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A mixture of innate talents and supportive relationships resulted in achievement and resiliency. Social learning theory suggests that resiliency, and the ability to turn negatives into positives, such as Angelou's use of her difficult life as a source for literary autobiography and poetry, is not biologically based, but depends upon being exposed to social opportunities and the willingness of others to develop the subject's natural gifts.
But this ability to 'mine' her life's challenges may itself be partially due to a biological stress response that is more productive for individuals such as Angelou than other individuals. esilience does not so much imply an invulnerability to stress, but rather an ability to recover from negative events: "Considerable data exists suggesting that young people functioning well under high stress often show higher levels of emotional distress compared to their low stress peers" (Olsson et al. 2003, p.3). In other words, a natural…
Ewart, Craig K., Randall S. Jorgensen, Edith Chen, Sonia Suchday, & Karen a. Matthews.
(2002). Measuring stress resilience and coping in vulnerable youth: The social competence interview. Psychological Assessment, 14 (3), 339 -- 352. Retrieved May 9,
2010 at http://www.psych.ubc.ca/~healthpsych/EdithArticles/PA2002.pdf
Maya Angelou: Biography. Biography.com. Retrieved May 9, 2010 at http://www.biography.com/articles/Maya-Angelou-9185388?print
What Concepts Seem Especially Relevant to You as A Social Worker?
Social work initiatives across the nation aid us, as social workers, in preparing for a number of problematic content areas which social workers come across in the course of their career. But 'gender identity' subject is often dismissed in spite of its relevance in all people's lives. In fact, social workers encounter several clients who experience gender identity struggles, to some extent, in life (Irvin & Mckay, 2013). The social work profession entails working with people; another comparable definition stresses "social" significance and, simultaneously, recognizes individuals' gender identity receptiveness to broader influential systems (Hawkes and Scott 2005, 7).
Expression of gender is socially-built, based on cultural expectations and standards. For instance, several people would agree on the fact that little girls do not innately love all things "pink" and wish to dress dolls. These things are taught to them…
Life-span developmental theory offers a guideline for understanding human aging. Primarily, the theory provides explains the regular changes occurring to an individual to death. Theories of the aging process act as frameworks for aligning research findings and observations to deduce significant conclusions. The information is essential because it enhances sequencing in the lifespan hence providing chronological priority to earlier moments and events in an individual's life. Besides, life span theory can be identified as a synchronized integration of different age-based developmental specializations. Evidently, most people hold a perception of being actively engaged in shaping their future. They follow developmental stages that are intelligible in exploring and pursuing long-term goals. I have realized that the lifespan development theory is essential in my realization of timely goals in life as a social worker. In this study, I have elucidated the motivational theory of lifespan development and illustrated how I will incorporate it…
Lifespan development is a field of study that involves growth patterns stability and change in one's behavior in the whole stretch of life. The definition does not fully capture the intricate process of the study. The study employs scientific approaches to establish these trends. We need a close examination of the elements of the definition above. In examining stability, growth and change, lifespan development checks the assumptions about the course and nature of the development of a human being. This is a scientific way of establishing the facts in the study. Scientists evolve development theories and apply systematic scientific methods to establish the exactness of these assumptions. The focus of the studies is the development of human beings (FLDNMC, 2010).Lifespan Development scientists select a topical area of focus and consider the age range of study. The span normally spreads out in broad age range segments. These segments include…
Adolescence. (n.d.). Pearson Highered. Retrieved from:https://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/020559526X.pdf
Baltes, P. B., Lindenberger, U., & Staudinger, U. M. (2007). Life Span Theory in Developmental Psychology. In Handbook of Child Psychology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470147658.chpsy0111/abstract
Chand, S. (2013). How to Adapt CBT for Older Adults? Current Psychiatry, 12(3), 10-15.
Cooper, J., Masi, R., & Vick, J. (2009). Social-emotional Development in Early Childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty.
Super's Life-Span Theory
Career development is a continuous process that can last for a lifetime since it incorporates the decisions and changes that individuals make from entry into a particular field until retirement. This view is supported by David Super's Life-Span Theory, which postulates that personal change is a continuous process because people are influenced by various factors in life as the develop from one stage to another and experience different life roles. The continuous nature of career development is also attributable to the fact that people have the capability to carry out different duties across several occupations. Therefore, career is not an isolated phenomenon, but a social phenomenon influenced by social factors and the organization where these factors are rooted (Baruch, 2004). In essence, career development should be viewed through the lenses of its changing nature because of individuals' potential to develop different skills and ability throughout their life…
Baruch, Y. (2004). Managing careers: theory and practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Schwimmer, L. (2013, October 15). The 10 Words You Won't Say . . . On Your Deathbed. The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 14, 2017, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/larry-schwimmer/the-10-words-you-wont-say_b_4097452.html
Donald E. Super
The Life-Span theory of career development, developed by D.E. Super in 1953, is a highly useful tool for understanding career choice and development across the lifespan. The theory sees career development as a series of steps that begin with the development of self-concept, and end with retirement, although these steps can sometimes be juxtaposed during the life cycle. In the decades since Super's theory was first developed, it has remained topical, respected, and useful in career development counseling. However, the theory's limited consideration of individual factors and socioeconomic factors make it the most useful when used in conjunction with other approaches to career development.
Overview of Life-Span Theory number of key figures helped to shape Super's Life-Span theory of career development. These included Hull, Thorndike, and Bandura, who helped to shape the major focus of the theory toward an understanding of the distinct life roles of the…
American Psychological Association. Vocational Development. 28 April 2004. http://www.apa.org/pubinfo/school/page10.html
Gredler, M.E. (1997). Learning and instruction: theory into practice. 3rd edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
Marini, Margaret Mooney and Brinton, Mary C. (1984). Sex Segregation in the Workplace: Trends, Explanations, Remedies. National Academies Press. 28 April 2004. http://books.nap.edu/books/0309034450/html/192.html
Sharf, Richard S. 2001. Applying Career Development Theory to Counseling. Brooks Cole; 3 edition.
adulthood death individual a culmination life span developmental process.
Death and dying is an intrinsic part of life, and the culmination of a life cycle that begins with conception. There are several various stages related to death and dying, such as preserving one's health and wellness, dealing with various facets of ageism, as well as examining cultural attitudes and varying viewpoints of the dying process from different points in history.
Health and Wellness
The primary way of mitigating the effects of aging on the body, mind and spirits of people is to actively promote an awareness of health and wellness. Quite simply, people must take care of their bodies. A key facet of doing so is to have a trusted physician and to go on regular checkups. In addition to keeping in contact with a doctor, individuals should make certain changes to their diet to reflect the varying needs…
Berger, K.S. (2008). The developing person through the life span (7th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.
Farid, S., Farid, Hany. (no date). "A brief history of ancient Egyptian tombs." Csdartmouth.edu. Retrieved from http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/farid/Hany_Farid/Egypt_History.html
Identity in Emerging Adulthood
Title an exploration of employment selection behaviors and the link to identity development.
Area of study
This study considers the employment selection behaviors of emerging adults. Employment selection is a critical element of the development process. It influences and structures the ability to take care of oneself in the present and the future. However, more significantly employment is an indicator of independence and display of the ability to commit to a usually a long-term experience. Independence and commitment are skills that in adulthood can establish the way in which one lives. In this framework, employment can be viewed as one of the indicators that reflect an individual's development in these areas. This is beyond the individuals self-perception that they are not adults (Nelson et al. 2000).
In the modern context, self-determination requires the individual to have some form of employment and access to legitimate forms…
Arnett, J.J. Emerging (2000). Adulthood: A Theory of Development From the Late Teens
Through the Twenties American Psychologist 55(5):469-480. DOI: 10.1037//0003-
Nelson L.J., Padilla-Walker, L.M., Carroll J.S. Madsen, S.D. Barry, C.M. & Badger, S.
"Amy or Annie" is the symbol of integrity, a child who had won Eddie's affection and managed to bring in him his care for other people.
In sum, Mitch Albom's "The five people you meet in heaven" is an effective illustration of the life of Eddie, an 83-year-old man who, through a vision of "heaven" on earth, received self-actualization/integrity as he approached the end of his life on earth. Interestingly, Albom uses "heaven" in a figurative sense in order to extend the important message of the novel to his readers: "heaven" is but a supernatural concept that actually exists anytime, anywhere in this world. Enlightened people who realize this truth about heaven, like Eddie, achieve self-actualization/integrity in life. Moreover, Albom wants his readers to realize that the path towards self-actualization/integrity does not end at death; rather, it is dynamic or ever-changing and continuous, and it is only in achieving a…
Albom, M. (2003). The five people you meet in heaven. NY: Hyperion.
Santrock, J. (2004). Life-span development. NY:McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
perfect, Piaget's theories a profound impact field cognitive development. Provide analysis model challenges . a.Define main stages Piaget's theory, age ranges. b.Discuss crucial processes children move stage .
Piaget's theory of cognitive development relates to four essential stages that children go through as they grow up. The first is the sensorimotor stage and it involves the time period between birth and the age of two. Children learn more about the world in this phase by interacting with objects and through their experiences. The second is the preoperational stage, entails children between the ages of two to (approximately) seven, and it has children acquiring more information through role-playing but still encountering issues because they cannot properly implement logics and as they have difficulty seeing things from other point-of-views. The concrete operational stage occurs from about seven to about eleven years old and has children behaving and thinking more logically. Even with…
Santrock, John W. (2006). "Life-Span Development (10th ed.)" McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.
Smith, Leslie, (2002). "Critical Readings on Piaget." Routledge.
Developmental Evidence for Contemporary Law
Criminal behavior is unfortunate at any age. Yet, when the one committing the crime is a child, society tends to not know how to digest the actual acts as they unfold. Children are supposed to be so innocent, yet they can be capable of heinous acts. Much of this is learned through exposure to such acts, making the act itself reflexive in that the child weighed its potential success. However, it is clear that the undeveloped cognitive abilities of a child, especially at the age of six, makes that child void of responsibility of criminal acts because they lack the proper fully developed cognitive structures to understand the very real consequences for their actions.
It is true; children are a lot smarter than we often think they are. They are true sponges, in that they absorb what they see and then reenact that behavior to…
Berger, Kathleen. The Developing Person through the Life Span. 8th ed.
For me personally, however, the empathy that I develop is directed by my spirituality and inclination to see beyond what is obvious. This combination has been most beneficial for me as a social worker (obbins, Chatterjee and Canda, 2006; Lesser and Pope, 2007).
Furthermore, the level of loyalty and dedication that I bring to my work is something I am very proud of. As I mentioned earlier, loyalty and dedication are some of the important traits that I look for in my friends and the main reason for this is the fact that these are the traits that I personally vibe-out as well. I feel that as a social worker, perhaps the most important aspect that an individual can bring to work is dedication; as part of this world, u have to truly have a passion for it to be able to withstand the constant setbacks, financial instability and lack…
Correll, D. (2005). News and Views…from ICSW. International Social Work. 48:5, 688-691.
Hofer B.K. And Pintrich, P.R. (1997). The Development of Epistemological Theories: Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing and Their Relation to Learning. Review of Educational Research, Vol. 67, No. 1, 88-140.
Long, D.D. And Holle, M.C. (2007) Macro Systems in the Social Environment (2nd edition). Belmont, CA: Thompson, Brooks/Cole.
Lesser, J.C. And Pope, D.S. (2007). Human Behavior and the Social Environment: Theory and practice. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
Parts of the theory are individual but coherent. The microsystem is the smallest layer in the sense that it is closest to the child and contains all the structures of which the child has regular contact. It includes the relationships and structures that the child uses to define their surroundings (family, school, and neighborhood). The interactions in this layer are primary modifiers, but are continually impacted by other layers. The mesosystem is the rather amorphous way that Microsystems morph and interact with another -- connections between events and organizations. The exosystem is the larger social system in which the child does not directly interact but has a profound effect on the Microsystems (positive and negative effects, etc.). The macrosystem, or the outermost layer in the child's environment consists of laws, customs, values, and norms -- all of which the child is expected to assimilate prior to becoming part of that…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development. Harvard University
Chinn, C. And a. Samarapungavan. (2001). "Distinguishing Between Understanding
And Belief." Theory into Practice. 40 (4): 235-42.
The objective of this paper is to provide the analysis of lifespan interview of Ms. W who was forced to take the additional responsibilities because her father died very young leaving her mother to raise three young children. The study discusses the psychological, sociological, and biological stresses that a single parent and their children face when the father, who is the breadwinner of the family suddenly gives up. The study uses Ms. W case for the narrative analysis
Ms. W was very young when her father died to leave her mother to shoulder additional responsibilities of taking care of three children. Ms. W case was an excellent choice for the review and analysis because the information collected for a review assists in providing the in-depth understanding of the individual personal problem who has experienced a sudden a loss of a father at a younger age and being raised by a…
Developmental Processes Across the Life Span With Diverse Sociocultural Contexts
The objective of this study is to identify development processes across the life span with diverse sociocultural contexts and to demonstrate theoretical comprehension and application in psychotherapy in order to identify theoretical strengths and weaknesses based on the setting and/or client population specific to child behavior. Finally, this work will demonstrate basic knowledge of the range of normal an abnormal behaviors and child developmental processes. The work of Havighurst (1971) entitled 'Characteristics of Development Task' reports that living is a process beginning with birth and ending with death, which is, comprised of people "working their way through from stage of development to another, by solving their problems in each stage.") When the individual does not complete a task, which results in unhappiness as well as "disapproval by society and problems in later tasks." (1971, p.1) Six primary stages of the…
Havighurst, R.J., (1971) Developmental Tasks and Education, Third Edition. New York. Longman.
Lam, WSE (nd) Re-envisioning Language, Literacy and the Immigrant Subject in New Mediascapes. Northwestern University / Evanston, IL.
Castel, AD, et al. (2011) The Development of Memory Efficiency and Value-Directed Remembering Across the Life Span: A Cross-Sectional Study of Memory and Selectivity. Developmental Psychology © 2011 American Psychological Association. 2011, Vol. 47, No. 6, 1553 -- 1564.
Waszak, F. et al. (2010) The Development of Attentional Networks: Cross-Sectional Findings From a Life Span Sample. Developmental Psychology © 2010 American Psychological Association 2010, Vol. 46, No. 2, 337 -- 349
Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child
Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.
There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…
Bayley, N. (1970) "Development of mental abilities." In P.H. Mussen (ed) Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 1, New York: Wiley.
Bayley, N. (1955) "On the growth of intelligence," American Psychologist, 10, 805, Dec.
Burts, Diane C.; Hart, Craig H.; Charlesworth, Rosalind; DeWolf, D. Michele; Ray, Jeanette; Manuel, Karen; & Fleege, Pamela O. (1993). "Developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programs and academic outcomes in first grade." Journal Of Research In Childhood Education, 8 (1), 23-31. EJ 493-673.
Cooper, J.H. An Early Childhood Special Education Primer. Chapel Hill, NC: Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), 1981.
While the primary cause of stuttering may be related to physiological disposition of the brain (the way it handles language skills and speech patterns), environmental factors may affect the physical condition or may even play a decisive role in triggering its activation. Psychoanalytical therapies may also help stuttering children "re-teach" the behavior of brain -- in other words, adapt to its different functioning -- and help overcome it before reaching adulthood.
Buchel, C., & Sommer, M. (2004) What causes stuttering? PLoS Biology, 2(2): 159-163. etrieved 5 March 2012 from http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0020046
Duckworth, D. (n.d.) Causes and treatment of stuttering in young children. SuperDuper Handy Handouts, 65. etrieved 5 March 2012, from http://www.superduperinc.com/handouts/pdf/65_Cause_and_Treatment_of%20Stuttering.pdf
Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, . (2008). Late childhood stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing esearch, 51(3), 669-687.
Klaniczay, S. (2000). On childhood stuttering and the theory of clinging. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 26(1), 97-115. doi:10.1080/007541700362186…
Buchel, C., & Sommer, M. (2004) What causes stuttering? PLoS Biology, 2(2): 159-163. Retrieved 5 March 2012 from http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0020046
Duckworth, D. (n.d.) Causes and treatment of stuttering in young children. SuperDuper Handy Handouts, 65. Retrieved 5 March 2012, from http://www.superduperinc.com/handouts/pdf/65_Cause_and_Treatment_of%20Stuttering.pdf
Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, R. (2008). Late childhood stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 51(3), 669-687.
Klaniczay, S. (2000). On childhood stuttering and the theory of clinging. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 26(1), 97-115. doi:10.1080/007541700362186
I have chosen midlife as my study since it is the period which is the most fascinating and on which too many conflicting and ambiguous statements are brought to bear. This may be due to the fact that the middle years contains too little regularity and too much diversity therefore many of the models that I have seen differ too in the age range given to the mid life years. To elaborate: Whilst most models define midlife as beginning at 40 and ending at 60, a ten-year range exists at either end with some theorists actually considering midlife as beginning at 30 and ending at 75 (Lachman, 2004). Given too the differences in people, magnified by socio-historical and geographical elements, people are bound to indicate differences in their mid -- life period. It is for this reason possibly that Erickson's findings sound so quaint to many western ears,…
Caspi A. (1987). Personality in the life course. J.Personal. Soc. Psychol. 5, 31203 -- 13
Erikson E. (1963). Childhood and Society. New York: Norton.
Jung C.G. (1971). The Portable Jung. New York: Viking.
Lachman, M.E. (2004). Development in Midlife. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 305-331.
Health -- Nursing
Piaget Theoretical Perspective On Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
The theory of cognitive development by Piaget presents a comprehensive approach in evaluating human intelligence development and nature in developmental psychology. Piaget shares that children play active roles in growing of intelligence through learning by doing and by examples. The intellectual development theory involves a focus on believing, reasoning, perceiving and remembering the natural environment. The primary term for this is developmental stage theory dealing with knowledge and how humans gradually acquire, use, and construct nature. Piaget adds that the cognitive development provides progressive mental reorganization for thinking processes resulting from environmental experience and biological maturation. Children construct an appreciation of the real world through experience discrepancies between their knowledge and their discoveries within the environment. According to Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman (2009), the theory insists that the cognitive development…
Ashford, J., LeCroy, C. (2009). Human Behavior in the Social Environment: A Multidimensional Perspective. New York: Cengage Learning
Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2012). Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning
Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2013). Essentials of Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning
Newman, B.M., Newman, P.R. (2010). Theories of Human Development. New York: Psychology Press
eal-Life case study
The research informant selected is a soldier who was deployed in Iraq who is 35 years of age and who was in the army for 15 years. He suffered from drug and alcohol addiction along with post traumatic stress syndrome. At this time he is still battling both of these conditions. When interviewing him, the clear purpose of this project was stated without a doubt, and he was informed of his voluntary participation, along with the fact that he was allowing us to use all the data that he provided. He was reassured of the complete and utter privacy of his responses and how all of his data was going to be kept confidential. For example, he was told that he name was never going to be recorded, none of the researchers would ever have it; instead he was going to be given a number. Furthermore, while…
Berger, K. (2009). Invitation to the Life Span. New York: Psychology Press.
Ptsd.va.gov. (2013). Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Retrieved from Ptsd.va.gov: http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/assessment/adult-int/caps.asp
Schmal, C. (2004). Psychophysiological reactivity to traumatic and abandonment. Psychiatry Research, 33-42.
Walker, P. (2013). Managing Abandonment Depression in Complex PTSD. Retrieved from peter-walker.com: http://www.pete-walker.com/managingAbandonDepression.htm
The Golden Bull of 1356 fixed the number and identity of the electors. And while the Empire finally received an orderly method of choosing its sovereigns, the power of these sovereigns had largely passed from the center to the periphery. The old empire existed in name only.
Italy too is part of the story of the German rulers of the Holy Roman Empire. The part of Italy north of the Papal States was an actual part of the Holy Roman Empire, while Sicily, in the extreme south, was at times under the rule of the Emperors. In particular, Frederick II was famed for the glorious, and learned, court he maintained in Sicily. Italy was very strongly affected by political developments North of the Alps. The same divisions between Church and State that plagued the rest of the Empire were prominent in the Italians city states as well. For Italy, like…
manager." The introduction describe " -development important a manager mix a bit coaching theories ( I a coaching I techniques Kolb' learning cycle techniques fuore managers improve ), I a part body essay real life examples managers coaching techniques -development successful ( describe techniques ).
The importance of self-development in becoming a manager
Self-development is defined first and foremost as an overall holistic desire to find one's freedom and the desire to connect with one's self and own sense of worth, integrity and happiness so as to enjoy abundant happiness both at home and at work. Self-development in simpler terms is that amazing quest / journey that a person embarks on; a point of realization when all the pieces of a person's life fall together and they finally remove their own self limitations and inhibitions that hinder or stop any person more so a manager from achieving greatness. This definition…
BRUCE, H.A. 1938. Self-development: how to build self-confidence, a handbook for the ambitious, New York, Three Sirens Press.
BRUCE, H.A. 2010. Self-Development: A Handbook for the Ambitious, Whitefish, Kessinger Publishing, LLC.
BYNUM, W.F.A.P., R. (ed.) 2005. Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations, London: Oxford University Press.
CLELAND, D. & IRELAND, L. 2006. Project Management: Strategic Design and Implementation, New York, McGraw-Hill.
Infancy is the stage between birth and two years of age. This stage is characterized by rapid physical growth than any other stage of life. Very interesting changes occur in this couple of years. Brain development also occurs rapidly at this stage. Prior to birth, the unborn baby has most of the brain cells, but not all. There is a very rapid development of the neural connections between the cells. Contrary to what most people think, the baby is not entirely helpless. It is capable of all the basic activities required to sustain life -- breathing, suckling, swallowing and excretion. By the first week, the newborns can identify the direction from which sound is coming, recognize the voice of the mother from other voices and is capable of simple imitating basic gestures such as opening the mouth and sticking out the tongue (Shaffer & Kipp, 2013).
Lead Independent and Fulfilling Lives
For as long as I can remember, I have wanted to be a psychologist. Every academic success I have achieved thus far has been a step in the journey toward my ultimate goal. As a professional, clinical psychologist, I would advocate for my patients and help them improve their life in all dimensions. Psychologists not only help patients alleviate their suffering; they also help them overcome serious limitations and become the very best versions of themselves. My desire to pursue clinical psychology stems from my belief that we are all unique and therefore there exist a multitude of solutions to address issues related to mental and behavioral health. I seek to one day develop a practice built on compassion and non-judgmental support. I truly believe I can best serve my patients in an atmosphere of mutual respect, understanding, and encouragement. However, in order to achieve…
Dornfeld, M.D., Green-Hennessy, S., Lating, J., & Kirkhart, M. (2012). Student Ratings of Selection Factors for PsyD Programs. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68(3), 279-291. doi:10.1002/jclp.20864
Litrownik, A.J., Newton, R., Mitchell, B.E., & Richardson, K.K. (2003). Long-Term Follow-Up of Young Children Placed in Foster Care: Subsequent Placements and Exposure to Family Violence. Journal of Family Violence, 18(1), 19-28.
Roberts, M.C. (1982). Clinical Child Psychology Programs: Where and What Are They. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 11(1), 13.
sound technologies and sound design in Film
Sound in films
Experiments in Early Age
Commercialization of sound cinema: U.S., Europe, and Japan
Unified sound in film production
Sound designers in Cinematography
Sound Recording Technologies
History of Sound Recording Technology
Film sound technology
Modern Digital Technology
History of sound in films
Sound Recording Technologies
The film industry is a significant beneficiary of performing arts. The liberal arts combined with latest techniques and advancements experienced a number of stages. The introduction of films and sound in films was a significant development of its times. The introduction of first film along with sound was a unique event and it revolutionized the industry in such a way that it influenced every individual related to the industry to start thinking on creative and innovative grounds for improvements. The stages of films can be identified as silent films…
Alten, SR 2008, Audio In Media, Thomson Wadsworth, USA.
Altman, R 2004, Silent Film Sound, Columbia University Press, USA.
Ballou, G 2008, Handbook for sound engineers, Focal Press, USA.
Beck, J & Grajeda, T 2008, Lowering the boom: critical studies in film sound, University of Illinois Press.
Sexual Child Abuse
Child sexual abuse involves a broad range of sexual behaviors that take place between a child and an older person. These sexual behaviors are planned to erotically stir the older person, commonly without concern for the consequences, choices, or outcome of the behavior upon the child. efinite conducts that are sexually offensive frequently involve bodily contact, such as in the state of sexual kissing, touching, fondling of genitals, and oral, anal, or vaginal contact. Nevertheless, behaviors might be sexually abusive even if they do not entail contact, such as in the case of genital exposure, verbal force for sex, and sexual abuse for purposes of prostitution or pornography.
For efinitions propose four main types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and child neglect), but seldom if ever does one form of abuse happen alone. The suggestion in itself is illogical. Physical abuse and sexual…
Diagnostic and Treatment Guidelines on Mental Health Effects of Family Violence. American Medical Association Web Site.
McClendon, Patricia D. November (1991). MSSW candidate. Incest/sexual abuse of children. Internet. p.23. Available: http://www.clinicalsocialwork.com/incest.html
National Association of Social Worker News. (1997, February). States eye domestic abuse welfare option. NASW News, Volume 42, #7, pp11.
Human Development and Disabilities
Developmental stages are categorized into six phases, which include pregnancy and infancy, toddlerhood and early childhood, school age, adolescence, adulthood and midlife and the young elderly and the elderly. There are various ways in which these stages of development are impacted by disability. The stage of development of a person at the time of inception or identification of a disability has a significant impact on the person's response to the disability. When a person acquires a disability, it can have a dominant impact on the person's negotiation of developmental phases. It can give rise to a person missing out on significant developmental learning and completion of tasks (Smart, 2011). There are three distinguishing elements that will bring people with disabilities into the American culture. First, there is the populace explosion of people with disabilities. Secondly, there is the element of people with disabilities shifting away from…
Smart, J. (2011). Disability across the developmental life span: For the rehabilitation counselor. Springer publishing company.
Maximize Quality of Life in Old Age
As an individual advances in age, his/her risk of acquiring aging-related conditions increases. Understanding that such conditions (i.e., arthritis, memory loss, hip fractures, etc.) don't form a part of normal aging is essential. They will likely develop at a particular age; however, one mustn't perceive them as an expected and unavoidable component of the aging process. How a person ages is determined by three elements: genetics, lifestyle and environment. Individuals have no control over their genes, but they can regulate their lifestyle and environment, and it is these elements that contribute the most to how well an individual ages. Jones (2014) states ten tips for maximizing quality of life for the elderly, and longevity:
Keep stress in check. Stress, in particular chronic stress, is one among the very few factors contributing to premature aging. While everybody faces stress in life, and a small…
Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals.
Jones, S. (2014, July 11). 10 Ways to Live Longer and Better - Next Avenue. Retrieved November 28, 2015, from http://www.nextavenue.org/10-ways-live-longer-and-better/
Living Long & Well in the 21st Century: Strategic Directions for Research on Aging. (n.d.). Retrieved November 28, 2015, from https://www.nia.nih.gov/about/living-long-well-21st-century-strategic-directions-research-aging/research-goal-b-continue
Cultural Differences Related to Emotion Socialization among Children
Emotional socialization among children is determined to a large extent by the cultural environment in which the child is raised (Raval & Walker, 2019). The most common agents of socialization to which individuals are exposed from a young age include family (mother, father, brothers, sisters, grandparents, cousins, uncles, aunts) and peers (neighbors, teachers, friends at school or church or daycare) and media representations (kids’ shows, cartoons, movies). As Chen, Zhou, Main and Lee (2015 show, socialization agents include people in one’s environment, people in media and people in one’s family. The media can be especially important because even if they are just make-believe cartoon characters, they still represent a socialization agent for the child. Over time these socialization agents will change, of course. The individual child will stop relying so much on family and start focusing more on technology or mass media…
life was my decision to resist against the problem of laryngeal dyskenesia. This is an illness, which makes a person believe that he or she is not receiving enough oxygen, which in turn causes the person to hyperventilate. he/she started feeling as if his/her throat is closing. The situation becomes so painful that the victim cannot even speak. It is no doubt a nightmare to go through and those who have experienced it can only feel the pain that it gives. This problem usually occurs on the occasions when the victim is feeling nervous, upset, or frightened. I got infected with this disease in my freshman year of high school.
The experience of being a freshman in school was very disappointing for me. Although, I succeeded in getting admission to the school of my choice and was awarded full scholarship but my relationships with my peers proved to be a…
Northern and Southern Colonies before the Civil War
In the middle of the 19th century, the industrial revolution that was growing depicted the presence of the two countries all of the most progressive independent states. The symbolic status in England laid the foundation of working class exploitation, urbanization and industrialization and the other one based on village, farmhouse, agriculture, and trustworthy relations between tenants and squires in 1845. egarding the census of the 1850, the population of the United States was about twenty-three million; this was a rise from thirteen million in the year 1830. As of 1850, the North saw increased populations of immigrants incoming. The census that was carried out in 1860 showed the population of the United States to be about thirty-one million. This represented a thirty-nine percent increase in a span of ten years where the South only had eighth million whites compared to twenty million…
Fitzhugh, George. Cannibals All! Or, Slaves Without Master. (Port Royal, Caroline, VA: 1857). A. Morris, Publisher, chapter 1, 1-4
Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs and Gjerde Jon "Commercial development and immigration in the North at midcentury" in Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs and Gjerde Jon. Major Problems in American History: To 1877. (Boston, Massachusetts: 2007). Houghton Mifflin Company, chapter 11, 304-334
Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs, and Gjerde Jon. "Agriculture and Slavery in the South at Midcetury" in Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs and Gjerde Jon. Major Problems in American History: To 1877. (Boston, Massachusetts: 2007). Houghton Mifflin Company, chapter 12, 335-360
McPherson James M. "The United States at Midcetury" in McPherson James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. (Oxford: 1988). Oxford University Press, Chapter 1, 7-46
il and Gas
Development of Two Important Materials in Earth's Early History
According to scientists, Earth began its life 4.6 billion years ago, when cosmic dust collided to form increasingly large particles. These particles, after millions of years of colliding and increasing in mass, eventually formed the Earth, with a mass similar to what it is today (5.9736 x 1024 kg or 5,973,600,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg) . Soon, the Earth's atmosphere began to form, as well as various minerals within its core. Studying the Earth is a fascinating endeavor, yet one that comprises extensive research and writing. For the purposes of this paper, I will examine two elements that are of vital importance to human life today: oil and gas. In this study, I will thus speak both about the development of the two materials in the Earth's early history-how they developed, what factors contributed to this development, and when this development…
Oil and gas industries also comprise upstream and downstream exploration. The upstream process includes exploration and production and the downstream refers to refining crude oil and gas, distribution of the two and marketing. Some companies may be "fully integrated," meaning they have capabilities for both upstream and downstream interests; others only concentrate on exploration and production and are known as E&P companies. Furthermore, many companies operate nationally and internationally, while others are "independent." This short description of the oil and gas development process is very important because it can show how two natural fuels found in the Earth are utilized to improve our daily lives, for others' financial gain, of course. [16: "Overview of the oil and gas exploration and production process." Environmental Management in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production. Web. 19 Apr. 2011. < http://www.etechinternational.org/new_pdfs/lessImpact/AttAoverview.pdf >. ]
This paper has focused upon the development of the two fuels in the Earth's early history and has discussed oil and gas development, complete with how this development process took place, what factors contributed to it and how long it took. Furthermore, the paper has also analyzed the impact of oil and gas towards humanity and the complex process through which these resources are handled today, thus placing this paper's aim in a larger context and showing the importance of this study.
Canine Behavior: Genetics vs. Environment
The debate over nature vs. nurture as it applies to learning dates back over a hundred years. Certainly, during much of the 20th century, the distinction between learned and inherited behavior appeared much clearer than it does today. The concept that any type of behavior was either learned or merely developed without learning seemed a rationale and straightforward belief. esearch based on these expectations caused some scientists to conclude that rat-killing behavior among cats, for example, is a learned behavior rather than an instinctive one, that human fears are all acquired, or that intelligence is completely the result of experience. Learning theorists were arguing at this point that most behavior is learned and that biological factors are of little or no importance. The behaviorist position that human behavior could be explained entirely in terms of reflexes, stimulus-response associations, and the effects of reinforcers upon them…
Ader, R., Baum, A., & Weiner, H. (1988). Experimental foundations of behavioral medicines: Conditioning approaches. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Black, A.H., Solomon, R.L., & Whiting, J.W.M. (1954, April). Resistance to temptation as a function of antecedent dependency relationships in puppies. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association meeting, New York. In American Psychologist, 9, 579.
Brush, F.R., Overmier, J.B., & Solomon, R.L. (1985). Affect, conditioning, and cognition: Essays on the determinants of behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dogs and People: The History and Psychology of a Relationship. (1996). Journal of Business Administration and Policy Analysis, 24-26, 54.
Aging & Health Technologies
Theoretical perspectives on aging seem to suggest that people are either almost completely controlled by the social and normative expectations of being elderly, or that they are motivated by their own cycles of goals, outcomes and expectations. The phenomenological perspective of aging is an example of the first of these viewpoints. The life-span developmental models the second.
This piece seeks to review these two theoretical perspectives in regard to the newly emerging issue of the influence of technology on the health of aging people. It seeks to look first at the theoretical understandings. Then I provide an assessment of how different types of articles on the topic. Some tend to favor one (the phenomenological perspective) in that they often assume that older people are a unified group that basically acts with technology only in regard to serious health and care considerations. Other scientific and advocacy materials,…
Brown, C. And Lowis, M. (2003). "Psychosocial development in the elderly: An investigation into Erikson's ninth stage." Journal of Aging Studies. Vol. 17. 415-426.
Heckhausen, J., Wrosch, C. And Schulz, R. (2010). "A motivational theory of life-span development." Psychological Review. Vol. 117, No. 1. 32-60. DOI: 10.1037/a0017668.
Hough, M.G. (n.d.). "Exploring elder consumers' interactions with information technology." Journal of Business & Economics Research, Vol. 2, No. 6.
Intel (2008). "Technology for an aging population: Intel's Global Research Initiative." Viewable at http://www.intel.com/Assets/PDF/general/health-318883001.pdf .
Autobiography of Iviannette Figueroa
In this paper, I will describe my life and how my life experiences have shaped the person that I am today, how they have impacted my dreams, and what I intend to do in the future. In this paper I explore my childhood and how the difficulties that I encountered in that childhood have helped shape the woman I am today. The woman that I am today is a mother, a wife, and a student working towards admission into the respiratory therapist program. Generally, I have worked hard to put a difficult childhood behind me. As a result, I have to acknowledge that an autobiographical paper was very challenging for me. I do not like to think about how my childhood has impacted the woman that I am today. While I am generally self-confident, I realize that the things I like the least about myself are…
Deaux, K. & Snyder, M. (2012). The Oxford handbook of personality and social psychology.
New York: Oxford University Press.
DiCanio, M. (2004). Encyclopedia of violence: Frequent, commonplace, unexpected. Lincoln,
NE: Mystery Writers of America.
people you meet in heaven. Each was in your life for a reason. You may not have known the reason at the time, and that is what heaven is for. For understanding your life on earth.
The Five People You Meet in Heaven is a story of a lifetime of self misperception, potential waste of spirit, and ultimate redemption.
Eddie gave his all to the war and now works in a meaningless job at the Ruby Pier amusement park. In a heroic gesture, he gives his life saving a child sitting under a falling ride. Waking in a cotton candy-like heaven, he meets with five people -- some strangers and others well-known -- who guide him on a visual and illuminating journey through his life, theoretically proving that not everything is revealed during the time on earth.
The intended purpose for the five interactions is bi-directional; the communicants are seeking…
Dychtwald, K. & Flower, J. (1989). Age Wave: The Challenges of Opportunities of an Aging Society. Troy, AL: JP Tarcher
Lerner, R.M., Easterbrooks, M.A., Mistry, J. & Weiner, I.B. (eds) (1982). Handbook of Developmental Psychology. New York: Prentice-Hall
Reimer, J., Pritchard-Paolitto, D. & Hersh, R. (1979) Promoting Moral Growth: From Piaget to Kohlberg. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press
By experiencing and discussing each point of the theoretical aspects, I did get to know myself better and see both positive and negative sides of my personality. For instance, while discussing Freud's theories, I managed to explain certain emotional manifestations which, up to a point, were not entirely clear. Furthermore, discussions on matters such as child and life span development improved my perception on family relationships and inter-human communication.
A part of the importance of such courses is to better prepare us for the challenges one has to face throughout his lifetime. Although the experiences accumulated in academic preparation do not necessarily ensure a less troublesome road in life, they do offer additional support. Nonetheless, it is vital to create the proper theoretical background which will guide your actions in every situation. For me, the discussions relating to the stress, the pressure and the social tensions existing today have helped…
Boeree, C.G Personality theories. Sigmund Freud. Retrieved 19 September 2006, at http://www.ship.edu/%7Ecgboeree/freud.html
Buresch, T., Eiben, a.E., Nitschke, G., Schut, M.C. Effects of evolutionary and lifetime learning on minds and bodies in an artificial society. Free University Amsterdam. Retrieved 19 September 2006, at http://www.cs.vu.nl/~gusz/papers/2005_cec.pdf#search=%22life%20time%20learning%20importance%22
Conditioning and learning. Retrieved 19 September 2006, at http://psych.fullerton.edu/rlippa/Psych101/outline2.htm
Knowles, M.S. (1962) a History of the adult education movement in the U.S.A., New York: Krieger.
Moreover, adolescence and young adulthood are periods of both increased anxiety about appearance and social acceptance as well as of greater dependence on the opinions and perceptions of others (Jones, Vigfusdottir, & Lee, 2004). That would seem to suggest that exposure to media images associated with beauty would have the greatest influence on the individual. This proposal is designed to test the relationship between exposure to images and other visual representations associated with physical beauty and the development of self-perception in the individual.
It is hypothesized that self-perception among adolescents and young adults with respect to relative physical attractiveness will vary directly in proportion to their degree of interest in and exposure to media images of beauty. The independent variable will be the exposure of subjects to various forms of media associated with a high degree of emphasis on physical attractiveness. The dependent variable will be the measure of…
Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Henslin JM. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach.
Bioecological Theory and the Family and Community Resource Conceptual Framework)
The Case History
"Kerry" has twin girls who are now 4 years old. he had been living with her defacto "Dean" for the past 6 years. he is a qualified beautician and has previously run a small business from home before the birth of the twins. he undertook schooling until year 12 (equal to UA high school diploma) at a public school, is one of two children herself and has supportive parents in a middle income suburb. he left her defacto 10 months ago after two years of domestic violence brought on by the use intravenous "speed." he has an AVO (Aggravated Violence Order) on "Dean" for 12 months. During the previous two years "Kerry" was subjected to physical and psychological trauma, the twins witnessed this abuse. "Dean" is on a fly in fly out basis working in the mines…
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Caspi, J (2008). Building a Sibling Aggression Treatment Model: Design and Development Research in Action, Research on Social Work Practice, 18: 575
Paquette, D & Ryan. J (2001). Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory
Prochaska, J.O., & Norcross, J.C. (2007). Systems of Psychotherapy: A Trans-theoretical Analysis, Sixth Edition. Belmont, CA: Thompson Brooks/Cole.
Boundaries for Children
ules and norms are an expected way of social living. They are predictable and part of our lives, and, therefore, we rarely stop to question their roots. We accept them as part of our routine, as demonstrative of our progressiveness as a nation, and are comfortable in their security. When children don't have boundaries, their lives take a much different turn than parents ever plan. Even if parents don't start out setting boundaries for children, it is never too late to start. The older the child the harder it gets, but the importance of setting boundaries never declines. Setting boundaries for children is important for all who come into contact with them from educators to child care givers to parents, of course, themselves.
Whilst some parents inculcate parenting styles from their own parents, either deliberately, in which intent they may seek to transmit inculcated patterns, or, at…
Baumrind, D. (1996). Parenting style and adolescent development . In J. Brooks-Gunn (ed.) The encyclopedia of adolescence (pp. 746-758). NY: Garland.
Barrish, H., Saunders, M. & Wolf, M. (1969) Good behavior game.. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 119-124.
Charles, C. (2005). Building classroom discipline. USA: Pearson Pub.
Darling, N. & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context, Psyc. Bulletin, 113, 487-496
I think I want to go into nursing but I am not 100% sure yet. ight now, I am just taking basic gen ed classes since this is my first year in school -- I did take a couple of classes this past summer. Most adolescents I know in my neighborhood have graduated already as well." Georgia stated she was still 'feeling out' her identity, which is common in adolescence. She was willing to be independent enough to pay for her own college, which suggests a desire to 'stand on her own two feet' despite the fact that she still lives at home.
Georgia also noted that she does not contribute to the family income and that her father is a biopharma executive. Her desire to enter nursing could reflect her exposure to this field of work at home. However, she saw her decision not to attend a four-year college…
Santrock, Jack. (2011). Life-span development. (13th ed.). McGraw-Hill.
The extreme power of this new cultural tool is the very nature -- it depends on nothing but an electronic connection. it, like many things in the modern world, is instantaneous, satisfying the 21st century need to have both dependence and independence based on our own decision or whim. Therein lies the confusion for many -- just how real is an electronic friendship that can exist without really "knowing" the person physically? How robust are virtual relationships except in the mind of those participating? and, how do we know with whom we are actually chatting or forming a bond -- could the mother of three living in Scotland be something quite different on the Internet? and, specifically, what impact might these social networks from a psychological perspective? (Gross, 2004).
Besides community, technology has changed entertainment for teens. Violence in the entertainment genre is not something that is new to the…
Ahn, J. (2011). Digital Divides and Social Network Sites: Which Students Participate in Social
Media. Jounral of Educational Computing Research, 45(2), 147-63.
Anderson-Butcher, D., et.al. (2010). Adolescent Weblog Use: Risky or Protective. Journal of Child and Adolescent Social Work, 27(2), 63-77.
Anderson, B. (1999). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso Publications.
learning? What role does behavior play in learning?
Learning is the acquisition of skills through behaviors. Behaviors help an individual learn through experiences, both favorable and unfavorable. Learning is a life long endeavor which is garnered in the beliefs and behaviors of the individual. The overall process takes time, as beliefs are often broken down, eliminated, and reborn through experience. Behaviors directly impact learning as they are correlated to experiences. Experiences therefore follow behaviors. For example, if an individual behaves in an inappropriate manner regarding his spending, he or she will experience debt. Through this experience the individual will "learn" to manage his or her money in a more appropriate manner.
What are two different types of learning? Describe each one in your response.
The two primary learning styles are that of hands on (kinesthetic) learning and visual learning. A hands on experiments allows the individual to develop in a…
1) Santrock. John Life-span development. Mc Graw Hill (12ed.) 2012
2) Demetriou, A. (1998). Cognitive development. In A. Demetriou, W. Doise, K.F.M. van Lieshout (Eds.), Life-span developmental psychology (pp. 179 -- 269). London: Wiley
3) Kamii, C. (1985). Young children reinvent arithmetic: Implications of Piaget's theory. New York: Teachers College Press
Role of Counseling
Counseling entails giving professional support to a client who is experiencing a personal challenge, with the aim of promoting their well-being and personal growth. For counseling to be effective, a trusting relationship between the counselor and his/her client has to be built and sustained. The competency-based approach provides effective avenues for the breeding of this kind of relationship. This approach requires a guidance counselor to demonstrate competence in three core areas; i) knowledge; ii) counseling skills; and iii) ethical and professional attitudes and practice, each of which is subdivided into specific components. However, the three competencies above do not work independently; rather, they qualify each other to give every counselor a unique integration.
A practitioner ought to have knowledge of;
factors that influence distress and well-being systemic and contextual social, biological, and family factors affecting human conditioning
The nature of cultural and human diversity, particularly in…
urban violence as it relates to a significant family stressor. The author examines the causes of violence as related to family stressors and applies a program to it to affect change. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
The problem with urban violent is not just a problem for those who are involved. The occurrence of urban violence impacts the local business, schools, and families of those who are near the area. When urban violence begins to appear several things begin to happen. Businesses are affected because the consumer does not want to go into the area to shop. This causes economic problems for the businesses and they close down. Once they close down this means a loss of jobs, which can contribute to the poverty level that has been documented as a contributing factor to urban violence. It is a vicious circle that perpetuates itself. The schools…
Adolescent development: challenges and opportunities for research, programs, and policies.
Segregation and crime: the effect of black social isolation on the rates of black urban violence.
Lerner JV, Lerner RM. 1983. Temperament and adaptation across life: theoretical and empirical issues. In Life-Span Development and Behavior, ed. PB Baltes, OG Brim Jr., 5:197-230. New York: Academic. 411 pp.
Lerner RM. 1995. America's Youth in Crisis: Challenges and Options for Programs and Policies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 147 PP.
Oz & the Secret Garden
Childhood, in its most natural state of being, is distinguished by a state of mind, which is full of hope, love, and a belief that life holds infinite possibilities for fun, adventure, and happiness just waiting to be discovered. Unfortunately, as childhood progresses, the mechanisms of the adult world increasingly intrude to a point where rationality and the limitations of human nature are finally accepted as the only living reality. Acceptance brings with it resignation over the less-than-ideal circumstances of life, bringing in its wake conflict, defeat, unhappiness, stagnation, and unfulfilled human potential. Perhaps this is the reason why children respond spontaneously and intuitively to the genre of children's literature that is characterized by a basic pattern of journey, conflict, return, and reward (Attebery, p. 91). Indeed, according to Bruno Bettelheim, the promise of conflict resolution and happy endings often leads to children being drawn…
Almond, B. "The Therapeutic Narrative: Fictional Relationships and the Process of Psychological Change." Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1996.
Attebery, B. "The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature: From Irving to Le Guin." Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1980.
Bloom, H. "Women Writers of Children's Literature." Philadelphia: Chelsea
The insecure partner finds the open communication through which a successful relationship grows to be intricate. In such a relationship, the powerful partner does not citizen the weaker partner.
Emancipation is a type of cohabitation that allows partners to break from their parental influences and values. omen who are brought up in very conventional religious traditions usually seek for sexual emancipation that is not allowed by their faith or parents, through cohabitation
This is a form of cohabitation where one person is the giver while the other person in a relationship is the taker. In this form of cohabitation, the woman offers domestic labor and loving care, but she does not ask for marriage. The woman gains domestic sex and labor without devotion
Testing is a form of cohabitation that entails partners testing for marriage through cohabitation. This form of cohabitation can be a true testing ground…
Aneshensel, Carol. Handbook of the sociology of mental health. London: Springer, 2006.
Bornstein, Marc. Life-span development: Infancy through adulthood. Texas: Cengage Learning, 2010.
Browne, Ken. Introducing sociology for AS level. Cambridge: Polity, Oct 6, 2006
Coleman, Marilyn. Handbook of contemporary families: Considering the past, contemplating the future. London: SAGE, 2004.
RCT believes that everyone desires growth and that growth is by necessity connective in relational and cultural links. Mutual empathy and mutual empowerment foster these relationships in positive ways. (Jordan, "The role of mutual")
Sigmund Freud and Erik Erickson may arguably be two of the most influential icons in the field of human development and psychology. Their fundamental concept that human's develop over a lifetime and not just in a few stages from birth to adolescence and then are frozen into psychological patterns, revolutionized thinking in the field of developmental psychology. The term Life Span Development came to the fore as Erickson devised his eight stages of psychosocial development ranging from birth to eighty years old. Later as he himself passed eighty he realized that there is yet another stage and the count became nine. (Erikson & Erikson, 1997) One can see the striking resemblance between Erickson and Freud's stages…
Comstock, Dana L., et al. "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development 86.3 (2008): 279-288.
Crethar, Hugh C., Edil Torres Rivera, and Sara Nash. "In Search of Common Threads: Linking Multicultural, Feminist, and Social Justice Counseling Paradigms." Journal of Counseling and Development 86.3 (2008): 269-276
Erikson, E.H. & Erikson, J. M . The Life Cycle Completed / Extended Version. New York:
W.W. Norton. 1997
Psychology of Aging
Compare and contrast current research on alternative stage theories of adulthood and personality development.
Child developmentalists traditionally categorized adult personality development into stage theories (Kagan, 2001). Sigmund Freud advocated the psychosexual stage, which held that personality is shaped early in life and generally resists change. Carl Jung proposed the opposite, in that personality develops in adulthood. Other theories surfaced in the 30s an the 40s in Europe and the U.S., such as Charlotte Buhler's, which called for empirical evaluations of theoretical predictions and Erik Erikson's similarly psychoanalytic stage theory, which asserts that a person develops through stages of human needs. Eventually, these early stage theories failed empirical tests. Critics of stage theories argued that personality does not evolve systematically in adulthood. Then came the Trait Theory in the 80s, which suggested that personality only changes slightly when a person reaches age 30 (Kagan, 2001).
The Trait Theory…
ASHA (2015). Issues in ethics: cultural and linguistic competence. American Speech Language
Hearing Association. Retrieved from http://www.asha.org/Practice/ethics/Cultural-and-Linguistics-Competence
Charles, S. and Cartensen, L. L. (2010). Social and emotional aging. Annual Review of Psychology.61, 383-409. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3950961
Crowell, C. R. (n.d.).Moral psychology and information ethics. University of Notre Dame.
Community resilience can be defined as a tool for measuring a community's sustained ability to exploit the resources available in responding to, enduring, and recovering from disasters (Community Resilience). Communities that are resilient reduce the destruction level brought about by a disaster, in their day-to-day operations and local economies. They are usually ready to reduce or prevent the destruction or loss of their environment, lives and property, and are able to resume their people to work as soon as possible, and help them quickly reopen their businesses along with other services important for achieving an immediate and full recovery in the economy (Resilient Communities are the Foundations of a Resilient America).
Resilience is a dynamic and natural aspect of any community. In other words, resilience is a lifetime aspect of the society. It can potentially be measured absolutely, or it is at least possible to detect changes in…
CARRI. (2013). Definitions of Community Resilience: An Analysis. Community of Regional Resilience Institute.
CHANDRA, A., ACOSTA, J., MEREDITH, L. S., SANCHES, K., STERN, S., USCHER-PINES, L., et al. (2010). Understanding Community Resilience in the Context of National Health Security. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services .
Community Resilience. (n.d.). Retrieved July 16, 2016, from Rand Corporation: http://www.rand.org
Lee, T. Y., Cheung, C. K., & Kwong, W. M. (2012). Resilience as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review. Scientific World Journal .
" (Anderson, et al., 2003) The study reported by Roberts, Christenson and Gentile (2003) provided a summary of a study that is unpublished but that states findings of a "positive correlation between amount of MTV watching and physical fights among third- through fifth-grade children. In addition, children who watched a lot of MTV were rated by peers as more verbally aggressive, more relationally aggressive, and more physically aggressive than other children. Teachers rated them as more relationally aggressive, more physically aggressive, and less helpful." (Anderson, et al., 2003) Anderson et al. also reports the study of Rubin, West, and Mitchell (2001) who state findings that young people listening to heavy metal music "held more negative attitudes toward women." (Anderson et al., 2003)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The male child is more likely to view violence against females as well as sexual aggression against females to be acceptable if the male child…
Gentile, D.A. And Sesma, A. (2003) Developmental Approaches to Understanding Media Effects on Individuals. Online available at http://www.psychology.iastate.edu/~dgentile/106027_02.pdf
Nevins, Tara (2004) The Effects of Media Violence on Adolescent Health. Physicians for Global Survival, Canada, Summer 2004. Online available at http://pgs.wemanageyour.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/03/effectsofmediaviolence_final.pdf
Anderson, C. et al. (2003) The Influence of Media Violence on Youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest. VOL. 4, NO. 3, December 2003. Online available at http://www.psychologicalscience.org/pdf/pspi/pspi43.pdf
Internet Usage on our Lives: A Critique of the Shallows
The pervasive adoption of the Internet continues to completely redefine the nature and scope of people's lives and their ability to communicate and collaborate globally. The Internet is also enabling entirely new approaches to defining methods of co-creation with customers, in addition to the creation and growth of virtual work teams (Panteli, Duncan, 2004). From friends who connect and communicate with one another across continents using Skype over the Internet to the work teams that have developers in the United States, Ukraine, Asia and Australia, the Internet is the common foundation that accelerates communication, shared data, experiences and makes complex tasks accomplishable. Technology is the enabler of greater transparency and trust when used over time to unify people, processes and systems across broad geographic and culture distances (Andriole, 2006). Contrary to this perspective however are the concepts presented in the…
Andriole, S.J. (2006). The collaborate/integrate business technology strategy. Association for Computing Machinery.Communications of the ACM, 49(5), 85-90.
Carr, N. (2011). The Shallows, What The Internet Is Doing To Our Brains. New York W.W. Norton & Co Inc.
Nolan, T., Brizland, R., & Macaulay, L. (2007). Individual trust and development of online business communities. Information Technology & People, 20(1), 53-71.
Panteli, N., & Duncan, E. (2004). Trust and temporary virtual teams: Alternative explanations and dramaturgical relationships. Information Technology & People, 17(4), 423-441.
esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…
Cooper, Janice L. (2009). Social-emotional development in early childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_882.html
This publication explores the factors which influence a child's social development within the preschool years. It gives clear research findings regarding parental and caregiver influences along with social and neighborhood ones as well. It also outlines the potential hazards and issues of a child who develops within a problem area.
Lopes, Marilyn. (1995). Selecting books for children. National Network for Childcare. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nncc.org/Literacy/select.books.html
This site is a recommendation-based site which takes proven strategies and concepts developed by child psychologists at the University of Massachusetts. As part of the national network for child care, it aims to help parents make appropriate decisions for their children regarding books based on that child's age.
Fine Motor Skill Development in Children
Fine motor skills are important for a variety of activities such as writing and feeding, so its important they develop properly in young kids. This paper talks about the importance of fine motor skills and how it can be improved with proper intervention and the right activities.
Fine motor skills and their importance
Fine motor skills are the skills that involve the use of small muscles in the hands such as fingers. The biggest challenge in fine motor skills is the coordination of the hand with the eyes and brain and it is more complicated than what many people imagine. It develops at a young age, typically before five or six and it plays an important role in the way our hands function during adolescence and adulthood.
The development of fine motor skills is vital in young children because it is these skills that…
Smith, Jodene. (2003). Activities for Fine Motor Skills Development Grd PreK-1. Westminster, CA: Teacher Created Resources.
No author. (2011). Fine motor control. Medline Plus. Retrieved from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002364.htm
Curtis, Kathleen; Newman, Peggy. (2005). The PTA Handbook: Keys to Success in School and Career for the Physical Therapist Assistant. New Jersey: Slack Incorporated.
Charlesworth, Rosalind. (2010). Understanding Child Development. Mason, OH: South-western Cengage Learning.
Life Span and Developmental Psychology
Scientists use three main research designs to study human lifespan development; longitudinal, cross sectional and sequential designs. The longitudinal design involves the study of selected participants repeatedly over a given span of time. This can be over a short time ranging from a few months to a few years, or can be over a long period of time spanning to a decade or more. The advantage that the researchers have in using this approach is that they are able to observe common patterns among the participants as well as differing trends among them in the early as well as late events in their lives. On the other hand, the weaknesses that it has are that there is possibility of distortion of the age related changes occasioned by participants dropping out, the cohort effects and practice effects in the process of the research.
Cross-sectional design is…
MAterial: Berk, L.E. (2014) Development through the Lifespan 6th Ed. New York: Allyn & Bacon (ISBN:978-0-205-95760-6). Retrieved January 9, 2016 from http://catalogue.pearsoned.co.uk/samplechapter/0205491251.pdf
, 2006). Soliciting client's self-report may be another helpful practice (Landry et al., 2009).
To deal with both attrition and ethnicity factors in conjunction with an adolescent or school-aged client, the counselor may be well advised to consider the fact that the client may better benefit from a school counselor's intervention rather than from her own. Studies (for instance Cummings, 2009) have shown that "schools may be the best setting in which to provide mental health services if the objective is to reduce the unmet need for mental health care among adolescents living in disadvantaged and/or ethnically diverse communities." (Cummings, 2009, 1).
At times, the counselor may have to deal with trauma-related matters. Since trauma may traverse several generations and is comprised of complex issues, Goodman and West-Olatuni (2008) recommend a transgenerational trauma recognition and assessment approach as well as historical and contextual knowledge of the trauma.
Of particular interest…
Abe-Kim, J., Takeuchi, D., Hong, S., Zane, N., Sue, S., Spencer, M -- . & Algeria, M. (2007). Use of Mental Health Related Services Among Immigrant and U.S.-Born Asian-Americans: Results From the National Latino and Asian-American Study. American Journal of Public Health, 97(11), 91-8.
Barrett, M., Chua, W., Chistoph, P., Gibbons, M., Casiano, D. & Thompson, D. (2008). Early withdrawal from mental health treatment: Implications for psychotherapy practice. Psychotherapy, 45(2), 247-67.
Bird, T. (2010). Approaches to patients with neuropathic disease. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine, 30(4), 785-93.
Brach, C., Falik, M., Law, C., Robinson, G., Trent-Adams, S., Ulmer, C. & Wirght, a. (2005). Mental Health Services: Critical Component of Integrated Primary Care and Substance Abuse Treatment. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 6(3), 322-41.
This program experience, concurrent with my faith-based experience developing an additional residential treatment program provided the core of my personal and professional learning of both direct patient care and cemented my belief in the need for such programs to exists and grow to better meet the needs of the growing drug problem in my community and many others.
Upon completion of the position of Director of Residential Programs for the Jefferson County Council on Alcohol and Drug Abuse, I sought out in 2006 another position that would further my learning as a community service provider. My new task would be based around not the management of one county facility but the development of regional programming needs in the are as a member of the Southeast Texas Regional Planning Commission -- Quality Management-Substance Abuse Division. I currently hold this position which includes a variety of tasks and learning opportunities: Conducting organizational…
Human development refers to the psychological and biological growth of a human being throughout life. It starts from infancy all the way to adulthood. The scientific study of the development of a human being, psychologically, is referred to as Developmental psychology. According to Erik Erikson, there are eight critical stages in the development of a human being in order to become socially and psychologically well adjusted. This renowned psychologist is also credited with the expression identity crisis used to refer, not to the possibility of a catastrophic occurrence but to a critical turning point. Erikson points out that a person is confronted with challenges and experiences at each stage. One has to master all the dynamics at every stage in order to grow to the next one and each stage is successive and based on the completion of the earlier one (Sokol, 2009). This paper focuses on the adolescence and…
Emotional regulation -- the ability to control one's emotions so that they are within the "average" for the population surrounding them
In-utero- while the child is developing in the woman's uterus
Schizophrenia -- a serious mental illness affecting the person's perceptions of the world around them
Stimuli -- an input from a person's environment, something that the person experiences
Braungart-ieker, J., Hill-Soderlund, a. & Karrass, J. (2010). Fear and Anger eactivity Trajectories From 4 to 16 Months: The oles of Temperament, egulation, and Maternal Sensitivity. Developmental Psychology. 46 (4), 791-804.
Corapci, F., Calatroni, a. & Kaciroti, N. et al. (2009). Longitudinal Evaluation of Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems Following Iron Deficiency in Infancy. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. etrieved November 29, 2010 from http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2009/09/07/jpepsy.jsp065.full.pdf+html
DiGirolamo, a. & amirez-Zea, M. (2009). ole of zinc in maternal and child mental health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (30), 940S-945S.
Braungart-Rieker, J., Hill-Soderlund, a. & Karrass, J. (2010). Fear and Anger Reactivity Trajectories From 4 to 16 Months: The Roles of Temperament, Regulation, and Maternal Sensitivity. Developmental Psychology. 46 (4), 791-804.
Corapci, F., Calatroni, a. & Kaciroti, N. et al. (2009). Longitudinal Evaluation of Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems Following Iron Deficiency in Infancy. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. Retrieved November 29, 2010 from http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2009/09/07/jpepsy.jsp065.full.pdf+html
DiGirolamo, a. & Ramirez-Zea, M. (2009). Role of zinc in maternal and child mental health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (30), 940S-945S.
Lozoff, B., Beard, J. & Connor, J. et al. (2006). Long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of iron deficiency in infancy. Nutritional Review. 64,34 -- 44.
An initial psychotic episode is often the result, with immediate in-hospital treatment recommended for testing and observation. Treatment includes anti-psychotic medication and patients often respond well, particularly in milder cases of the illness. (Csernansky, 2001) However, a general inability to adapt socially will persist and prevent a "normal" existence for these individuals. In one case, a female patient described her general personality despite medication as characterized by "low self-esteem, hypersensitivity to criticism, hyperempathy, excessive generosity, susceptibility to manipulation, and social awkwardness" (eichenberg-Ullman, 2010). In addition, substance abuse, inability to hold a job, risk of suicide, and unwanted pregnancy are typical themes in these patients' lives. (Csernansky, 2001) in the case of pregnancy, females often suffer complications beyond their mental illness, such as poor prenatal care, risk of violence during pregnancy, and reduced likelihood of having a male supportive figure (staff, 2007)
In the middle phase of schizophrenia, or the first…
Collier, E. (2007). Challenging the concept of "burned out" schizophrenia. Mental Health Nursing, 14.
Csernansky, J.G. (2001). Schizophrenia: A New Guide for Clinicians. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Heinrichs, R.W. (2001). In Search of Madness: Schizophrenia and Neuroscience. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nicole, V. (2007, 11-21). Schizophrenia and Pregnancy: Genetic Links and Effects. Retrieved 11-24, 2010, from www.associatedcontent.com: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/454786/schizophrenia_and_pregnancy_genetic_pg2.html?cat=70