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How are Archives Different from Libraries
Words: 1439 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 89157385
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Library Sciences Personal Reflection
My thoughts and impressions about archives and archival work have changed substantially since the beginning of the semester. Originally, I thought of it as a job where you sat isolated away from humanity in a closed room, pouring over boxes and boxes of old manuscripts, documenting each one endlessly while the world went on day to day outside. After this course, I have to say my interest in archival work has grown considerably. As Somers (2017) notes, for instance, in a big archive, there is simply not enough man power to go through all the records, piece by piece. A lot of what it stored is not really known in detail but only in a superficial—a manner that allows for records to be categorized but not really known in much depth. (That is why it is important for researchers to go into archives with a critical…

Archival Use and Users. (n.d.). Google Docs. Retrieved from
Module #2: Archival Appraisal and Acquisition. (n.d.) Course Material, 1-22.
Module #6: Archival Management and Ethics. (n.d.). Google Docs. Retrieved from
SAA. (n.d.). SAA core values statement and code of ethics. Retrieved from
Society of American Archivists. (2017). What are archives and how do they differ from libraries. Retrieved from
Somers, J. (2017). Keepers of the secrets. Retrieved from

Libraries and Newspaper Preservation Double Fold --
Words: 2424 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54761027
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Libraries and Newspaper Preservation

Double Fold -- the Book that Shook the World of Librarians

The man whose name has become "mud" in the domain of librarians the world over is also a novelist, journalist, founder / head of a non-profit corporation known as "American Newspaper epository" (AN), and "library activist"; his real name is Nicholson Baker, and the book that brought so much attention to him, and to the practice of some libraries to destroy newspaper archives, is Double Fold: Libraries and the Assault on Paper.

It all began in 1993 for Baker, as he explains in the Preface to his award-winning book, when he was writing a piece for The New Yorker, and, while interviewing librarians around the country, " ... found out that the card catalogs were being thrown out everywhere. I grew less cheerful, and the essay grew longer," he wrote (vii).

And then, after establishing…


Albanese, Andrew. "Duke Receives Baker's Archives." Library Journal 129.11 (2004):


Baker, Nicholson. Double Fold: Libraries and the Assault on Paper. New York: Random

House, 2001.

Libraries Changing Role of Libraries Changing Role
Words: 8909 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 17277967
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Changing ole of Libraries

Changing ole of Libraries in Today's Society

Changing ole of Libraries in Today's Society

Changing ole of Libraries in Today's Society

From the time when the recorded history began, all kinds of artifacts of symbolic, religious, social, and educational have been assembled together and protected in the libraries in the form of books and documents. Sumerians were the one who developed and brought into actual formation of a library. People of Mesopotamia, several millennia before, revolutionized the means of communication by using symbols and pictures which represented specific units of speech. According to Derrida (1996), the humans have undergone an "archive fever" which means the urge to preserve all kinds of information regarding the history, facts, experiences of people, etc. This impulse gave rise to libraries like temple libraries which contained organized and arranged books and this was done by trained personnel. Libraries in the…


Barr, RB., and J. Tagg. 1995. From teaching to learning -- A new paradigm for undergraduate education. Change 27(6): 13 -- 25.

Bazillion, RJ. 2001. Academic libraries in the digital revolution. Educause Quarterly 24(1): 51 -- 55.

Bazillion, RJ., and C. Braun. 2001. Academic libraries as high-tech gateways: A guide to design and space decisions. Chicago: American Library Association.

Beagle, D. 1999. Conceptualizing an information commons. Journal of Academic Librarianship 25(2): 82 -- 89.

Academic Libraries the Evolution and
Words: 1628 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 20726502
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In addition to that, the libraries also had to launch various training programs in order to ensure that their employees possess the appropriate skills that are being required by the operations and activities of the organization. (Foo, Chaudry, Majid & Logan, 2002)

Changing Demands of Users

Due to a significant change in the academic environment, an ever increasing emphasis was laid down on group work and self-study. The students, therefore, started looking for online information in the academic libraries. The libraries faced a challenge of increased consumer demand and had to work on customer services and proper and timely availability of information. The libraries needed to provide the consumers with user friendly services. They also had to analyze the changes in consumer demands and had to provide the services that best fit the requirements of changing academic world. (Maponya, 2004)


The academic libraries are an important component and information…

Borgman, C. Central Technological University Library (CTK), (2000). Challenges for academic libraries in the networked world (UDC 027.7:004.738). Retrieved from Central Technological University Library (CTK) website:

Foo, S., Chaudry, a.S., Majid, S.M., & Logan, E. School of Communication and Information, Division of Information Studies. (2002). Academic libraries in transition -- challenges ahead. Retrieved from School of Communication and Information website: 

Maponya, P.M. School of Human and Social Studies, Information Studies Programme. (2004). Knowledge management practices in academic libraries: a case study of the university of natal, Pietermaritzburg libraries . Retrieved from School of Human and Social Studies website: management practices in academic libraries.pdf

Electronic Libraries and Their Referencing
Words: 1238 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 34041168
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The librarians also allowed students to vet their services and give reports that analyzed their service delivery.

The librarians also provided questionnaires that contained questions that were inquisitive of; directions and building locations, reference and general library information etc. The librarians contacted 28 people over a period of two weeks only, which was an average turn up for the research. The target group was well established, as the librarians targeted students and the community, which were the most frequent users of the library. It would have been unjust to choose a group that hardly did any academic research. The data gathered was also reliable and relevant, because it came directly from the users of the electronic library, and they were in the best position to understand what affected their research. The researches were lenient enough to avoid biasness, as they were gender sensitive and did their sampling sensitively. The methods…


Okladot (2012). Contents of a Research Proposal. Retrieved 19 October, 2012 from

Freedom and Intellectual Libraries
Words: 5372 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7243168
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Intellectual Freedom in Libraries

In today's academic world intellectual freedom is a very important issue. In this paper various factors which are affecting intellectual freedom have been discussed along with efforts that need to be made in order to make the access of information possible for all. The issues being faced mainly by the librarians regarding the protection of confidential information of the library users have also been discussed in this paper. Furthermore the paper focuses on the important roles that can be played by the librarians in guiding and educating the people regarding the proper use of information.

Intellectual freedom is the liberty to express opinions in the academic world, the freedom of access to the information and the freedom of using that information (in a legal manner) without the fear of your confidential information being exploited. Intellectual freedom is very important for the academic growth of any society…


American Association of School Librarians. (2009). Empowering learners: Guidelines for school library media programs. Chicago: American Association of School Librarians.

American Library Association (ALA). (2007). Office for Intellectual Freedom: intellectual freedom and censorship Q & A. 

Arko-Cobbah, A. (2004). The role of libraries in student-centred learning: the case of students from the disadvantaged communities in South Africa. The International Information and Library Review 36(3):263 -- 271.

Arko-Cobbah, A. (2011). Intellectual Freedom and Academic Freedom: Some Challenges and Opportunities for Academic Libraries in Africa. Mousaion, 28 (2) 2011 pp. 76 -- 95

Paraprofessionals Libraries Coping With 'Digital
Words: 544 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 86717120
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The survey also indicated that the vast majority of paraprofessionals had undergraduate degrees and of the tasks and "high-level skills required for professional positions and paraprofessional positions" there was little appreciable difference (Zhu 2012). However, there still remained tasks which library professionals alone could take on such as conducting research for scholarly publications and communication; writing grant proposals; dealing with licensing and copyright issues and developing and preserving collections.

Overall, the findings of the article suggested that "the role of paraprofessionals had been diminishing because more job duties required the broader background and greater expertise of professionals" and job prospects were shrinking (Zhu 2012). Existing paraprofessionals were taking on more tasks, which required them to have higher-level skills and more education, but there were frequent complaints that this did not result in enhanced prospects for promotion or higher salaries. For a young, aspiring professional reading this article, it is likely…

Librarian the Libraries Are a Source of
Words: 2846 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 9652901
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The libraries are a source of knowledge and they have been linked to wisdom historically. It was a great thing to visit library (surely it is even today) and the people owning their personal libraries were considered most honored in the society. However, with the increase in population, the concept of public libraries became more popular and by mid-20th century, the public libraries were the biggest help for the researchers that wanted to access knowledge pertaining to various different areas of education. The research librarian used to be a post that helped the researchers find their specific source in book, articles, magazines and web. The post still exists but not everywhere. These research librarians were considered as helpful, even more, as the tourist guides in foreign country. This paper studies the role of research librarian and the way they help research questions.

Location of study

Millions of people in…

Every) Reference Transaction," Reference & User Services Quarterly, 43(1), 38-43

Sollenberger, J.F., and Holloway, R.G., (2013), "The Evolving Role and Value of Libraries and Librarians in Health Care," The Journal of American Medical Association, 310(12), 1231-1232

Schulte, S.J., (2011), "Eliminating traditional reference services in an academic health sciences library: a case study," Journal of Medical Library Association, 99(4): 273 -- 279.

Landscapes Are Libraries Whose Information
Words: 1653 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 46931770
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Rural poverty is a concerning matter in many areas mainly because farmers there have had access to limited education concerning attitudes they need to employ in order to be successful in their field of work. Conserving soil is not only beneficial for the environment, as it also plays an important role in helping individuals in rural areas. "Reducing land degradation is more likely to be achieved by supporting NGOs that focus on agriculture and the environment, promoting nonfarm activities, and controlling population growth or facilitating emigration from the highlands, thus reducing soil erosion and nutrient depletion" (Nkonya x).

In many cases cultural values are extremely important in influencing locals to take on a more respectful attitude toward the environment. By being provided with education emphasizing nature's dependence on them concomitantly with their dependence on nature, individuals are probable to acknowledge that it would be in their best interest to fight…

Works cited:

Huckle and Sterling, Stephen R., "Education for sustainability," (Earthscan, 1996)

Leopold, Aldo, "The Land Ethic"

Nkonya, Ephraim, "Strategies for Sustainable Land Management and Poverty Reduction in Uganda," (International Food Policy Res Inst, 01.07.2004)

Paehlke, Robert C., "Conservation and Environmentalism: An Encyclopedia," (Routledge, 03.04.2013)

Mind of Libraries Professors and
Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78104890
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Individuals who successfully complete college will have more than the technical degree that he or she earned, but a mind that seeks new challenges and new solutions to problems. It is the fact that college builds us into a flexible machine that will inevitably push us to greater success in the future.

The final reason that everyone should go to college is that it creates greater work opportunities for the future. It has been statistically proven that those individuals who do not go to college will be severely limited in their selection of future positions. The reason is that college opens doors to future opportunities that we are not aware of at the outset. Therefore armed with a college degree we have a lot more options that ever before. Not only does this mean that we will engage in jobs that we actually have a passion for, but that our…

Patron Divine Acquisitions Financial Impact
Words: 2018 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 72727632
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The reader does not have to wait for the administrator to make the title available or some other user releasing it for the use of other readers. This independence of multiple persons use allows the PDA model to increase the readership of title without compromising the number of people that have hold of the title (einers, et al., 2012).. Libraries only main issue has been that people keep books with them for too long and other readers have to wait too long, often up to a length of a month's period.

Disadvantages of PDA model

With greater freedom for the library administrators as well as the readers, any model with benefits has potential downsides to it as well. This model also has some limitations some of which are discussed below.

elatively smaller number of titles

The PDA model is known for its limitation of only offering limited number of titles…


Alto, P. (2010, Oct). ebrary Launches New Patron Driven Acquisition E-Book Model. Business Wire. Retrieved from: [ ]

Polanka, S. (Ed.). (2011). No shelf required: e-books in libraries (Vol. 1). ALA Store.

Reiners, L.A., Walker, D., Heppell, C., Farmer, J., Adey, H., & Berrington, M. (2012). Patron-driven acquisition: the experience of three university libraries.SCONUL Focus, (55), 33-36.

Library Resources vs. ikipedia," authors Colon-Aguirre & Fleming-May (2012) illustrate that modern scholars are very often more likely to look for quick solutions to research issues, such as exploiting ikipedia which is not peer reviewed and therefore has always been synonymous with a lack of truth or evidence. There are a myriad of reasons why students are so much more likely to access easy information like ikipedia rather than going through the trouble of studying that campus's library resources and the researchers tried to ascertain some of the reasons directly responsible for the growing dependency on internet materials. In this study, twenty-one undergraduate students from a public university in the United States which is not named in the study for the sake of anonymity of the participants were questioned about their study and research practices. hat started out as a statistical evaluation of the percentage of students who use internet-based…

Works Cited

Colon-Aguirre, M. & Fleming-May, R. (2012). You just type in what you are looking for:

undergraduates' use of library resources vs. Wikipedia. The Journal of Academic Librarianship. Elsevier. 38 (6). 381-99.

Sustainable Building Promoting Sustainability Through
Words: 2547 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 943036
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The local community will know that the library and the campus in general support local businesses and local efforts. They have an excellent opportunity to build community support and rapport through purchasing locally as a part of the sustainability plan.

Community Leadership

The campus library has many reasons to commit to sustainable building design. Aside from the apparent environmental reasons, the long-term benefits to their financial well-being and contribution to the community also make this an excellent project for the library. Sustainable building design demonstrates excellent community leadership for the library. People come to the library in search of knowledge and enlightenment. esponsible building design promotes the overall goals of the library as an example of what can be achieved and as a community resource.

Sustainable building creates sustainable communities. It only takes a single act to create the need for future buildings to follow sustainable principles. This will spread…


Perryman, J. (2010). The Cost of LEED certification: What budget advice can estimators provide to their Clients for going green. Design Cost Data. Retrieved April 13, 2010 From 

Sierra Club (2005). Institutional Sustainability Audit. Sierra Club. January 1, 2005. Retrieved

April 13, 2010 from

Trends Issues in Provision of Health Information Resources Services
Words: 1930 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90814371
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Health Information esources/Services

Libraries have traditionally been safeguarded the fulfillment of goals of continuing education in their respective fields. It is felt to accord enhanced priority to the health science librarians while the continuing education experts enhance their knowledge of the learning process and the various elements that make the scope of the continuing education effective. eally, the role of health sciences libraries is enormous particularly in the sphere of the lifelong learning and Continuing Education. The concept of Continuing Education has been conveniently been divided by Gruppen as formal CE that concentrates on conventional programs concerning specific topics and aimed at particular audiences; and the informal CE that emphasizes on the learning that involves the anxiety of practitioners anxious of resolving the problems in their routine practice. (Messerle, 1990)

The role of health science libraries has been realized to be significant in both the categories of continuing education and…


Block, Karla J. (Summer, 1997) "Problem-based learning in medical education: Issues for health sciences libraries and librarians" Katharine Sharp Review. Graduate School of Library and Information Science, Dominican University/College of St. Catherine. No. 5. pp: 25-28

Braude, Robert. M; Wood, Samuel. J. (January, 1997) "On the origin of a species: evolution of health sciences librarianship" Bull Medical Library Association. Vol: 85; No: 1; pp: 116-121

Kronenfeld, Michael R. (January, 2005) "Trends in academic health sciences libraries and their emergence as the "knowledge nexus" for their academic health centers" Journal of Medical Library Association. Vol: 93; No: 1; pp: 32 -- 39.

Messerle, J. (April, 1990) "The changing continuing education role of health sciences libraries" Bull Medical Library Association. Vol: 78; No: 2; pp: 180 -- 187.

Loans Logins and Lasting the
Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 50626169
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There was little difference in terms of library use and retention between SES groups, although, "overall, the differences in library use between the SES groups were not statistically significant over the semester; however, PC logins at 1 April were significantly higher for students from low SES backgrounds than their colleagues from medium and high SES backgrounds" (Haddow & Joseph 2010: 240-241).

The study design and approach seems flawed from the beginning, given its emphasis on using the physical location of the library, which the authors admit is relatively outdated, given the number of students who access the library virtually, either at workstations or remotely, versus the relative paucity that use its physical resources. Even giving undue emphasis to the use of workstations as proof of student engagement with the library seems questionable and unwise, since less affluent students will invariably have a greater need to use the physical location of…

Demographic and student library use were logged over the course of a semester at a single Australian university. The findings raised some questions about the initial hypothesis -- of all students, both those whom remained at university and did not, very few actually took out a physical book from the library. There was a higher rate of student library usage by retained students, but that may partially have been due to the fact that once students dropped out, they no longer had access to (or a need to) use the library. What the authors found significant were "the significant differences found for use of library workstations and other electronic resources and retention early in the semester [which] may be the most useful results to emerge from the study" (Haddow & Joseph 2010: 240). There was little difference in terms of library use and retention between SES groups, although, "overall, the differences in library use between the SES groups were not statistically significant over the semester; however, PC logins at 1 April were significantly higher for students from low SES backgrounds than their colleagues from medium and high SES backgrounds" (Haddow & Joseph 2010: 240-241).

The study design and approach seems flawed from the beginning, given its emphasis on using the physical location of the library, which the authors admit is relatively outdated, given the number of students who access the library virtually, either at workstations or remotely, versus the relative paucity that use its physical resources. Even giving undue emphasis to the use of workstations as proof of student engagement with the library seems questionable and unwise, since less affluent students will invariably have a greater need to use the physical location of the library if they lack ready computer access. The most committed of the least affluent students, logic would dictate, would use the workstations; more affluent students would use home computers and less committed students would eschew the library entirely.

Instead of determining the correlation between retention and library usage, a more interesting question would be the correlation between effective library use and retention, an area which students from high SES backgrounds might have an advantage and explain their higher retention rates. The incoming class could have been given and Internet-administered quiz asking them such questions as how to use the online library catalogue; how to access an academic database; and their relative comfort level in conducting academic research. This would have allowed researchers to compare demographic characteristics with responses. At the end of the semester, the retention rates of the class vs. their scores on the initial quiz could be assessed to see if comfort and confidence in using the library gave an advantage to incoming students in terms of their overall freshman year career.

Learning and Teaching Principles of
Words: 505 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 44750523
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(American Lirary Association, 2006)

II. Skills that Students will Possess upon Graduation from High School

The work entitled: "Information Literacy Curriculum" states that upon graduation from high school the student will posses the following skills:

(1) Information literacy -- aility to identify, locate, access, retrieve, evaluate and use information from a variety of formats;

(2) Information management -- aility to use electronic lirary catalogs, microformats, periodical dataases, CD-ROM interfaces, school area network programs, INTERNET, and print materials;

(3) Research Strategies -- aility to use print and electronic lirary sources effectively;

(4) Classification and Grouping of Information -- aility to use word processing, manipulation of dataase files to download, copy, and print information, and note-taking skills;

(5) Organization of Information - aility to correctly cite sources and create note cards and iliography; and (6) Effective Use of Media Equipment -- aility to operate OPAC, LAN, Microfilm / Microfiche, VCR and Videotapes,…

bibliography; and (6) Effective Use of Media Equipment -- ability to operate OPAC, LAN, Microfilm / Microfiche, VCR and Videotapes, Audio Cassette Player and tapes, CD-ROM station, Copy Machine and Printer to retrieve, copy, or print materials.


Information Literacy Curriculum (nd) Clarkstown Central School District West Nyack, NY. Online available at: 

Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning - Learning and Teaching Principles of School Library Media Programs (2006) American Association of Libraries. Online available at:

Franklin Delaney Roosevelt's Attitude Towards the Jewish
Words: 1417 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 51340018
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Franklin Delaney oosevelt's attitude towards the Jewish problem during the War. I have read and heard such contradictory accounts spanning from Jews who congratulate for his involvement to some scholars and others who criticize him for an alleged anti-Semitism. Being that this is a famous personality that we are talking about and a prominent President of the U.S.A.; I felt that enlightenment on the subject was important. I wanted to go to the source, and therefore I accessed original documents from the collections of the Franklin D. oosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. These, compounded with other sources, are the results that I found.

By the 1940s, news had already reached the U.S.A. about the concentration camps which Edward . Murrow described (December, 13, 1942),as "A horror beyond what imagination can grasp . . . there are no longer 'concentration camps' -- we must speak now only of 'extermination camps.'" (FD…


Beschloss, M. The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman and the Destruction of Hitler's Germany NY: Simon & Schuster, 2002.


Feingold, HL The Politics of Rescue: The Roosevelt Administration and the Holocaust, 1938-1945 New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1970.

Researching the Sandinista Revolution
Words: 424 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6168026
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Sandinista Revolution

Library Search: Books

nut, W. (n.d.). The Regime of Anastasio Somoza, 1936-1956. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, p. xiii.

Zimmerman, M. (2000). Sandinista: Carlos Fonseca and the Nicaraguan Revolution. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, pp.205-227.

Vilas, C. (1985). The workers' movement in the Sandinista revolution. In Harris, R. And Vilas, C. (eds.), Nicaragua: A Revolution Under Siege. London: Zed Books.

Zwerling, P. And Martin, C. (1985). Nicaragua: A New ind of Revolution. Chicago, IL: Lawrence Hill Books. Also, reviewed in Foreign Affairs. n.p., 1 Sept. 1985. [Webpage]. Retrieved

Library Search: Journal Articles

Harris, R.L. (1987). The revolutionary transformation of Nicaragua." Latin American Perspectives, 14(1 Winter), 3-18.

Leogrande, W.M. (1996). Making the economy scream: U.S. economic sanctions against Sandinista Nicaragua, Third World Quarterly, 17(2), 329-348.

Paris, R. (2002). Peacebuilding in Central America: Reproducing the sources of conflict? International Peacekeeping, 9(4 Winter), 39-68.

Schroeder, M.J. (2005).…

Kirksville, MO: Truman University. [Website]. Retreived 

Klerlein, E. (2006, December 14). Environmental effects of Nicaraguan armed conflicts. ICE Case Studies. [Website]. Retrieved 

Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua. (2013). [Website]. Pennsylvania State University at Abbington. Retrieved  [Type text]

Dime Novel Has a Specific
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Seminar Paper Paper #: 78398246
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Vast lands were open, and adventure seemed rampant. In fact, so compelling was the idea of the American West that Theodore Roosevelt noted, "More and more as the years go by this Republic will find its guidance in the thought and action of the West, because the conditions of development in the West have steadily tended to accentuate the peculiarly American characteristics of its people" (Roosevelt). The frontier was still available through the Dime Novel; adventures with the American Indian, gold mining, vast herds of buffalo, and even the railroad were popular; must like space adventures today. This was the great unknown, and, through a series of essays, historian Frederick Jackson Turner noted that while most of the West was at least mapped, the future of the United States would be decided in the West -- thus, once the frontier became an historical relic, it was fair game to be…

Police Psychology
Words: 2519 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52776718
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Police Psychology


You are a police psychologist for a major metropolitan area. You are also a member of its hostage negotiation team. You have been called to a crisis incident at 3:15 P.M. On a Friday. It is in a residential area about three blocks from a middle school and a public library. The information you have at this time is that the subject is a 42-year-old male who is holed up in his house with his wife, son, and a family friend. He has murdered his next-door neighbor and is threatening to kill those in the house if his demands are not met. One of his demands is for immunity from the murder charge if he surrenders without harming any of the people in the house. His other demands are a case of beer and some fast food. He wants his demands met or "something will happen."u


Works Cited

Alaxander, D., & Klein, S. (2010). Hostage-taking: motives, resolution, coping and effects. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 176-183.

Cooper, H. (1981). Hostage-takers. Retrieved from National Criminal Justice Reference Service: 

Goldaber, I. (1979). Typology of Hostage-Takers. Police Chief, 21-23. Retrieved from Hughes, J. (2009). A Pilot Study of Naturally Occuring High-Probability Request Sequences in Hostage Negotiations. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 491-496.

McMains, M., & Mullins, W. (2010). Crisis Negotiation (4th ed.). New Providence: Lexis/Nexis/Anderson.

Multicultural Literature
Words: 1467 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 46401537
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diversity of the different cultures. The main aim is to highlight the diversity in the form of literature. Through different research methods, the paper has been compiled with the help of different reference sites and libraries.

There are different pieces of literature listed in the paper. The main aim of this is to show the different variance of culture in literature. The main focus of the paper is children's books. There is a vast variety of different story books for children. Some are universal, while others are culture specific.

This list is based on such culture specific stories for children to read. This list consists of books which are suitable for children in grades K. To 8.

Annotated Bibliography

Bishop, C.H. (1996). The Five Chinese Brothers.

The story is about five brothers from Chinese descent, who have the ability to do something special. The one with the ability to hold…

Massey-Burzio v From the Other
Words: 1291 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 92727823
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Simple, bullet point, one-sheet explanations are the preferred method of learning research methodology.

Most were unwilling to invest in classes or even seminars regarding proper use of library reference materials.

The library "information desk" was perceived as unhelpful and further, unwilling to be helpful. The "barrier" between the patron and the desk disallows the librarian to visit the computer with the client and do one-on-one tutoring.

Desk staff refer less than 10% of the questions to reference librarians, even when clearing dealing with questions far beyond their purview (Ibid 210-12).

Using the standards suggested by Kuruppu, one is able to glean a broad critique of the Massey-Burzio study:


Massey-Burzio Use



Focus Group

Good as a primary identifier of questions and direction, inappropriate as a data source; responses are too broad, lack the specificity necessary to tabulate, and only "suggest" data use or further research, does not define…


Kuruppu, P., "Evaluation of Reference Services -- a Review." Journal of Academic

Librarianship. 33 no. 3 (2007): 368-81.

Pierce, S. "In Pursuit of the Possible: Evaluating Reference Services." In Evaluating

Reference Services, the Reference Librarian, ed. B., Katz and R. Fraley. (Haworth