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Louisiana Purchase (MLA Citation)
"Some Still Bitter Over U.S. Purchase of Louisiana"
Weeks after the recent ratification of a treaty with France ceding control of not only New Orleans to the United States, but the whole of the Louisiana erritory, some in Congress are still bitter about the deal. Speaking for the still angered Federalist opposition, Senator from Delaware, Samuel White, recently was quoted during a session of Congress as stating that while "he [President Jefferson] thinks a delivery sufficient to justify the payment of money we may not."[footnoteRef:1] And the expenditure of money was not the opposition's only complaint, as the Senator continued "…it is well-known that Spain considers herself injured by the treaty."[footnoteRef:2] Even after the Senate's ratification of the reaty last October 20th, the opposition still seems to be quite strong. [1: Cerami, Charles A. Jefferson's Great Gamble. Naperville, Illinois: Source, 2003. pp. 215-216. Quoting Delaware Senator…
The United States first became serious about acquiring the port of New Orleans after it was ceded by Spain to France in October of 1800 in the infamous secret Third Treaty of San Ildefonso. And with France in control of the mouth of the Mississippi River, American trade was at the mercy of the French. But there were those who saw this as an opportunity, among whom was the President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson.. Upon hearing the news, Jefferson immediately wrote to the American Minister in France, Robert R. Livingston, "There is on the globe one single spot, the possessor of which is our natural and habitual enemy. It is New Orleans."[footnoteRef:3] [3: "Jefferson's Letter to Robert Livingston, April 18, 1802." The Life and Selected Writings of Thomas Jefferson. Web. 15 March 2011 http://www.bobsuniverse.com/BWAH/03-Jefferson/18202418a.pdf ]
Jefferson ordered Livingston to try to acquire the port in order to ensure the United States' free access to the ocean trade from the Mississippi River. The importance Jefferson placed upon this endeavor was demonstrated when he wrote "Every eye in the U.S. is now fixed on this affair of Louisiana. Perhaps nothing since the revolutionary war has produced more uneasy sensations through the body of the nation…"[footnoteRef:4] American trade down the Mississippi had been interrupted in the past and Americans wanted to ensure this never happened again. Even some members of Congress agreed that New Orleans was a potential danger to American trade and had authorized the executive branch "to commence with more effect a negotiation with the French and Spanish governments relative to the purchase from them of the island of New Orleans and the provinces of East and West Florida."[footnoteRef:5] [4: Ibid.] [5: Cerami]
Soon after negotiations opened, it became apparent that the French wanted to sell more than just the port of New Orleans, they wanted to sell the entire Louisiana Territory for 100 million francs (slightly less that 20 million dollars). Robert Livingston made his views of this offer, which was greater in scope than his original instructions, known in a letter to Madison when he stated "We shall do all we can to cheapen the purchase; but my sentiment is that we shall buy,"[footnoteRef:6] And this sentiment was echoed by the president when he wrote to John Dickinson on Aug 9th 1803, "The acquisition of New Orleans would of itself have been a great thing, as it would have ensured to our Western brethren the means of exporting their produce…"[footnoteRef:7] but Jefferson went on to reveal a secondary purpose
Louisiana Purchase was the largest land area ever purchased by the United States from a foreign country. The purchase basically doubled the size of the U.S. And there is no doubt that by paying about 3 cents or slightly less an acre, it was the most economical land purchase in American history. This paper reviews that purchase and the ramifications of it.
Prior to delving into exactly how the purchase from France came about, some facts that basically lay out the advantages and gains of the purchase are worthy of mentioning. The purchase was of 828,000 square miles that had been held by France up until 1803. The purchase encompassed what today includes 15 states in the United States and 2 Canadian provinces. Those states include (all of) Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, and portions of Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, New Mexico, Texas, Montana, yoming, Colorado and Louisiana.…
Balleck, Barry J. (1992). When the Ends Justify the Means: Thomas Jefferson and the Louisiana Purchase. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 22(4), 679-676.
History.com. (2009). Louisiana Purchase. Retrieved January 22, 2012, from http://www.history.com/topics/louisiana-purchase .
Surfnetkids Almanac. (2008). Ten Facts About the Louisiana Purchase. Retrieved January 21,
2012, from http://www.surfnetkids.com/go/66/ten-facts-about-the-louisiana-purchase/ .
The last few years of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century was perhaps the first boom period of the country. The Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark Expedition provided the means for the United States to expand its land from coast to coast, and the technological innovations of the Industrial era provided the means to utilize that expansion to eventually become the most powerful nation the world.
Hooker, Richard. The Industrial Revolution. http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/ENLIGHT/INDUSTRY.htm
Eric Foner on the role of westward expansion. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4i3099.html
Indian removal: 1814-1858. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2959.html
Kipp, Kevin. "Historical Background of the Louisiana Purchase." Expedition
Coordinator and Expedition Committee Member
Lewis1 and Clark Expedition
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Louisiana2 Purchase Treaty, April 30, 1803. The Avalon Project at Yale Law
Hawkins, Michael Daly. "John Marshall through the eyes of an admirer: John
Quincy Adams." illiam and Mary…
Hooker, Richard. The Industrial Revolution. http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/ENLIGHT/INDUSTRY.htm
Eric Foner on the role of westward expansion. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4i3099.html
Indian removal: 1814-1858. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2959.html
Kipp, Kevin. "Historical Background of the Louisiana Purchase." Expedition
Louisiana Purchase to America's westward expansion. How did the United tates handle the problem presented by the indigenous people as the population moved westward?
The vast westward territory known as the Louisiana Purchase held a large number of indigenous peoples, such as the panish, the French and especially the Native American Indian. Immigration by white Americans into this territory increased by huge numbers following the purchase in 1803, mainly due to the ideology known as "Manifest Destiny." By far, American settlers were the largest group but many French-speaking refugees, which included whites, freed blacks and slaves, migrated to the territory. As a result of this ethnic diversity, the culture of the Louisiana territory became very mixed and the boundaries were not clearly set.
At the time of the Louisiana Purchase, the U.. government quickly discovered that a sense of stability must be established within the territory. This was done in…
Stephen Oates. Portrait of America. Vol. 1: to 1877. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1999.
Mary Beth Norton. A People and A Nation: A History of the United States. Vol. A: to 1877. 5th ed. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1999.
One of the most important events in the history of the United States is the Louisiana Purchase, which had significant impact on the nation's geography. The shape and course of the history of the United States was changed when Thomas Jefferson bought the Louisiana territory. The impact of this event on the shape and history of the United States is that it almost doubled the size of the country. As a result of its impact on the size and geography of this country, the Louisiana Purchase was one of the most important land transactions in history. This event occurred in 1803 when the United States purchased a land estimated to be 828,000 square miles in the west of the Mississippi River for $15 million from France. To this extent, an understanding of America's history and development, particularly in the early years, involves examining the Louisiana Purchase and its…
Landau, Elaine. The Louisiana Purchase: Would You Close the Deal? Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Elementary, 2008. Print.
Monticello. "Louisiana Purchase." Thomas Jefferson's Monticello. Thomas Jefferson's Monticello, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2016. .
Unites States. Department of State. Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs. Louisiana Purchase, 1803. By Office of the Historian. United States Department of State, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2016. .
Wills, Matthew. "The Politics of the Louisiana Purchase." JSTOR Daily. ITHAKA, 28 Apr. 2016. Web. 27 Nov. 2016. .
American Territorial Expansion: The Louisiana Purchase
American territorial expansion was the top priority of ashington DC for every decade of the 19th century, including the Civil ar years. The new territory all came to Americans through treaties or conquest, and thus promoted the isolationist "Manifest Destiny" prerogative of strengthening the American continent. The earliest and largest territorial expansion of the 19th century was the Louisiana Purchase, doubling the size of the American states. The Louisiana Purchase was made with the short-term bolstering of Thomas Jefferson's government in the near-term, yet with deep concerns for the security of the new land and how and who should settle the land in the long-term.
The Louisiana Purchase was not a decision taken lightly by then President Thomas Jefferson, who felt that it would be difficult for the young America to take full possession of the territory, and thus sign the country…
1803, and the United States. "Louisiana Purchase." Gateway New Orleans: N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
Jefferson, Thomas. "Treaty with France (Louisiana Purchase). 1909-14. American Historical Documents, 1000-1904. The Harvard Classics." Bartleby.com: Great Books Online -- Quotes, Poems, Novels, Classics and hundreds more. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
"Louisiana: European Explorations and the Louisiana Purchase - The Louisiana Purchase (American Memory from the Library of Congress)." American Memory from the Library of Congress - Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
"The Louisiana Purchase -- Thomas Jefferson's Monticello." Thomas Jefferson's Monticello. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
Zebulon Pike was a soldier best known to be an early explorer of the Louisiana erritory. His expedition from St. Louis to the Louisiana Purchase was as significant for the nation as that of Lewis and Clark who had preceded him in their explorations. Pike is remembered for two expeditions, which he led in exploring the newly acquired territory of Louisiana Purchase. His explorations have always been overshadowed by those of Lewis and Clark. his is mainly because his explorations were questionable in terms of their intentions. It was thought he was a spy, or he had secret military orders for provoking war with Spain. His first exploration mission was to find the source of Mississippi River, and the second exploration was for exploration of the regions surrounding the Arkansas and Red Rivers
he first exploration by Zebulon Pike started in August 1805. General James Wilkinson, who was the governor…
The explorations by Pike are not well-known because they are mysterious. The main intentions of the expeditions are unclear to this day. Pike was not also well educated and during his explorations he never made any new discoveries. This is what has made his explorations be less known. Wilkinson had also stated that there was a conspiracy to separate Louisiana Territory and since he was a double agent for Spain. Having not found the sources of the Red River and the Mississippi has also made his explorations less justifiable. His explorations seemed to be filled with ill luck.
Maynard, C.W. Zebulon Pike: Soldier-Explorer of the American Southwest. New York, NY: PowerKids Press, 2003.
Magoon, K., and M. Mayberry. The Zebulon Pike Expedition. Minneapolis, MN: ABDO Publishing Company, 2009.
California was particularly problematic. Taken from Mexico after the war, California was geographically cut in half along the 36°30, and was therefore legally and politically cut in half. However, residents applied for statehood as a free state in 1850. Congress responded with a set of complicated compromises: California would be admitted as a free state in exchange for the Fugitive Slave Law, which required that citizens residing in free states hand over runaway slaves, who would not be afforded any legal rights. Additionally, the District of Columbia would cease trading slaves, but the institution itself would not be abolished; slaves would not be emancipated. The admission of California as a free state upset the balance of power in Congress. The Fugitive Slave Law fueled the Underground Railroad and underscored the deepening divisions between North and South.
The Missouri Compromise was shot to pieces in 1854, when Kansas and Nebraska were…
Bleeding Kansas." Africans in America. PBS Online. Online at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2952.html .
The Compromise of 1850." Africans in America. PBS Online. Online at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2951.html .
Cozzens, Lisa. "Impact of Dred Scott." African-American History. Online at http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/scott/impact.html .
Kansas-Nebraska Act." The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press, 2001. Online at http://www.bartleby.com/65/ka/KansasNe.html .
Lee decided to run even before Sherman was able to come, and escaped from Petersburg. Grant was able to catch him at Appomattox, and then was the surrendered. There were 360,000 dead on the Union side and 260,000 dead on the Confederate side, but the union continued. This war made United States as a nation and a state. Earlier secession and state veto power had been disturbing the government from the beginning. (United States (History): The South Secedes) From here started econstruction, but that is another story.
Coming of the Civil War: An Overview. etrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Bleeding Kansas. etrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Bleeding-KansasAccessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Missouri Compromise. etrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Missouri-CompromiseAccessed on 26 May, 2005
The Compromise of 1850. etrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
United States (History): Bleeding Kansas. etrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html#s85Accessed on 26 May, 2005
United States (History):…
Coming of the Civil War: An Overview. Retrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Bleeding Kansas. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Bleeding-KansasAccessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Missouri Compromise. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Missouri-CompromiseAccessed on 26 May, 2005
The Compromise of 1850. Retrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
President Thomas Jefferson offered Napoleon the emperor of France $2 million dollars for the region around the mouth of the Mississippi River, which included the port of and city of New Orleans. Ohio Valley farmers relied heavily on admittance to New Orleans, and President Thomas Jefferson wanted to guard these farmers, because they sent their crops down the Mississippi River to New Orleans, from which ships took the products to cities along the Atlantic coast of the United States (Landy & Milikas, 159). However, this brought about horror in the Americans that the French might obstruct with their trade by imposing elevated taxes on products and ships moving through New Orleans. Even worse, "the Americans feared the French might shut down the ports to the Americans" ( Morris). If the port where shut down, this would bring to an end all shipping in and out of the United States.
Elazar, D. American federalism: A view from the states, (3rd) . New York: Harper Collins, 1984.
Landy, M . & Milikas, S. American government: Balancing democracy and rights. New York: NY: McGraw, 2004, 150-188.
McDonald, F. States' rights and the union: Imperium in Imperio, 1771-1876. Lawrence Univesity Press of Kansas, 2000.
Morris, Richard Brandon. Great presidential decisions: State papers that changed the course of history . New York: Harper & Row, 1973.
Thomas Jefferson Politics
Decisions and Actions
Democratic-epublican Party's Beliefs and Ideals
Federalist Party's Beliefs and Ideals
Initiated the first Barbary War -- Aligned most with the Federalists party because it was a display of national power.
They were terrified of a strong national government.
They were strong believers of a central government
Bought the Louisiana Purchase -- Aligned most with the Federalist party because they believed in expanding national power by expanding their territory and property.
They understood the Constitution as being an essential document to limit the powers of the federal government.
They believed that listening to the citizens would make for a weak government system.
Initiated the Lewis and Clark Expedition -- Aligned most with the Democratic-epublican party because it was in the best interest of the people who would be settling there. It also provided insight into the agricultural possibilities in that part of the nation.
Meacham, J. (2012). Thomas Jefferson: The art of power. New York, NY: Random House.
National Archives. (2013). The Center for Legislative Archives. Archives.gov. Retrieved April 16, 2013 from http://www.archives.gov/about/history/building-an - archives/jefferson-letter.html
Monticello, the mansion that Thomas Jefferson designed in the hills of Virginia near the State University that he founded, has three portraits that are to be found on the wall of President Jefferson's study that have remained there for 200 years. These portraits are of three writers Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton and John Locke. Jefferson, who wrote the Declaration of Independence and acquired the Louisiana Purchase form the French, refers to these three as "the greatest men who ever lived." e see Lockean reasoning reflected in the Declaration where Jefferson says that we hold life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness to be self-evident truths. A similar reverence was afforded Karl Marx in the Soviet Union, where many streets and several smaller cities were named after Marx and his fellow communist Frederick Engels. One could argue that the primary ideologies of the 20th-century were those of Locke and Marx, as…
We can see the best examples of these 19th century economic theories in the works of Henry George, a populist who wished to ensure plurality by limiting the ability of property owners to hoard natural resources, and Herbert Spencer, an English sociologist who incorporated Darwinism into his defenses of what is now termed 'classical' liberalism and famously advocated "the right to ignore the state."
Locke, John, Second Treatise on Self-Government. http://www.swan.ac.uk/poli/texts/locke/lockcont.htm
Marxist Origins of Communism, George Mason University. http://www.gmu.edu/departments/economics/bcaplan/museum/marx1.htm
Summary of the three most important leadership lessons learned
What one can and should learn from studying the life and thinking of Thomas Jefferson is that leaders are not necessarily born, but they are also shaped. What is takes to be a leader in those days, is similar to these. One needs constant learning and interest in different fields of activity that will cultivate not only a good understanding of their society but also a way of thinking that results into initiative. One of the features of Jefferson's leadership is the importance of initiative. Also, one should have within his communication skill those of persuasion. Without a convincingly presentation of one's ideas, these cannot become valuable initiatives - support, and later on persons that carry on one's idea, so therefore followers, are won by powerful statements by powerful men. That is what Thomas Jefferson had: initiative, based on a rigorous…
Biography Online. 3 Major Achievements of Thomas Jefferson. n.d. 22 March 2008. http://www.biographyonline.net/thomas_jefferson/achievements.html
Chemers, Martin M.. An Integrative Theory of Leadership. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1997
Eicholz, Hans. Harmonizing Sentiments: The Declaration of Independence and the Jeffersonian Idea of Self-Government. New York: Peter Lang. 2001
Gould, William D. "
The presidents that served between 1789 and 1840 helped shape the nation during its formative years. During this critical period in American history, statesmen laid the foundations for political culture, philosophy, and institutions. Although all the presidents during this fifty-year period had some influence on the early republic, several left a more outstanding mark and legacy. As a Founding Father and author of the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson undoubtedly deserves recognition as one of the most important presidents in the entire history of the country. As a slave owner who believed in a small central government, Jefferson also set a precedent for what would become a series of contentious compromises between Americans who supported racism and the slave trade and those who recognized the ways slavery contradicted the underlying principles of the democracy. Likewise, James Monroe carried on the American legacy of compromise, and is remembered most by the…
Professionals involved in therapy and counseling with members of the Creole culture of New Orleans and southern Louisiana should be aware of the history and traditions of this group that make it distinctive from all others in the United States, and indeed from the French-speaking Cajun communities in the same region. In Louisiana, Creoles are not simply the white descendants of the early French and Spanish colonists, although in the post-Civil War era of Jim Crow there was a major attempt to redefine them as 100% white. This was never the case in history since they are a mixed-race people descended from Europeans, Native Americans and African slaves during the 18th Century and occupied a special caste in pre-Civil War Louisiana. They spoke their own language known as Creole French, as do tens of thousands of their descendants today, and in appearance have often been able to 'pass' as…
Ancelet, B.J. (1994). Cajun and Creole Folk Tales: The French Oral Tradition of South Louisiana. Garland Publsihing, Inc.
Dass-Bailsford, P. (2010). "Ignore the Dead: We Want the Living" in Dass-Brailsford, P., ed. Crisis and Disaster Counseling: Lessons Learned from Hurricane Katrina and Other Disasters. SAGE Publications.
Dominguez, V.R. (1997). White by Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana. Rutgers University Press.
Dormon, J.H. (1996). "Ethnicity and Identity: Creoles of Color in Twentieth-Century South Louisiana" in Dormon, J.H. Creoles of Color in the Gulf South. University of Tennessee Press, pp. 166-86.
The United States Sugar Industry
How many sodas and candy bars are drunk and eaten in the United States each day? This report will focus on one of the main ingredients in those sweet treats and the related industry here in the United States that produces it. "Sucrose -- what we call 'sugar' -- is an organic chemical of the carbohydrate family. It can be extracted from a great variety of plant sources, for it occurs in all green plants." (Mintz, 19) Sugar falls under the classification of an 'edible crystalline substance' that we taste as sweet. The world produces approximately 160 thousand metric tons of sugar annually with Brazil, India and the European Union consistently listed as the largest producers.
The bulk of commercial sugar production comes from the two sources of sugar beets and sugarcane; other sources include sorghum, date palms, and sugar maple. As a…
Adler, Jacob. (1966). Clause Spreckels: The Sugar King in Hawaii. University Press: Honolulu.
Answers.com. (2009). "Beet Sugar." Retrieved on November 19, 2009, from Answer.com at http://www.answers.com/topic/beet-sugar-3 .
Cane Sugar and Hawaii. (1962). "The Hawaii Book." J.G. Ferguson Publishing Company: Chicago.
Goodboy, David. (2009). "Sugar: A Sweet Market On The Move." Retrieved on November 19, 2009, from Trading Markets at http://www.tradingmarkets.com/.site/eminis/commentary/guestcommentary/-77544.cfm .
Passionate Nation, page51-64; book Major Problems, page 79-82, 91-93 Reaction Paper the purpose a the readings for this assignment were highly interesting, and presented a number of different facts regarding the history of Texas and the United States in general that are not commonly known. Spain's history with Texas in particular was a little surprising. Most accounts of U.S. history document Spain's presence in Florida and its involvement with France in the Louisiana Purchase. It was surprising to learn that Spain was the original colonizer of the Texas area. When one considers Spain's history of colonizing Mexico this fact appears to make a little more sense, and of course most people are aware of the fact that the borders of Mexico originally extended well into the continental U.S., incorporating parts of California and other western states. Still, Spain's history as the first colonizing/governing body in Texas had escaped my previous…
African-Americans and Western Expansion
Prior to the 1960s and 1970s, very little was written about black participation in Western expansion from the colonial period to the 19th Century, much less about black and Native American cooperation against slavery. This history was not so much forbidden or censored as never written at all, or simply ignored when it was written. In reality, blacks participated in all facets of Western expansion, from the fur trade and cattle ranching to mining and agriculture. There were black cowboys and black participants in the Indian Wars -- on both sides, in fact. Indeed, the argument over slavery in the Western territories was one of the key factors in breaking up the Union in the 1850s and leading to the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. In the past thirty years, much of the previously unwritten and unrecorded history of the Americas since 1492 has been…
Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1970, 1995.
Foner, Philip S. History of Black Americans. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983.
Katz, William Loren. The Black West: A Documentary and Pictorial History of the African-American Role in the Westward Experience of the United States. NY: Random House, Inc., 2005.
Katz, William Loren. Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1986.
race the events that led up to the War of 1812 and be very specific in describing those events.
Chapter 7 begins with background review of how (in the late 18th century) the young nation began to be concerned with education. Medicine, too, was beginning to actually define diseases and help heal people, and Americans were inventing technologies (like the cotton gin by Eli Whitney) including Whitney's machine "…to make each part of a gun according to an exact pattern" (192). In fact the development of Whitney's system of making weapons was important due to the fact that the U.S. was preparing for war with France; "Americans were deeply troubled by their lack of sufficient armaments for the expected hostilities" (192).
In 1789 Congress passed laws that gave preference to American ships in U.S. ports; moreover, between 1789 and 1810, the U.S. had "more ships and international commerce" than any…
The House of Representative elections of 1812 were pivotal to the launching of war with England as voters "…elected a large number of representatives of both parties eager for war with Britain" (210). Among those war-mongering elected officials were Henry Clay (Kentucky) and John C. Calhoun (South Carolina). Clay, as Speaker, appointed members he knew to be eager for war -- in particular, war to seize Canada from England -- to the Committee on Foreign Affairs (211). On June 18, President Madison "…gave in to the pressure" from the House and approved a declaration of war against Britain (211). Madison was very concerned about the threats to American vessels engaged in trade with Europe, and since Britain was hostile to the idea of Americans trading with France -- and of Americans gaining power on the high seas -- Madison reluctantly agreed to go to war.
What were the major outcomes of the war? As a result of Treaty of Ghent, the British gave up their demand for an "…Indian buffer state in the Northwest" and in time through additional negotiations the British agreed to allow full trade with American ships (213). The Treaty of Ghent also supposedly provided that the Native Americans would get back their tribal lands (that had been taken during the war); albeit, the Indians never did get their land back. The Treaty also called for a "mutual disarmament on the Great Lakes" and in time the Canadian-American boundary became the "…longest 'unguarded frontier' in the world" (213).
In conclusion, the War of 1812 did not go well for the new American nation, and it was a terrible blow to Native Americans who witnessed the killing of their peoples and the stealing of their ancient tribal lands. Still, with the addition of the Louisiana Purchase, America was now a much bigger nation, with new lands to populate and new challenges to face as well.
Alamo is a major symbol of Texas history and one of the cultural heritage sites of the nation. It is also the subject of numerous books about its history, many seeking to restate the facts in order to overcome the influence of distorted media presentations of the story or of the many myths that have developed around the story of what occurred in that place. The Alamo by John Myers was published in 1973 and addressed the history of the Alamo in terms of what part the Alamo played in the expansion of territory for Europeans and then as a site where several Great Men came and acted in a certain way that helped create Texas and the nation.
To some degree, then, Myers subscribes to the Great Man theory of history, that certain individuals and their behavior decides issues of great moment and advance history. At the same time,…
Myers, John Myers. The Alamo. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1973.
Social Economic and Political Significance of the Military Establishment of New France
This paper presents an analytic review of the article titled the "Social, Economic and Political Significance of the Military Establishments in New France" by Eccles. The paper critically examines various aspects of this article including its strengths and weaknesses in addressing the main issues in addition to establishing important relationships with other scholarly articles and works in the field. The article begins by exploring the socio-economic spectrum of New France which provided the basis for the military establishments. It is perhaps prudent enough to take a general overview of New France so as to get an understanding of what the article is all about.
New France was an area in North America that was colonized by the French for a period of over two hundred years, beginning in 1534 when French explorers toured the Saint Lawrence River until…
Addall, T., Halifax Warden of the North, McClelland and Stewart; 2003
Armstrong, Frederick. Handbook of Upper Canadian Chronology; Dundurn Press.1985
Axelrod, A., Blooding at Great Meadows: young George Washington and the battle that.... Running Press, 2007
Boose, W. Over the beach: U.S. Army amphibious operations in the Korean War. Combat Studies Institute. 2008
American history as it relates to the first five Presidents of the United States. Specifically, it will discuss the impact of early leaders of America on the democratic government, and how the first five presidents impacted early American government. It will also look at the accomplishments of each president and different facts about each that contributed positively and negatively on America as it formed as a nation. The first five presidents of the United States were George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. Each man influenced American history in his own unique and significant ways, with both positive and negative results. These leaders were really creating the office of President as they tried to run the country with intelligence and finesse. Their accomplishments were not always perfect, but they did the best they could with the knowledge and resources available at the time.
THE IMPACT OF…
Agar, Herbert. The People's Choice, from Washington to Harding: A Study in Democracy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1933.
Kane, Joseph Nashan. Facts about the Presidents: A Compilation of Biographical and Historical Data. New York H.W. Wilson Co., 1959.
Kurtz, Stephen G. The Presidency of John Adams: The Collapse of Federalism, 1795-1800. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1957.
Smith, Abbot Emerson. James Madison: Builder: A New Estimate of a Memorable Career. New York: Wilson-Erickson, Incorporated, 1937.
Sanford case was taken to the Federal courts and ruled in favor of Sanford. Following this decision to decide in favor of Sanford in the case, Dred Scott appealed the ruling to the U.S. Supreme Court.
In 1857, the Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court, Roger B. Taney delivered the majority opinion in the Dred Scott vs. Sanford case. In his ruling, Taney revealed that seven of the nine judges who heard the case had agreed that Scott should continue to be a slave. Furthermore, Taney stated that Scott was not an American citizen and had no right to bring any lawsuit in the Federal courts. Taney also declared that Scott and his family had never been free since slaves were personal property. hile he declared that the 1820 Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional, he also stated that the Federal Government had no right to forbid slavery in new…
"1820 Missouri Compromise." HistoryCentral.com: History's Home on the Web. MultiEducator Inc. Web. 31 Jan. 2011. .
"The Dred Scott Decision." AmericanCivilWar.com. AmericanCivilWar.com. Web. 31 Jan. 2011. .
"Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)." Infoplease: All the Knowledge You Need. Information Please: Pearson Education, Inc. Web. 31 Jan. 2011. .
"Dred Scott v. Sandford." OYEZ: U.S. SUPREME COURT MEDIA. OYEZ. Web. 31 Jan. 2011. .
Then, in 1861, Mississippi became the second state to secede from the Union. ith approximately 80,000 Mississippians serving in the Confederate Army, the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 and Robert E. Lee's surrender on April 9th, 1865, ending the Civil ar, were dramatic events for the state ("Chronological History"). These events changed the state politically and socially.
In 1868, Mississippi's first bi-racial constitutional convention was formed. Deemed the 'Black and Tan' Convention, the new constitution drafted guaranteed the rights of ex-slaves as well as punished ex-Confederate soldiers. Voters in the state reject the Constitution. The next year, a modified version, not punishing ex-Confederate soldiers, is ratified. This paves the way for readmittance to the Union, on February 23rd, 1870 ("Chronological History"). The 20th century continued with many advancements and challenges for the state.
At the beginning of the century, the boll weevil made its appearance and, in 1907, most of Mississippi's…
Aubrey, R. A History of Mississippi Baptists, 1780-1970. Jackson, MS: Mississippi Baptist Convention Board, 1971.
Chronological History of Mississippi. 2009. State Handbook & Guide Resources. December 3, 2009 .
Lowry, R. & McCardle, W. A History of Mississippi: From the Discovery of the Great River by Hernando Desoto. New York: Kessinger Publishing, 2007.
Nationwide to Reopen 500 Katrina Cases. 20 Apr 2007. Routers. December 3, 2009 .
Language Policy and Planning
Language planning refers to the efforts that are deliberately undertaken to influence how languages functions, are structured or acquired or the variety of languages in a given country. It is often a government responsibility by non-governmental organizations have also come to be involved in this. Grass-roots organizations and also individuals have been involved in this. The goal of language planning differs depending on the country. However, it generally includes planning, decision making and possible changes which benefit the communications system of the country. Language planning or efforts to improve the communication in a country can also bring about certain social changes such as shift of language, assimilation and therefore provide a motivation which plans the function, structure and acquisition of languages Woolard & Gahng, 1990()
Decision making in language planning
There are four dominant language ideologies which motivate the decisions that are made regarding language planning.…
Little, M.E.R., & McCarty, T.L. (2006). Language Planning Challenges and Prospects in Native American Communities and Schools. Tempe, AZ: Language Policy Research Unit.
Martin, J.J. (1988). An American Adventure in Bookburning in the Style of 1918. Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles Publisher.
Woolard, K.A., & Gahng, T.-J. (1990). Changing Language Policies and Attitudes in Autonomous Catalonia. Language in Society, 19(3), 311-330.
Wyburn, J., & Hayward, J. (2009). OR and Language Planning: Modelling the Interaction between Unilingual and Bilingual Populations. The Journal of the Operational Research Society, 60(5), 626-636.
New states lying north of said parallel would be admitted as non-slave while those lying south would be slave.
The importance of the Missouri Compromise cannot be over-stated. It impacted the boundaries of several other states other than Missouri and led to some of the most hotly contested political debates in United States history.
Interestingly, the boundary established through the Missouri Compromise, that is, the 36?30' parallel, had actually been in use as a boundary line since early colonial days and the Missouri Compromise served to continue its use. The boundary between original thirteen colony members, Virginia and North Carolina, is the 36?30' parallel and the boundary between two of the earlier states admitted to the Union, Kentucky and Tennessee is also the 36?30' parallel.
Map depicting 36?30' parallel
The admission of Texas as a statehood was affected by the Missouri Compromise. Unlike any other state, Texas enjoyed status as…
Dixon, Archibald. The True History of the Missouri Compromise and its Repeal. BiblioBazaar, 2009.
Eastern Michigan University. Bleeding Kansas. http://edit.emich.edu/index.php?title=Bleeding_Kansas (accessed December 4, 2010).
Marshall, Peter C. Envisioning America: English Plan for the Colonization of North America, 1580-1640. Bedford / St. Martin's, 1995.
Mcgreevy, Patrick. Stairway to Empire: Lockport, the Erie Canal, and the Shaping of America. State University of New York Press, 2009.
There were several battles therefore that took place between France, Great ritain and American war ships. These battles occurred in European waters as well as in waters in the western hemisphere.
The most challenging ritish action was an order permitting seizure of neutral ships either sending food and supplies to France or trading goods produced in French colonies, above all the West Indies. When ritain obstructed French ships in the French harbors early in the French Revolution, American merchants moved swiftly to take over commerce in the West Indies. These American merchant ships were subject to seizure. The ritish Navy took approximately 300 American ships and forced thousands of captured American sailors to serve on ritish ships. When American tried to negotiate with ritain, France became outraged, which prompted France to start seizing American ships and the attempts to negotiate with France were utterly ineffective. France then started to imagine…
Bukovansky, Mlada. Legitimacy and Power Politics: The American and French
Revolutions in International Political Culture (Princeton Studies in International
History and Politics). NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.
Mintz, Steven. "The Critical Period: American in the 1780s: Economic and Foreign
There were a lot of white people around, and many of them were angry that the blacks had been freed. Some of them were actually hostile toward the blacks and their newfound freedom, so the blacks learned quickly that they had to be careful. They needed to settle a little bit away from the hostile whites and do their best not to make waves or cause trouble, in the hopes that they might one day be accepted (Reconstruction, 2002).
During the first few years after the Emancipation Proclamation and the subsequent freedom of all blacks in the United States, many blacks began working very hard to educate themselves. In there minds, education meant the ability to negotiate with whites over land, earn a fair wage to pay for it, and take care of their families. lack families were often large, so many of the members could work to help support…
Black Farming and History. 2002. Homecoming. http://www.itvs.org/homecoming/history1.html .
Carroll J. 1998. Organizational learning activities in high-hazard industries. Journal of Management Studies, 35: 699-717
Reconstruction and its aftermath. 2002. African-American Odyssey. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart5.html .
VandeCreek, Drew E., Ph.D. 2000. Frontier Settlement. Abraham Lincoln Historical Digitization Project. http://Lincoln.lib.niu.edu/frontier.html .
admittance of Missouri into the Union such a contentious issue?
During the period of early nineteenth century, there was a one by one admittance of several states from the British rule into U.S. government, acquiring a representation in the senate. It was the time when there was an equal number and representation of free and slave states in the U.S. senate. When Missouri tried to admit as a state, it was first expected that it would be a slave state. But at the same time, Maine, which was a factory area and destined to be a free state, demanded its representation in the Senate. At first, the Senate joined the two bills as a same with the exception that only the southern boundary of Missouri which is the Louisiana Purchase north of 36°30'N lat would be the slavery prohibited area. This compromise is known as the Missouri Compromise in the…
Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher Columbus to the king and queen of Spain following his third voyage to the Americas in 1498 (rinkley 1). ut even after visiting the New World three times he still had no idea what he had truly started, and he certainly saw no sign that he had began a new era in history. Yet, the history of European involvement in America had begun. Over the next several decades Spanish conquistadores made more and more voyages to the New World, and the royal treasuries grew. Settlements were established and the other European powers, seeing their opportunity, soon made efforts to establish colonies of their own.
In the midst of all of this, the native inhabitants were removed from their lands and…
Brinkley, Douglas. American Heritage: History of the United States. New York: Viking, 1998.
Davis, Kenneth. American History. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.
Gutman, Bill and Anne Wertheim. The Look-It-Up Book of the 50 States. New York: Random House, 2002.
Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. New York: Dover Publications, 1996.
Articles of Confederation: The Articles of Confederation were approved in November, 1777 and were the basic format for what would become the Constitution and Bill of ights for the United States. There were, of course, deficiencies in the document, this was a new experiment and getting the delegates to agree in kind to pass any sort of document was challenging at best. The Articles did allow a semblance of unity, the further impetus to remain at war with the British, and the conclusion that there would be some sort of Federal government. The Articles, however, failed to require individual States to help fund the Federal (National) government, a template for an Executive and National Judicial Branch, or the issuance of paper money and a central banking system. In essence, the largest failure was the Articles' inability to allow a Federal government to regulate commerce, tax, or impose laws upon the…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Amar, a. (2005). America's Constitution: A Biography. New York: Random House.
Bailyn, B., ed. (1993). The Debate on the Constitution. Library of America Press.
Beeman, R. (2009). Plain, Honest Men: The Making of the American Constitution.
As is often the case, these good times could not last forever. Just like our modern day governmental debt being financed by foreign investment, Andrew Jackson and the nation faced reality when in 1837 foreign investors came to banks to collect. The speculative bubble of 1837 burst in what historians accurately termed the Panic of 1837. English and other European bankers called in the many outstanding loans the states had out as well as many private investors. Paying back these loans instantly crushed the nation's gold supplies which created a ripple affect where many local and state banks could not pay their debts, investors or the governmental reserves. These events lead to many forced bank failures and a national recession ensued.
The Missouri Compromise
In hindsight, we as a nation know now that the southern states who were in favor of slavery were prepared to defend their right to own…
Brulatour, Meg. Transcendental Ideas: Reform: Social and Political Changes in the Time of Emerson and Thoreau: The 19th Century at a Glance. Ed. Meg Brulatour. VCU. Retrieved on 21 Nov. 2004, from http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/transcendentalism/ideas/reformback.html .
Lorence, James J. Enduring Voices: To 1877 the Enduring Voices, a History of the American People. 4th ed., vol. 1. ADD CITY: Houghton Mifflin Company, ADD YEAR.
Pessen, Edward. The Many-Faceted Jacksonian Era: New Interpretations. Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 1977.
Welter, Rush. The Mind of America, 1820-1860. New York: Columbia UP, 1975.
Hamilton's Arguments in Favor of the Debt and the Bank
Jefferson would have no position against witch to argue had not Hamilton made the argument for the national debt so eloquently and so forcefully. Essentially, Hamilton and Jefferson entirely disagreed on the proper course to put the nation on a prosperous track. The greatest issue was whether the multitudinous colonial debts piled up by the individual colonies during and since the war with England should, in the spirit of e pluribus unum, be taken on by the federal government.
Hamilton postulated that the assumption of these colonies' - now states' - debts was essential to make the nation a credible, operating reality, deserving of trust in seeking credit from other countries. Also, Hamilton felt that "monied men" - those wealthy Americans who had made the loans to the state governments and how had in many instances not been paid yet…
First, six countries (including France and Germany, significantly) signed the Coal and Steel Treaty, which meant that no country could never develop enough military power on their own to mount an invasion of another, this preserving each state and nation in Europe (Europa 2009). The Council of Europe also emerged as an entity in the West (the part of Europe not under Soviet control) that increased political and economic cooperation. Today, all of the major countries in Europe including Great Britain, Italy, France, and Germany (and many others) are members of the European Union, without giving up sovereignty or combining cultures.
Most of the European Union's member states (with the notable exception of Great Britain) now uses a standardized currency, the Euro, and trade and travel between member nations has also been made much easier. In this way, one of the primary functions of the European Union is to create…
Bergman, E.F., & Renwick, W.H. (2008). Introduction to geography: people, places and environment (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Europa. (2009). Gateway to the European Union. Accessed 21 October 2009. http://europa.eu/index_en.htm
U.S. Dept. Of State. (2009). Diplomacy in action. Accessed 21 October 2009. http://www.state.gov/
Perry, J.A, & Perry, E.K. (2009). Contemporary society: an introduction to social science (12th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
independent United States shed colonial past begin a direction, politically
Political and Economic Unity
In order to properly understand the methodology employed by the newly independent United States used to effectively shed its colonial past and begin a new direction politically and economically, one must first understand how the country operated on these two fronts as a series of British colonies prior to the waging of the Revolutionary War. Politically, the colonies existed as an extension of the British crown, were governed by the monarchy which ruled the foreign kingdom, and had little say in matters that were mandated by Britain. The colonists preferred a form of salutary neglect in terms of British involvement with their daily political lives, but when Britain intervened (particularly in the years leading up to the revolution) in the daily affairs of the colonialists, there was little they could actually do about it -- save…
tephen Austin (1793-1836) is known as the Father of Texas because he was instrumental in leading the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by U.. settlers. His name is on a number of streets, schools, parks, and Texas tate facilities. Based on the text, though, and the way that historical figures tend to become more mythic as their legend grows, I wondered about different points-of-view surround Austin and even the legality and morality of the Texas annexation.
I was surprised that initially Austin was reluctant to accept his Father's empresarial grant after he died, having to be persuaded by his mother. The situation, it seemed, was quite complex. Mexico granted land parcels under one government, and then changed the rules under another. I was also surprised that Austin supported anta Anna, who would ultimately become his enemy. Essentially, if one takes off the myth, it appears…
Haley, J. (2006). Passionate Nation: The Epic History of Texas. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Haynes, et.al. (2002). Major Problems in Texas History. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
sentiment, enhanced by analysis and critical thinking from a variety of sources.
Frederick Jackson Turner's essay discusses the closing of the American western frontier, and what it means for the American people. The historical significance of the frontier movement cannot be denied, and Turner's question lingers, what will forge American history now that the dominance and dominion of the frontier has vanished? He eloquently writes, "American social development has been continually beginning over again on the frontier."
He notes many areas of the frontier movement have been studied, but economic and historic significance remains open to scrutiny. Thus, he sets up his thesis, that the frontier offers a "fertile field for investigation" and that there will certainly be problems and questions resulting from the ongoing investigation.
Turner gains the readers attention in the first few paragraphs, when he compares the American frontier to the European frontier and notes the differences…
Turner, Frederick Jackson. 1893. The Significance of the Frontier in American History [online].
San Diego, CA: University of San Diego; available at http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/text/civ/turner.html;Internet; accessed 20 March 2004.
Turner, Frederick Jackson. 1893. The Significance of the Frontier in American History [online]. San Diego, CA: University of San Diego; available at http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/text/civ/turner.html;Internet; accessed 20 March 2004.
He was one of the strongest proponents of the aspirations of the American people in new America. Throughout his life, he wore many hats; in addition to being a public official, he was also a philosopher and historian. This text concerns itself with Thomas Jefferson. In so doing, it looks at his life and times and outlines some of his major accomplishments. The text will also briefly highlight some of Thomas Jefferson's blunders that led to his being branded a hypocrite.
Described by Freidel and Sidey as a "powerful advocate of liberty," Thomas Jefferson was the United States' third president. He "was born in 1743 in Albemarle County, Virginia, inheriting from his father, a planter and surveyor, some 5,000 acres of land, and from his mother, a andolph, high social standing" (Freidel and Sidey). His mother came from one of the most distinguished, respected, and revered…
Blakesley, David, and Jeffrey Hoogeveen. The Thomas Handbook. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2007. Print.
Finkelman, Paul. "Thomas Jefferson and Antislavery: The Myth Goes On." The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 102.2 (April 1994): 193-228. Print.
Freidel, Frank, and Hugh Sidey. The Presidents of the United States of America. Washington, DC: White House Historical association, 2006. Print.
Gibbons, Francis. The Spiritual Dimensions of America. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, 2005. Print.
updated June 1, 2002. April 23, 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/gordoncauses.htm
Leidner, Gordon. "Causes of the Civil ar: A Balanced Answer." Great American History.
April 23, 2009. http://www.greatamericanhistory.net/causes.htm
Litwak, Leon. "Results of the Civil ar." Funk & agnalls® New Encyclopedia. 2005 orld
Almanac Education Group. April 23, 2009.
"The Secession Crisis: Bleeding Kansas." The Civil ar. April 23, 2009.
"The Secession Crisis: Dred Scott." The Civil ar. April 23, 2009.
"The Secession Crisis: The Missouri Compromise." The Civil ar. April 23, 2009.
John B. Gordon, "Causes of the Civil ar," Reminiscences of the Civil ar, page updated June 1, 2002, April 23, 2009, http://www.civilwarhome.com/gordoncauses.htm
"Causes of the Civil ar," KET, 2009, April 23, 2009, http://www.ket.org/civilwar/causes.html
Gordon Leidner, "Causes of the Civil ar: A Balanced Answer," Great American History. April 23, 2009. http://www.greatamericanhistory.net/causes.htm
"The Secession Crisis: The Missouri Compromise," The Civil ar, April 23, 2009, http://civilwar.bluegrass.net/secessioncrisis/200303.html
"Causes of the Civil War," KET, 2009, April 23, 2009, http://www.ket.org/civilwar/causes.html
Gordon, John B. "Causes of the Civil War." Reminiscences of the Civil War. Page
updated June 1, 2002. April 23, 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/gordoncauses.htm
Leidner, Gordon. "Causes of the Civil War: A Balanced Answer." Great American History.
Still, many prospered -- visitors such as Alexis de Tocqueville from France marveled at American's drive to acquire wealth, American faith and sociability, as well as the profound racial divisions that characterized American society. American society was poised in continual paradoxes -- religious yet money-hungry, disdainful of social hierarchies yet dependant upon oppressing or disenfranchising races to secure advancement of poorer whites. America was also land-hungry in a way that put it into conflict with its neighbor Mexico, despite its insistence upon being against colonialism, having been born of resistance to colonial Britain. This resulted in the Mexican-American ar and the eventual incorporation of Texas into the Union.
Texas and the est itself is still another paradox of the American experiment. For those unable to become wealthy through capitalism, striking out on one's own in the west seemed a better alternative to the increasingly civilized and also socially entrenched east.…
Wilentz, Sean; Jonathan Earle; Thomas G. Paterson. Major Problems in the Early Republic,
1787-1848, 2nd Edition. Wadsworth, 2008.
The slave trade and the cotton economy grew during this time, but many Northerners wanted the practice to stop. This would ultimately lead to the Civil War, along with other events that boiled up during this time. Blacks were subjugated, had no rights, were often cruelly beaten, or whipped for any infraction, and it was a low point in their history as well.
This was a time of great strides in transportation, with the first railroads developing, canals constructed, roads built, and the growth of industry and business. It became possible to ship goods for long distances, and with the invention of the steam engine and other technologies, it became possible to automate many factories, creating more jobs in the industrial North and drawing labor from the farms to the cities. It was a time when immigration was extremely high, too, bringing the famous "melting pot" to the country, from…
Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty! An American History. New York: W.W. Norton Company, 2004.
In short, the United States became more aggressive in attaining foreign resources and access to trade. This was a result of the expansive nature of empires, and the fact that America, as characterized by Boot, was gradually becoming a "great power."
Largely, the Great Powers of the modern world have come into being as emerging economic and political trends have allowed. The ever shifting tides of the world's social foundations have tended to produce successive powers that rise and fall over the course of history. Generally, what make these powers great are their military capabilities, but of course, these are commanded by the economic base supporting them. A powerful economy can allow for enormous military expenditures, and generate vast influence across the planet.
Naturally, the economic crux of a great power can vary in form. Most obviously, the great power of the ancient world -- Rome -- relied upon the…
Boot, Max. The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power. New York: Basic Books, 2002.
American politics took another turn with problems that would lead to
the Civil War, as the North and the South each had their own interests.
Tariffs to protect some Northern manufacturing interests greatly angered
the South leading to attempts to nullify acts of the federal government,
ultimately resulting in conflict between the powers of the states and the
federal Union. The result of this conflict led to the Civil War and
American political development became one in which decisions over slave and
free-states were the most prominent. America became increasingly partisan
and the Republican party emerged to compete along with Know Nothings and
Democratic Party. Ultimately the South seceded resulting in a Confederacy
that split from the Union as the debates over slavery reached an all-time
involving all aspects of political life.
The Civil War split America in two and then brought it back together
again. But the new America…
This view, however, fails in Limerick's mind, to adequately show how we can directly trace our current social, economic, and political order to Jamestown, Salem, and the Louisiana Purchase. "White Americans saw the acquisition of property as a cultural imperative" (Limerick, 55). How has that changed either before or after? Isn't that the justification used by the Virginia Company when establishing Jamestown? Isn't that the same as Sam Houston's justification for the subjugation and annexation of Texas? Isn't that the same as our ongoing destruction of the environment to create homes, shopping malls, and warehouses? Manifest Destiny existed in the European mindset even before the phrase was coined. Thus, Limerick observes that we have to see our history as part of that same kind of continuity of intent.
Indeed, Limerick promotes a moral significance on the history of the American West rather than a focus on specific dates and specific…
Limerick, Patricia Nelson. The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West. New York: W.W. Norton, 1987.
George H.W. Bush
George Herbert Walker Bush, possibly the most underestimated president of recent times, is my choice for the fifth spot. It is perhaps understandable why Bush Sr. is often excluded from most people's list of "great" U.S. Presidents; unlike "activist" presidents such as Franklin oosevelt or his predecessor, onald eagan, Bush carried out his job in a low-key manner but did his job competently. This is precisely why I have chosen him as one of the top five presidents because a president's job, in the words of Bush Sr. himself, does not always involve, "high drama, and the sound of trumpets" (Quoted by ose, 1991, p. 307)
Bush Sr. became the President after having served the country in various positions such as the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations and to China, chair of the epublican National Committee, head of the CIA, and vice-president in the eagan administration…
Bonwick, C. (1993, April). "Thomas Jefferson: Pragmatist or Visionary?" History Today, 43, 18+. Borden, M. (Ed.). (1961). America's Ten Greatest Presidents. Chicago: Rand McNally.
Busch, A.E. (1997). "Ronald Reagan and the Defeat of the Soviet Empire." Presidential Studies Quarterly, 27(3), 451+.
Kengor, P. (1998). "Comparing Presidents Reagan and Eisenhower." Presidential Studies Quarterly, 28(2), 366+.
Peterson, M.D. (1975). Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation: A Biography (1st ed.). London: Oxford University Press.
"the Most Lucrative Patent": Robert Fulton's Idea
In an 1807 letter, Robert Fulton wrote about his new invention and stated "the patent in contemplation will be the most lucrative that was ever obtained" (Sylla 44). He was referring to his steam engine, which not only revolutionized transportation but forever changed commerce in the United States and all over the world. Fulton wrote the letter to Robert R. Livingston, a wealthy New Yorker who was interested in Fulton's work and who became his partner and financier.
Born and raised in Pennsylvania, Fulton originally intended to become a painter. He went to London as a young man and actually had a showing of his work at the Royal Academy. He found it difficult to support himself on an artist's salary and so became a canal engineer. He went to Paris in 1797 and built a submarine called the Nautilis, he…
Gordon, John Steele. "The Steamboat Monopoly." American Heritage 44.7 (1993): 20-21.
Online. 2 May 2011.
"Newcomen Steam Engine." Wikipedia. 5 Apr. 2011. Web. 3 May 2011.
"Robert Fulton's Paddlesteamer: August 17th, 1807." History Today 57.8 (2007): 58-59. Online.
He was one of the youngest presidents in history (the same age as JFK when he took office, forty-three. He also was an avid outdoorsman and appreciative of the American West (he had a ranch in North Dakota), and his far-seeing vision created one of America's most enduring traditions, the U.S. Forest Service and protected wild lands. oosevelt's accomplishments may not have been as well-known as some of the other presidents, but they were certainly far reaching. First, he was the first president to establish an area in the White House specifically for journalists (oller, 1988, p. 200). He was an extremely popular president, and he was the first to travel outside the country, to the Panama Canal, during a presidency. He also helped create the Panama Canal Project, one of the most important building projects of the time, and still a vital link between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.…
Boller, P.F. (1996). Presidential anecdotes (Revised ed.). New York: Oxford U.S..
Bursey, L.G. (1988). 4 Abraham Lincoln. In Popular images of American presidents, Spragens, W.C. (Ed.) (pp. 67-94). New York: Greenwood Press.
Cronin, T.E., & Genovese, M.A. (1998). The paradoxes of the American presidency. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hart, John. (1995). The presidential branch: From Washington to Clinton (2nd ed.). Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers.
South and the North of the 19th Century
As I write this, I can hear faint yells and cheers through my window. Somewhere, the city of Charleston still celebrates. You'll have heard why by the time my letter arrives. Secession. It was no secret that it would happen when Lincoln, that great ape, was elected. As many years as we've been on the receiving end of Yankee insults and "compromises," I wonder why we took so long.
You and I have talked about our peculiar institution, and I know you disapprove, but then, you have not been around Negroes. They are not our equals. They need us to care for them and direct them, and we need them to work the fields and keep our farms and plantations running. There is no immorality, no terrible sin. Merely an advantageous arrangement for both sides. But the Yankees don't see…
Catton, B. (1961). The coming fury, volume one. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co.
Naden, C.J. & Blue, R. (2000). Why fight? The causes of the American Civil War. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn Publishers.
As a Secretary of State was the next path to Monroe's political career with whom President Madison appointed him in 1811. Monroe tried to prevent the war with Great ritain but was unable to do so because of unavoidable reasons. Monroe became the intelligence of the war and later acquired the position Secretary of War while maintaining his responsibilities as a Secretary of State (History Central Online, 2000).
Monroe as a President of the United States
Monroe won the 1816 presidential election because of his anti-Federalist actions and with the support of President Madison. He had good strategic choices for his Cabinet members, favoring Southerners, Northerners, and Westerners for his Cabinet. However, due to a contradiction from Henry Clay, Monroe was not able to elect a Westerner in his Cabinet (iography of James Monroe).
Monroe's presidency was termed as an "era of good feeling" because of political talent and skills.…
Winslow, Chris. Legislators, Governor Honor Monroe. http://www.monroefoundation.org/4.28.04honor.html
Biography of James Monroe.
History Central Online. http://www.historycentral.com/Bio/presidents/monroe.html
It was our land, and still they claimed it as if it were their own.
Not many years passed, and these Americans were everywhere among us - killing us, and driving us out of our ancient homes. They sent their soldiers to slaughter us, and later to collect us up to live beside their forts. They killed the buffalo on which so many of us depended for food, and so caused us to starve. And when we complain, when we tried to use their "laws" to help ourselves, they laughed at us, and told us that we had no rights. This land belonged to them. It was their "Manifest Destiny" to expand across the continent, and to take the land from the "savages" that lived there. They would bring God and civilization to all these places. They believed that only they were right, and that only their God was real.…
His accomplishments included simplifying government jobs, and helping create the Democratic Party. He is most remembered as a great general and for defying Congress. Martin Van Buren served from 1837 to 1841. He was married to Hannah, and he died in 1862. His vice-president was ichard Johnson, and his nickname was the "Little Magician." His accomplishments included regulating banks and federal funds, and creating an independent treasury. He is most remembered for the Panic of 1837, and for being opposed to slavery. William Henry Harrison served in 1841 and died after only one month in office. He was married to Anna. His vice-president was John Tyler. He is most remembered for being the first president to die in office. John Tyler served from 1841 to 1845. He was married to Letitia and then Julia and he died in 1862. His nickname was "Old Tippecanoe." His accomplishments included annexing Texas and…
Editors. "Biographies." Vice-Presidents.com. 2006. 22. Sept. 2006. http://www.vicepresidents.com/Biography%202006.htm
Editors. "The Presidents of the United States." WhiteHouse.gov. 2006. 22 Sept. 2006. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/index2.html
I elieve our money in Iraq would e much etter spent in these arenas, which are underserved now, and which have long een under the auspices of relief organizations and the United Nations, among others. Instead of shoving our ideas down other country's throats, I wish we would take a more humanitarian role, and stop trying to convert everyone to democracy and our own way of thinking.
One of Ferguson's arguments for lieral imperialism is the argument that many Third World and evolving nations do not have the resources or even the ailities to govern themselves, and this is certainly a compelling argument. He writes, "Might it not e that for some countries some form of imperial governance, meaning a partial or complete suspension of their national sovereignty, might e etter than full independence, not just for a few months or years ut for decades?" (Ferguson 170). This statement is…
bibliography take up nearly 60 pages of this book, and his references are solid, everything from primary documents to interviews, texts, and peer-reviewed journal articles. He uses extensive quotes from American and worldwide sources to make his points, and backs up his many opinions with sound, well-researched material. This book is controversial at best, but it is a book that should be on the bookshelf of every American who worries about the future and wonders what history has in store for the United States and its foreign policies. If America continues to build an empire, as many believe it is currently doing, I believe we will make more enemies in the world, and that will lead to more violence, terrorist attacks, and a very negative view of America and Americans. I believe America has a vital role in the world order, but I do not believe in the necessity for a liberal empire, even though Ferguson does argue his ideals quite well. I believe instead that America should be more benevolent, less militaristic, and more concerned about fixing some of the problems at home, like inflation, hunger, bankruptcy, immigration, and the many other issues that are threatening the well-being of Americans. That may seem selfish, but right now, it seems like the only way many Americans are going to survive the crises that face us right here at home.
Ferguson, Niall. Colossus: The Rise and Fall of the American Empire. New York: The Penguin Press, 2004.
Slavery, The Civil ar and the Preservation of the Union
In the face of oppression and harsh treatment, slaves formed communities as a coping mechanism and to resist the belief that they were simply property. Members of these slave communities came together often to sing, talk, and even plan covert plots to runaway or sabotage the system in which they were living. Slaves married, had children and worked to keep their families together. Families were often broken up as members were sold off to different masters, but when a family was kept together, nuclear families of two parents and their children working for the same master were common. It was in these communities that countless elements of African-American slave culture were passed on for generations, including skills such as medical care, hunting, and fishing as well as how to act in front of whites, hiding their feelings and escaping punishment.…
Buchanan, James." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/B/BuchannJ1.asp .
Lincoln, Abraham," Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/L/LincolnA1.asp .
Missouri Compromise." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/m/missrc1omp.asp .
The Terrible Transformation." Africans in America. PBS Online. 14 December 2002. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/title.html .
Anti-Federalists and the Constitution in the Development of Political Parties
The Development of Political Parties
The Constitution and Political Parties
The Changing Ideology of Political Parties
Even before the adoption of the Constitution, political parties were beginning to form. Those who favored the Constitution were called Federalists, and were led by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. Another group, led by Thomas Jefferson, opposed the adoption of the Constitution and was known as Antifederalists. The Antifederalists broke up after the Constitution was ratified, but they set the stage for the development of other political parties, resulting in the two party system that we have today.
The Development of Political Parties
The debate over the Constitution split people into two groups. Those who favored ratification believed that a strong federal government that would dominate the individual states. Hamilton particularly argued that the future of the country depended on the development of a…
Brief History of the Democratic Party." 2003. Democratic National Committee. 30 April 2003 http://www.democrats.org/about/history.html .
Elkins, Stanley and Eric McKitrick. The Age of Federalism: The Early American Republic, 1788-1800. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Main, Jackson Turner. The Antifederalists: Critics of the Constitution, 1781-1788. Chapel
Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1961.
political themes of early American politics, the major players, and issues that arose in the political arena of the time; with specific reference to Samuel Adams: adical Puritan, by William Fowler, and Founding Brothers: The evolutionary Generation, by Joseph Ellis. It has 4 sources.
The first part of this essay analyzes ideological, historical, personal and administrative features of the first American government, and uses these to explain the 'contradiction' existent in American national identity ever since.
The chief contributors to the 'contradiction' or 'argument' mentioned above were the ideas about government and public life that Samuel Adams gained from his Puritan heritage and then from his experiences during the revolutionary period; the major causes of the American evolution; the "Spirit of 76" or the Whig principles; the republican ideology stated in the Declaration of Independence; the changes in the organization of government from the Articles of Confederation to the U.S.…
Garraty and Barnes, (2000). A Short History of the American Nation, Vol. 1, 8th Ed. 2000, Chapter 4. pp. 107-117.
Fowler, W.M. (1997). Samuel Adams: Radical Puritan. Knopf.
Ellis, J.J. (2000). Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. Knopf.
Boston Gazette, April 4, 1768
Bob Hope was born Leslie Townes Hope in Eltham, England in 1903; when he was a child, his family moved to Cleveland, Ohio. He died in California in July, 2003, a few months after his 100th birthday. (Fagan, A01) Amazingly, he performed in his last TV special in 1996 at the age of 93.
Bob Hope started out as a young man as a vaudeville song-and-dance man, but moved rapidly to comedy. By 1930, Hope had reached vaudeville's pinnacle, the Palace, and moved on to leading roles in Broadway musicals such as Roberta and Red, Hot and Blue. Next, he began appearing on radio, and then moved to Hollywood, where he starred in 50 films, and had cameos in 15 more. (Fagan, A01) His first movie was The Big Broadcast of 1938 and his last appearance was a cameo in Spies Like Us in 1985.
He also influenced other comedic…
Arnold, Gary. (2003) Bob Hope leaves legacy of memories. The Washington Times, July 29, B05. Retrieved May 5, 2004 from Questia database, www.questia.com.
Fagan, Amy. (2003) Bob Hope dies, leaving a century full of memories; Legendary career included shows for U.S. troops. The Washington Times, July 29, A01. Retrieved May 5, 2004 from Questia database, www.questia.com.
Honeycutt, Kirk. (2003) Film was natural medium for fast-talking quipster. (Bob Hope: 1903-2003). (Biography) Hollywood Reporter, July 29, no page given. Retrieved May 5, 2004 from Highbeam Research database, www.highbeam.com.
Defined as “an aggressive program of expansion,” Manifest Destiny characterizes American national identity (Haynes, 2006, p. 1). Manifest Destiny refers to both a philosophy and a strategy: a means of crafting the notion of American exceptionalism as well as the methods used to construct American geo-political power. The geographic shape of the United States today owes itself to the principles and widespread embrace of Manifest Destiny, in which Washington laid claim to lands that had to be taken by force, from the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 through to the acquisition of Texas and northern Mexico, to the takeover of Hawaii. The consequences of Manifest Destiny continue to reverberate more than two centuries after the initial rise of territorial expansion programs. Manifest Destiny emboldened the American experiment, fueling its economy, bolstering its military and political power, and exacerbating social unrest and disparity.
The relative ease with which the United States acquisitioned…
In fact the price of the securities decreased, and due to the large invested sums, the bank went into bankruptcy.
The reasons that led to the fall of the Baring bank institution were the inadequate organizational structure, more specifically the lack of control on such important financial transactions. Although timing is crucial in taking advantage on the opportunities on the market, due to the large sums involved, a committee of 2-5 investment managers should be used in this case, in order to diminish the risk and responsibility of such an investment. Besides the actual decision, the committee should handle the financial statements related to the transactions in a proper manner, and then submit the records to an audit independent company. The company failed to take the necessary measures, and relied solely on one individual, fact that resulted in the company entering into bankruptcy and the employee being imprisoned for a…
The session erupted in brawl, and in the end, the vote favored impeachment
. This became known as "loody Monday." This time, Long's bullying tactics did not work.
Long took his case to the people, claiming that his impeachment was a raucous attempt by Standard Oil to deprive the people of what they deserved. As the trial began, Long passed around "Round Robin" document that was signed by more than one -- third of the Senate members. The round robin document stated that they did not believe his offenses warranted removal from office
. As it takes an over two-thirds vote to remove him from office, the impeachment attempt failed. Long rewarded his faithful with state jobs, favors and some say cash as well
. Long became more harsh with his enemies, founding a newspaper to promote his ideas. Long began to receive death threats and was forced to surround…
Andrews, James and Zarefsky, David. American Voices: Significant Speeches in American history 1640-1945. (White Plains, NY: Longman, 1989.)
Authier, Philip. Duplessis, warts and all. 22 May 1999. Wednesday-Night. Available from http://www.wednesday-night.com/Duplessis.asp . Internet: accessed 29 September 2008.
Botting, Gary. Fundamental Freedoms and Jehovah's Witnesses. (Calgary, Alta: University of Calgary Press. 1993).
Corner, Richard. The Kingfish and the Constitution: Huey Long, the First Amendment, and the Emergence of Modern Press Freedom in America. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996).
Anxieties of hite Mississippians Regarding Slavery
In Bradley G. Bond's book Mississippi: A Documentary History, the author describes in great detail the restlessness and anxiety that white folks in Mississippi felt with reference to the institution of slavery. Bond describes the growth of slavery, what crops made it necessary for Southern landowners to purchase more slaves, the laws that pertained to the behavior of slave owners and slaves, and more. This paper reviews and critiques the Antebellum Slavery chapter (4) in Bond's book.
The Code Noir was a law that was enacted in Louisiana in 1724, likely the first such law that was designed to lay out in particulars as to what was expected of slave owners and slaves. At that time in Mississippi, there was a great deal of tobacco and indigo being grown but not a lot of cotton. hen landowners began to realize that cotton…
Bond, Bradley G. Mississippi: A Documentary History. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi. 2005.