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.." And is a concept which has as its basis that "at the beginning of learning, students needs a great deal of support" and over time the support is removed in a gradual manner as the student become prepared to be more independent. Modeling is the process of assisting the students in the construction of meaning and assisting them in learning the necessary strategies and skills in the learning process and in meaning making with what has been learned. Cooperative learning is a strategy for instruction that has been found to be especially effective in literacy instruction and the students "learn to read, write, and think by having meaningful engagements with more experienced individuals." (Wells, 1990; as cited in Useful Instructional Strategies for Literature-Based Instruction, 1997) the Greece School District website 'eading Strategies: Scaffolding Student's Interactions with Texts' document provides information concerning reading strategies that may be used along with…
Tom D. (1994), Teaching method: Best practice for teachers, Retrieved July 25, 2007 at http://northonline.sccd.ctc.edu/eceprog/bstprac.htm
Saskatoon Public Schools (2004),Balanced Literacy Instruction, Retrieved July 25, 2007 at http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/balancedliteracy/index.html
The TELUS Learning Connection, What is balanced literacy? Retrieved July 25, 2007 at http://www.earlyliterature.ecsd.net/balanced%20literacy.htm
Houghton Mifflin Company (1997), Useful Instructional Strategies for Literature-Based Instruction, Retrieved July 25, 2007 at http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/res/literacy/lit_ins4.html
teacher instructional technology literacy instruction improve elementary (K-5) student achievement reading vocabulary? Create a qualitative research scenario phenomenology approach.
Does the use of instructional technology improve elementary (K-5) student reading vocabulary?
In the era of high-stakes testing, student performance on reading has become increasingly important in determining school evaluations. eading is a fundamental skill necessary for future success in life. Students are reading in a paper-based format less frequently, at younger ages. This research study will attempt to asses the impact of using technology within the classroom to enhance vocabulary recognition. Previous research indicates that "teacher-made online learning resources provide course content anchored resources that focus on specific real world tasks in class, and a supportive authentic learning environment to learners" (Li 2011).
Using technology to teach reading has several apparent advantages. First of all, it can deploy a multimedia strategy to enhance student engagement. Students are often…
Introna, Lucas. (2011). Phenomenological approaches to ethics and information technology.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2011/entries/ethics-it-phenomenology
Li, S., Price, D., & Fu, Y. (2011). The impact of the teacher-made online learning resources.
The Business Review, Cambridge, 18(1), 35-40.
teacher instructional technology with new literacy instruction to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary?
The alternative hypothesis would be that new literacy instruction does have th potential to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary. In other words that significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.
The null hypothesis would be that no significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.
The study will choose 2 different schools in a certain district with classes k-5 where one school has introduced new literacy techniques (namely technological strategies), and the other school is still employing traditional instruction.
The schools would be as closely matched as possible with students coming from a similar socio-economic background and with their parents generally sharing a similar educational niche (i.e. either…
Babchuk, W. (1996). Glaser or Strauss? Grounded theory and adult education. Presented at the Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, October 17-19, 1996.
Glaser, B. (1993). Examples of grounded theory: a reader. Mill Valley, CA:
Glaser, B. (1998). Doing grounded theory. Mill Valley: Sociology Press.
Integrate Technology With Literacy Instruction
Researchers have investigated aspects of integrating technology with literacy instruction. In my strategy, I would focus on the use of a word processor on written expressions. While some studies have found either no significant outcomes or mixed outcomes with regard to the effect of the word processor on the development of literacy, most analyses have demonstrated word processor to be beneficial. This technology mitigates the complications young kids often experience with the fine-motor control necessary for letter development and help in revisions.
Further, complications met by disabled learners in expressing themselves through writing will be reduced using transcription software, word processor, spell checkers, multimedia applications, speech synthesizers and semantic organizers. Other researchers have shown that word processor improves cooperation and active participation among learners besides strengthening children's focus on the material they write. In addition, compared with paper-and-pencil arrangements, it improves sentence density, cohesion, revisions…
teacher instructional technology literacy instruction improve elementary (K-5) student achievement reading vocabulary? Create a qualitative research scenario phenomenology approach.
Coca-Cola is one of the largest companies in the world. It employs 146, 200 employees worldwide and sells beverages in more than 200 countries. Coca-Cola has given its shareholders increasing dividends for 50 consecutive years (Coca-Cola company information, 2012, Coca-Cola). Coca-Cola's flagship brand is the soda Coca-Cola, and it dominates the traditional soda market. However, its main competitor Pepsi-Cola dominates many other facets of the bottled drink industry, such as Gatorade (versus Coke's PowerAde) and Mountain Dew (versus Coke's Mellow Yellow). Cadbury-Schweppes currently produces two other popular soda brands, Dr. Pepper and 7-UP. Coke's rival product Sprite has yet to secure equal market advantage. Cadbury-Schweppes also owns the Snapple line of beverages, some of which have a slightly 'healthier' image than that of much-demonized soda.
Coke has international brand…
Berk, Christiana Cheddar. (2011). Why Diet Coke's victory is bittersweet for Coca-Cola.
Brooker, Katrina. (2006). The Pepsi Machine. Fortune Magazine. Retrieved:
Further, the work of Frances Rauscher, Gordon Shaw and their colleagues of the University of California, Irvine, on what is termed 'The Mozart Effect' reports research that show a causal relationship between aspects of intelligence and music.
Practical application of the principles related by Fisher and McDonald in the classroom that this researcher finds most relevant in early literacy instruction combined with music instruction is the technique related by which the teacher asks the students after they have learned the song the questions of: (1) who; (2) what; (3) when; (4) where which provides an excellent method for instructing students in terms of sentence structure and in terms of vocabulary "within meaningful, active, and expressive contents." (Fisher and McDonald, nd) an example of this method of literacy instruction using music is to make PowerPoint slides of songs to use when teaching the songs to students with the 'who', 'what',…
Language and Literacy
Jeanne S. Chall was born in Poland on January 1, 1921. She moved to New York at a tender age of seven with her family. Jeanne S. Chall was one of the chief educators and researchers in the field of literacy during the past century. The Harvard Reading/Literacy Lab has recently been renamed in accolade of Dr. Chall.
hat follows is an account of Dr. Chall's life and work. Chall grew up in New York City, taught there, and received her bachelor's degree from City College in 1941. Due to a dearth of teaching posts open during the early 1940's, Chall took an assistantship at Teacher's College, Columbia University, subordinate to Irving Lorge, an intelligence-test researcher. It was there at Teacher's College that Chall first advanced a fascination and liking for educational research.
Chall then went on to seek her master's and doctoral degrees at Ohio State…
THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT CHALLENGE: WHAT REALLY WORKS IN THE CLASSROOM?
The Guilford Press, March 2000
It is important that children know how to use the resources in the room to get the words they do not know (alanced Literacy -- Helping Your & #8230;).
The alanced Concept Summary
This concept incorporates all reading approaches, realizing students will need to use multiple strategies to become proficient readers. Technology can also be integrated into a balanced approach for teaching literacy. Research indicates that student learning can be improved through the use of computers. Gains in self-confidence and motivation can be seen in those students who are using computers to enhance literacy instruction. The definition of literacy now includes a new literacy, where students need to read and write print text and also need to navigate and use the computer in their everyday lives (Cooperman and Cunningham).
alanced Literacy - Helping Your Child Love to Read and Write . (n.d.). Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from Ovid-Elsie Area…
Balanced Literacy - Helping Your Child Love to Read and Write . (n.d.). Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from Ovid-Elsie Area School District: http://www.oe.k12.mi.us/balanced_literacy/index.htm
Cooperman, N., & Cunningham, a. (2003, May). Balanced Literacy and Technology. Retrieved Mar 28, 2009, from Teaching Matters, Inc.: http://backend.teachingmatters.org/files/whitepaper.pdf
Definition of Balanced Literacy. (n.d.). Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from Phillipsburg k12: http://www.pburg.k12.nj.us/CURRICULUM/Definition%20of%20Balanced%20Lit.pdf
Frey, B., Lee, S., Pass, L., & Tollefson, N. (n.d.). Balanced Literacy in an Urban School District. Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from School of Education University of Kansas: http://web.ku.edu/~spear/Documents/Balanced_Literacy_in_an_Urban_School_District.pdf
..now requires understanding and manipulating the processes used to create messages in the modern world" (Adams & Hamm, 2000, p. 22) in fact the student is expected to be able to decode the information from various types of media. However the equally important point is also made that this expanding definition of what literacy comprises does not "...diminish the importance of traditional reading and writing skills; rather, it recognizes the increasing importance of information and communication technology" (Adams & Hamm, 2000, p. 22).
This is an important caveat to the enthusiastic embrace of modern technology and visual aspects of modern teaching. In other words, while visual literacy has become more important and while this aspect is closely linked to the use of modern technological tools such as computer, yet the basics of teaching and education should not be forgotten. Of equal importance however is the view that; "Today's students live…
Adams, D., & Hamm, M. (2000, Winter). Literacy, Learning and Media. Technos: Quarterly for Education and Technology, 9, 22. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002377227
Bleed R. (2005) Visual Literacy in Higher Education. Retrieved August 6, 2007, at http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI4001.pdf www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010939928
Brumberger, E.R. (2005). Visual Rhetoric in the Curriculum: Pedagogy for a Multimodal Workplace. Business Communication Quarterly, 68(3), 318+. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010939928 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5005970729
Bustle, L.S. (2004). The Role of Visual Representation in the Assessment of Learning. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 47(5), 416+. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5005970729 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011600259
epeated eading Instruction a Powerful and Effective Alternative Teaching Strategy for Students with Learning Disabilities?
This paper discusses how repeated reading instruction is a powerful and effective alternative for teaching reading to students with learning disabilities. When asked about reasonable adaptations that teachers can make to support learning from instructional materials, some of the most frequently cited adaptations are those involving peer support such as cooperative learning groups, student pairing. Studies show that students like working in small groups or being paired with a partner and appreciate it when teachers provide structure in teaching students how to work together and learn from each other. Teachers have utilized the phonics reading method and incorporated the Whole Language technique, but there are many educators in support of using the repeated reading technique as the favored instruction for students who have various learning disabilities.
It is the function of reading instruction to teach…
Boudah, D. & Weiss, M. (2002). Learning disabilities overview. (ERIC Document (Reproduction Service No. ED. 462808).
Cromwell, S. (1997). Whole language and phonics: Can they work together? Education World.
Accessed March 2, 2003 at www.educationworld.com.
Fitzsimmons, M. (1998). Beginning reading. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED.
It is more likely that there will continue to be many varied and constantly changing definitions of the American family, and this will continue to confuse those learning English as they attempt to make concrete connections between words and concepts from their own language and those of the new -- and constantly developing -- culture and language they have adopted.
hen making cultural comparisons, it is important to refrain from qualitative judgments, and I do not mean to imply any here. The Korean concept of the family and its responsibilities is more concrete than the American cultural and linguistic definitions, but this does not necessarily make it better. The American ideals of freedom and self-determination lie at the root of the American family, and lead to very different cultural and linguistic perspectives. It is the difference in vantage point, and not in any perceived difference in quality, that proves a…
Graff, E.J. "What Makes a Family?" Frame Work. Ed. Gary Columbo, Bonnie Lisle, Sandra Mno. Boston: Bedford, 1997, 26-38.
New York Daily News. "American Role Models." 6 November 2008. Editorial: pg. 32
Tan, Amy. "Four Directions" Frame Work. Ed. Gary Columbo, Bonnie Lisle, Sandra Mno. Boston: Bedford, 1997, 124-127.
Wetzstein, Cheryl. "American Family Needs Some Help." Washington Times, 8 March 2009, M15.
Adolescent Literacy Plan of Action
Successful academic learning and student performance are founded on literacy (Meltzer & Ziemba, 2006). Listening, reading, observational, writing, presentation, speaking and critical thinking skills are used by literate students to learn, communicate what they have learned and even transfer the knowledge gained to other scenarios (Meltzer & Ziemba, 2006). A literacy leadership team and the school principal must lead continual improvement as a goal for students to develop literacy. When an entire school community collectively holds expertise in literacy, it becomes the most beneficial to students (Irvin, Meltzer & Dukes, 2007). In addition to expertise, schools must do what's necessary to enhance their ability to minimize the gap existing between practice and knowledge. All school aspects, like assessments, curriculum, resource allocation, policies and structures, professional development of teachers, instruction and culture of the school, are impacted by the existence of systemic literacy development efforts (Irvin,…
ACT (2006b). Reading for college and reading for work: Same or different? (Report). Iowa City, IA: Author.
Cooney, S. (1999). Leading the way: State actions to improve student achievement in the middle grades. Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board.
Elmore, R. F. (2002). Bridging the gap between standards and achievement: The imperative for professional development in education. Washington, DC: Albert Shanker Institute.
Graves, Michael, and Lauren Liang. (2008). "Four facets of reading comprehension instruction in the middle grades," Middle school journal (March 2008).
The face of literacy is changing. In 1955, being literate meant being able to read and write well enough to do such things as read a newspaper and write letters. In the year 2005, however, many more demands are made on reading and writing skills. In addition to being able to read such things as magazines and books and being able to write letters or other short written communication, the majority of people now communicate extensively using computers in the form of email, news groups, instant messaging, mailing list, weblogs, and web pages. These methods, all of which rely heavily on writing, have put more emphasis on written communication than ever before.
The Smart Library on Literacy and Technology notes that literacy instruction has already begun to reflect emphasis on the computer in both reading and writing. In fact, computer technology has changed not only how we write…
Author not given. 2005. "Join Newsgroups: All About Newsgroups." Accessed via the Internet 10/8/05.
Heller, Steven. 2004. "Blog me, blog me not: design blogs offer stimulating idea forums, along with rambling, self-indulgent rants." Print, May 12.
Huang, Josie. 2004. "Instant message, instant relief; E-mails ease families' fears about Maine Guardsmen attacked in Iraq." Portland Press Herald (Maine), April 21.
Pillemer, Jack. No date given. "E-mail as a teaching tool." In ETAI Summer 1997. Accessed via the Internet 10/8/05.
Activities such as reading the names of street signs and stores and reading the ingredients on packages can help make children aware of the importance of printed words.
One of the most important things parents can do to encourage literacy in their early learner is to talk to their child. In a study conducted by Hart and isley (1995, 1999 as cited by osenkoetter & Barton, 2002), children whose parents talked to them more frequently learned to read faster, had more proficient oral and written vocabularies, better grammatical skills, and performed higher on academic tasks than children whose parents were less verbal. Asking questions and sharing experiences are simple but effective methods of having children retell information and use sequencing skills.
Children who have access to computers and learning software have an academic advantage over other students. A study conducted by Zevenbergen & Logan (2008) examined the ways…
Campbell, a. (2009, June). Learning with technology for pre-service early childhood teachers. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 34(2), 11-18. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/australian_journal_of_early_childhood/ajec_index_abstracts/learning_with_technology_for_pre_service_early_childhood_teachers.html
Freeman, L. & Bochner, S. (2008, December). Bridging the gap: improving literacy outcomes for indigenous students. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 33(4), 9-16. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/australian_journal_of_early_childhood/ajec_index_abstracts/bridging_the_gap_improving_literacy_outcomes_for_indigenous_students.html
Fluckiger, B. (2006). Children's cross-cultural literacy experiences in three worlds: enacting agency. School of Cognition Language and Special Education. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www4.gu.edu.au:8080/adt-root/uploads/approved/adt-QGU20070814.144647/public/01Front.pdf
Gillet, J. et al. (2008). Understanding Reading Problems: Assessment and Instruction. (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
While this idea might work very well for most students, there are always students that do not do well with standard instruction and these students are going to need a different type of instructional attitude so that they can succeed. Of course, this does not mean that everything should be changed based on just one or two students in a classroom, but only that the literacy pyramid might not work as well as expected on a broad scale for each and every student.
Students today appear to have more needs than students in the past did, or perhaps it is simply that they are making their needs known more easily or that teachers and others that work in the education profession are becoming more aware of what the students really need from the instruction and interaction that they receive. This is important for both the students and the teachers, because…
Reading and writing skills are taught explicitly, directly, and systematically using research-based strategies.
here are opportunities during each school day for vocabulary development to occur both directly and indirectly.
eachers use multiple strategies and combinations of strategies to teach vocabulary and reading comprehension.
eachers model their thinking processes, encourage student inquiry, and keep students motivated and engaged.
Learning-to-read and reading-to-learn skills are taught in the school's literacy program.
Multicultural resources and materials are used across the curriculum
he school provides diverse texts that present a wide range of topics at a variety of reading levels.
Reading and intensive writing instruction are integrated and taught across the curriculum
Students have multiple opportunities each day to practice their writing skills.
eachers use differentiated instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners.
eachers use strategic tutoring that includes teaching learning strategies…
The New Jersey State Report Card revealed some important information regarding the performance of this school and how it measured against other schools. The report itself, is complex and uses many interesting statistical measurements to reach conclusions, but it appears that a commendable endorsement is displayed. All sate wide literacy targets were met within the school at all grade levels 5-8. The school was in the top 40% of statewide rank according to Language Arts and literacy assessments. Each and every grade level has performed above the state level requirements suggesting that something is being done correct at this school.
Things are not perfect however, and improvements can be made at all levels of this literacy program in order to keep advancing the educational profession and not settling for just getting by as the temptation is strong to do. Teachers must allow students to gain a confidence in their own literacy skills and realize that others have different ways of interrelating the written word an making good use of it. It is also very important to keep the entire community involved in the process as well. If adults in the community are not reading and improving their own literacy skills, it is unfair to ask our offspring to do anything different. Leadership is necessary to set the example and show others how the community should be operating at a certain level of professional and courteous standards. Using the imagination in coordination with reading can be a very useful and practical skill that can be adapted into all facets of society. The domination of television and other distractions prevents reading from being embraced to its fullest extent, and until it is, the larger group must tolerate ignorance.
State of New Jersey, School Report. Thomas Jefferson Middle School, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.state.nj.us/education/pr/2013/03/035150070.pdf
literacy before ENG115
The way I understood literacy before the literacy class was majorly in three major sections, the ability to write correctly, ability to think before I spoke and ability to comprehend.
Writing correctly; was perceived as the ability to put down the content on paper in the correct grammar.
Ability to think before speaking; I considered this the capacity to contemplate the consequences of the words that I would speak before speaking them out.
Ability to read and comprehend; this was considered the capacity to take up material, read it and know exactly what it is talking about. These were the three perceptions that shaped my understanding of literacy before the ENG 115 class.
Newly developed definition of literacy (how/why it has changed)
After attending the full course class of literacy, there are changes that I had in perception of literacy and these included.
Using correct grammar was…
Brands R., (2014). 8 Step Process Perfects New Product Development. Retrieved March 1, 2014 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-f-brands/8-step-new-product-development_b_4556363.html
Education Development Center Inc., (2014). What is Literacy. Retrieved March 5, 2014 from http://www.edc.org/newsroom/articles/what_literacy
Jamea Paul G. (2014). What is Literacy. Retrieved March 5, 2014 from http://www.ed.psu.edu/englishpds/Articles/CriticalLiteracy/What%20is%20Literacy.htm
Balanced Literacy Program for Second Grade
This paper outlines a sample balanced literacy program and how it is organized for second grade students. In addition, the paper explains instructional approaches that can be integrated in the balanced literacy program to improve students' reading and writing skills. Moreover, the paper gives an insight of school practices that when initiated can improve students' classroom learning. The paper further notes components of balanced literacy program that the instructional approaches satisfy.
ecently there has been a downhill trend in reading and writing among students in second grade. This is due to establishment of literacy programs providing students with little phonemic awareness. Additionally, the balanced literacy programs are poorly designed; often lacking effective educational support for students (Mermelstein, 2005). Furthermore, teachers undertake improper training on implementation of learning instructions such as phonics; often prodding the students to memorize lessons. Given this, integration of instructional approaches…
Altieri, J. (2011). Content Counts! Developing Disciplinary Literacy Skills, K-6. Houston:
International Reading Association .
Camilli, G., & Wolfe, P. (2004). Research on Reading: A Cautionary Tale. Educational Leadership Journal, 26-29.
Fresch, M.J. (2003). A National Survey of Spelling Instruction: Investigating Teachers' Beliefs
"hat was the plot of the book you read for today?' 'hat is the name of the main character?' 'hat is the setting of the story?' Often teachers are so happy that students have completed a reading assignment in a timely fashion, and can recollect the basic details of what they read, they do not encourage the student to go 'one step further' and to critically think about the reading material assigned. But students must also learn to thoughtfully engage with the written materials at hand. If teachers ignore the importance of thoughtful as well as technical literacy, teachers are not setting high enough goals for student achievement. They also inadvertently create the effect of making reading seem like a chore to be mastered for a test in the immediate future, rather than a source of personal enrichment and pleasure over the course of one's life.
Allington, Richard. (2001) What Really Matters for Struggling Readers: Designing Research-Based Programs. New York: Longman.
proponents of evidence based instruction represent one end of the methods of teaching continuum where practices that have been tested empirically using rigorous research designs are considered to be the only valid method of instruction (Odom et al., 2005). On the other end of the spectrum are methods that may be have some basis for use such an intuition, theory, etc. But have not been subject to empirical scrutiny are considered valid to use. Evidence based instruction or scientific research-based instruction consists of instructional practices or programs for which empirical data have been collected to determine the effectiveness of the program (Odom et al., 2005). In these types of practices/programs rigorous research designs have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the practices. Such research designs can include randomized, controlled trials; quasi-experiments; single subject designs; correlational methods, and/or qualitative research. The most empirically sound designs, randomized controlled experiments, are used…
August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Executive summary. Developing literacy in second- language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Condelli, L., & Wrigley, H.S. (2004). Identifying promising interventions for adult ESL literacy students: A review of the literature. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences.
Foorman, B.R., & Torgesen, J. (2001). Critical elements of classroom and small-group instruction promote reading success in all children. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16, 203 -- 213.
Odom, S.L., Brantlinger, E., Gersten, R., Homer, R.H., Thompson, B., & Harris, K.R. (2005). Research in special education: Scientific methods and evidence-based practices. Exceptional Children, 71, 137-149.
This model views literacy as woven into the person's identity, based in turn from his acculturation and participation in his socio-cultural community. Spoken or written communication is understood and appreciated according to who is reading or writing and the context and purpose of the communication. Learners come to the educational setting with individual experiences, perspectives, values and beliefs. They perform tasks subjectively. Their cultural background is, therefore, an essential requirement to teaching functional literacy.
The U.S. Department of Education through the Department of Adult Education and Literacy implements the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act. This legislation provides support money for adult literacy and basic education programs. It perceives adult education as that falling below post-secondary level for persons 16 years old and older. Statistics say there are about 51 million American adults in this category. Eligibility was adjusted from 18 to 16 in 1970; approved funding to non-profit organizations…
Guy, T. (2006). The adult literacy education systems in the United States. Literacy for Life. Education for All Global Monitoring Report. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 from http://unedoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001462/146281e.pdf
Onwuegbuzie, a., et al. (2004). Reading comprehension among African-American graduate students. The Journal of Negro Education: Howard University. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200410/ai_n13506807?tag=content;col1
Newsline. Adult literacy classes improve lives in California communities. Issue 4.
Office of Multifamily Housing Programs: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
assist students with literacy difficulties. The studies all used the academic classroom as the center of education and tested different learning methods.
Factors that influence the book selection process of students with special needs" is a study to learn how students with special needs react to choosing their own reading material. The results show that these children use a similar process as that of other students. The students with special needs do use more factors then typical children but it is clear that they want to read the same stories as typical children.
Many studies have concluded that choice is a necessary motivator to children and has a positive impact on their education. The most natural forum for self-selection is learning to read. Every child has different interests, unique needs and backgrounds and therefore tends to choose different books to read. There are different factors that affect children's book selection.…
Factors That Influence The Book Selection Process of Students With Special Needs" by Swartz and Hendricks.
Journal of Adolescents Adult Literacy 43:7 April 2000 pages 608-617
Writing Instruction For Struggling Adolescent Readers: A Gradual Release Model" by Fisher and Frey.
Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 46:5 February 2003 pages 396-404
Increased vocabulary levels leads to increases in reading comprehension. Students with higher levels of vocabulary can also express themselves in more unique and complex formats, essentially increasing their ability to comment on the reading material in a way that better correlates with their exact emotions or experiences associated with that reading material.
Writing summaries for reading material is another method of using writing exercises to increase literacy levels. Teachers should implement lessons were students write hierarchal summaries that help organize the structure of reading material in a shape that is more familiar and understandable to students (Meltzer, Cook, & Clark, 2011). Writing summaries force students to internalize the material and reassert it in a different way. This further engages them with the texts, as they are forced to put the material in their own words.
Thirdly, using student-generated content to expose weaknesses in understanding can play a key role. Having…
Guthrie, John T. (2001). Contexts for engagement and motivation in reading. Reading Online. 4(8). Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=/articles/handbook/guthrie/index.html
Guthrie, John T. (2012). Adolescent literacy: Issues, knowledge base, design principles, and challenges. Center on Instruction. Web. Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://centeroninstruction.org/
Melzter, Julie, Cook, Nancy, & Clark, Holly. (2011). Adolescent Literary Resources: Linking Research and Practice. Center for Resource Management. Brown University. Web. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from www.alliance.brown.edu/pubs/adlit/alr_lrp.pdf
functional literacy activities? What are some examples?
Functional literacy activities refer to activities that focus on reading or writing in direct connection to actual tasks that can be easily applied or used in the real world. For example, functional literary activities might involve reading street signs, reading maps or drafting a grocery list.
What are ways to share literature with young children? What are important factors to consider when selecting literature to share and stocking classroom libraries? What are some effective story-reading strategies (read-alouds and shared reading)?
One way to share literature with young children would be to present it in the most dynamic and hands on approach possible. For example, using puppets or dolls or figurines when presenting a new book to students can be a way to help engage students' minds and imagination. Or dynamic follow-up activities which relate to the text can also be used with success:…
Golembeski, K. (2013). Preparing for Kindergarten Begins the Year Before. Retrieved from Getreadytoread.org: http://www.getreadytoread.org/early-learning-childhood-basics/early-childhood/preparing-for-kindergarten-begins-the-year-before
Teachervision.com. (2013, January). Shared Writing. Retrieved from Teachervision.com: https://www.teachervision.com/reading-and-language-arts/skill-builder/48883.html
Virginia.edu. (2003). What's the difference among phonological awareness, phonemic. Retrieved from Virginia.edu: http://www.readingfirst.virginia.edu/pdfs/Phon_Spel_Handout.pdf
Thus, this needs assessment is required in order to determine the best ways to use resources in order to obtain maximum results for students. In order to conduct the assessment, then, data must be collected and analyzed. First, to address the problem of ESL students and their desired interactions with speakers of their own languages, researchers must determine whether or not interaction with a speaker of one's native language is beneficial when one is learning proficiency in another language. Methods of collecting this data include perusing already existing studies regarding the correlation between these two variables as well as conducting further studies based on the performance of a group that had access to a speaker of one's native language and one that did not. Furthermore, the students' expressed need regarding access to technological equipment and personalized training with that equipment can be assessed by gathering data that examines the best…
Literacy is more than knowing how to read and write in a given language. At the level of college education, literacy pertains to mastering the means of communication for different subjects. Literacy therefore may entail understanding specific jargon of a chosen field, but it may also mean being literate in the modes of inquiry, paradigms, assumptions, and methodologies of specific subjects. Each college major will have different literacy needs and requirements for a successful college term and for graduation. It is crucial that college students master the literacy skills that relate to their chosen major, if they hope to graduate and succeed in their future career.
One type of literacy that pertains to almost all college majors is information literacy. According to the Association of College and esearch Libraries (ACL, 2014), information literacy is defined as "the set of skills needed to find, retrieve, analyze, and use information," (p. 1).…
Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL, 2014). Introduction to information literacy. Retrieved online: http://www.ala.org/acrl/issues/infolit/overview/intro
"The Many Forms of Literacy," (n.d.). National Writing Project. Retrieved online:
The author reiterates the basic elements of reading must be understood, and so they must be consistently repeated until they become automatic for students. The author also notes, "Teachers also should not use the time spent on tasks as a measure of student progress; instead, educators should focus on the total number of exercises that students have mastered" (MacGregor, 2004, p. 52). Thus, the teaching techniques must include specific exercises and instructors should completely understand what the results of those exercises are, and how their students are mastering the exercises. The instructor must be familiar with the educational software and its uses to gain the most for students and study time. This information can increase the effectiveness of reading remediation and student's results with reading exercises.
MacGregor, D. (2004). Literacy software saves struggling…
MacGregor, D. (2004). Literacy software saves struggling readers the Journal (Technological Horizons in Education), 32(4), 52.
DIECT INSTUCTION refers to the model of instruction developed by Engelmann in 1960s whereby he focused on a specific design of teaching and learning to prove that every child learns when instruction method is appropriate. In other words, "The Direct Instruction Model... is a comprehensive system of instruction that integrates effective teaching practices with sophisticated curriculum design, classroom organization and management, and careful monitoring of student progress, as well as extensive staff development." (Stein, Carnine, Dixon, 1998) Engelmann and his colleagues explained that for this model they began "with the obvious fact that the children we work with are perfectly capable of learning anything that we can teach... We know that the intellectual crippling of children is caused by faulty instruction -- not by faulty children." (Engelmann & Carnine, 1991, p. 376)
In 1960s and 1970s, Engelmann and his colleagues Carl Bereiter, and Wes Becker developed the direct instruction model…
MARCY STEIN, DOUGLAS CARNINE, AND ROBERT DIXON, Direct Instruction: Integrating Curriculum Design and Effective Teaching Practice. Vol. 33 no, Intervention in School & Clinic, 03-01-1998.
Gersten, R., Woodward, J., & Darch, C. (1986). Direct instruction: A research-based approach to curriculum design and teaching. Exceptional Children, 53, 17-31.
Engelmann, S., & Carnine, D. (1991). Theory of instruction: Principles and applications (Revised edition). Eugene, OR: ADI Press.
Direct Instruction: The Most Successful Teaching Model April 24, 2002 URL:
Differentiated instruction is corresponding instruction to meet the dissimilar needs of learners in a given classroom. The array of instructional need within one classroom can be very large. In order to accommodate these instructional needs, it is suggested that teachers plan for:
small group, differentiated instruction sufficient student practice chances
Differentiated instruction is put into practice during the chosen block of time for reading instruction. Typically, entire group instruction is provided, and then classrooms and instruction are planned (Kosanovich, et al., n.d.). Two different types of differentiated instruction that are often used in the classroom are small group instruction and curriculum compacting.
Small Group Instruction
Small-group reading is a supported literacy practice in which the teacher supports and directs the students with text on their instructional level. The teacher helps students develop an understanding of the text while prompting them to use strategies they will require in…
About Best Practices in Small-Group Reading. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.benchmarkeducation.com/educational-leader/reading/small-group-reading.html
Guided Reading Activities & Small-Group Instruction Best Practices. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.benchmarkeducation.com/reading/small-group-instruction-for-reading-activities -- strategies.html
Getting Started with Small-Group Reading Instruction in the Intermediate Grades. (n.d.).
Retrieved from http://www.esc4.net/docs/120-Getting%20Started.pdf
spelling instruction are presented and compared in the article, 'Three paradigms of spelling instruction in grades 3 to 6' (Taylor-Heald, 1998).
In this article the three paradigms are identified as the traditional, the transitional, and the student-oriented. Each of these paradigms is a model for teaching children the basic and fundamental concept of spelling.
In this research paper, Taylor-Heald's article will be used as a basis for identifying each of the methods. Firstly, from the article by Taylor-Heald we will describe each method, how it is utilized and also discuss Taylor-Heald's view on each of the methods.
After looking at each of the methods separately, we will then briefly examine the major differences between the methods.
We will then discuss the implications of each of the methods, including how each method is used and the benefits of each method. This will also include looking at various other research studies that…
Davidson, M., & Jenkins, J.R. (1994). "Effects of phonemic processes on word reading and spelling." Journal of Educational Research, 87, 148-157.
Darch, C., Kim, S., Johnson, S., & James, H. (2000). "The strategic spelling skills of students with learning disabilities: The results of two studies." Journal of Instructional Psychology, 27, 15-27.
Hume, D. (1975). Enquiries Concerning Human Understanding and Concerning the Principles of Morals. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Scott, C.M. (2000). "Principles and methods of spelling instruction: Applications for poor spellers." Topics in Language Disorders, 20, 66- 79.
Vision of Student Learning
The vision of Paterson Public Schools is “to be the leader in educating New Jersey’s urban youth” (Paterson, 2017). My vision of student learning is aligned with the school’s vision in the sense that my goal is to help my students be the leaders of their communities, classrooms, schools, and workplaces when they grow up. Part of this leadership must come from character education, which Lickona (1993) and Kristjansson (2014) note is of particular importance in today’s schools. Part of what helps to inform character education is the focus on self-directed learning, which was advocated by Maria Montessori through the Montessori Method (Mangal, 2007). One of the best ways to promote self-directed learning and thereby facilitate character education and achieve the vision of the school is to use computer-assisted instruction as a teaching approach (Hsieh, 2017).
The process needed to implement and promote my vision required…
program READ 180 is designed for children in elementary school through high school whose achievement of reading is not above the level of proficiency. The main objective of this program is to address the gap in the skills of the students by using direct instruction, literature and computer program in the reading skills. The goal of the software is to adapt and track the progress of every student. Apart from that, the program also includes audio books with CDs for modeling reading, paperback books for independent reading and workbooks for addressing the comprehension skills of the students (WWC, 2009).
Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI): Decision Making Process
Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) is a test of reading comprehension that assesses the reading skills of the students. The scores that come from this test help the teachers to place the students on the correct path and help the teachers to adjust their style…
Betebenner, D.W. (2011). A Technical Overview of the Student Growth Percentile Methodology: Student Growth Percentiles and Percentile Growth Projections/Trajectories. New Hampshire: The National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment Dover.
Bonds, M., Blewett, P., Sain, M., Spence, J., Woodward, A., Miller, L., . . . Falk, T. (2011). District Report Card. Milwaukee Board of School Directors.
Data Interpretation Guide. (n.d.). SPI.
Flynn, J.E., Bieler, D., Kim, H., Dow, R.R., Wong, C., & Worden, L. (n.d.). Recruiting and Retaining Students from Underrepresented Groups in University of Delaware Teacher Preparation Programs. Collaborative to Diversify Teacher Education at the University of Delaware.
Client Report: Early Literacy Template
Kayla is a first grade student who has passed the kindergarten literacy standards. Although she passed the kindergarten literacy standards, she has not passed the first grade reading standards due to her difficulty with reading. Recent assessments revealed that she continues to perform below average in reading skills, particularly with decoding, fluency and comprehension.
List of Assessments (to be included with Client Report: Final Submission)
Parent Permission Form with your full name and first name of parent typed in
Teacher Referral Form with all information typed on this template
Observation Checklist: Early Literacy Behavior with all information typed on this template
1. Early Literacy riting Sample with form completed in template and a jpg file of actual writing sample included.
Early Literacy Assessments -- Complete all parts of the Test Summary Sheet (from John's Basic Reading Inventory: Early Literacy)
Word recognition -- ___ -- ___ -- ___X___ -- ___ --
Comprehension/retelling -- ___ -- ___X___ -- ___ -- ___ --
From Jerry L. Johns, Basic Reading Inventory (11th ed.). Copyright © 2012 by Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company (1- *** , ext. 4). May be reproduced for non-commercial educational purposes. Website: www.kendallhunt.com
Mathematics Instruction in English on ELL Second Grade Students
J. Elizabeth Estevez
Educ2205I-Content Research Seminar
Mathematics is a powerful tool for interpreting the world. Research has shown that for children to learn how to use mathematics to organize, understand, compare, and interpret their experiences, mathematics must be connected to their lives. Such connections help students to make sense of mathematics and view it as relevant. There has, however, been controversy with regard to children from non-English backgrounds and the best ways to get them to make those connections. Questions are raised regarding how to instruct these children who are referred to as English language learners (ELL's). Should they initially be taught in their native language with gradual exposure to English in language classes, or should they be immersed in English as early as possible. Based upon ideas presented in research studies and my own ideas as a former bilingual teacher,…
DDI is a systematic and precise method designed to enhance learning by students. The cycle of inquiry for data driven instruction entails assessment, analysis of the student performance and action. It is a central causal factor for the realization of student success. The student tasks indicate to us what our learners are capable of doing and what they know. They also indicate points of weakness in their learning activities. The central question is how to make use of such data to close the gaps in the learning process. Experts in the education sector cite the use of data driven instruction and inquiry as an important tool in improving student performance (Data Driven Instruction, 2016).
What did you learn in the program you are now completing, including in student teaching, about the use of data-supported instruction?
The data that shows student achievement is highly valuable in helping education managers…
Barbara Means, Lawrence Gallagher, & Christine Padilla. (2007). Teachers' Use of Student Data Systems to Improve Instruction. Jessup: U.S. Department of Education.
Bongiorno, D. (2011). Student Assessment. Virginia: U.S. Department of Education.
Data Driven Instruction. (2016, October 9). Retrieved from Engage: https://www.engageny.org/data-driven-instruction
Jerry L. Johns. (2002). What is Evidence-based reading instruction? Newark: International Reading Association.
What Needs to Be Done
The research quite clearly suggests that something needs to be done about the gender gap in literacy rates and the lower comprehension and skill levels of male students. What is somewhat less clear is exactly what needs to be done or how to go about implementing the necessary changes. This is not to say that certain strategies and methods have not been suggested, many of which have even been studied and demonstrated to have a positive impact, but developing a full teaching strategy that addresses this gap in many ways requires an overhaul of general teaching practices that is complex and difficult to concretely define let alone implement. Certain entrenched policies and practices also increase the difficulty of implementing the necessary adjustments to curricula and methodologies.
Education has tended towards greater freedom for independent exploration and less rigid instruction, and while this can lead…
Allington's sixth chapter
In the sixth chapter of his text, hat Really Matters for Struggling Readers: Designing Research-Based Programs, literacy expert Richard Allington gives important tips to teachers as to how they can effectively improve instruction for struggling readers in their classrooms. This is often one of the most difficult tasks for any teacher, regardless of the grade he or she teachers.
In fact, one of Allington's first areas of critique is teacher-focused. To help teacher improve classroom instruction for such challenged readers, Allington stresses the need to provide additional support for teachers' professional growth. Since this field of how to approach struggling readers is undergoing continual professional debate, teachers need to keep in touch with new pedagogical developments, as well as receive support from their fellow professionals. Regular classroom teachers must strive to become expert educators, as well as have adequate access to resource room staff.
Enhancing Access to…
Allington, Richard. (2001) What Really Matters for Struggling Readers: Designing Research-Based Programs. New York: Longman.
classroom instruction, it is important not to overgeneralize. (Johnston, 2010, paraphrased)
TI was introduced in the 2004 IDEA legislation and requests that schools utilize 15% of their special education funding for regular interventions for education. equired by this law is "appropriate" and "scientific, research-based instruction by qualified personnel." (Federal egister 2006, p. 46786 in Johnston, 2010) This law has built in flexibility and does not make a requirement of instructional tiers that are separate or layers that are interwoven or require any other structure. What is required is assessment on a regular basis although the frequency or nature of the assessment is not stipulated.
TI is stated in the work of Johnston (2010) to be "framed as a strategy for preventing LD" and that from this view TI "becomes an instructional problem, emphasizing responsive teaching and the most instructionally useful assessment, and providing the means and context for improving teaching…
Johnston, Peter (2010) An Instructional Frame for RTI. The Reading Teacher 63(7). 2010 International Reading Association.
A three: 63% of Americans in a recent study believe that "regulations and laws" that are intended to protect our oceans are not strict enough, while 16% say laws are ok;
c) the knowledge most people have about the science related to the ocean and coast is not high.
A one: citizens are unaware of threats to the oceans, though the threats are immediate two: 50% of people recognize that factories are a pollution source, but only 24% recognize that "runoff" is what causes the pollution from factories and oil refineries three: 75% of people in one survey believed trees and forests give off more oxygen than oceans; and 60% of respondents didn't know that there are more plant and animal species on oceans than on land.
A four: about 45% of those polled between that between 11 and 20% of U.S. coastal regions are now in federally protected zones;…
Coyle, Kevin J. "Understanding Ocean and Coastal Literacy: How Public Opinion and Knowledge Research Helps Inform Ocean and Coastal Science Education Programming at NOAA." National Environmental Education and Training Foundation. 2005.
Teaching Language Arts: Description of How Oral Communication Skill May Be Developed Through Conversation, Storytelling and Oral Discussion
It is reported that the use of language in the early years of childhood teaches children not only about the world around them but how language and its use serves various purposes. This type of knowledge is known as pragmatic knowledge which in part is conversational skills. It is asserted in the work of Weiss (2004) that the development of conversational skills in childhood influences the child's ability to interact with others. Children inherently learn these skills however, the adult teacher or parent's role in assisting the learning of children in the area of conversations skills is critical to the ability of the child as a conversationalist. Storytelling is excellent in its ability to develop language arts among children because it requires them to be good listeners. Storytelling can be followed by…
Auditory Discrimination Skills Training Module (nd) Highreach Learning, Inc. Retrieved from: https://www.highreach.com/highreach_cms/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=mgL4impMvYY%3D&tabid=106
Critical Issue: Addressing Literacy Needs in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Classrooms (nd) Retrieved from: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/content/cntareas/reading/li400.htm
Effective Spelling Instruction: Teaching Children How to Spell and Helping Students Develop Spelling Skills. Right Track Reading. Retrieved from: http://www.righttrackreading.com/howtospell.html
Five Components of Effective Oral Language Instruction (2014) Professional Development for Preservice Teachers. Retrieved from: http://www.pdst.ie/sites/default/files/Oral%20Language%20Booklet%20PDF.pdf
The student jumps from one tense to another in the space of two sentences, revealing a discussion which is largely uncertain of its own chronology. Naturally, this makes the work a very unclear experience for the reader such as in the pair of sentences in the second paragraph, which declare that "A few days later 'This alarms the Crows.' Father Crows discussed the matter with the other animals that live in the banyan tree." Again, only with respect to tense changes, the pattern of error in this sentence jumps from present tense (alarms), to past tense (discussed) and then back to present (live). These examples all come from the first few sentences of the essay, and are consistently observable throughout, indicating that verb conjugation is an area of particular need for this student where written expression in concerned.
Other issues that are often encountered by ELL students will concern the…
Christensen, L. (2003). The Politics of Correction: How We Can Nurture Students In Their Writing. The Quarterly, 25(4).
Manley, J. (1988). Telling lies efficiently: terminology and the microstructure in the bilingual dictionary. in: Jensen Hyldgaard (ed.), 281-302.
Headquartered in Houston, Texas, XXX Corporation is a financial holding company with assets of $87.9 billion at June 30, 2012. Its primary subsidiary, XXX Corporation., is a full-service commercial bank providing an array of financial services to individuals, small businesses, middle-market companies, and major corporations. The bank operates 402 branches in California, ashington, Oregon, Texas, New York and Illinois, as well as two international offices. XXX Corporation is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Bank Germany, Ltd., which is a subsidiary of LCT Financial Group. Visit XXXcorparation.com for more information.
Become part of a team where community, diversity, and exceptional service are part of everyone's job.
Associate's degree or higher in business, finance or real estate preferred. Previous loan processing or underwriting related experience preferred.
Three years of relevant experience in commercial and income property lending including direct correspondence and contact with borrowers, brokers and other…
Liability Zero. (N.d.). Protocol Financial Consulting Logo. Retrieved from Deviant Art: http://liabilityzero.deviantart.com/art/Protocol-Financial-Consulting-Logo-266912882
Omni Hotels. (N.d.). Diversity. Retrieved from Omni Hotels: http://www.omnihotels.com/aboutomnihotels/omnihotels/diversity.aspx
Souvenir Technologies. (N.d.). Careers. Retrieved from Souvenir Technologies: http://souvenirtechnologies.com/careers/job-postings/
Howard Gardner and Evelyn Sowell on the Perfect Student
Will our educational system ever produce the "perfect student" graduate of a "perfect school?" If we follow theories of Howard Gardner and Evelyn Sowell, there is a strong possibility. But we must also re-evaluate our testing and evaluation procedures.
The ideal student coming out of the perfect school would not necessarily be the person who has performed the best on multiple choice tests or has had the best attendance record. My ideal student is someone who has learned how to enhance and develop his or her innate intelligences and the perfect school is an institution that helps the student achieve that goal.
Since everyone has different strengths and weaknesses, I believe Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences is an excellent approach to learning. Gardner believes intelligence is "the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one…
1. Gardner, H., & Hatch, T. (1989). Multiple intelligences go to school: Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences. Educational Researcher, 18(8), 4-9.
Interview transcribed from a video produced by Agency for Instructional Technology, Bloomington, Ind. (1994. Reprinted by Penn State University Website: ( http://www.ed.psu.edu/insys/ESD/gardner/menu.html )
Sowell, E., (1999) Curriculum An Integrated Introduction, 2nd edition.
block and the response to intervention (TI) tiered approaches to education. Block education can best be defined as a method of manipulating the time available for teaching in the daily curriculum in a high school environment in a comprehensive and efficient manner in order to most effectively teach students. The TI tiered approach is an approach that is systematic in its design, and allows for students to move at their own respective pace while still demanding results in a structured manner. The TI approach in education takes place as a way of intervening in a student's progress (or lack thereof) before the overall effect of the non-progression leads to severe educational handicaps. The block education is used in a more physical educational setting and is used to allow a more flexible approach to education.
This literature review seeks to determine how effective the TI educational approach is compared to the…
Bollman, K.A.; Silbergitt, B.; Gibbons, K.A.; (2007) The St. Croix River education district model: Incorporating systems-level organization and a multi-tiered problem-solving process for intervention delivery, Handbook of Response to Intervention: The Science and Practice of Assessment and Intervention, New York: Springer, pp. 319 -- 330
Canady, R.L. & Rettig, M.D. (1994) Block scheduling: A catalyst for change in high schools, Princeton, NJ: Eye on Education
Dunn, M. (2010) Response to Intervention and reading difficulties: A conceptual model that includes reading recovery, Learning Disabilities -- A Contemporary Journal, Vol. 8, Issue 1, pp. 21 -- 40
Fisher, D. & Frey, N. (2007) A tale of two middle schools: The differences in structure and instruction, Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, Vol. 51, Issue 3, pp. 204 -- 211
(Fisher & Frey, 2003, p. 396)
There is little that demands that all the instruction be given by a single teacher. In fact the supplementation of writing instruction directly from a teacher by a timeline program that guided progress of a package/driven writing assignment could be very fruitful.
Fisher & Frey point out that students often benefit in unexpected ways from processes such as journaling, (Fisher & Frey, 2003, p. 396) which can bee seen as a first brainstorming session, where students express their ideas and then narrow their ideas to a single topic. (Steele, 2008, NP) if the process of writing was more guided and offered both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, such as the scoring and direct interaction functions of the Steele proposal more writing would likely take place in a functional way. Another manner in which to motivate students in a systematic writing style is through the utilization…
Campbell, N. (2002). Getting Rid of the Yawn Factor: Using a Portfolio Assignment to Motivate Students in a Professional Writing Class. Business Communication Quarterly, 65(3), 42.
Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2003). Writing Instruction for Struggling Adolescent Readers: A Gradual Release Model Because New Accountability Systems Focus on Writing, Struggling Students Need Daily, Coordinated Instruction That Is Meaningful. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46(5), 396.
Kuriloff, P.C. (2004). Rescuing Writing Instruction: How to Save Time & Money with Technology. Liberal Education, 90(4), 36.
The Mayfield Handbook of Technical and Science Writing (2001) "The Writing Timeline" Retrieved April 12, 2008 at http://www.mhhe.com/mayfieldpub/tsw/wt.htm
Even though a child may process the ability to decode written text this does not necessarily mean the child understands the content of the text.
Using informational texts in the primary grades will reduce the need for Tier 2 and Tier 3 supports for most students.
Content learning and content literacy are inseparable.
Language arts curriculum should be premised on reading to learn.
Increase the number of student encounters and experiences with print informational texts
This article presents a common sense approach to teaching reading. I appreciate the fact that "all reading is learning" and the content in many basal readers is unappealing to a curious mind. Basing the teaching of reading solely in literature is a disservice to many learners who yearn for more diverse content. Utilizing a wide range of informational texts in the classroom in the primary grades serves the purpose of building a child's repertoire…
Technology & Education
There has been a fundamental change in almost all aspects of our life brought about by computer technology and the spread of digital media. Educationalists also agree that this development in technology has left an undeniable mark on the process of education reforms (U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, 2010). esearchers also agree that technology has the ability to help students improve and enhance knowledge and skill acquisition. This, they say, can be achieved through learning with and about technology, which has become essential for students in the 21st-century society and workforce to gain competencies to perform well (Chen & Hwang, 2014). Additionally, student-centered learning can be well supported by technology since it is intrinsically motivating for many students and can be easily customized.
Academicians and researchers have defined technology as an articulation of a craft and deals with that branch of knowledge which can…
Boonmoh, A. (2012). E-dictionary Use under the Spotlight: Students' Use of Pocket Electronic Dictionaries for Writing. Lexikos, 22 (1). http://dx.doi.org/10.5788/22-1-997
Chen, N. & Hwang, G. (2014). Transforming the classrooms: innovative digital game-based learning designs and applications. Education Tech Research Dev, 62 (2), 125-128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11423-014-9332-y
Davis, H. (2012). Technology in the Classroom: A Deweyan Perspective. Kentucky Journal Of Higher Education Policy And Practice, Vol. 1(2), 10-12.
Floyd, K. (2011). Book and Software Review: Assistive Technology: Access for All Students. Journal Of Special Education Technology, 26 (4), 64-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016264341102600406
Teaching writing to young children
Learning how to write is an important tool in encouraging young children to get excited about reading. A 2010 experimental study in the Journal of Educational esearch (Jones, eutzel & Fargo 2010) compared two common techniques used in kindergarten classrooms to help young readers learn to write: interactive writing and the writing workshop method. "As children write, they analyze thought and meaning, experiment with words and form, and learn concepts of directionality, sequencing, and spacing" (Jones, eutzel & Fargo 2010). Previous studies indicated that even the very youngest readers could benefit from writing instruction, given the way that writing can help them analyze words letter by letter and that "letter-sound correspondence cannot be learned outside the written system" (Jones, eutzel & Fargo 2010). The benefits of writing instructions at the kindergarten level exist "even after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES) and IQ effects" (Jones, eutzel…
Berson, M.J., Ouzts, D.T., & Walsh, L.S. (1999). Connecting literature with K-8 national geography standards. The Social Studies, 90(2), 85-92.
Bishop, A.G., & League, M.B. (2006). Identifying a multivariate screening model to predict reading difficulties at the onset of kindergarten: A longitudinal analysis. Learning Disability Quarterly, 29(4), 235-252. Retrieved: doi: 10.2307/30035552
Diane, C.N., & Monson, D.L. (1996). Effects of literacy environment on literacy development of kindergarten children. The Journal of Educational Research, 89(5), 259-259.
Jones, Cindy D'On; Reutzel, D Ray; & Fargo, Jamison D. (2010). Comparing two methods of writing instruction: Effects on kindergarten students' reading skills. The Journal of Educational Research, 103 (5): 327-341. Retrieved:
Progression and Foundation of Language
Learning of primary language complements skills development; this includes learning about language, as well as learning other subjects in the school curriculum via language. Language learning facilitates general literary skills and allows children to revert to, and strengthen skills and concepts studied through their first language (The National Strategies Primary, 2009).
Curriculum is enriched by language learning. Teachers as well as children find it fun and challenging, and display enthusiasm towards language; this leads to creation of interested learners and the development of positive attitudes towards learning languages, all throughout one's life. A natural link exists between language and other curricular areas, and this enriches the overall teaching-learning experience. Proficiencies, understanding, and information learned through language contribute greatly to literacy and oracy development in children, as well as to better understanding of one's own and others' cultures. Language is also integral to community and…
(n.d.). Anticipatory Set/Hook. Weebly. Retrieved from: http://ed491.weebly.com/uploads/8/4/6/1/8461140/anticipatorysets.pdf
(2013). Arizona Early Learning Standards. Arizona Department of Education. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED486135.pdf
(n.d.). Developing Lessons with Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0136101259.pdf
Huppenthal, J., Stollar, J., & Hrabluk, K. (n.d.). Arizona State Literacy Plan. Arizona Department of Education. Retrieved from: http://www.azed.gov/standards-practices/files/2012/06/arizona-state-literacy-plan-compiled-doc-9.29.11.pdf .
Parents think school is the best place for a child to learn and to grow. People often believe traditional schooling is an effective way for a child to learn and grow. However, in recent times people have discovered traditional schooling may not be as effective as one believed. Colombo, Cullen and Lisle discuss in their book the pitfalls of formal classroom instruction. Formal classroom instruction may be useful for some students, but may be detrimental to others, especially in today's technology driven society.
Chapter one of Rereading America discusses formal classroom instruction and how it may stifle natural intelligence and creativity.
…on one level, Americans tend to see schooling as a valuable experience that unites us in a common culture and helps us bring out the best in ourselves; yet at the same time, we suspect that formal classroom instruction stifles creativity and chokes off natural intelligence and enthusiasm. (Colombo,…
Colombo, Gary, Robert Cullen, and Bonnie Lisle. Rereading America. 9th ed. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 2013. Print.
Dean, Ceri B, and Robert J. Marzano. Classroom Instruction That Works. Alexandria, Va.: ASCD, 2012. Print.
Enfield, Jacob. 'Looking At the Impact of the Flipped Classroom Model of Instruction on Undergraduate Multimedia Students at CSUN'. TechTrends57.6 (2013): 14-27. Web.
Heacox, Diane. Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Pub., 2002. Print.
History Teaching to Modern Students
The way teaching history and social sciences to students of the modern era has to undergo a change. There is no place for the old style of books and hundreds of pages of history cramped into one to two text books. Students are no longer the types of students that used to exist decades ago times have changed and so has the pattern and tendency to learn.
Sam Wineburg, the Professor of Educational Psychology and Adjunct Professor of History, University of Washington, Seattle, says that the education system and the teachers have been trying to rewrite textbooks and hoping that by doing so they would change how history is learned and taught by the to the students. But they are wrong as many realize that the means and ways of teaching and learning have changed. Wineburg claims that the problems is not with hat is…
Gerwin, D. (2004). Preservice Teachers Report the Impact of High-Stakes Testing. The Social Studies, 95(2), 71-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/tsss.95.2.71-74
Marshak, L., Mastropieri, M., & Scruggs, T. (2011). Curriculum Enhancements in Inclusive Secondary Social Studies Classrooms. Exceptionality, 19(2), 61-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09362835.2011.562092
Timmins, G., Vernon, K., & Kinealy, C. (2005). Teaching and learning history. London: SAGE.
In the final analysis, perhaps the most important feature to emerge from the research was the need for individualized attention for every young learner to the maximum extent possible.
Allor, J.H. (2002, Winter). The relationships of phonemic awareness and rapid naming to reading development. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25(1), 47-51.
Dickinson, D.K. & Neuman, S.B. (2006). Handbook of early literacy research. New York:
Gest, S.D. & Gest, J.M. (2005, February). eading tutoring for students at academic and behavioral risk: Effects on time-on-task in the classroom. Education & Treatment of Children, 28(1), 25-31.
Gipe, J.P. (2005). Multiple paths to literacy: Assessment and differentiated instruction for diverse learners, K-12. ISBN-13: 9780136100812.
Haswell, .H. (2001). Beyond outcomes: Assessment and instruction within a university writing program. Westport, CT: Ablex.
Kendall, J. & Khuon, O. (2005). Making sense: Small-group comprehension lessons for English language learners. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.
Norman, K.A. & Spencer,…
Allor, J.H. (2002, Winter). The relationships of phonemic awareness and rapid naming to reading development. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25(1), 47-51.
Dickinson, D.K. & Neuman, S.B. (2006). Handbook of early literacy research. New York:
Gest, S.D. & Gest, J.M. (2005, February). Reading tutoring for students at academic and behavioral risk: Effects on time-on-task in the classroom. Education & Treatment of Children, 28(1), 25-31.
esponse to instruction and intervention TI2 is reported as a general approach in education to closing the gap in achievement. TI2 methods are constructed upon the esponse to Intervention (TI) model that was an option for schools under the 'Building the Legacy, Idea 2004 reauthorization of the individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA. (California Department of Education, 2011) TI and the expanded TI2 are reported as being based upon "17 years of practice that has refined continuous progress monitoring as a strategy for keeping students on a path toward success." (California Department of Education, 2011) TI is reported as a strategy that moves all students through the steps set out in the learning standards and is further more stated to be an approach that views both academic and behavioral achievement of students.
Tier 1 included the 'Universal Interventions' which include "preventive, proactive, universal intervention in all…
Benchmark interventions -- reinforcement (2011) Department of Education. Retrieved from: http://pubs.cde.ca.gov/tcsii/ch2/bnchmrkrnfrcmnt.aspx
Case Study: El Rancho Unified School District in Pico Rivera, California (2011) International Reading Program. Retrieved from: http://www.reading.org/downloads/resources/rti0707_implications.pdf
Case Study: Pella Community School District, Iowa (2011) International Reading Program. Retrieved from:
Students then move to advisory to discuss what they learned from the principal, then begins first period science class.
Science is tutorial based, but often broken up into groups of four for lab and experimentation work. Math lab includes a number of different activities that change out regularly.
Following math, the students meet for Art class, which varies daily in activities, social and spatial development.
Lunch and a brief recess follows.
First class after lunch focuses on learning tools combined with independent reading; teacher uses only worksheets as student activity after reading; question worksheet designed to uncover comprehension and vocabulary development
Next class is social studies, work in pairs, teacher uses a number of different strategies and course outlines for variety.
Final period of the day focuses on English, or ESL for international students.
Reviewing a typical day for Ahmad, however, shows some serious disconnects in terms of his continual…
What do Tom and Mary have in common?
Outside of the purview of this essay, but nevertheless vital to the arguments presented when dealing with multicultural education, one must understand that there is a rather hierarchical taxonomy regarding the topic: Conservative multiculturalism, which assumes that unsuccessful minorities come from culturally deprived backgrounds and require ethnicity "stripping" for economic success of the child; Liberal multiculturalism which formats the sameness of all groups and requires manifesting language, but remaining culturally aware of the base culture; Pluralistic multiculturalism that shares features with the liberal view but focuses more on learning about differences and integration of race into simply being part of the individual; Left-Essentialist multicultural that holds that the conservative element uses language and other educational means as a way to control a minority and that essential traits may be romanticized for effect; and Critical multiculturalism that takes race, class, gender and even sexuality and transcends to a larger, more complex, social struggle. See: Kincheloe, J. And S. Steinberg. (1997). Changing Multiculturalism. Open University Press; and D. Campbell (2008). Choosing Democracy, a practical guide to Multicultural education. Allyn/Bacon.
The efforts of the federal government have been thoroughly and extensively backed up by fiscal funds given by the numerous states, districts, businesses, and parents (NCES, 2000). However, the overall literacy and literature education of students with the incorporation of technology has been primarily negative and this needs to change with time as the overall long-term impact of this negative pattern will be very damaging to the mindset of students and the overall literacy activities that they engage in.
Anderson, .E., & onnkvist, A. (1999). The presence of computers in American schools. Center for esearch on Information Technology and Organizations.
Becker, H.J., & Sterling C.W. (1987). Equity in school computer use: National data and neglected considerations. Journal of Educational Computing esearch, 3, 289 -- 311.
Becker, H.J. (2000). Who's wired and who's not. University of California, Irvine. Available: http://www.gse.uci.edu/doehome/DeptInfo/Faculty/Becker/packard/text.html
Cuban, L. (1998). High-tech schools and low-tech teaching. Journal of…
Anderson, R.E., & Ronnkvist, A. (1999). The presence of computers in American schools. Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations.
Becker, H.J., & Sterling C.W. (1987). Equity in school computer use: National data and neglected considerations. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 3, 289 -- 311.
Becker, H.J. (2000). Who's wired and who's not. University of California, Irvine. Available: http://www.gse.uci.edu/doehome/DeptInfo/Faculty/Becker/packard/text.html
Cuban, L. (1998). High-tech schools and low-tech teaching. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 14(2), 6 -- 7.
Carrington's (2001) study focuses on a diversity of learning strategy potentials that is constructed not by way of race or ethnicity, but by individualized media preferences and sensory strategies for learning. Carrington presents the conclusion that such methods of literacy development which occur in one's formative stages before school will reveal learning dispositions. For example, her examination recognizes that early exposure to the internet bears a positive correlation to one's media literacy, cognitive proficiency and capacity to identify and locate content suited to their individual learning strategies and needs. The underpinning of this study, as it pertains to our larger purpose, is that one means through which to help include all cultural backgrounds in literacy instruction appears to be to diversify the media used in class and to largely incorporate computing advancements at every level. In addition to the benefits discussed here throughout, we can see that the present challenges…
Anderson, T. (2003). E-Learning in the 21st Century. Routledge.
Bates, A.W. & Bates, T. (2005). Technology, e-learning and distance education. Routledge.
Berson, M.J. (1996). Effectiveness of Computer Technology in the Social Studies: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 28(4), 486-499.
Carrington, V. (2001). Emergent Home Literacies: A Challenge for Educators. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 24.
Similar to the suggestions offered by Gahala (2001), rody (1995) identified several traits to be considered when developing a comprehensive professional development program. Among those traits include the reputation of the trainer, the rewards available to the participants, both tangible and intangible, and the support of the administration. Traditional staff development models have required everyone to participate at the same time and in the same location creating problems such as scheduling, travel, space, and funding. intrim (2002) notes that web-delivered staff development allows teachers to log on and participate at the time of day that is best for them and at the pace they are the most comfortable with.
urke (1994) concluded that the use of effective distance education programs for K-12 staff development should be increased to supplement face-to-face in-services due to the positive evaluations of K-12 educators who participated in the electronic distance education in-service programs. However, other…
Bintrim, L. (2002). Redesigning professional development. Educational Leadership, 59
Blumenfeld, P.C., Marx, R.W., Soloway, E. & Krajcik, J. (1996). Learning With Peers:
From Small Group Cooperation to Collaborative Communities. Educational Researcher, 25(8), 37- 40.
Books, J., Cayer, C., Dixon, J., Wood, J. (2001). Action Research Question: What Factors Affect Teachers' Integration of Technology in Elementary Classrooms?
Lance additionally states that "one of the most consistent strands of research on this topic is evidenced by studied that demonstrate the value of" those as follows:
(1) quality collections of books and other materials selected to support the curriculum;
(2) State-of-the-art technology that is integrated into the learning / teaching processes; and (3) Cooperation between school and other types of libraries, especially public libraries. (Lance, 2001)
Stated as a key role of the library media specialist and one that has only been the focus of research for about the last decade is program administration since in today's schools "library media specialists are not only managers of the library media center but also advocates for information literacy with the principal, at faculty meetings, and in standards and curriculum committee meetings." (Lance, 2001) Library media specialists are further stated to be "trainers who provide in-service programs for teachers on…
Todd, Ross J. (2007) School Administrators' Support for School Libraries: The Impact on Student Academic Achievement. Learning & Media Vol. 35 No. 1 Winter 2007.
Houston, Cynthia R. (2007) Measuring Up: Academic Achievement of 'Beyond Proficiency' Standards in School Library Media Centers Across Kentucky. Kentucky Libraries Vol. 71 No. 3 Summer 2007.
Collier, Jackie (2007) School Librarians Rock: Librarian's Powerful Impact on Literacy Development: Reflections of Teacher Candidates. Ohio Media Spectrum 50 No. 1 Fall 2007.
Lance, Keith Curry (2001) Proof of the Power: Quality Library Media Programs Affect Academic Achievement. MultiMedia Schools September 2001.
elevance of Writing and How it Can Be Taught Effectively
Although the relevance of the theoretical perspectives of writing cannot be overstated, the teaching and learning of writing must also incorporate classroom practices. This discussion will largely concern itself with the importance of writing and how it can be taught effectively to primary-aged students.
Writing is an indispensible component of literacy. This is more so the case given that literacy according to the NT Department of Education and Training (2010) essentially "refers to reading, writing, speaking, viewing, and listening effectively in a range of contexts" (p.2). In that regard therefore, the relevance of effective writing skills cannot be overstated. According to the Institute for Educational Sciences (2012), an individual must be an effective writer to fully and actively engage in civic, community, as well as professional activities. Therefore, people who do not acquire this key skill during their elementary education…
Allington, R. (2003). The Six Ts of Effective Elementary Literacy Instruction. Retrieved from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/96/
Institute for Educational Sciences. (2012). Teaching Elementary School Students to be Effective Writers. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/practice_guides/writing_pg_062612.pdf
Lee, S.W. (Ed.). (2005). Encyclopedia of School Psychology. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE.
NT Department of Education and Training. (2010). Literacy Literature Review for Evidence-Based Practices Framework. Retrieved from http://www.education.nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/11398/LiteratureReviewLiteracy.pdf
Multicultural education researchers and educators agree that preservice teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and understandings are important: foci in multicultural education coursework (Cochran-Smith, 1995; Grant & Secada, 1990; McDiarmid & Price, 1993; Pohan, 1996). Teacher attitudes and beliefs influence teaching behaviors, which affect student learning and behavior (Wiest, 1998)."
1996 study used 492 pre-service teachers to try and gauge the attitudes and beliefs among the group when it came to understanding diversity and cultural differences in students (Wiest, 1998).
A decade earlier leading education experts Hollingsworth was able to identify a method for helping students of teaching to challenge their convictions and apply them to their careers.
Many advocates of multicultural education suggest that field experiences be included in preparing teachers to work with diverse student populations (Pohan, 1996; Sleeter, 1995; Tellez, Hlebowitsh, Cohen, & Norwood, 1995). Sleeter (1995) describes some investigations, such as miniethnographies, that her students conduct: I regard extended…
ZEICHNER, K.M., & GRANT, C.A. (1981) Biography an social structure in the socialization of student teachers, Journal of Education for Teaching, 7, pp. 298-314.
Assessing the consistency between teachers' philosophies and educational goals.
Education; 9/22/1995; DeSpain, B.C.