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Uing a variety of teaching method can help integrating the learning of language from one ubject to another. One tudy of bilingual tudent in Papua New Guinea found that that up to 39% of mathematical error were language related and another tudy of bilingual Filipino-Englih tudent found that they were better at olving word problem preented in their native language, depite having fluency in both language in other ubject (Bernardo et al. 2005, p.1.). Helping tudent be creative with language in a ocial format can often help children gain greater confidence and flexibility in uing the new language.
Oral and written language abilitie and firt language knowledge i a trong predictor of a children' ucce with bilingual literacy, indicating there may be a generalized language learning ability 'trait' (Rinaldi & Perez 2010). However, by making ue of other type of learning method, and playing to a variety of different trength,…
speaking bilingual students in first grade. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary
Journal 6(1), 71-86. http://www.britannica.com/bps/additionalcontent/18/29438639/Preschool-Matters-Predicting-Reading-Difficulties-for-SpanishSpeaking-Bilingual-Students-in-First-Grade
Tendero, Henry S. (2009, July 9). Different kinds of learning styles defined. Breakthrough Education. Retrieved March 28, 2010 at http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/209984/different-kinds-learning-styles-defined
I have difficulty following directions to a place unless they are on a map or written down.
Educational habits and strategies
To make the best use of my learning style, there are certain strategies that I can follow. Firstly, color coding my textbook with different color pens will make it easy for me to remember information. Also, going through my textbook and lecture notes that contain key points of the topic will help me to learn them well. Writing out key phrases, using computer print-outs and "stick it" notes on prominent places can help me to remember concepts better.
Some of the steps that an instructor can take to make it easy for me and others with a similar learning style is to present information as visually as possible. Using black boards, overhead projectors and flash cards can make it easier for me to learn and understand concepts better. The…
Denig, Stephen. (2004). Multiple Intelligence and Learning Styles: Two Complementary Dimensions. Teachers College Record, 106(1), 96 -- 111.
No author. (2000). DVC Learning Style Survey. Retrieved from: http://metamath.com/lsweb/dvclearn.htm .
Leaning Styles and Academic Achievement: Ae Paent's Expectations Too High?
High school education pehaps is the tuning point of adolescence academic life. Within few yeas, students usually wok had and get involved in emotional conflicts and endeavos to pepae themselves fo highe study. High school students and thei paents often undestand that students have limited time to find out what they want to do late in thei life, how they figue out thei capabilities and constaints, to choose the best educational institution and caee path whee they will be able to expess thei talents without estaint and gain the best fo thei futue. As paents want to give the best fo thei childen, they will contibute lage amount of ideas on what thei childen should achieve. Consideate paents may also povide assistance and monito the study. It is assumed that paent involvement has geat effect on childen academic achievement.
references: Prospective Longitudinal Study of UK Medical Students. British Medical Journal August 28, 1999.
Steinberg, L. (1998). Parent-Child Relationships. Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood & Adolescence.
For example, I never appreciated my History classes, especially in high school, when we learned almost exclusively from reading textbook lessons. However, I greatly enjoy watching the History Channel; in fact, I have been very surprised that I sometimes find myself watching episodes on topics that I found boring in school.
This project has helped me understand how important it is for me to have some kind of visual component to my learning environment. Luckily, the MAED program and its online learning environment necessarily involves a highly visual-oriented medium. In general, I realize that wherever I have the opportunity or the option of selecting from among different course or lesson formats, those that provide some kind of visual component are most conducive to learning for me. My second choice, in general, would be to learn in an environment that allowed me to listen and to absorb information that way rather…
Adesunloye, B.A.; Aladesanmi, O.; Henriques-Forsythe, M.; Ivonye, C. "The Preferred
Learning Style among Residents and Faculty Members of an Internal Medicine
Residency Program." Journal of the National Medical Association, February 8,
2008. Retrieved February 8, 2011, from the Highbeam online database at:
Learning Styles and Neuroanatomy of the Left & ight Hemispheres of the Brain
This is a paper concerning learning styles and the right/left hemispheres. How do these affect the higher order visual processing?
NEUOANATOMY OF THE BAIN AND LEANING STYLES
The human brain is mind puzzling when you think of all the intimate parts and how they affect learning. The study of Neuroanatomy of the brain and learning styles helps individuals to try to understand their individual dominance in right/left hemisphere.
The human brain consists of over one hundred billion nerve cells. This is "organized into a system of sense, process, store, information received from both the external environment and from internal factors" (Winkley 1999). The brain is a complicated muscle that makes the individual what he is. The brain is the key organ of learning. onald Savage, Ed.D. says, "All that we do, all that we are,…
Christie, Scott B. "The Brain: Utilizing Multi-Sensory Approaches For Individual Learning Styles" Education. Winter 2000. Vol. 121. Issue 2. p. 327
McCluskey, James J & Parish, Thomas S. "A Comparative Study of Cognitive Skills in Learning Hypercard by Right-Brain Dominant, Left-Brain Dominant, and Mixed-Brain Dominant Students" Education. Summer 1993. Vol. 113. Issue 4. p. 553
Nagae, Seiji. "Handedness and Cerebral Hemispheric Differences in Memory for Pictorial Organization." Journal of General Psychology July 1994. Vol 121. Issue 3. p. 227
Savage, Ronald C. "An Educator's Guide to the Brain" The May Institute.
First, a large part of organizational learning is verbal. It consists of people sharing ideas and thoughts in different ways -- written, verbal, diagramming, etc. Similarly, the plans are written, so it is necessary to be able to write well, understand what is written, and then apply what is understood. Many times, plans are written together by several individuals in the group.
Second, individuals who are on organizational learning teams must be effective communicators. They need to get their own ideas across. They need to communicate clearly, succinctly, and consistently. In addition, they must be able to listen to information communicated by others in the group and then take the correct actions on what is learned. This takes advanced listening skills, interpersonal awareness and communication, attention to body language, facial expression and tone of voice.
The bottom line is that organizational learning cannot take place without collaboration, coordination and communication.…
Karash, Richard. Mental Models & Systems Thinking: Going Deeper into Systemic Issues. The Systems Thinker. Cambridge, MA: Pegasus Communications, 1995.
Nevis, E.C., DiBella, A.J., and Gould, J.M. Eds. Understanding Organizations as Learning Systems. Sloan Management Review, Winter 1995: 73-85.
Prange, C. Organizational learning - desperately seeking theory? Organizational Learning and the Learning Organization. Eds. M. Easterby-Smith, L. Araujo and J. Burgoyne. London: Sage, 1999: 23-43.
Students level of skills
How students are relating to vocabulary usage
Time segments in minutes
Notes need help (more than 20% are unable to process)
Students are spending more time working independently. Fewer students need assistance from teacher.
A somewhat skilled (10-20% need some assistance from teacher) working independently (fewer than 10% need assistance from teacher
Learning Styles used
Time segments in minutes
Student Engagement Indicators - Make notes of overall impression of the lesson:
Students Given Choices
Give 1 to Get 1 activity gave students choices when deciding on which vocabulary terms to write out first.
Learning Put in Context
Students were able to relate new vocabulary terms to chapter problems.
Students working independently
As can be seen from the observation checklists examined above, the students used many different learning styles as the times of the activities increased, thereby indicating that…
Adair, a. (1984). Desegregation: The illusion of black progress. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
Alexander, L., & Miller, J.W. (1989). The recruitment, incentive & retention programs for minority pre-service teachers. In a.M. Garibaldi (Ed.), Teacher recruitment and retention with a special focus on minority teachers (pp. 45-50). Washington, DC: National Education Association.
Brophy, J.E. And C.M. Evertson. (1976). Learning from Teaching: A Developmental Perspective. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Cannell, J. (1987). Nationally normed elementary achievement testing in America's public schools: How all fifty states are above the national average. Daniels, WV: Friends for Education.
Learning Styles Inventory (www. learning-styles-online.com) measures seven dimensions of a person's learning preferences: visual (spatial), aural (auditory -- musical), verbal (linguistic), physical (kinesthetic), logical (mathematical), social (interpersonal), and solitary (intrapersonal). The Learning Styles Inventory consists of 70 questions rated on a three-point Likert scale (0 = not like me at all, 1 = partially like me, 2 = always like me). This writer scored relatively high in the areas of logical, visual, verbal, and solitary preferences scoring the lowest on the musical scale. What this means is the subject tends to favor traditional ways of learning, prefers to learn alone (however, there was also a high score on the social scale), and does not prefer to use rhymes or musical -- type mnemonics or memory strategies as much.
The Learning Styles Inventory is an interesting approach to understanding how a person attempts to approach learning and academics and would be…
Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind. New York: Basic Books.
Jones, P.H. (2010). Introducing neuroeducational research. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Kaufman, A.S. (2009). IQ testing 101. New York: Springer.
The Learning Styles Inventory. Retrieved on February 10, 2013 from http://www.learning-styles-
Conversely there are the instructors who see in-class sessions as essential for the teaching of the most abstract, complex concepts. Bridging these two polarizing perspectives on how to successfully teach the most challenging material in a course is the need for defining scaffolding performance objectives by student to measure the effectiveness of distance learning personalized instruction (Halttunen, 2003). The intermediating of these two extremes shows that for the most complex concepts in a statistics course were more effectively taught through scaffolding as distance learning tools allowed the students to continually review concepts they were not familiar with. Scaffolding allowed for students to actively learn, fulfilling their need for autonomy in the learning process, in addition to giving them mastery over the presentation of concepts online as well (Kartha, 2006). Combining autonomy, mastery and purpose (Wilhelm, Sherrod, Walters, 2008) significantly increased long-term retention of statistical concepts as a result (Kartha, 2006).…
Kevin Cashman. (1997). Seven strategies for mastery of leadership from the inside out. Strategy & Leadership, 25(5), 53-55.
Kai Halttunen. (2003). Scaffolding performance in IR instruction: exploring learning experiences and performance in two learning environments. Journal of Information Science, 29(5), 375-390.
CP Kartha. (2006). Learning Business Statistics: Online vs Traditional. The Business Review, Cambridge, 5(1), 27-32.
Najjar, M. (2008). On Scaffolding Adaptive Teaching Prompts within Virtual Labs. International Journal of Distance Education Technologies, 6(2), 35-54.
In this question, I am using a task of assembling a several different kinds of components of a shelf that I recently purchased from Ikea. Inside the package, I found a chart with instructions for assembling different components of the shelf. With little difficulty, I was able to assemble the components of the shelf, even though it took me about an hour and half.
By reading Howard Garder's multiple intelligence measure, I believe I am quite comfortable with logical-mathematical intelligence and spatial intelligence learning styles, since both of these styles were required in my assembly of the components of the shelf. Logical-mathematical enables individuals to use and appreciate abstract relations; and spatial intelligence makes it possible for people to perceive visual or spatial information, to transform this information, and to recreate visual images from memory.
Teaching the assembly of components of a shelf is difficult to comprehend through…
My Sequence score is 33, my Precise score is 35, my Technical score is 17, and my Confluent score is 25. Sequence, Precise, and Confluent are all “use first,” whereas Technical learning is “avoid.” A strong-willed learner, I avoid technical methods of learning, such as picking things apart to analyze them, and do not necessarily enjoy solving technical problems. For example, someone tried to show me how a gadget worked and I tuned them out. “I don’t care how it works, I just want to use it,” is what I said.
However, I do appreciate the importance of sequential learning, scheduling, and methodology. When I am given a set of instructions that I understand, I am willing to follow them as long as I understand the purpose of the methods. I can also be systematic in my approach, which is also why I scored high on the Sequence learning.
My husband scored differently from me on the LCI, with almost opposite results from mine. Most notably, he uses technical learning first (score of 33), whereas I avoid it (score of 17). He uses precision only as needed (score of 22), whereas I use it first (score of 35). Although technically his sequence score is for using it as needed, he almost scored low enough on the sequential learning (score 18) to avoid it. I use sequence first (score of 33). The main similarity between my husband and me is with confluence; we scored the same (both with a score of 25), right on the cusp of using it first.
Reflecting on our similarities and differences can shed light on our communications patterns. We both appreciate doing things our own way, even though we appreciate learning from other people. Finding common ground and harmony is important, which is probably why…
Parent involvement is a critical component toward enhancing the learning and development of students, especially deaf and hard-of-hearing students. For deaf and hard-of-hearing students, involvement of their parents in the learning process is essential because of their unique learning needs and styles. Parent involvement refers to active, continuous involvement of a primary caregiver or parent in the education of their children. Parent involvement contributes to improved learning and growth of students through positive impacts on student’s attendance, behavior and achievement. Even though parent involvement is considered critical in student education, educators or instructors still face challenges on how to incorporate parents in their child’s learning. Educators/instructors face the need to identify suitable ways to incorporate parents in education of their children.
One of the ways to get parents engaged in their child’s education is through conducting regular workshops and seminars for parents (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,…
Choosing the most effective style that relates to one's individual personality is very useful in terms of increasing one's learning strengths. I have personally found that in reality most people combine a number of learning styles in developing their unique approach to learning. From my perspective I have found that a combination of both imaginative and analytical learning styles best suits my needs. The emphasis in my approach is however on the imaginative style as I am more comfortable with a learning style that explores various sources and views of reality in a discursive and open-ended way. At the same time the more considered and careful analytical approach is also useful in that it tends to 'ground' one in reality.
Durbin G. (2002) Interactive Learning in Museums of Art and Design.
etrieved February 23, 2009, at http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:2V3DNJpxFKkJ:www.vam.ac.uk/files/file_upload/5752_file.pdf+%22dynamic+learning+style%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=10&gl=za&client=firefox-a
Exploring Psychology. Learning Styles. etrieved February 23, 2009, at http://www.dushkin.com/connectext/psy/ch06/learnsty.mhtml www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000308203
Durbin G. (2002) Interactive Learning in Museums of Art and Design.
Retrieved February 23, 2009, at http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:2V3DNJpxFKkJ:www.vam.ac.uk/files/file_upload/5752_file.pdf+%22dynamic+learning+style%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=10&gl=za&client=firefox-a
Exploring Psychology. Learning Styles. Retrieved February 23, 2009, at http://www.dushkin.com/connectext/psy/ch06/learnsty.mhtml www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000308203
Guild, P. (1994, January). Making Sense of Learing Styles. School Administrator, 51, 8. Retrieved February 26, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5000308203' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Learning Styles and Learning Practices
In general, psychological theorists and educators acknowledge that learning occurs quite differently in different individuals. Some people learn best by observing, whereas others learn best by listening, and still others learn best by participating or experiencing something more tangible in connection with the subject matter (Akkoyunlu, & Soylu, 2008). There are numerous theories about how people learn, and one of the most commonly used is Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI), that categorizes learning according to the following broad distinctions: Concrete Experience or considering things substantially the way they are presented; Abstract Conceptualization or considering things as ideas and theories that represent or incorporate what is represented; Active Experimentation or forming conclusions based on what is represented and conducting experiments to confirm those conclusions; and eflective Observation or determining…
Akkoyunlu, B., & Soylu, M.Y. (2008). A Study of Student's Perceptions in a Blended
Learning Environment Based on Different Learning Styles. Educational Technology & Society, 11 (1), 183-193.
Chickering, A.W. & Gamson, Z.F. (1991). Applying the Seven Principles for Good
Practice in Undergraduate Education. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 47.
Naturally, visual learners do not enjoy reading books as auditory learners would, as written information is mostly processed in the mind's ears rather than by visualizing the text. Finally, a Kinesthetic or Tactile learner will predominantly learn information through touch and movement. In other words, kinesthetic learners would enjoy hands on laboratory session more than a routine class lecture. They also like to simulate events to understand them better. [Marcia L. Conner, pg 47]
Advantages of Knowing the Learning Style
Now that we have seen the domination of different modalities resulting in different learning styles among students, it is pertinent to understand the implications of such differences in context of their academic performance. Several studies have attested to that fact that only 20% of students learn through their auditory modality while 80% are either visual or kinesthetic. [Donna Walker, pg 16] However, in stark contrast, most of higher education is…
1) Marcia L. Conner, (2004) 'Learn More Now: 10 Simple steps to Learning Better, Smarter and Faster',
2) Richard M. Felder, (2005), 'Understanding Student Differences', Journal of Engineering education, 94(1) 57-72, available online at, http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/Understanding_Differences.pdf
3) Donna Walker Tileston, (2005) 10 Best Teaching Practices: How Brain research, Learning Styles and Standards Define Teaching Competences', Published by Corwin Press.
4) Steve Garnett, (2005), 'Using Brainpower in the Classroom: Five steps to accelerate Learning', Published by Routledge
The theory of Honey and Mumford, describes the styles and learning strategies. It incorporates much of the theory of Kolb's learning cycle, making it more intelligible.
It is important to discuss these strategies with students. (Marsick and atkins, p132-51) hile this allows the teacher to become aware of the need to vary their teaching because they do not exist in universal, it also allows learners to realize that everyone learns differently.
So its dominant learning strategies can influence its working methods and student personnel can then optimize them. It may also become more self-confidence. Honey and Mumford (1986) take away from Kolb (1984) the idea of an experiential learning model in four stages they call: experience, the return on experience, drawing conclusions and planning. (aring and Evans, p117-28)
According to them, each phase has specific behaviors and attitudes and is important to successfully complete the learning process itself.…
Lam, Y.L. Defining the effects of transformation leadership on organization learning: a cross-cultural comparison: School Leadership & Management, 2002, pp 439-52.
Marquardt, M. Action learning in action: Transforming problems and people for world- class organizational learning. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black Publishing, 1999, pp45-49.
Marsick, V.J., and Watkins, KE. Demonstrating the value of an organization's learning culture: The Dimensions of Learning Organizations Questionnaire, Advances in Developing Human Resources, 2003 5, pp132-151.
Evans, C. And Graff, M. "Exploring style: enhancing the capacity to learn?," Education & Training, Vol. 50, 2008, pp. 93-102.
learning style assessment test on the Internet to see if they agreed with what I thought my learning style was. The site was called the Learning Styles Online and the price was just right for me -- it was free. This report is a quick summary of the test results and my opinion if they were accurate or not. Learning styles are simply different approaches or ways of learning. (Learning Styles Online, 2004)
The sight was very informative in the sense that they also provided detailed explanations of the various learning styles and also insights into what each personnel style might strive to become when they grow up. To begin with, there are specific types of learning styles to further provide detail and insight into the subconscious.
The types of learners fall into three categories: Visual learners who learn through the visual aspects of sight and interpretation of body language…
Learning Styles Online. (2004). "Free learning styles inventory, including graphical results." Retrieved on November 29, 2004, from http://www.learning-styles-online.com/inventory/default.asp?ref=ga& ; data=learning+styles+free+test
If you need to type anything after the reference list then start it on this page
Special Ed Standard
eflective paper on student differences and learning style approaches
This paper provides a brief overview of different learning styles and the types of accommodations teachers can make in the classroom
Learning styles: An overview
"Students learn in many ways -- by seeing and hearing; reflecting and acting; reasoning logically and intuitively; memorizing and visualizing and drawing analogies and building mathematical models; steadily and in fits and starts. Teaching methods also vary. Some instructors lecture, others demonstrate or discuss; some focus on principles and others on applications; some emphasize memory and others understanding" (Felder 1988: 674). The idea of using multiple approaches to teaching the same material has become more and more popular as teachers are cognizant of the different learning styles students manifest. Some auditory learners may learn best through listening; students who are visual learners may learn best if the teacher uses graphs and…
Felder, Richard M. & L.K. Silverman. (1988) Learning and teaching styles in engineering education. Engineering Education, 78(7), 674-681. Retrieved June 26, 2011 at http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/LS-1988.pdf
Understanding different learning styles. (2011). NDT. Retrieved June 26, 2011 at http://www.ndt-ed.org/TeachingResources/ClassroomTips/Learning_Styles.htm
On the same note, if my workplace involves physical labor, I won't quite be able to cope as well as some others. I would rather sit down with some coworkers and work out what needs to be done than run around and figure it out as I go along.
Theses assessments of my personal strengths and weaknesses beggars the question: How can I use this test to make me a better manager? The answer is obvious, work on my weaknesses. As a manager I will have to understand and work well with my coworkers, and in that department I am certainly competent. However in order to be a completely competent manager I'll have to learn to be physical, and more able to visualize plans and ideas.
The answer to becoming more physical is an obvious one: learn to work with my hands. On the workplace I'll have to be able…
15-17). For teachers of language and literacy, fine arts, and physical education this process is almost more important, as students probably come to these classes with pre-determined notions based on their learning styles. For instance, a student who is not a kinesthetic learner my frown on physical education. For this reason, teachers instructing in physical education should be sure to use a variety of visual, auditory, and other methods in conjunction with their physical instruction to engage all students. Some physical education teachers may do this through the inclusion of slide or light shows and music. Even in the study of music, Locklear (2008) suggests that diverse learning styles can be used. In fact, she suggests that, "music class immersion can positively address many of the concerns educators share," including the incorporation of various learning styles. Furthermore, using music to teach literacy, as both disciplines are "symbolic" is one way…
Locklear, S. (2008). Research-Based Justification for the Highline School District
Elementary and Secondary School Music Problems. Retrieved February 12, 2009, from New Horizons for Learning. Web Site: http://www.newhorizons.org/strategies/arts/locklear.htm
Peng, L.L. (2002). Applying Learning Styles in Instructional Strategies. Retrieved February 12, 2009, from the National University of Singapore. Web Site: http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/brief/v5n7/default.htm
Community Colleges in America
In 1983 and 1984, a dozen major reports on the United States' schools were published. All stressed the need for "excellence" in education. These reports are the subject of: Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. The reports pertaining to higher education were published by The BusinessHigher Education Forum, and saw higher education as "unable to train skilled managers and technicians that they believed industry needed." (Altbach 32) These reports essentially claim that student achievement has declined at technical schools because schools "do not demand enough of their students, do not apply stiff criteria for promotion, do not test students enough, and particularly in high school, provide students with too many choices about what subjects they study." (Altbach 32) These reports are somewhat dated in that they compare American students with Japanese students and focus on technical proficiency vs. The intuitive grasp of problems and…
Altbach, Philip G., Gail P. Kelly, and Lois Weis, eds. Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1985.
Baker, George A., Judy Dudziak, and Peggy Tyler, eds. A Handbook on the Community College in America: Its History, Mission, and Management. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.
Diaz, David P., and Ryan B. Cartnal. "Students' Learning Styles in Two Classes Online Distance Learning and Equivalent On-Campus." College Teaching 47.4 (1999): 130-135.
Miller, Richard I., Charles Finley, and Candace Shedd Vancko. Evaluating, Improving, and Judging Faculty Performance in Two-Year Colleges. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 2000.
Student Learning Styles
riting to Learn -- Real orld Issues
A university instructor that seeks to interest and motivate students through a lecture is sometimes on thin ice as far as keeping students' attention. Hence, it is incumbent on the alert contemporary instructor to present highly relevant material (in a way that engages students) while at the same time realizing there are vastly different learning styles.
Still, the job of the instructor is to present information that helps the student develop skills in critical thinking -- and helps the student learn to solve problems. There are many aspects to the vitally important environmental issue of climate change, and all aspects of this issue cry out for clarity. An instructor can create a worthy activity -- that informs while it stimulates -- from the various approaches to climate change. In this paper the emphasis on writing to learn assignments are relevant…
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2013). Climate Change 2013: The Physical
Science Basis / The Fifth Assessment Report. Retrieved October 18, 2014, from http://www.ipcc.ch .
Nilson, L.B. (2010). Teaching At Its Best. A Research-Based Resource for College
Instructors. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Based on Kolb's model of learning styles, I am a Diverger. This means that I am oriented towards reflective observation rather than active experimentation -- strongly in my case -- and I am also oriented slightly to concrete experience over abstract conceptualization. The characteristics of the Diverger style of learning are that I perceive information concretely, but process reflectively. So I am imaginative, believe in my own experience and am an insight thinker (Kolb, 2013).
When I thought about how I would learn how to plant a rose garden, I guess the first thing is that I thought about it. I assume somebody more oriented towards active experimentation might just dive right in and start digging, figuring out the details as they go along. For me, I went straight for the Internet to get a list of things to do and a list of pitfalls to watch out…
Kolb, D. (2013). Kolb's model of learning styles. LifeCircle Inc.. Retrieved April 18, 2014 from http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/constructivism/kolb.html
No author. (2014). Kolb learning styles. Business Balls.com. Retrieved April 18, 2014 from http://www.businessballs.com/kolblearningstyles.htm
Personal Learning Styles
After completing the VAK questionnaire, I have learned that out of the four types of learners, I have strong tendencies for three out of the four types. I am mostly a visual and read/write learner with equal scores in both areas. Furthermore, with a score very close to the first two categories, I am also a kinesthetic learner. Lastly, with the lowest score, I am an aural learner. Compared to how I perceive my own learning styles outside of this questionnaire, I mostly agree. I think I am mostly a visual and kinesthetic learner.
I do learn by reading and writing, as well as aurally, but not as much. They are not so much my preference for learning, but I cannot deny that those aspects assist my understanding. Some people are not the best at public speaking or giving instructions, and that is why I…
Advanology. (2012). The Visual-Spatial Learning Style. Web, Available from: http://www.learning-styles-online.com/style/visual-spatial/ . 2012 October 02.
LangVid Language Training. (2010). Studying Style: Tactile-Kinesthetic Learners. Web, Available from: http://www.studyingstyle.com/tactile-kinesthetic-learners.html . 2012 October 02.
The Study Gurus. (2012). Study Advice for Reading and Write Learners. Web, Available from: http://www.thestudygurus.com/read-write-study-tips/. 2012 October 02.
3). Review the other learning styles: visual, aural, read/write, kinesthetic, and multimodel (listed on the VARK Questionnaire Result page). 4). Compare your preferred learning strategies to the identified srategies for your learning style. 5). Appraise how this will change your way of stuying, if any. In a paper (750-1,000 words), summarise your analysis of this exercise. include the following: 1). Provide a summary of your learning style. 2). List your preferred learning srategies. 3). Compare your preferred learning strategies to the identified strategies for your preferred learning style. 4). Appraise any changes you need to make in your study habits.
Moreover, "learning takes place within and is influenced by the cultural context of the learner." Although Pallapu does not address culture in the research, learning styles may be a reflection of cultural background.
he Pallapu research is limited. he research sample size is small and not diverse enough, as 21 of the 22 participants were female and all were Caucasian. However, the results suggest that learning styles vary even within an otherwise or seemingly homogenous population. he Pallapu research is important because it shows that gender and ethnicity are not necessarily the most important factors in learning. Although gender and ethnicity are important and may in some ways be correlated with learning styles, Pallapu shows that learning styles are independent of cultural background and gender. Educators who assume that gender and ethnicity necessarily influence learning styles may be incorrect.
In a homogenous classroom, teachers may be tempted to teach…
The Pallapu research also suggests that students should become more aware of their own learning styles. I would like to assess my students' learning styles before creating class materials. After doing so, I can let my students know what their learning styles are. This will help them not just in my classroom but in all their classes. For example, students who are aware that they are verbal learners will be encouraged to join study groups and write about what they learn in school. Students who are aware they are visual learners will be encouraged to incorporate materials that include visual elements like graphs.
According to Pallapu, visual learners perform better and earn better grades than verbal learners. This suggests that educators are not paying enough attention to what verbal learners need. Other learning styles may also need to be taken into account to create a more truly diverse classroom that helps all students achieve their highest potential.
Pallapu, Prasanthi. "Effects of Visual and Verbal Learning Styles on Learning." Institute for Learning Styles Journal 1. Fall 2007.
Individual Learning Style
This report is a self-assessment and reflection of my personal learning style. The report assesses my strengths and opportunities for growth as well as creating an improvement strategy which is solely based on the results of my learning style assessment. Through a free internet learning style web site, I discovered that my learning style is called Interpersonal Intelligence. The report will also provide some background on the various learning styles and provide a rough definition.
Learning styles are the basic ways humans are programmed to best learn. There are various ways or styles of learning and each man, woman and child, has either one specific style or a combination of styles that help them acquire knowledge and experiences. This information is great for teachers and parents because if a child is actively engaged in the learning process they tend to feel more confident and therefore…
Blackmore, Jessica. (Aug. 11, 1996). Pedagogy: Learning Styles. Retrieved December 10, 2004, from http://www.cyg.net/~jblackmo/diglib/styl-a.html#Introduction
Following are Hofstede's four categories and what they measure:
Power Distance (PD) is the "extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally" (Hofstede 1998) with a small PD meaning more equality in the society, and a large PD meaning less.
Individualism (ID) defines whether the society expects people to look after themselves or not. Its opposite is Collectivism, which Hofstede (1998) defines as "the extent to which people in a society from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty."
Masculinity (MA) defines the degree of distinction of gender roles. High MA means men are supposed to be "assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life" (Hofstede 1998). Its…
Al-Mekhalfi, A.G. (2001). Instructional media for teachers' preparation. International Journal of Instructional Media, 28(2), 191. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Arab World (2005). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/ hofstede_arab_world.shtml
Australia. (2005) Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at
The same applies if I am watching an instructional video. For example, I could think of examples as I watch the video, with this making the process tactile. In my own time, I could convert my examples into a speech on the subject. Again, this would mean that I am utilizing all three of my styles and learning as effectively as possible. There is also an opportunity to improve the way I study by utilizing all three of my learning styles. The challenge is to find ways of learning and studying that use all three styles. For example, I could study with a partner and use discussion to make the process auditory. I could also complete practical projects related to the subject with a study partner, which would make the process tactile. Finally, if the project has a visual component, this will also make the process visual and will mean…
Dryden, G., & Vos, J. (2001). The learning revolution. Network Educational Press Ltd.
Gross, R. (1999). Peak learning. New York: Penguin.
Sarasin, L.C. (1999). Learning style perspectives: Impact in the classroom. Madison, WI: Atwood Publishing.
Sims, R.R., & Sims, S. (1995). The importance of learning styles: Understanding the implications for learning, course design, and education. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
For countries such as the U.S. And France, these needs can be reasonably expected to relate to the respective national cultures involved. For instance, in their book, Education in France, Corbett and Moon (1996) report, "An education system needs to justify itself constantly by reference to the values which underpin a nation's culture. In a democracy it is expected to transmit a range of intellectual, aesthetic and moral values which permeate the curriculum and approaches to teaching and learning" (p. 323).
Just as the United States has been confronted with a number of challenges in recent decades in identifying the best approach to providing educational services for an increasingly multicultural society, France has experienced its fair share of obstacles in this regard as well. According to Corbett and Moon, "In societies forced to come to terms with change, values are always challenged. French society, like others, had to adapt to…
Atkinson, R.D. (2006, May-June). Building a more-humane economy. The Futurist, 40(3), 44.
Blanchard, E. & Frasson, C. (2005). Making intelligent tutoring systems culturally aware: The use of Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Montreal, Quebec Canada: Computer Science Department, HERON Laboratory.
Bryant, S.M., Kahle, J.B. & Schafer, B.A. (2005). Distance education: A review of the contemporary literature. Issues in Accounting Education, 20(3), 255.
Calder, J. (1993). Disaffection and diversity: Overcoming barriers for adult learners. London: Falmer Press.
Roles can be rotated regularly to give all team members experience; and 5) Task or sequence interdependence
This occurs when one group member must first complete his/her task before the next task can be completed. For example, collecting water samples might be assigned to two group members, while research on how to collect samples is done by two other group members. (Foundation Coalition, 2009)
Cooperative learning according to the University of Wisconsin cooperative learning group is stated to be structures that "...generate ideas for open-ended questions or problems. The instructor poses an open-ended question and asks groups of students to generate multiple responses. Groups then summarize their responses and report in one of several ways: in writing, random calling, groups reporting to each other, etc. A faculty member might apply one of these structures at the beginning of a new topic by briefly describing the topic and then asking groups…
Berquist, WH and Phillips, SR (1975) Getting Students Involved in the Classroom: A Handbook for Faculty Development. Council for the Advancement of Small Colleges. (pp.114-117)
Chickering, a., and Gamson, Z. (1987) "Seven Principles for Good Practice," AAHE Bulletin, 39:3-7, ED 282-491, 6pp, MF-01; PC-01.
Diesel, Elizabeth, Allen, Michael, Schreiber, Madeline, and Borrego, Maura (2006) Improved Student Learning in Large Classes by Incorporating Active Learning with a New Design of Teaching Studies. 36th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference 18-21 Oct 2006. San Diego, CA.
Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., and Smith, K. (1991) Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom, Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company
Technical tasks are preferred over people and interpersonal details. They also enjoy experimenting, simulating, and working with practical applications.
When there are too many people with one learning type over another in the same organization, there may be a deficiency in a particular type of strength which could prove to be valuable to the organization. For instance, if the organization does not have any accommodators, but rather has several convergers, divergers, and assimilators, then the organization may be in need of an individual whom can work quickly and whom can figure something out without a given set of procedure or directions and whom perhaps can derive conclusions based upon his/her gut instinct. If an agency has a balance of learners and the agency is aware of the strengths and weaknesses within the organization, then groupings may be done so that each group has an individual representing a particular learning style.…
Osland, H., Kolb, D.A., & Rubin, I. (n.d.). Organizational Behavior (8th ed.).
1983, Howard Gardner challenged conventional views of teaching and learning styles with his book, Frames of Mind. Gardner hypothesized that the skill-sets of different people are directly correlated to their learning styles. It was from this that he developed the theory of multiple intelligences. Within this theory there are seven intelligences, linguistic intelligence, musical intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, spatial intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, and what are known as intra and inter-personnel forms of the personal intelligences.
The following paper is an assessment of the intelligence which represents my personal learning style. It is clear this style is best represented by the bodily-kinesthetic intelligence.
This intelligence is related to physical movement and the knowing/wisdom of the body. Including the brain's motor cortex, which controls body motion. ody/kinesthetic intelligence is awakened through physical movement such as in various sports, dance, physical exercises as well as by the expression of oneself through the body, such…
Tutoring Strategies to Use with Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners. Retrieved February 24, 2003, from Cedar Crest College Academic Advising Center. Website: http://www2.cedarcrest.edu/acadadvising/tactile_strategies.html
Kinesthetic Learners. Retrieved February 24, 2003, from Berkshire.org. Website: http: / / www.cc.berkshire.org/studentlife/ssas_kinesthetic_learners.html
Learning Styles: A Multiple Intelligences Approach. Retrieved February 24, 2003, from Learning Style Inventory. Website: http://pss.uvm.edu/pss162/learning_styles.html
Kinesthetic Learning Style. Retrieved February 24, 2003, from girlsite.org. Website: http://www.girlsite.org/Html/minds/quiz/kinesthetic.htm
Student success a - endeavor. The student give 100% instructor provide students a 100%. The student responsibility prepared learn material assigned, turn assignments time, pay attention taught discussed, questions needed.
I agree that the process of education is a dialogue, not a monologue. Although an educator may have a plan about what he or she wishes to teach, the teacher must respond to student input. The students may not understand the material in the manner in which it is initially presented; they may be bored or ill-prepared; they may have probing and unexpected questions; or they may have different learning styles.
Using different approaches is particularly essential in healthcare education, given that new scientific knowledge builds upon old knowledge. emediation is successful because it ensures students have knowledge of the foundational concepts early on, before the student becomes completely left behind. Given the nursing shortage the nation is facing, finding…
Smith, A. (2010). Learning styles of registered nurses enrolled in an online nursing program.
Journal of Professional Nursing, 26(1):49-53. doi: 10.1016/j.profnurs.2009.04.006.
Divergent Learning Style
Summary of learning style (divergent learning style).
Divergent learners tend to be more of the arts and humanities kinds and will characteristically depend on theoretical conceptualization and thoughtful surveillance in order to process information. One can easily recognize them by watching their pleasure in small group deliberations or brain storming meetings. If one has a divergent learning style they are likely to collect information and may have a wide range of interests. Dissimilar from a convergent learner, divergent students are better capable to identify with the feelings of others, but they do not have the capability to draw conclusions from technical or quantities features of situations. Divergent learners tend to be very imaginative and open minded but they may have to press them to make definitive decisions. One should also support them to try and set more long-term goals and take a few risks. Divergent and…
Differentiated Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://webhost.bridgew.edu/kdobush/Strategies%20for%20Teaching%20Reading/Handbo
Savoie, Olivia. (2011). Convergent Learning Style vs. Divergent Learning Style. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/way_5635221_convergent-vs_-divergent-learning-style.html
Leader's Self-Insight 1.1: Your Learning Style: Using Multiple Intelligences
I scored evenly on all of the types of intelligence measured by this self-assessment: logical-mathematical, verbal-linguistic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and musical. This indicates that I am a well-rounded person with the ability to work in multiple environments on different tasks.
Leader's Self-Insight 1.2: Your Leadership Potential
I scored slightly more (7) on the even-numbered indicators than on the odd ones (6), indicating I have leadership capabilities such as "vision and change." However, the scores were about even.
Leader's Self-Insight 1.3: Are You on a Fast Track to Nowhere?
On people skills, I scored 3 out of the 4 qualities. I believe I have solid interpersonal skills. On working with authority, I scored 2. I believe I need to work more on my assertiveness and courage when dealing with persons in positions of authority because I remain afraid to speak up and express…
Daft, R.L. The Leadership Experience.
Behave Management-Learning style
Team chemistry: Analyze your results; determine the type of team player you are and discuss how it affects your working environment
By nature, I am an extremely enthusiastic team player. I enjoy the social aspects of working on a team and 'bouncing' ideas off of people. I think the best work is generated by the interpersonal synergy of a team environment. This makes me very different from someone who is very focused and task-oriented, who has trouble taking the time to joke, relax, and step back from the work we are doing, which is sometimes necessary to gain a perspective of what is really important for the team to do in service of the larger organization. However, I am willing to engage in frank discussion and even confrontation to make my voice heard, unlike someone who is accommodating and dislikes conflict. I will defend my opinions and…
A lack of self-regulation can hinder academic success. Conversely, being intentional can lead to meeting performance outcomes and acquiring deeper learning. Through a development of personalized learning strategies, it is possible to take concrete steps toward becoming an intentional learner. My assigned learner is Dan, who tends to procrastinate, remains unfocused throughout the day, and lacks both confidence and self-esteem. Dan also has trouble with self-reflection, and is uncomfortable asking for help.
To FIT his learning patterns more intentionally, Dan would do well to increase confluence skills to increase the Forging process. Dan would also benefit from activating his interest in precision learning strategies to help him build confidence and esteem in his own capacity to succeed. Increasing both his use of confluence and technical learning strategies would help Dan with Forging as well as Intensifying, leading to Tethering experiences. For example,, Dan could learn time management skills…
Human resources (H) departments today have to confront many issues that are related to an individual's learning styles and preferences. Not only does the consideration of an employee's learning style have a range of compliance issues that can be related, but it is also advantageous that organizations use this information to effectively create training and professional development programs so that employees are better equipped to handle the tasks required of them. An effective training strategy can empower an employee with new skills that can make them more effective in their daily routine. Thus overcoming any challenges to career development can significantly improve the organization as a whole.
In this specific case, John has a prominent learning style that is defined as tactile/kinesthetic. The online course that was suggested for him to take might not be the best avenue for his career development education. Furthermore, he has requested accommodation…
Kolb, A., & Kolb, D. (2005). Learning Styles and Learning Spaces: Enhancing Experiential Learning in Higher Education . Academy of Management Learning & Education, 193-212.
Lee, B. (2015). EFL Learners' Perspectives on ELT Materials Evaluation Relative to Learning Styles. RELC Journal, 147-163.
McLane, D. (2011). Connecting learning styles with training styles in learning ADA compliance. Gradworks, 75.
Quantitative Study Review
This paper provides a review of a quantitative study and determines the purpose, sample, method, findings and credibility of the study. It also examines the interventions and whether there was any clinical significance to the findings. By examining the significance and credibility of the study it shows its value in nursing research.
The purpose of the study by Gonzales et al. (2017) was to describe graduate entry nursing students' learning styles. The research question was: “What are the predominant learning styles of graduate entry nursing students?” (Gonzales et al., 2017, p. 56). The study did not make any hypothesis prior to conducting the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) survey.
The sample for the study was obtained by recruiting 202 graduate entry nursing student volunteers at a southwestern university. This was essentially a convenience sample. No inclusion or exclusion criteria were discussed in the study, but in…
AbuAssi, N. E., & Alkorashy, H. A. E. (2016). Relationship between learning style and readiness for self-directed learning among nursing students at king Saud university, Saudi Arabia. International journal of advanced nursing studies, 5(2), 109-116.
Brannan, J. D., White, A., & Long, J. (2016). Learning styles: Impact on knowledge and confidence in nursing students in simulation and classroom. International journal of nursing education scholarship, 13(1), 63-73.
Gonzales, L. K., Glaser, D., Howland, L., Clark, M. J., Hutchins, S., Macauley, K., ... & Ward, J. (2017). Assessing learning styles of graduate entry nursing students as a classroom research activity: a quantitative research study. Nurse education today, 48, 55-61.
McKenna, L., Copnell, B., Butler, A. E., & Lau, R. (2018). Learning style preferences of Australian accelerated postgraduate pre-registration nursing students: A cross-sectional survey. Nurse education in practice, 28, 280-284.
Vizeshfar, F., & Torabizadeh, C. (2018). The effect of teaching based on dominant learning style on nursing students' academic achievement. Nurse education in practice, 28, 103-108.
(3) According to the Multiple Intelligences Survey, I have quite a bit of intrapersonal and interpersonal intellegence and a moderate amount of musical and kinesthetic intelligence. This makes sense because I enjoy analyzing people and situations; and, I decided to leave my old job because I was bored sitting still behind a desk and not talking to anyone for most of the day.
As I was enjoying the surveys so much, also I took Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory and discovered that my learning style consists of doing and feeling or what Kolb would abbreviate as "CE/AE." When these findings are placed on the two-by-two grid by Kolb, my learning style is accommodating. An accommodating learning style is often times referred to as a "hands-on" style and one that relies upon intuition over logic. In fact, these findings also did not surprise me because I have to do something at least…
Codde, PhD, J.R. (2006). Using Learning Contracts in the College Classroom. Michigan State University.
According to the University of Canberra's Academic Skills Centre (2008), learning is a highly complex process that "takes place at different levels of consciousness, and in different ways, in everything we do. Moreover, individual people learn in different ways and have their preferred learning styles." One of the keys to improving student learning is to understand the different types of learning styles and apply that knowledge to study habits and practices. Study skills are themselves behaviors that need to be learned like any other. Using a combination of disciplinary techniques and cognitive shifts, students can improve their capacity for learning. This will, in turn, help boost grades and test scores. However, learning in an academic context is about more than earning grades. Learning should ultimately enhance one's view of the world and increase tolerance of diversity.
The theory of multiple intelligences has formed the theoretical foundation for the study…
Armstrong, T. (2010). Multiple intelligences. Retrieved online: http://www.thomasarmstrong.com/multiple_intelligences.php
Dartmouth College Academic Skills Center (2011). Managing your time. Retrieved online: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~acskills/success/time.html
Gardner, H. (2006). Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons. Perseus.
Langer, J.A. (1986). Learning through writing: Study skills in the content areas. Journal of Reading. Feb 1986.
Color coding words and researching notes.
Using highlighters, circle words and underlining (Fleming, 2010).
If one focuses more on illustrative or graphical knowledge than on the expressions of what is being taught, they put themselves at a distinctive weakness since verbal and written knowledge is still the chief favored option for delivery of knowledge. One should apply their note taking and try to find occasions to make clear information to others by way of using words. A visual learner learns best when knowledge is given to them visually and in a printed language arrangement. In a classroom location, they profit from teachers who employ the blackboard or overhead projector in order to register the vital parts of a lecture, or who supply them with an outline in order to follow along with throughout the lecture. They profit from knowledge attained from textbooks and class…
"DVC Online," 2000, viewed 23 October2010,
Fleming, Grace. 2010, "Learning Styles," viewed 22 October 2010,
"Visual Thinking and Learning," 2010, viewed 23 October
e. In instances where the students have already demonstrated a diversity of learning styles (DeCastro-Ambrosetti & Cho, 2005). The use of authentic assessments includes greater student directive-ness and increased empowerment and self-guidance and -reliance in the learning process.
Self-assessment is seen by many to be the culmination of the individualization of learning assessment, but when this occurs solely for the purposes of accountability, learning is far from guaranteed (Gaytan & McEwen, 2007). This is partially due to the difference students and instructors, at least in the study conducted by Gaytan and McEwen (2007), perceive in the purpose of self-assessment tests; students viewed them primarily as a way to receive feedback as to their progress and achievement, while instructors saw them more as a way to make sure students understood the material (Gaytan and McEwen, 2007). Both views underline the usefulness of self-assessments, but perhaps they can be best applied by…
Commons, P. "The contribution of inspection, self-assessment, investors in people...: an initial exploration." Journal of further & higher education, vol. 27, issue 1 (Feb 2003), pp. 27-47
DeCastro-Ambrosetti, D. & Cho, G. "Synergism in learning: A critical reflection of authentic assessment." High school journal, vol. 89, issue 1(Oct/Nov 2005), pp. 57-62
Feinstein, S. "Performance assessment in Juvenile Correction education programs." Journal of correctional education, vol. 53. Issue 1 (Mar 2002), pp. 9-12
Gaytan, J. & McEwen, B. "Effective online instructional and assessment strategies." American journal of distance education. Vol. 21 issue 3 (Sep 2007), pp. 117-32
The ability to learn is one of man's most important talents, and, in order for one to improve this capacity, the respective person needs to focus on enriching his personal experience through any means available. Similarly, the respective person has to acknowledge that learning should be something that one longs for, regardless of the fact that many individuals tend to end their education after they finish high school. Learning should not be considered as being something exclusively connected to education, as people can gain important information from a series of environments other than educational institutes. Teachers are mainly responsible for the way that learners amass information, thus meaning that they have to develop methods of having students learn individually and on account of their personal values. Moreover, students need to be influenced in seeing learning as something positive and as something that they should gladly take on. In…
This will be accomplished by studying the following problem:
What specific tools and tactics can be the most successful in helping field psychologists to maximize their total amounts of learning comprehension?
Once this query has been answered, is when actuaries can find data that will identify the best approaches and how they can be applied (in a real world environment) by mental health professionals.
The research method that will be used is the mixed approach. This is when there is a focus on specific tactics that will look at previous studies (i.e. The quantitative method). At the same time, actuaries are collecting specific samples from field psychologists (i.e. The qualitative methodology). These techniques were selected, because they can provide everyone with a background of key concepts. This will be used to establish a foundation of what processes are the most effective. ("Mixed Method esearch," 2011)
The Expected esults…
Mixed Method Research. (2011). Diversified Topics. Retrieved from: http://diversifiedtopics.com/tag/mixed-methods-research-definition/
Helms, J. (2011). Majoring in Psychology. Chichester: Wiley.
Mumford, a. (1997). Action Learning at Work. Aldershot: Gower.
Learning Differences and Learning Needs
Learning Styles and Learning Preferences
For many years a great debate has existed in the field of education. Teachers and educators have attempted to uncover the best method for teaching students. The majority of evidence available suggests that multiple factors influence a student's ability to achieve in the classroom, none the least of which is learning styles and preferences. There is ample evidence supporting the notion that intelligence aside, most students have a learning preference related to their cognitive style of thinking that is ingrained or innate.
Because of this students will react to material presented to them in the classroom in different ways. It is vital that teachers begin recognizing the significance of these individual learning differences and uncover methods for coping with and addressing learning style differences and preferences within the classroom. Only then will all children be afforded the opportunity to learn…
Fields S.C. ( 1985, April 15-18). Assessment of aptitude interactions for the most common science instructional strategies. Paper presented at the 58th annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, French Lick Springs, IN.
Grabowski, B.L. & Jonassen, DH (1993). Handbook of individual differences in learning and instruction. Hillsdale, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Merrill M.D. ( 1973). "Content and instructional analysis for cognitive transfer tasks." A
V Communication Review, 21,109-125.
They are somewhat vague about how the contrasting learning needs of younger and older groups can effectively be met in a single classroom setting, but nonetheless note that there is a great need for community research to clarify this issue. The conclusions and attitudes of these authors are also much more accommodating of the differences in learners than those of Caudron.
Having noted the above, the article could benefit from a clearer explication of different teaching methods that could work not only for the different groups, but for integrated groups as well. Another limitation is that the article differentiates between two age groups, without acknowledging that there could be learning style differences within a single age group. While therefore accepting that there could be different learning styles, the article still treats these somewhat simplistically.
By far the most complex in terms of learning style application is McCarthy's article, which focuses…
Caudron, Shari. Can Generation Xers Be Trained?
McCarthy, Bernice. A Tale of Four Learners.
Murray, Corey & Bank, David. Intergenerational Learning. Community College Journal Washington: Aug/Sep 2007. Vol. 78, Iss. 1
There are some indications that observational learning might be genetic; animals teaching their young to hunt and the discovery of mirror neurons -- brain cells that fire when emotions/behaviors are observed in others -- both point to a biological basis for this type of learning. This learning is far more likely to occur if observed behaviors are met with rewards, however. Observational learning is also at the heart of the controversy concerning violence in the media, which some believe leads to more violent behavior in real life as individuals observe and learn from "fake" violent depictions.
There is growing evidence that violent media does in fact lead to increased real-world violence, both with "copy-cat" crimes and simply with violence generally. Exposure to violence lowers inhibitions against violence and possibly alters perceptions about the meanings and intentions behind others' behaviors, as well, causing nonviolent acts to be perceived as…
Another way of combining these two approaches is by having the students involved in the process of what is learned and how. Each learner brings something different to the classroom, so will want to take away something different as well. The teacher and student can work together to set goals of what is to be achieved. Similarly, the students need continual feedback, so they know how they are accomplishing these goals. Lastly, since all students do learn differently, the classroom environment has to be a place for sharing new ideas. Students can learn considerably by seeing how their peers perceive the same drawing, or science experiment or historical event. They gain both knowledge and acquire new learning about their own abilities and that of others in the room. More importantly, this gives each child a similar opportunity to express him or herself and build self-esteem, regardless of the students' varying…
Within each of these are discriminatory and generalized patterns of learning; and can be incorporated into learning models.
My own learning style is a combination of listening (learning from others) and then doing. It depends on the material; for any tactile operation, I find it easier to understand by touching and manipulating than simply reading in a manual how to perform the task. I believe I make clear use of discrimination in learning; responding to different stimuli with different responses. When the learning task is more scholarly in nature, I tend to combine visual and aural methods with kinesthetic and write down, or outline material.
Burton, N. (March 15, 2012). Hide and Seek: Understanding Self-Deception, Self-Sabotage
nd More. Psychology Today. Retrieved from:
Burton's article is a combination of the psychodynamic and behavioral models of psychological investigation. The major point of the article is that humans are not always rational,…
And More. Psychology Today. Retrieved from:
Burton's article is a combination of the psychodynamic and behavioral models of psychological investigation. The major point of the article is that humans are not always rational, but are rationalizing. For instance, the trauma of 9/11, even for those not directly affected, caused a number of people to commit suicide. Moreover, if someone is the victim of beatings as a child, they tend to repress those memories, internalize some of the actions, and possibly have problems forming attachments. This, according to Dr. Burton, is the mind's way of defending and coping with stress. It becomes part of the unconscious, but often resurfaces in odd forms. The healthy individual can get on a path to deal with these issues; talk through them, analyze, and find coping mechanisms.
learning? What role does behavior play in learning?
Learning is the acquisition of skills through behaviors. Behaviors help an individual learn through experiences, both favorable and unfavorable. Learning is a life long endeavor which is garnered in the beliefs and behaviors of the individual. The overall process takes time, as beliefs are often broken down, eliminated, and reborn through experience. Behaviors directly impact learning as they are correlated to experiences. Experiences therefore follow behaviors. For example, if an individual behaves in an inappropriate manner regarding his spending, he or she will experience debt. Through this experience the individual will "learn" to manage his or her money in a more appropriate manner.
What are two different types of learning? Describe each one in your response.
The two primary learning styles are that of hands on (kinesthetic) learning and visual learning. A hands on experiments allows the individual to develop in a…
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When children are given the option between a reward they would like and the internal desire to learn something, most children would rather have the reward. That is also true of many adults, whether they are in an educational setting or a business setting. Still, that does not mean that intrinsic interest cannot come along with extrinsic reward, or that operant theory is completely wrong. Many educators mix operant theory with cognitive theory in an effort to provide those with different learning styles more of an opportunity to learn and develop. This helps to reach the largest number of students per educator, improving the overall educational goal.
ognitive Theory of Learning
The cognitive theory of learning has been part of education since the late 1920's, when a Gestalt psychologist focused on the issue of Gestalt teaching and learning, and what that could offer to students who were not learning…
Carton, J.S. (1996). The differential effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation: A comparison of cognitive evaluation theory and operant theory. The Behavior Analyst, 19, 237-255.
Cavalier, a.R., Ferretti, R.P., & Hodges, a.E. (1997). Self-management within a classroom token economy for students with learning disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 18, 167-178.
Davidson, P., & Bucher, B. (1978). Intrinsic interest and extrinsic reward: The effects of a continuing token program on continuing nonconstrained preference. Behavior Therapy, 9, 222-234.
If teachers fail to design connected scaffolds than the class will develop only limited capabilities. He explains that this can be done by choosing only those scaffolding tools which have similar structures, assignment objectives, and interactive styles (Tabak, 2004). Hence when considering the scaffolds for developing skills of weak students, I will make sure that the scaffolds are complementing not only the main learning objective but also one another.
Biehler, S.M. (2010). Psychology Applied to Teaching: 12th edition. Wadsworth Publishing.
Bilal, D. (2002). Perspectives on children's navigation of the World Wide Web: Does the type of search task make a difference? Online Information eview, 26(2), 108-127.
Cho, K. & Jonassen, DH (2002). The effects of argumentation scaffolds on argumentation and problem solving. Educational Technological esearch and Development, 50(3), 5-22.
Hogan, K., & Pressley, M. (1997). Scaffolding student learning: Instructional approaches & issues. Cambridge, M.A.: Brookline Books, Inc.
Biehler, S.M. (2010). Psychology Applied to Teaching: 12th edition. Wadsworth Publishing.
Bilal, D. (2002). Perspectives on children's navigation of the World Wide Web: Does the type of search task make a difference? Online Information Review, 26(2), 108-127.
Cho, K. & Jonassen, DH (2002). The effects of argumentation scaffolds on argumentation and problem solving. Educational Technological Research and Development, 50(3), 5-22.
Hogan, K., & Pressley, M. (1997). Scaffolding student learning: Instructional approaches & issues. Cambridge, M.A.: Brookline Books, Inc.
In conjunction with these perspectives on how to create a highly effective online learning platform that aligns to the specific needs of students, there is a corresponding area of research that concentrates on teaching resiliency in the teaching process. The work of Dr. Carol Dweck of Stanford University underscores the need for leading students to continually challenge themselves to grow and have a very strong growth mindset vs. A limited on. She draws on an empirically-derived research study that shows the greater the growth mindset of even the most talented and gifted mindset, the greater the long-term performance gains they make in life (Dweck, 2006). Her book, Mindset, challenges both students and teachers to create a culture of continual focus on excellence and continual striving to improve, never taking a closed or limited mindset to improvement. It is an inspirational book and shows that there is hope for continual improvement…
Ahlfeldt, S., Mehta, S., & Sellnow, T. (2005). Measurement and analysis of student engagement in university classes where varying levels of PBL methods of instruction are in use. Higher Education Research & Development, 24(1), 5-20.
Basile, a. & D'Aquila, J.M. (2002). An experimental analysis of computer-mediated instruction and student attitudes in a Principles of Financial Accounting course. Journal of Education for Business, 77(3), 137.
Beard, L.A. (2002). Students perceptions of online vs. campus instruction. Education, 122(4), 658.
Dutton, j. d.; Dutton, m.; Perry, j. (2002). How do Online Students Differ from Lecture Students? JALN. Vol. 6, no. 1, July.
In fact it has been proposed that the positive impact observed of PBL on motivation may come from these academically talented individuals rather than the intervention itself (Hwang & Kim, 2006). GPAs and demographic characteristics were not found to be correlated to PBL (Ceconi et al., 2008).
White et al. (2004) found in a study regarding that PBL was not shown to be superior to other learning styles in assisting students to acquire or retain knowledge regarding asthma management. This finding is consistent with the majority of research that has not found greater knowledge acquisition or retention amongst PBL students vs. traditional teaching methods (Albanese, 2000; Beers, 2005; Rogal & Snider, 2008). However, it is not that PBL produces inferior results, most studies have found that there are no significant differences between PBL students and those from traditional curricula on standardized knowledge tests (Beachey, 2007). Beers (2005) points out that…
Many studies have shown that PBL students experience greater motivation toward learning than their traditional counterparts (Hwang & Kim, 2006; Beachey, 2007, Rogal & Snider, 2008). Further PBL has been associated with greater satisfaction in the learning process by physicians than its traditional counterpart (Beachey, 2007; Op't Holt, 2000; Rogal & Snider, 2008). Evaluations of PBL programs have found that not only do students take pleasure in the process, they also believe that they have the capacity to out perform their peers from traditional curricula in clinical settings (Op't Holt, 2005; Kaufman & Mann, 1996). Studies have shown that the teaching method has little bearing on the learning of academically talented students (Hwang & Kim, 2006; Distlehorst, Dawson, Robbs, & Barrows, 2005; Op't Hoyt, 2005). In fact it has been proposed that the positive impact observed of PBL on motivation may come from these academically talented individuals rather than the intervention itself (Hwang & Kim, 2006). GPAs and demographic characteristics were not found to be correlated to PBL (Ceconi et al., 2008).
White et al. (2004) found in a study regarding that PBL was not shown to be superior to other learning styles in assisting students to acquire or retain knowledge regarding asthma management. This finding is consistent with the majority of research that has not found greater knowledge acquisition or retention amongst PBL students vs. traditional teaching methods (Albanese, 2000; Beers, 2005; Rogal & Snider, 2008). However, it is not that PBL produces inferior results, most studies have found that there are no significant differences between PBL students and those from traditional curricula on standardized knowledge tests (Beachey, 2007). Beers (2005) points out that one would expect significant improvement in clinical knowledge and performance in order to advocate for the use of PBL in the classroom due to the extensive resources that are required to utilize PBL curricula.
One would expect that PBL students would be at a significant advantage over their traditional peers due to the clinical application in the classroom (Colliver, 2000). Some
A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior
Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability
Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition
If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws
Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences
Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible
APA rules for research studies
Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject
Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions
The relevance of measuring one's preference when it comes to learning, collaboration, as well as getting things done cannot be overstated. As per the assessment, my working style is execute. In basic terms, my working style means that I have what it takes to follow things through. In addition to being effective in the implementation of plans developed in the examine dynamic, I have a knack for forcing action and take pride in the accomplishment of tasks. It is important to note that my ability to delegate could be of great relevance when it comes to the promotion of better results. Another key strength of my working style has got to be that I do not shy away from challenging tasks. Instead, I focus on finding the most viable solutions so as to win. I may, however, be poor in promoting an idea in an attempt…
Conversant Solutions (2017). The Conversational Meter: Authenticity, Community, Contribution. Retrieved from http://conversant.com/vitality_post/the-conversation-meter/#.WU70VlElHIV
Godwin, J. (2015). Study Skills A-Z. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan
5 Dynamics (2017). The 5 Dynamics Model. Retrieved from https://www.5dynamics.com/why-5-dynamics/5-dynamics-model/
archetypal scene of the educational process is for most of us a child and a teaching sitting next to each other, their heads bowed together intently over a book. It is an island, in this high-tech world in which we live, of the low-tech: A world that depends upon communication and human interactions rather than machines and gadgets. Education seems to be one of those realms in which it is still possible to believe in and practice the humanistic arts.
But this idealized picture of the teaching process is, like so many idealized pictures, not exactly accurate - as well as being a little out of date. Education has, in fact, always made use of technology in our human attempt to pass onto each new generation what the generation before it holds to be important. Slate boards and books were high-tech in their own time - and most children now…
Baker, C. (2001). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism, 3rd ed. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Blevins, D. (2002). Personal communication.
California State Code, Education Code, Section 305-306.
Florida Department of Education, http://www.firn.edu/doe
Learning Styles -- Academic Performance
There has been a great deal of scholarly research done on how students learn, and how certain learning styles impact the academic outcomes. This paper delves into four scholarly research papers that describe learning styles and the subsequent academic achievements that result from those learning styles.
Deep Learning is Preferable to Surface Learning
Several learning styles were used in a research project involving 273 Social Science students at a British university. The learning styles being rated and observed (part of Vermunt's Inventory of Learning Styles) included "deep learning," "self-regulated learning," "intrinsic motivation," and "constructivist conception of learning." In the research, these four styles of learning were seen as preferable to "surface learning," "teacher-centered learning," "extrinsic motivation," and "objectivist conception of learning" (Boyle, et al., 2003). The most acceptable learning style in terms of the student achieving positive academic gains was "deep learning," which requires the…
Boatman, K., Courtney, R., and Lee, W. (2008). "See How They Learn": The Impact of Faculty and Student Learning Styles on Student Performance in Introductory
Economics. The American Economist, 52(1), 39-52.
Boyle, E. A., Duffy, T., and Dunleavy, K. (2003). Learning styles and academic outcome:
The validity and utility of Vermunt's Inventory of Learning Styles in a British higher education setting. British Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 73, 267-290.