanding of grading, homework, and assignments, and provided recommendations to teachers regarding these practices. In general, students find textbook learning difficult and boring. Though they indicated that they learned a great deal from reading and answering questions, they did not like doing it. Students also were begging for strategy instruction that would assist them in learning from text and learning independently. Students liked activity-based instruction and while they did not call for an abandonment of textbooks, they wanted a balance between text learning and activity learning.
These studies teach us that students want teachers to be clear about the types of adaptations and accommodations that they intend to make and for which students. hen it comes to grading, teachers need to…… [Read More]
It also lists goals and objectives, which are used to measure a student's progress and determine whether the program and placement are appropriate" ("The IEP Cycle," DREF, 2007). Each student's IEP must be developed by a team of people who are knowledgeable and concerned about the student and must be at least reviewed annually. The team may include the child's teacher, the parents, the child, and agency representatives. "If parents disagree with the proposed IEP, they can request a due process hearing and a review from the State educational agency if applicable in that state" ("Guide to Disability Rights Laws," U.S. Dept. Of Justice, 2005).
IDEA lists 13 categories under which a student can qualify for special education services, including autism, deaf-blindness, deafness, hearing impairment, mental retardation, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairment, other health impairment, serious emotional disturbance, specific learning disability, speech or, language impairment, traumatic brain Injury and visual impairment,…… [Read More]
Education: Teaching Math to Students ith Disabilities
orking with students with disabilities (SD) can be quite challenging, especially for teachers working on a full-time basis. Almost every classroom today has one or more students dealing with either an emotional, educational, or physical disability; and teachers are likely to find themselves looking for resources or information that would enable them teach all their students in the most effective way. There are numerous special-education websites from which teachers and instructors can obtain information or lessons on teaching their respective subjects. Five websites available to the math special education teacher have been discussed in the subsequent sections of this text.
Teachers Helping Teachers: http://www.pacificnet.net/~mandel/
This online resource provides teaching information for all teachers, with a 'Special Education' segment that provides a number of activities meant specifically for instilling basic conceptual skills in learners with special needs. The activities are submitted by…… [Read More]
hear the word 'disability, the first images that come to mind are people with obvious disabilities, such as physical limitations. But now I know that disabilities come in many shapes and sizes. Learning disabilities are not always immediately apparent to even the trained eye of a seasoned teacher. A student with ADHD can seem very normal running around on the playground, and it is not until the child is sitting in a classroom environment that his or her 'disability' becomes evident on a test.
The first words which come to my mind when I hear 'disability' tend to be negative words: it is difficult not to see a disability as a liability rather than simply as a difference, although from the point-of-view of a teacher it is better to view it as such, and is more empowering for the students to do so as well.
Question Box 2 on
Most…… [Read More]
Emotions affect how memories are processed, stored, and retrieved, which also impacts how learning takes place. Perhaps more importantly, emotions impact cognitive processes and learning. Neuroscience shows the ways thoughts are processed depends on one's cultural context and also emotional states. Thinking styles may be also linked to the learning process, as Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, and thinking styles are themselves related to cultural variables. The ways people process information therefore has to do with social learning as well as emotional learning and memory. Certain types of emotions may be more conducive to specific types of learning styles or learning behaviors. Emotions can also promote synchronized or chaotic neurological responses. These findings have implications for classroom design and pedagogy.
Wealth means far more than just possession of material goods. As Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, capital refers not only to assets in the traditional sense but also…… [Read More]
Constructivism in all forms faces many obstacles and hurdles in getting fair application in the classroom of schools today for many reasons. One reason is that when constructivism is applied properly and fully to a classroom environment, the teacher may find him or herself in the "backseat" while the students steer the direction of the learning process. It removes much of the inherent hierarchal power of the teacher vs. The student in the classroom. Students are allowed a very high degree of autonomy. There is a strong tendency in our society to subordinate children and to keep children submissive to the dominant adult figures in their lives, and within the school it is completely unheard of to treat students as equals to the teachers. This is due to the belief of both teachers and parents that children are not equal to adults. The rationalist myth of "cold reason"…… [Read More]
Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."
As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.
This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…… [Read More]
Following are Hofstede's four categories and what they measure:
Power Distance (PD) is the "extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally" (Hofstede 1998) with a small PD meaning more equality in the society, and a large PD meaning less.
Individualism (ID) defines whether the society expects people to look after themselves or not. Its opposite is Collectivism, which Hofstede (1998) defines as "the extent to which people in a society from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty."
Masculinity (MA) defines the degree of distinction of gender roles. High MA means men are supposed to be "assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life" (Hofstede 1998). Its…… [Read More]
V. Government System RARPA
The government introduced the RARPA Program which is abbreviated for the:: "Recording and Recognition of Progress and Achievement Summary of the Evaluation Report" in relation to the Pilot Projects April 2003 to March 2004 Learning and Skills Development Agency National Institute of Adult Continuing Education 2004 August. Since 2002 the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) has focused its efforts on establishing an appropriate method of recognizing and recording the progress and achievement of learners that is non-accredited in nature. Development of a model called the 'Staged Process." The RARPA consists of the application "of an explicit and common staged process to the recognition and recording of progress and achievement, together with the validation of this process through a range of judgments about its consistent and effective application." The background of the project is stated to be that LSDA and NIACE were involved in preparation of work…… [Read More]
Boys and Girls Learn Differently! -- Michael Gurian and Patricia Henley
Michael Gurian's book has been a best seller and a much-discussed, respected handbook on the topic of boys vs. girls in a learning milieu since it was published in 2001. But more than its popularity and success in the market, Gurian's book has made a positive impact on parents, teachers, counselors and others interested in education and human development because it delves into the neurological, chemical and hormonal disparities between boys and girls. Gurian's book is a well-presented narrative and moreover it is based on the author's vast experience as a teacher, family therapist and researcher -- and his ability to relate those experiences well.
There are many significant points in the book that make it valuable in today's educational setting. For one, the author offers believable, reader-friendly narrative on why boys and girls process information differently. For another,…… [Read More]
Teaching Historical Events to Student With Disabilities
Our perspective of the concept of the passing of time and our place in the history of the world is important to us towards our growth and evolution. Lacking a sense of time and space, one is prone to be disconnected with the universe. While it can be frightening to be trapped in a moment in time and not be cognizant of the position in space you occupy, it is the experience people classified to have Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties (PMLD) go through (Tony Jones, 2013). Adolescents who have learning disabilities (LD) face a number of challenges with the strict application of Common Core State Standards for literacy when considering subjects such as social studies and history. Besides the challenges they have with reading, students with LD are required to take part in reasoning and thinking at a high level. For teachers…… [Read More]
deficits of students with mathematics disabilities?
Mathematical skills are definitely just as crucial as literacy and reading skills when it comes to succeeding at school and beyond. Of late, researchers and policymakers have focused considerably on reading; the latter's attention was manifest in the 2001 No Child Left ehind (NCL) Act. While reading deficiencies are commonly believed to be one among the main characteristics of learning-disabled pupils, mathematical disabilities pose an issue just as serious as reading in case of several learning-disabled pupils and might, in fact, be just as common as reading deficits.
Although cognitive skills (including intelligence quotient), educational experience, drive, etc. might challenge mathematical ability development, a major probable barrier is DD or Developmental Dyscalculia, a numeracy-specific developmental learning problem impacting roughly three to six percent of persons' school-level mathematical skill acquisition (Price, 2013). DD-related studies have revealed a broad array of mathematical skill-related behavioral deficiencies. ut…… [Read More]
In addition to a lightened burden of proof and broader definition there were two additional changes resulting from the amendment which served to positively affect the impact and ultimate effectiveness of the legislation. This amendment clarified the fact that judges are not allowed to assess possible mitigating factors such as medication, corrective surgery, or specialized equipment in the determination of whether or not an individual is disabled. This change is directly related to the Sutton case. Further the amendments clarified the definition of major life activities. This amendment relates directly to the Williams case in which a judge deemed that Carpal Tunnel wasn't in fact a significant impairment to major life activities, it merely precluded her from successfully completing specific tasks in the work place. Though the language of the Act is still quite ambiguous, these changes help to clarify and protect the intention of the act.
Exceptions…… [Read More]
One area that was missed in the literature was the effectiveness of various intervention strategies in reducing stress in families with persons with disabilities. It is not known what interventions have been tried and which ones were most effective in helping families to build coping mechanisms and reduce stress. This is the obvious next step into developing a thorough understanding of the topic area.
This literature review revealed several key trends into research regarding families and cognitive impairment. This area continues to be an area of interest. However, the focus seems to be shifting from a psychological perspective into a sociological based approach. There is much more interest in recent years regarding the issues of cognitive disability and its impact on society at large. In the area of persons with cognitive disability, having families of their own, politics will play a factor in the direction of research in the future.…… [Read More]
Federal legislation requires students with disabilities to participate in state assessments, partly because such assessments are important components of educational accountability. These assessments are used to classify students according to their educational needs, provide information regarding the progress of students with disabilities, and identify the extent to which students are attaining state academic standards. The large majority of classified students are classified under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). But classification is highly inconsistent, which should raise concerns about over-, under-, and misclassifying certain types of disabilities. Misclassification can result from failing to identify students with disabilities, from classifying students with disabilities they do not have, and from delaying classifying disabilities in students. Some of this inconsistency is accounted for by teachers and schools (McDonnell, McLaughlin, & Morison, 1997); however, when contrasting state classification data there are striking differences that indicate that state guidelines vary and lead to the…… [Read More]
Methods for evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of peer-assisted learning programs are discussed as well, followed by a summary of the literature review.
Background and Overview.
The growing body of scholarly evidence concerning peer tutoring has been consistent in emphasizing the powerful effects that children can exert on the academic and interpersonal development of their classmates and/or other students (Ehly & Topping, 1998). For example, Bloom (1984) reported early on that one-on-one tutoring by a fully skilled peer was more effective than both conventional (i.e., teachers' lecturing) and mastery learning (i.e., student- regulated) methods of teaching. Across several replications of academic content and student age levels, Bloom (1984) reported that peer tutoring programs produced effect sizes on the order of 2 standard deviations above the mean of the control group (i.e., students receiving conventional lecture-based instruction), compared with 1.3 standard deviations for mastery learning (effect sizes larger than.25 of 1…… [Read More]
..set of critical stages for normal psychologic development." (2001) Kandel relates that prior to formal studies being conducted on material deprivation: "...a few anecdotal examples of social isolation were collected by anthropologists and clinicians. From time to time children had been discovered living in an attic or a cellar, with minimal social contact, perhaps spending only a few minutes a day with a caretaker, a nurse or a parent. Children so deprived in early childhood are often later found to be speechless and lacking in social responsiveness." (Kandel, 2001) According to the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities in the work entitled: "Issues in Learning Disabilities: Assessment and Diagnosis": Diagnosis, assessment and treatment must be in the nature of 'differential diagnosis' in making identification between varying disorders, syndromes and other factors that impact the acquisition of the skills of listening, speaking, reading, writing reasoning or mathematical abilities." (National Joint Committee…… [Read More]
The purpose of this study is to evaluate academic achievement of special education students enrolled in Challenger Middle school's inclusion program and the fidelity measured by student progress in CST/CMA scores in reading/language arts and mathematics and the relationship and efficacy of behavioral support. The evaluation of Challenger Middle school's inclusion program will serve as criteria to determine if any adjustments needed in relation to providing adequate and equitable service for special education students in compliance with the federal mandates and regulations of NCLB & IDEA.
There will be three research questions for this study. The research questions are:
What is the success rate of the special education program of Challenger Middle school students in grades seven on the academic proficiency in writing as measured by California's CST/CMA scores?
What is the impact of the special education program designed for Challenger Middle school students in grades six, seven,…… [Read More]
Do you think this student might have a learning disability? Why or why not?
learning disability is referred to as affecting acquisition, organization, retention, and understanding of information, both verbal and nonverbal, as gauged from perceiving, thinking, remembering, or learning. The student understands information, memorizes information, understands science concepts, and has fairly good math skills.
Do you think this student might have ADHD? Why or why not?
ADHD is defined through three main groups of symptoms; inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Inattention; the student has messy writing, lacks focus -- struggles to read class materials, and forgets to complete homework. Hyperactivity; the student has difficulty staying at his desk, and is very talkative in class. Impulsivity; has difficulty following rules, and talks out inappropriately without raising his hand.
What assessment tools would be used to determine whether or not this student has ADHD?
There is not an established criterion…… [Read More]
urban elementary school in Eastern, New York . That problem
Specifically, is the social promotion of fourth grade students with disabilities. Currently, nothing is being done to address the issue as social promotion which is supported by state education policies that benefit from children being passed to the next grade level. This benefit consists essentially of state and federal funding (Meier et al., 2004, p.8). Special education teachers are tasked with teaching students who have not mastered basic skills.
Meier, D. et al. (2004). Many Children Left Behind: How the No Child Left Behind Act
is Damaging Our Children and Our Schools. Boston: Beacon Press.
There is a gap in practice regarding the effects of social promotion regarding teachers and students, as the concept remains controversial (Frey, 2005).
Frey, N. (2005). Retention, social promotion, and academic redshirting. Remedial and Special Education, 26(6): 332-346.
There is a…… [Read More]
students becoming more eager to learn with technology?
What affect does the use of technology in the classroom have on the students or interest in the curriculum?
Does the engagement in computer activities improve the concentration span of the students?
The reason why I chose these questions:
The reason I would find this topic exciting is because, my son is on an IEP with a learning disability in reading. I must say he has gotten a lot better with using the computer and the opportunity to learn on various sites as well as other different programs. This has motivated him to learn and he has gained confidence from it, so I felt it would become great to find out why is it easier for children to learn from technology than an actual teacher. Is technology taking the place of an educator?
The processes in coming up with these three…… [Read More]
he 1992 sessions, for example, consisted of approximately twenty-five pupils between 10 and 15 years of age who were mainly drawn from the Seattle area, plus about a dozen staff members.
he daily timetable was organized around activities such as computer graphics, electronic music, and VR itself. he end goal, however, was to build a virtual world. Pupils worked in small groups on the process of world-building and were encouraged to work as teams. (Schroeder, 1996, p. 70)
he technology for this system consisted of both the developmental tools, the PCs and special plug in technology and an immersive system, not afforded to all program trials but very useful here, as can be seen by the outcomes and the engaged student body of the program.
he equipment for building worlds was Swivel 3-D software (see Kalawsky 1993:211-212), and the immersive system consisted of a VPL system with a glove or…… [Read More]