What Is Development  Term Paper

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Developmental Processes Across the Life Span With Diverse Sociocultural Contexts

The objective of this study is to identify development processes across the life span with diverse sociocultural contexts and to demonstrate theoretical comprehension and application in psychotherapy in order to identify theoretical strengths and weaknesses based on the setting and/or client population specific to child behavior. Finally, this work will demonstrate basic knowledge of the range of normal an abnormal behaviors and child developmental processes. The work of Havighurst (1971) entitled 'Characteristics of Development Task' reports that living is a process beginning with birth and ending with death, which is, comprised of people "working their way through from stage of development to another, by solving their problems in each stage.") When the individual does not complete a task, which results in unhappiness as well as "disapproval by society and problems in later tasks." (1971, p.1) Six primary stages of the human life are identified in the work of Havighurst including those as follows:

(1) Infancy & early childhood (Birth till 6)

(2) Middle childhood (6-12)

(3) Adolescence (13-18)

(4) Early Adulthood (19-30)

(5) Middle Age (30-60)

(6) Later maturity (60 and over (Havighurst, 1971, p.1)

The work of Lam entitled "Language, Literacy, and the Immigrant Subject" examines how "transborder social networking and cultural flows in Internet communications" have resulted in new contexts of language learning, development of literacy and socialization for youths who have immigrated to the United States. (nd, p.25) Immigrant students and their experience with the American educational system are stated to have "been defined within the national imagination" in which public institutions such as schools "serve as major instruments for assimilating new immigrants into the social and moral fabric of society." (Lam, nd, p.25)

Schools perceive that immigrant students due to the cultural and linguistic practices are in possessing of a "problem to be solved or a deficit to be remediated through accelerated English language instruction accompanied by a perennial suspicion toward bilingual education." (Lam, nd, p.3) However, the idea of assimilation "does not automatically translate into the pursuit of the American dream…" (Lam, nd, p.3) Lam states that "inclusionary/assimilationist and exclusionary/segregationist forms of educational policies and practices have been used to incorporate new immigrants into the social and economic structure of the American society." (nd, p.3)

Language and literacy education is reported by Lam to have been utilized to bring immigrant students into the "moral and symbolic universe of the national through teaching a monolingual standard of English at the expense of other languages or dialects, which are by and large viewed as a hindrance or deterrence to the acquisition of standard English if placed within the public domain of schooling." (nd, p.4) The fear of non-American language and culture is that which expresses the reason that immigrants students are "disproportionately sent into remedial, vocational, and special education classes. Immigrants make a gradually move from identifying with their own linguistic, cultural and national origins into an identification with specific races and ethnicities in the United States." (Lam, nd. p.4) According to Lam "Technology has served to assist immigrants students with assimilation through enabling them to remain friends closely in contact with those in their home country as well as enabling them to remain in contact with family and what is really happening." (nd, p.4) According to Lam, assimilation has been replaced by transculturalization or a "…socialization to multiple modes of belonging and participation across national boundaries." (nd, p.4) Lam states "A growing body of research on technologically-mediated literacy has shown how young people's computer-mediated activities involve the use of multiple representational resources; Language, Literacy and the Immigrant formation of identities and sociocultural communities across virtual and material spaces; polyfocal orientation to time and space; and learning in…

Sources Used in Document:

Bibliography

Havighurst, R.J., (1971) Developmental Tasks and Education, Third Edition. New York. Longman.

Lam, WSE (nd) Re-envisioning Language, Literacy and the Immigrant Subject in New Mediascapes. Northwestern University / Evanston, IL.

Castel, AD, et al. (2011) The Development of Memory Efficiency and Value-Directed Remembering Across the Life Span: A Cross-Sectional Study of Memory and Selectivity. Developmental Psychology © 2011 American Psychological Association. 2011, Vol. 47, No. 6, 1553 -- 1564.

Waszak, F. et al. (2010) The Development of Attentional Networks: Cross-Sectional Findings From a Life Span Sample. Developmental Psychology © 2010 American Psychological Association 2010, Vol. 46, No. 2, 337 -- 349

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