Louisiana Purchase Essays (Examples)

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American Expansion American Territorial Expansion The Louisiana

Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48885937

American Expansion

American Territorial Expansion: The Louisiana Purchase

American territorial expansion was the top priority of ashington DC for every decade of the 19th century, including the Civil ar years. The new territory all came to Americans through treaties or conquest, and thus promoted the isolationist "Manifest Destiny" prerogative of strengthening the American continent. The earliest and largest territorial expansion of the 19th century was the Louisiana Purchase, doubling the size of the American states. The Louisiana Purchase was made with the short-term bolstering of Thomas Jefferson's government in the near-term, yet with deep concerns for the security of the new land and how and who should settle the land in the long-term.

The Louisiana Purchase was not a decision taken lightly by then President Thomas Jefferson, who felt that it would be difficult for the young America to take full possession of the territory, and thus sign the country…… [Read More]

Work Cited

1803, and the United States. "Louisiana Purchase." Gateway New Orleans: N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .

Jefferson, Thomas. "Treaty with France (Louisiana Purchase). 1909-14. American Historical Documents, 1000-1904. The Harvard Classics." Bartleby.com: Great Books Online -- Quotes, Poems, Novels, Classics and hundreds more. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .

"Louisiana: European Explorations and the Louisiana Purchase - The Louisiana Purchase (American Memory from the Library of Congress)." American Memory from the Library of Congress - Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .

"The Louisiana Purchase -- Thomas Jefferson's Monticello." Thomas Jefferson's Monticello. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
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Zebulon Pike Was a Soldier Best Known

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28589874

Zebulon Pike was a soldier best known to be an early explorer of the Louisiana erritory. His expedition from St. Louis to the Louisiana Purchase was as significant for the nation as that of Lewis and Clark who had preceded him in their explorations. Pike is remembered for two expeditions, which he led in exploring the newly acquired territory of Louisiana Purchase. His explorations have always been overshadowed by those of Lewis and Clark. his is mainly because his explorations were questionable in terms of their intentions. It was thought he was a spy, or he had secret military orders for provoking war with Spain. His first exploration mission was to find the source of Mississippi River, and the second exploration was for exploration of the regions surrounding the Arkansas and Red Rivers

he first exploration by Zebulon Pike started in August 1805. General James Wilkinson, who was the governor…… [Read More]

The explorations by Pike are not well-known because they are mysterious. The main intentions of the expeditions are unclear to this day. Pike was not also well educated and during his explorations he never made any new discoveries. This is what has made his explorations be less known. Wilkinson had also stated that there was a conspiracy to separate Louisiana Territory and since he was a double agent for Spain. Having not found the sources of the Red River and the Mississippi has also made his explorations less justifiable. His explorations seemed to be filled with ill luck.

Maynard, C.W. Zebulon Pike: Soldier-Explorer of the American Southwest. New York, NY: PowerKids Press, 2003.

Magoon, K., and M. Mayberry. The Zebulon Pike Expedition. Minneapolis, MN: ABDO Publishing Company, 2009.
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Civil War After the War

Words: 1344 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30786382

California was particularly problematic. Taken from Mexico after the war, California was geographically cut in half along the 36°30, and was therefore legally and politically cut in half. However, residents applied for statehood as a free state in 1850. Congress responded with a set of complicated compromises: California would be admitted as a free state in exchange for the Fugitive Slave Law, which required that citizens residing in free states hand over runaway slaves, who would not be afforded any legal rights. Additionally, the District of Columbia would cease trading slaves, but the institution itself would not be abolished; slaves would not be emancipated. The admission of California as a free state upset the balance of power in Congress. The Fugitive Slave Law fueled the Underground Railroad and underscored the deepening divisions between North and South.

The Missouri Compromise was shot to pieces in 1854, when Kansas and Nebraska were…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bleeding Kansas." Africans in America. PBS Online. Online at  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2952.html .

The Compromise of 1850." Africans in America. PBS Online. Online at  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2951.html .

Cozzens, Lisa. "Impact of Dred Scott." African-American History. Online at  http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/scott/impact.html .

Kansas-Nebraska Act." The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press, 2001. Online at http://www.bartleby.com/65/ka/KansasNe.html.
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Civil War Even When the

Words: 1743 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47953776

Lee decided to run even before Sherman was able to come, and escaped from Petersburg. Grant was able to catch him at Appomattox, and then was the surrendered. There were 360,000 dead on the Union side and 260,000 dead on the Confederate side, but the union continued. This war made United States as a nation and a state. Earlier secession and state veto power had been disturbing the government from the beginning. (United States (History): The South Secedes) From here started econstruction, but that is another story.

eferences

Coming of the Civil War: An Overview. etrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005

Encyclopedia: Bleeding Kansas. etrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Bleeding-KansasAccessed on 26 May, 2005

Encyclopedia: Missouri Compromise. etrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Missouri-CompromiseAccessed on 26 May, 2005

The Compromise of 1850. etrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005

United States (History): Bleeding Kansas. etrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html#s85Accessed on 26 May, 2005

United States (History):…… [Read More]

References

Coming of the Civil War: An Overview. Retrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005

Encyclopedia: Bleeding Kansas. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Bleeding-KansasAccessed on 26 May, 2005

Encyclopedia: Missouri Compromise. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Missouri-CompromiseAccessed on 26 May, 2005

The Compromise of 1850. Retrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
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U S Before 1865 President Thomas

Words: 1289 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37067475

President Thomas Jefferson offered Napoleon the emperor of France $2 million dollars for the region around the mouth of the Mississippi River, which included the port of and city of New Orleans. Ohio Valley farmers relied heavily on admittance to New Orleans, and President Thomas Jefferson wanted to guard these farmers, because they sent their crops down the Mississippi River to New Orleans, from which ships took the products to cities along the Atlantic coast of the United States (Landy & Milikas, 159). However, this brought about horror in the Americans that the French might obstruct with their trade by imposing elevated taxes on products and ships moving through New Orleans. Even worse, "the Americans feared the French might shut down the ports to the Americans" ( Morris). If the port where shut down, this would bring to an end all shipping in and out of the United States.

President…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Elazar, D. American federalism: A view from the states, (3rd) . New York: Harper Collins, 1984.

Landy, M . & Milikas, S. American government: Balancing democracy and rights. New York: NY: McGraw, 2004, 150-188.

McDonald, F. States' rights and the union: Imperium in Imperio, 1771-1876. Lawrence Univesity Press of Kansas, 2000.

Morris, Richard Brandon. Great presidential decisions: State papers that changed the course of history . New York: Harper & Row, 1973.
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Thomas Jefferson Politics Decisions and Actions Democratic-Republican

Words: 975 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54985398

Thomas Jefferson Politics

Decisions and Actions

Democratic-epublican Party's Beliefs and Ideals

Federalist Party's Beliefs and Ideals

Initiated the first Barbary War -- Aligned most with the Federalists party because it was a display of national power.

They were terrified of a strong national government.

They were strong believers of a central government

Bought the Louisiana Purchase -- Aligned most with the Federalist party because they believed in expanding national power by expanding their territory and property.

They understood the Constitution as being an essential document to limit the powers of the federal government.

They believed that listening to the citizens would make for a weak government system.

Initiated the Lewis and Clark Expedition -- Aligned most with the Democratic-epublican party because it was in the best interest of the people who would be settling there. It also provided insight into the agricultural possibilities in that part of the nation.

They…… [Read More]

References:

Meacham, J. (2012). Thomas Jefferson: The art of power. New York, NY: Random House.

National Archives. (2013). The Center for Legislative Archives. Archives.gov. Retrieved April 16, 2013 from http://www.archives.gov/about/history/building-an- archives/jefferson-letter.html
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Marx and Locke

Words: 1756 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47848618

Monticello, the mansion that Thomas Jefferson designed in the hills of Virginia near the State University that he founded, has three portraits that are to be found on the wall of President Jefferson's study that have remained there for 200 years. These portraits are of three writers Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton and John Locke. Jefferson, who wrote the Declaration of Independence and acquired the Louisiana Purchase form the French, refers to these three as "the greatest men who ever lived." e see Lockean reasoning reflected in the Declaration where Jefferson says that we hold life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness to be self-evident truths. A similar reverence was afforded Karl Marx in the Soviet Union, where many streets and several smaller cities were named after Marx and his fellow communist Frederick Engels. One could argue that the primary ideologies of the 20th-century were those of Locke and Marx, as…… [Read More]

We can see the best examples of these 19th century economic theories in the works of Henry George, a populist who wished to ensure plurality by limiting the ability of property owners to hoard natural resources, and Herbert Spencer, an English sociologist who incorporated Darwinism into his defenses of what is now termed 'classical' liberalism and famously advocated "the right to ignore the state."

Locke, John, Second Treatise on Self-Government. http://www.swan.ac.uk/poli/texts/locke/lockcont.htm

Marxist Origins of Communism, George Mason University. http://www.gmu.edu/departments/economics/bcaplan/museum/marx1.htm
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Thomas Jefferson Background and Description

Words: 1807 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44284324



Summary of the three most important leadership lessons learned

What one can and should learn from studying the life and thinking of Thomas Jefferson is that leaders are not necessarily born, but they are also shaped. What is takes to be a leader in those days, is similar to these. One needs constant learning and interest in different fields of activity that will cultivate not only a good understanding of their society but also a way of thinking that results into initiative. One of the features of Jefferson's leadership is the importance of initiative. Also, one should have within his communication skill those of persuasion. Without a convincingly presentation of one's ideas, these cannot become valuable initiatives - support, and later on persons that carry on one's idea, so therefore followers, are won by powerful statements by powerful men. That is what Thomas Jefferson had: initiative, based on a rigorous…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Biography Online. 3 Major Achievements of Thomas Jefferson. n.d. 22 March 2008.  http://www.biographyonline.net/thomas_jefferson/achievements.html 

Chemers, Martin M.. An Integrative Theory of Leadership. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1997

Eicholz, Hans. Harmonizing Sentiments: The Declaration of Independence and the Jeffersonian Idea of Self-Government. New York: Peter Lang. 2001

Gould, William D. "
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U S Presidents 1789 to 1840

Words: 1247 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13137740

The presidents that served between 1789 and 1840 helped shape the nation during its formative years. During this critical period in American history, statesmen laid the foundations for political culture, philosophy, and institutions. Although all the presidents during this fifty-year period had some influence on the early republic, several left a more outstanding mark and legacy. As a Founding Father and author of the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson undoubtedly deserves recognition as one of the most important presidents in the entire history of the country. As a slave owner who believed in a small central government, Jefferson also set a precedent for what would become a series of contentious compromises between Americans who supported racism and the slave trade and those who recognized the ways slavery contradicted the underlying principles of the democracy. Likewise, James Monroe carried on the American legacy of compromise, and is remembered most by the…… [Read More]

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Creoles Professionals Involved in Therapy and Counseling

Words: 4095 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95784591

Creoles

Professionals involved in therapy and counseling with members of the Creole culture of New Orleans and southern Louisiana should be aware of the history and traditions of this group that make it distinctive from all others in the United States, and indeed from the French-speaking Cajun communities in the same region. In Louisiana, Creoles are not simply the white descendants of the early French and Spanish colonists, although in the post-Civil War era of Jim Crow there was a major attempt to redefine them as 100% white. This was never the case in history since they are a mixed-race people descended from Europeans, Native Americans and African slaves during the 18th Century and occupied a special caste in pre-Civil War Louisiana. They spoke their own language known as Creole French, as do tens of thousands of their descendants today, and in appearance have often been able to 'pass' as…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ancelet, B.J. (1994). Cajun and Creole Folk Tales: The French Oral Tradition of South Louisiana. Garland Publsihing, Inc.

Dass-Bailsford, P. (2010). "Ignore the Dead: We Want the Living" in Dass-Brailsford, P., ed. Crisis and Disaster Counseling: Lessons Learned from Hurricane Katrina and Other Disasters. SAGE Publications.

Dominguez, V.R. (1997). White by Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana. Rutgers University Press.

Dormon, J.H. (1996). "Ethnicity and Identity: Creoles of Color in Twentieth-Century South Louisiana" in Dormon, J.H. Creoles of Color in the Gulf South. University of Tennessee Press, pp. 166-86.
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US Sugar Program

Words: 1923 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78300464

Sugar Industry

The United States Sugar Industry

How many sodas and candy bars are drunk and eaten in the United States each day? This report will focus on one of the main ingredients in those sweet treats and the related industry here in the United States that produces it. "Sucrose -- what we call 'sugar' -- is an organic chemical of the carbohydrate family. It can be extracted from a great variety of plant sources, for it occurs in all green plants." (Mintz, 19) Sugar falls under the classification of an 'edible crystalline substance' that we taste as sweet. The world produces approximately 160 thousand metric tons of sugar annually with Brazil, India and the European Union consistently listed as the largest producers.

The bulk of commercial sugar production comes from the two sources of sugar beets and sugarcane; other sources include sorghum, date palms, and sugar maple. As a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adler, Jacob. (1966). Clause Spreckels: The Sugar King in Hawaii. University Press: Honolulu.

Answers.com. (2009). "Beet Sugar." Retrieved on November 19, 2009, from Answer.com at  http://www.answers.com/topic/beet-sugar-3 .

Cane Sugar and Hawaii. (1962). "The Hawaii Book." J.G. Ferguson Publishing Company: Chicago.

Goodboy, David. (2009). "Sugar: A Sweet Market On The Move." Retrieved on November 19, 2009, from Trading Markets at http://www.tradingmarkets.com/.site/eminis/commentary/guestcommentary/-77544.cfm.
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Passionate Nation Page51-64 Book Major Problems Page

Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 904122

Passionate Nation, page51-64; book Major Problems, page 79-82, 91-93 Reaction Paper the purpose a the readings for this assignment were highly interesting, and presented a number of different facts regarding the history of Texas and the United States in general that are not commonly known. Spain's history with Texas in particular was a little surprising. Most accounts of U.S. history document Spain's presence in Florida and its involvement with France in the Louisiana Purchase. It was surprising to learn that Spain was the original colonizer of the Texas area. When one considers Spain's history of colonizing Mexico this fact appears to make a little more sense, and of course most people are aware of the fact that the borders of Mexico originally extended well into the continental U.S., incorporating parts of California and other western states. Still, Spain's history as the first colonizing/governing body in Texas had escaped my previous…… [Read More]

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African-American Westward Migration

Words: 3585 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26760503

African-Americans and Western Expansion

Prior to the 1960s and 1970s, very little was written about black participation in Western expansion from the colonial period to the 19th Century, much less about black and Native American cooperation against slavery. This history was not so much forbidden or censored as never written at all, or simply ignored when it was written. In reality, blacks participated in all facets of Western expansion, from the fur trade and cattle ranching to mining and agriculture. There were black cowboys and black participants in the Indian Wars -- on both sides, in fact. Indeed, the argument over slavery in the Western territories was one of the key factors in breaking up the Union in the 1850s and leading to the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. In the past thirty years, much of the previously unwritten and unrecorded history of the Americas since 1492 has been…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1970, 1995.

Foner, Philip S. History of Black Americans. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983.

Katz, William Loren. The Black West: A Documentary and Pictorial History of the African-American Role in the Westward Experience of the United States. NY: Random House, Inc., 2005.

Katz, William Loren. Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1986.
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Trace the Events That Led Up to

Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66928749

race the events that led up to the War of 1812 and be very specific in describing those events.

Chapter 7 begins with background review of how (in the late 18th century) the young nation began to be concerned with education. Medicine, too, was beginning to actually define diseases and help heal people, and Americans were inventing technologies (like the cotton gin by Eli Whitney) including Whitney's machine "…to make each part of a gun according to an exact pattern" (192). In fact the development of Whitney's system of making weapons was important due to the fact that the U.S. was preparing for war with France; "Americans were deeply troubled by their lack of sufficient armaments for the expected hostilities" (192).

In 1789 Congress passed laws that gave preference to American ships in U.S. ports; moreover, between 1789 and 1810, the U.S. had "more ships and international commerce" than any…… [Read More]

The House of Representative elections of 1812 were pivotal to the launching of war with England as voters "…elected a large number of representatives of both parties eager for war with Britain" (210). Among those war-mongering elected officials were Henry Clay (Kentucky) and John C. Calhoun (South Carolina). Clay, as Speaker, appointed members he knew to be eager for war -- in particular, war to seize Canada from England -- to the Committee on Foreign Affairs (211). On June 18, President Madison "…gave in to the pressure" from the House and approved a declaration of war against Britain (211). Madison was very concerned about the threats to American vessels engaged in trade with Europe, and since Britain was hostile to the idea of Americans trading with France -- and of Americans gaining power on the high seas -- Madison reluctantly agreed to go to war.

What were the major outcomes of the war? As a result of Treaty of Ghent, the British gave up their demand for an "…Indian buffer state in the Northwest" and in time through additional negotiations the British agreed to allow full trade with American ships (213). The Treaty of Ghent also supposedly provided that the Native Americans would get back their tribal lands (that had been taken during the war); albeit, the Indians never did get their land back. The Treaty also called for a "mutual disarmament on the Great Lakes" and in time the Canadian-American boundary became the "…longest 'unguarded frontier' in the world" (213).

In conclusion, the War of 1812 did not go well for the new American nation, and it was a terrible blow to Native Americans who witnessed the killing of their peoples and the stealing of their ancient tribal lands. Still, with the addition of the Louisiana Purchase, America was now a much bigger nation, with new lands to populate and new challenges to face as well.
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Texas History

Words: 1793 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57657863

Alamo is a major symbol of Texas history and one of the cultural heritage sites of the nation. It is also the subject of numerous books about its history, many seeking to restate the facts in order to overcome the influence of distorted media presentations of the story or of the many myths that have developed around the story of what occurred in that place. The Alamo by John Myers was published in 1973 and addressed the history of the Alamo in terms of what part the Alamo played in the expansion of territory for Europeans and then as a site where several Great Men came and acted in a certain way that helped create Texas and the nation.

To some degree, then, Myers subscribes to the Great Man theory of history, that certain individuals and their behavior decides issues of great moment and advance history. At the same time,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Myers, John Myers. The Alamo. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1973.
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Social Economic and Political Significance of the Military EST of New France

Words: 1835 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72465831

Social Economic and Political Significance of the Military Establishment of New France

This paper presents an analytic review of the article titled the "Social, Economic and Political Significance of the Military Establishments in New France" by Eccles. The paper critically examines various aspects of this article including its strengths and weaknesses in addressing the main issues in addition to establishing important relationships with other scholarly articles and works in the field. The article begins by exploring the socio-economic spectrum of New France which provided the basis for the military establishments. It is perhaps prudent enough to take a general overview of New France so as to get an understanding of what the article is all about.

New France was an area in North America that was colonized by the French for a period of over two hundred years, beginning in 1534 when French explorers toured the Saint Lawrence River until…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Addall, T., Halifax Warden of the North, McClelland and Stewart; 2003

Armstrong, Frederick. Handbook of Upper Canadian Chronology; Dundurn Press.1985

Axelrod, A., Blooding at Great Meadows: young George Washington and the battle that.... Running Press, 2007

Boose, W. Over the beach: U.S. Army amphibious operations in the Korean War. Combat Studies Institute. 2008
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American History as it Relates to the

Words: 2191 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2477589

American history as it relates to the first five Presidents of the United States. Specifically, it will discuss the impact of early leaders of America on the democratic government, and how the first five presidents impacted early American government. It will also look at the accomplishments of each president and different facts about each that contributed positively and negatively on America as it formed as a nation. The first five presidents of the United States were George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. Each man influenced American history in his own unique and significant ways, with both positive and negative results. These leaders were really creating the office of President as they tried to run the country with intelligence and finesse. Their accomplishments were not always perfect, but they did the best they could with the knowledge and resources available at the time.

THE IMPACT OF…… [Read More]

References

Agar, Herbert. The People's Choice, from Washington to Harding: A Study in Democracy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1933.

Kane, Joseph Nashan. Facts about the Presidents: A Compilation of Biographical and Historical Data. New York H.W. Wilson Co., 1959.

Kurtz, Stephen G. The Presidency of John Adams: The Collapse of Federalism, 1795-1800. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1957.

Smith, Abbot Emerson. James Madison: Builder: A New Estimate of a Memorable Career. New York: Wilson-Erickson, Incorporated, 1937.
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Dred Scott vs Sanford Case

Words: 2153 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66979297

Sanford case was taken to the Federal courts and ruled in favor of Sanford. Following this decision to decide in favor of Sanford in the case, Dred Scott appealed the ruling to the U.S. Supreme Court.

In 1857, the Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court, Roger B. Taney delivered the majority opinion in the Dred Scott vs. Sanford case. In his ruling, Taney revealed that seven of the nine judges who heard the case had agreed that Scott should continue to be a slave. Furthermore, Taney stated that Scott was not an American citizen and had no right to bring any lawsuit in the Federal courts. Taney also declared that Scott and his family had never been free since slaves were personal property. hile he declared that the 1820 Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional, he also stated that the Federal Government had no right to forbid slavery in new…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

"1820 Missouri Compromise." HistoryCentral.com: History's Home on the Web. MultiEducator Inc. Web. 31 Jan. 2011. .

"The Dred Scott Decision." AmericanCivilWar.com. AmericanCivilWar.com. Web. 31 Jan. 2011. .

"Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)." Infoplease: All the Knowledge You Need. Information Please: Pearson Education, Inc. Web. 31 Jan. 2011. .

"Dred Scott v. Sandford." OYEZ: U.S. SUPREME COURT MEDIA. OYEZ. Web. 31 Jan. 2011. .
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Mississippi Has Had a Long

Words: 1007 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99836286

Then, in 1861, Mississippi became the second state to secede from the Union. ith approximately 80,000 Mississippians serving in the Confederate Army, the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 and Robert E. Lee's surrender on April 9th, 1865, ending the Civil ar, were dramatic events for the state ("Chronological History"). These events changed the state politically and socially.

In 1868, Mississippi's first bi-racial constitutional convention was formed. Deemed the 'Black and Tan' Convention, the new constitution drafted guaranteed the rights of ex-slaves as well as punished ex-Confederate soldiers. Voters in the state reject the Constitution. The next year, a modified version, not punishing ex-Confederate soldiers, is ratified. This paves the way for readmittance to the Union, on February 23rd, 1870 ("Chronological History"). The 20th century continued with many advancements and challenges for the state.

At the beginning of the century, the boll weevil made its appearance and, in 1907, most of Mississippi's…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aubrey, R. A History of Mississippi Baptists, 1780-1970. Jackson, MS: Mississippi Baptist Convention Board, 1971.

Chronological History of Mississippi. 2009. State Handbook & Guide Resources. December 3, 2009 .

Lowry, R. & McCardle, W. A History of Mississippi: From the Discovery of the Great River by Hernando Desoto. New York: Kessinger Publishing, 2007.

Nationwide to Reopen 500 Katrina Cases. 20 Apr 2007. Routers. December 3, 2009 .
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Language Policy and Planning Language Planning Refers

Words: 1581 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60978398

Language Policy and Planning

Language planning refers to the efforts that are deliberately undertaken to influence how languages functions, are structured or acquired or the variety of languages in a given country. It is often a government responsibility by non-governmental organizations have also come to be involved in this. Grass-roots organizations and also individuals have been involved in this. The goal of language planning differs depending on the country. However, it generally includes planning, decision making and possible changes which benefit the communications system of the country. Language planning or efforts to improve the communication in a country can also bring about certain social changes such as shift of language, assimilation and therefore provide a motivation which plans the function, structure and acquisition of languages Woolard & Gahng, 1990()

Decision making in language planning

There are four dominant language ideologies which motivate the decisions that are made regarding language planning.…… [Read More]

References

Little, M.E.R., & McCarty, T.L. (2006). Language Planning Challenges and Prospects in Native American Communities and Schools. Tempe, AZ: Language Policy Research Unit.

Martin, J.J. (1988). An American Adventure in Bookburning in the Style of 1918. Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles Publisher.

Woolard, K.A., & Gahng, T.-J. (1990). Changing Language Policies and Attitudes in Autonomous Catalonia. Language in Society, 19(3), 311-330.

Wyburn, J., & Hayward, J. (2009). OR and Language Planning: Modelling the Interaction between Unilingual and Bilingual Populations. The Journal of the Operational Research Society, 60(5), 626-636.
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Formation of the Various States

Words: 2467 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 805203

New states lying north of said parallel would be admitted as non-slave while those lying south would be slave.

The importance of the Missouri Compromise cannot be over-stated. It impacted the boundaries of several other states other than Missouri and led to some of the most hotly contested political debates in United States history.

Interestingly, the boundary established through the Missouri Compromise, that is, the 36?30' parallel, had actually been in use as a boundary line since early colonial days and the Missouri Compromise served to continue its use. The boundary between original thirteen colony members, Virginia and North Carolina, is the 36?30' parallel and the boundary between two of the earlier states admitted to the Union, Kentucky and Tennessee is also the 36?30' parallel.

Map depicting 36?30' parallel

The admission of Texas as a statehood was affected by the Missouri Compromise. Unlike any other state, Texas enjoyed status as…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dixon, Archibald. The True History of the Missouri Compromise and its Repeal. BiblioBazaar, 2009.

Eastern Michigan University. Bleeding Kansas. http://edit.emich.edu/index.php?title=Bleeding_Kansas (accessed December 4, 2010).

Marshall, Peter C. Envisioning America: English Plan for the Colonization of North America, 1580-1640. Bedford / St. Martin's, 1995.

Mcgreevy, Patrick. Stairway to Empire: Lockport, the Erie Canal, and the Shaping of America. State University of New York Press, 2009.
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French Amer Rev Extra

Words: 2391 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65254923

There were several battles therefore that took place between France, Great ritain and American war ships. These battles occurred in European waters as well as in waters in the western hemisphere.

The most challenging ritish action was an order permitting seizure of neutral ships either sending food and supplies to France or trading goods produced in French colonies, above all the West Indies. When ritain obstructed French ships in the French harbors early in the French Revolution, American merchants moved swiftly to take over commerce in the West Indies. These American merchant ships were subject to seizure. The ritish Navy took approximately 300 American ships and forced thousands of captured American sailors to serve on ritish ships. When American tried to negotiate with ritain, France became outraged, which prompted France to start seizing American ships and the attempts to negotiate with France were utterly ineffective. France then started to imagine…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bukovansky, Mlada. Legitimacy and Power Politics: The American and French

Revolutions in International Political Culture (Princeton Studies in International

History and Politics). NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.

Mintz, Steven. "The Critical Period: American in the 1780s: Economic and Foreign
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Immigrant and Ethnic History Compare

Words: 4040 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55472829

There were a lot of white people around, and many of them were angry that the blacks had been freed. Some of them were actually hostile toward the blacks and their newfound freedom, so the blacks learned quickly that they had to be careful. They needed to settle a little bit away from the hostile whites and do their best not to make waves or cause trouble, in the hopes that they might one day be accepted (Reconstruction, 2002).

During the first few years after the Emancipation Proclamation and the subsequent freedom of all blacks in the United States, many blacks began working very hard to educate themselves. In there minds, education meant the ability to negotiate with whites over land, earn a fair wage to pay for it, and take care of their families. lack families were often large, so many of the members could work to help support…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Black Farming and History. 2002. Homecoming. http://www.itvs.org/homecoming/history1.html.

Carroll J. 1998. Organizational learning activities in high-hazard industries. Journal of Management Studies, 35: 699-717

Reconstruction and its aftermath. 2002. African-American Odyssey.  http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart5.html .

VandeCreek, Drew E., Ph.D. 2000. Frontier Settlement. Abraham Lincoln Historical Digitization Project. http://Lincoln.lib.niu.edu/frontier.html.
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Admittance of Missouri Into the Union Such

Words: 694 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32356525

admittance of Missouri into the Union such a contentious issue?

During the period of early nineteenth century, there was a one by one admittance of several states from the British rule into U.S. government, acquiring a representation in the senate. It was the time when there was an equal number and representation of free and slave states in the U.S. senate. When Missouri tried to admit as a state, it was first expected that it would be a slave state. But at the same time, Maine, which was a factory area and destined to be a free state, demanded its representation in the Senate. At first, the Senate joined the two bills as a same with the exception that only the southern boundary of Missouri which is the Louisiana Purchase north of 36°30'N lat would be the slavery prohibited area. This compromise is known as the Missouri Compromise in the…… [Read More]

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Prior Learning US Historic Travel

Words: 1981 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21087310

American History

Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher Columbus to the king and queen of Spain following his third voyage to the Americas in 1498 (rinkley 1). ut even after visiting the New World three times he still had no idea what he had truly started, and he certainly saw no sign that he had began a new era in history. Yet, the history of European involvement in America had begun. Over the next several decades Spanish conquistadores made more and more voyages to the New World, and the royal treasuries grew. Settlements were established and the other European powers, seeing their opportunity, soon made efforts to establish colonies of their own.

In the midst of all of this, the native inhabitants were removed from their lands and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brinkley, Douglas. American Heritage: History of the United States. New York: Viking, 1998.

Davis, Kenneth. American History. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.

Gutman, Bill and Anne Wertheim. The Look-It-Up Book of the 50 States. New York: Random House, 2002.

Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. New York: Dover Publications, 1996.
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America Without the Constitution Without

Words: 3372 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94195078



Articles of Confederation: The Articles of Confederation were approved in November, 1777 and were the basic format for what would become the Constitution and Bill of ights for the United States. There were, of course, deficiencies in the document, this was a new experiment and getting the delegates to agree in kind to pass any sort of document was challenging at best. The Articles did allow a semblance of unity, the further impetus to remain at war with the British, and the conclusion that there would be some sort of Federal government. The Articles, however, failed to require individual States to help fund the Federal (National) government, a template for an Executive and National Judicial Branch, or the issuance of paper money and a central banking system. In essence, the largest failure was the Articles' inability to allow a Federal government to regulate commerce, tax, or impose laws upon the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED

Amar, a. (2005). America's Constitution: A Biography. New York: Random House.

Bailyn, B., ed. (1993). The Debate on the Constitution. Library of America Press.

Beeman, R. (2009). Plain, Honest Men: The Making of the American Constitution.

Random House.
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American History Between the Years

Words: 2433 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51687593



As is often the case, these good times could not last forever. Just like our modern day governmental debt being financed by foreign investment, Andrew Jackson and the nation faced reality when in 1837 foreign investors came to banks to collect. The speculative bubble of 1837 burst in what historians accurately termed the Panic of 1837. English and other European bankers called in the many outstanding loans the states had out as well as many private investors. Paying back these loans instantly crushed the nation's gold supplies which created a ripple affect where many local and state banks could not pay their debts, investors or the governmental reserves. These events lead to many forced bank failures and a national recession ensued.

The Missouri Compromise

In hindsight, we as a nation know now that the southern states who were in favor of slavery were prepared to defend their right to own…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brulatour, Meg. Transcendental Ideas: Reform: Social and Political Changes in the Time of Emerson and Thoreau: The 19th Century at a Glance. Ed. Meg Brulatour. VCU. Retrieved on 21 Nov. 2004, from http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/transcendentalism/ideas/reformback.html.

Lorence, James J. Enduring Voices: To 1877 the Enduring Voices, a History of the American People. 4th ed., vol. 1. ADD CITY: Houghton Mifflin Company, ADD YEAR.

Pessen, Edward. The Many-Faceted Jacksonian Era: New Interpretations. Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 1977.

Welter, Rush. The Mind of America, 1820-1860. New York: Columbia UP, 1975.
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Macro Vision of Jefferson vs

Words: 2374 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12612725



Hamilton's Arguments in Favor of the Debt and the Bank

Jefferson would have no position against witch to argue had not Hamilton made the argument for the national debt so eloquently and so forcefully. Essentially, Hamilton and Jefferson entirely disagreed on the proper course to put the nation on a prosperous track. The greatest issue was whether the multitudinous colonial debts piled up by the individual colonies during and since the war with England should, in the spirit of e pluribus unum, be taken on by the federal government.

Hamilton postulated that the assumption of these colonies' - now states' - debts was essential to make the nation a credible, operating reality, deserving of trust in seeking credit from other countries. Also, Hamilton felt that "monied men" - those wealthy Americans who had made the loans to the state governments and how had in many instances not been paid yet…… [Read More]

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Nation State Towards a New

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64397634

First, six countries (including France and Germany, significantly) signed the Coal and Steel Treaty, which meant that no country could never develop enough military power on their own to mount an invasion of another, this preserving each state and nation in Europe (Europa 2009). The Council of Europe also emerged as an entity in the West (the part of Europe not under Soviet control) that increased political and economic cooperation. Today, all of the major countries in Europe including Great Britain, Italy, France, and Germany (and many others) are members of the European Union, without giving up sovereignty or combining cultures.

Most of the European Union's member states (with the notable exception of Great Britain) now uses a standardized currency, the Euro, and trade and travel between member nations has also been made much easier. In this way, one of the primary functions of the European Union is to create…… [Read More]

References

Bergman, E.F., & Renwick, W.H. (2008). Introduction to geography: people, places and environment (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Europa. (2009). Gateway to the European Union. Accessed 21 October 2009. http://europa.eu/index_en.htm

U.S. Dept. Of State. (2009). Diplomacy in action. Accessed 21 October 2009.  http://www.state.gov/ 

Perry, J.A, & Perry, E.K. (2009). Contemporary society: an introduction to social science (12th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
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Independent United States Shed Colonial Past Begin

Words: 944 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57872193

independent United States shed colonial past begin a direction, politically

Political and Economic Unity

In order to properly understand the methodology employed by the newly independent United States used to effectively shed its colonial past and begin a new direction politically and economically, one must first understand how the country operated on these two fronts as a series of British colonies prior to the waging of the Revolutionary War. Politically, the colonies existed as an extension of the British crown, were governed by the monarchy which ruled the foreign kingdom, and had little say in matters that were mandated by Britain. The colonists preferred a form of salutary neglect in terms of British involvement with their daily political lives, but when Britain intervened (particularly in the years leading up to the revolution) in the daily affairs of the colonialists, there was little they could actually do about it -- save…… [Read More]

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Texas History Stephen Austin 1793-1836 Is Known

Words: 792 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98006732

Texas History

tephen Austin (1793-1836) is known as the Father of Texas because he was instrumental in leading the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by U.. settlers. His name is on a number of streets, schools, parks, and Texas tate facilities. Based on the text, though, and the way that historical figures tend to become more mythic as their legend grows, I wondered about different points-of-view surround Austin and even the legality and morality of the Texas annexation.

I was surprised that initially Austin was reluctant to accept his Father's empresarial grant after he died, having to be persuaded by his mother. The situation, it seemed, was quite complex. Mexico granted land parcels under one government, and then changed the rules under another. I was also surprised that Austin supported anta Anna, who would ultimately become his enemy. Essentially, if one takes off the myth, it appears…… [Read More]

Sources:

Haley, J. (2006). Passionate Nation: The Epic History of Texas. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Haynes, et.al. (2002). Major Problems in Texas History. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
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Frederick Jackson Turner

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74063619

sentiment, enhanced by analysis and critical thinking from a variety of sources.

Frederick Jackson Turner's essay discusses the closing of the American western frontier, and what it means for the American people. The historical significance of the frontier movement cannot be denied, and Turner's question lingers, what will forge American history now that the dominance and dominion of the frontier has vanished? He eloquently writes, "American social development has been continually beginning over again on the frontier."

He notes many areas of the frontier movement have been studied, but economic and historic significance remains open to scrutiny. Thus, he sets up his thesis, that the frontier offers a "fertile field for investigation" and that there will certainly be problems and questions resulting from the ongoing investigation.

Turner gains the readers attention in the first few paragraphs, when he compares the American frontier to the European frontier and notes the differences…… [Read More]

References

Turner, Frederick Jackson. 1893. The Significance of the Frontier in American History [online].

San Diego, CA: University of San Diego; available at http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/text/civ/turner.html;Internet; accessed 20 March 2004.

Turner, Frederick Jackson. 1893. The Significance of the Frontier in American History [online]. San Diego, CA: University of San Diego; available at http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/text/civ/turner.html;Internet; accessed 20 March 2004.
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Thomas Jefferson

Words: 968 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60876909

Thomas Jefferson

He was one of the strongest proponents of the aspirations of the American people in new America. Throughout his life, he wore many hats; in addition to being a public official, he was also a philosopher and historian. This text concerns itself with Thomas Jefferson. In so doing, it looks at his life and times and outlines some of his major accomplishments. The text will also briefly highlight some of Thomas Jefferson's blunders that led to his being branded a hypocrite.

Early Years

Described by Freidel and Sidey as a "powerful advocate of liberty," Thomas Jefferson was the United States' third president. He "was born in 1743 in Albemarle County, Virginia, inheriting from his father, a planter and surveyor, some 5,000 acres of land, and from his mother, a andolph, high social standing" (Freidel and Sidey). His mother came from one of the most distinguished, respected, and revered…… [Read More]

References

Blakesley, David, and Jeffrey Hoogeveen. The Thomas Handbook. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2007. Print.

Finkelman, Paul. "Thomas Jefferson and Antislavery: The Myth Goes On." The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 102.2 (April 1994): 193-228. Print.

Freidel, Frank, and Hugh Sidey. The Presidents of the United States of America. Washington, DC: White House Historical association, 2006. Print.

Gibbons, Francis. The Spiritual Dimensions of America. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, 2005. Print.
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Civil War the American Civil

Words: 1537 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54953591

Page

updated June 1, 2002. April 23, 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/gordoncauses.htm

Leidner, Gordon. "Causes of the Civil ar: A Balanced Answer." Great American History.

April 23, 2009. http://www.greatamericanhistory.net/causes.htm

Litwak, Leon. "Results of the Civil ar." Funk & agnalls® New Encyclopedia. 2005 orld

Almanac Education Group. April 23, 2009.

http://www.history.com/content/civilwar/major-events-of-the-civil-war/results-of-the-war

"The Secession Crisis: Bleeding Kansas." The Civil ar. April 23, 2009.

http://civilwar.bluegrass.net/secessioncrisis/bleedingkansas.html

"The Secession Crisis: Dred Scott." The Civil ar. April 23, 2009.

http://civilwar.bluegrass.net/secessioncrisis/dredscott.html

"The Secession Crisis: The Missouri Compromise." The Civil ar. April 23, 2009.

http://civilwar.bluegrass.net/secessioncrisis/200303.html

John B. Gordon, "Causes of the Civil ar," Reminiscences of the Civil ar, page updated June 1, 2002, April 23, 2009, http://www.civilwarhome.com/gordoncauses.htm

"Causes of the Civil ar," KET, 2009, April 23, 2009, http://www.ket.org/civilwar/causes.html

Gordon Leidner, "Causes of the Civil ar: A Balanced Answer," Great American History. April 23, 2009. http://www.greatamericanhistory.net/causes.htm

Leidner, 2009

"The Secession Crisis: The Missouri Compromise," The Civil ar, April 23, 2009, http://civilwar.bluegrass.net/secessioncrisis/200303.html

"The…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Causes of the Civil War," KET, 2009, April 23, 2009, http://www.ket.org/civilwar/causes.html

Gordon, John B. "Causes of the Civil War." Reminiscences of the Civil War. Page

updated June 1, 2002. April 23, 2009.  http://www.civilwarhome.com/gordoncauses.htm 

Leidner, Gordon. "Causes of the Civil War: A Balanced Answer." Great American History.
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Republic 1787-1848 Racial Economic and

Words: 1655 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90235398



Still, many prospered -- visitors such as Alexis de Tocqueville from France marveled at American's drive to acquire wealth, American faith and sociability, as well as the profound racial divisions that characterized American society. American society was poised in continual paradoxes -- religious yet money-hungry, disdainful of social hierarchies yet dependant upon oppressing or disenfranchising races to secure advancement of poorer whites. America was also land-hungry in a way that put it into conflict with its neighbor Mexico, despite its insistence upon being against colonialism, having been born of resistance to colonial Britain. This resulted in the Mexican-American ar and the eventual incorporation of Texas into the Union.

Texas and the est itself is still another paradox of the American experiment. For those unable to become wealthy through capitalism, striking out on one's own in the west seemed a better alternative to the increasingly civilized and also socially entrenched east.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Wilentz, Sean; Jonathan Earle; Thomas G. Paterson. Major Problems in the Early Republic,

1787-1848, 2nd Edition. Wadsworth, 2008.
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History Between 1800 and 1850

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72455751

The slave trade and the cotton economy grew during this time, but many Northerners wanted the practice to stop. This would ultimately lead to the Civil War, along with other events that boiled up during this time. Blacks were subjugated, had no rights, were often cruelly beaten, or whipped for any infraction, and it was a low point in their history as well.

This was a time of great strides in transportation, with the first railroads developing, canals constructed, roads built, and the growth of industry and business. It became possible to ship goods for long distances, and with the invention of the steam engine and other technologies, it became possible to automate many factories, creating more jobs in the industrial North and drawing labor from the farms to the cities. It was a time when immigration was extremely high, too, bringing the famous "melting pot" to the country, from…… [Read More]

References

Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty! An American History. New York: W.W. Norton Company, 2004.
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Boot's Book the Savage Wars

Words: 4627 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8985217

In short, the United States became more aggressive in attaining foreign resources and access to trade. This was a result of the expansive nature of empires, and the fact that America, as characterized by Boot, was gradually becoming a "great power."

Largely, the Great Powers of the modern world have come into being as emerging economic and political trends have allowed. The ever shifting tides of the world's social foundations have tended to produce successive powers that rise and fall over the course of history. Generally, what make these powers great are their military capabilities, but of course, these are commanded by the economic base supporting them. A powerful economy can allow for enormous military expenditures, and generate vast influence across the planet.

Naturally, the economic crux of a great power can vary in form. Most obviously, the great power of the ancient world -- Rome -- relied upon the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boot, Max. The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power. New York: Basic Books, 2002.
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American Political Development America's Political

Words: 1985 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87954252


American politics took another turn with problems that would lead to
the Civil War, as the North and the South each had their own interests.
Tariffs to protect some Northern manufacturing interests greatly angered
the South leading to attempts to nullify acts of the federal government,
ultimately resulting in conflict between the powers of the states and the
federal Union. The result of this conflict led to the Civil War and
American political development became one in which decisions over slave and
free-states were the most prominent. America became increasingly partisan
and the Republican party emerged to compete along with Know Nothings and
Democratic Party. Ultimately the South seceded resulting in a Confederacy
that split from the Union as the debates over slavery reached an all-time
involving all aspects of political life.
The Civil War split America in two and then brought it back together
again. But the new America…… [Read More]

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American West as a Place

Words: 845 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92940502

This view, however, fails in Limerick's mind, to adequately show how we can directly trace our current social, economic, and political order to Jamestown, Salem, and the Louisiana Purchase. "White Americans saw the acquisition of property as a cultural imperative" (Limerick, 55). How has that changed either before or after? Isn't that the justification used by the Virginia Company when establishing Jamestown? Isn't that the same as Sam Houston's justification for the subjugation and annexation of Texas? Isn't that the same as our ongoing destruction of the environment to create homes, shopping malls, and warehouses? Manifest Destiny existed in the European mindset even before the phrase was coined. Thus, Limerick observes that we have to see our history as part of that same kind of continuity of intent.

Indeed, Limerick promotes a moral significance on the history of the American West rather than a focus on specific dates and specific…… [Read More]

References

Limerick, Patricia Nelson. The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West. New York: W.W. Norton, 1987.
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Presidents in My Opinion My

Words: 2043 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35806377



George H.W. Bush

George Herbert Walker Bush, possibly the most underestimated president of recent times, is my choice for the fifth spot. It is perhaps understandable why Bush Sr. is often excluded from most people's list of "great" U.S. Presidents; unlike "activist" presidents such as Franklin oosevelt or his predecessor, onald eagan, Bush carried out his job in a low-key manner but did his job competently. This is precisely why I have chosen him as one of the top five presidents because a president's job, in the words of Bush Sr. himself, does not always involve, "high drama, and the sound of trumpets" (Quoted by ose, 1991, p. 307)

Bush Sr. became the President after having served the country in various positions such as the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations and to China, chair of the epublican National Committee, head of the CIA, and vice-president in the eagan administration…… [Read More]

References

Bonwick, C. (1993, April). "Thomas Jefferson: Pragmatist or Visionary?" History Today, 43, 18+. Borden, M. (Ed.). (1961). America's Ten Greatest Presidents. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Busch, A.E. (1997). "Ronald Reagan and the Defeat of the Soviet Empire." Presidential Studies Quarterly, 27(3), 451+.

Kengor, P. (1998). "Comparing Presidents Reagan and Eisenhower." Presidential Studies Quarterly, 28(2), 366+.

Peterson, M.D. (1975). Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation: A Biography (1st ed.). London: Oxford University Press.
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Robert Fulton

Words: 904 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23939247

Robert Fulton

"the Most Lucrative Patent": Robert Fulton's Idea

In an 1807 letter, Robert Fulton wrote about his new invention and stated "the patent in contemplation will be the most lucrative that was ever obtained" (Sylla 44). He was referring to his steam engine, which not only revolutionized transportation but forever changed commerce in the United States and all over the world. Fulton wrote the letter to Robert R. Livingston, a wealthy New Yorker who was interested in Fulton's work and who became his partner and financier.

Born and raised in Pennsylvania, Fulton originally intended to become a painter. He went to London as a young man and actually had a showing of his work at the Royal Academy. He found it difficult to support himself on an artist's salary and so became a canal engineer. He went to Paris in 1797 and built a submarine called the Nautilis, he…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gordon, John Steele. "The Steamboat Monopoly." American Heritage 44.7 (1993): 20-21.

Online. 2 May 2011.

"Newcomen Steam Engine." Wikipedia. 5 Apr. 2011. Web. 3 May 2011.

"Robert Fulton's Paddlesteamer: August 17th, 1807." History Today 57.8 (2007): 58-59. Online.
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American Society Between 1800 and

Words: 1495 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77881316



The Temperance movement was initiated by ministers and doctors claiming alcohol consumption would decrease physical and psychological health. In response, those that associated and approved of the Temperance movement tried to ban the making of whiskey. Critics of the Temperance movement during the time period, as well as modern researchers, viewed Temperance as a form of social control and as a political symbol. The Temperance movement was one of the most popular pre-Civil ar social reform tactics, and made individuals question the political right to influence social change. The Temperance movement set a precedence in American society as "the moral people, in this case the abstainers, [attempt] to correct the behavior of the immoral people, in this case the drinkers" (Gusfield 2). Social movements and social reform are still critical in the present time, involving a claimed "moral" side vs. An "immoral" side. The Temperance movement changed American society as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gusfield, J. Symbolic crusade: status politics and the American Temperance Movement. 2nd ed.

United States: Illini Books, 1986.

Hackett, L. "Industrialization: The First Phase." Industrial Revolution, History World

International, 1992. 6 Jun 2011. <  http://history-world.org/Industrial%20Intro.htm >
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Presidents in the History of

Words: 2083 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76845855

He was one of the youngest presidents in history (the same age as JFK when he took office, forty-three. He also was an avid outdoorsman and appreciative of the American West (he had a ranch in North Dakota), and his far-seeing vision created one of America's most enduring traditions, the U.S. Forest Service and protected wild lands. oosevelt's accomplishments may not have been as well-known as some of the other presidents, but they were certainly far reaching. First, he was the first president to establish an area in the White House specifically for journalists (oller, 1988, p. 200). He was an extremely popular president, and he was the first to travel outside the country, to the Panama Canal, during a presidency. He also helped create the Panama Canal Project, one of the most important building projects of the time, and still a vital link between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.…… [Read More]

References

Boller, P.F. (1996). Presidential anecdotes (Revised ed.). New York: Oxford U.S..

Bursey, L.G. (1988). 4 Abraham Lincoln. In Popular images of American presidents, Spragens, W.C. (Ed.) (pp. 67-94). New York: Greenwood Press.

Cronin, T.E., & Genovese, M.A. (1998). The paradoxes of the American presidency. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hart, John. (1995). The presidential branch: From Washington to Clinton (2nd ed.). Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers.
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South and the North of the 19th Century

Words: 1198 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77865771

South and the North of the 19th Century

Dear Trevor,

As I write this, I can hear faint yells and cheers through my window. Somewhere, the city of Charleston still celebrates. You'll have heard why by the time my letter arrives. Secession. It was no secret that it would happen when Lincoln, that great ape, was elected. As many years as we've been on the receiving end of Yankee insults and "compromises," I wonder why we took so long.

You and I have talked about our peculiar institution, and I know you disapprove, but then, you have not been around Negroes. They are not our equals. They need us to care for them and direct them, and we need them to work the fields and keep our farms and plantations running. There is no immorality, no terrible sin. Merely an advantageous arrangement for both sides. But the Yankees don't see…… [Read More]

References

Catton, B. (1961). The coming fury, volume one. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co.

Naden, C.J. & Blue, R. (2000). Why fight? The causes of the American Civil War. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn Publishers.
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James Monroe Early Years Born

Words: 1172 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91757964

As a Secretary of State was the next path to Monroe's political career with whom President Madison appointed him in 1811. Monroe tried to prevent the war with Great ritain but was unable to do so because of unavoidable reasons. Monroe became the intelligence of the war and later acquired the position Secretary of War while maintaining his responsibilities as a Secretary of State (History Central Online, 2000).

Monroe as a President of the United States

Monroe won the 1816 presidential election because of his anti-Federalist actions and with the support of President Madison. He had good strategic choices for his Cabinet members, favoring Southerners, Northerners, and Westerners for his Cabinet. However, due to a contradiction from Henry Clay, Monroe was not able to elect a Westerner in his Cabinet (iography of James Monroe).

Monroe's presidency was termed as an "era of good feeling" because of political talent and skills.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Winslow, Chris. Legislators, Governor Honor Monroe. http://www.monroefoundation.org/4.28.04honor.html

Biography of James Monroe.

History Central Online.  http://www.historycentral.com/Bio/presidents/monroe.html 

James Monroe.
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1820-1860 Numerous Reform Groups Including

Words: 1543 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13740626

It was our land, and still they claimed it as if it were their own.

Not many years passed, and these Americans were everywhere among us - killing us, and driving us out of our ancient homes. They sent their soldiers to slaughter us, and later to collect us up to live beside their forts. They killed the buffalo on which so many of us depended for food, and so caused us to starve. And when we complain, when we tried to use their "laws" to help ourselves, they laughed at us, and told us that we had no rights. This land belonged to them. It was their "Manifest Destiny" to expand across the continent, and to take the land from the "savages" that lived there. They would bring God and civilization to all these places. They believed that only they were right, and that only their God was real.…… [Read More]

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American Presidents the United States

Words: 791 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78380521

His accomplishments included simplifying government jobs, and helping create the Democratic Party. He is most remembered as a great general and for defying Congress. Martin Van Buren served from 1837 to 1841. He was married to Hannah, and he died in 1862. His vice-president was ichard Johnson, and his nickname was the "Little Magician." His accomplishments included regulating banks and federal funds, and creating an independent treasury. He is most remembered for the Panic of 1837, and for being opposed to slavery. William Henry Harrison served in 1841 and died after only one month in office. He was married to Anna. His vice-president was John Tyler. He is most remembered for being the first president to die in office. John Tyler served from 1841 to 1845. He was married to Letitia and then Julia and he died in 1862. His nickname was "Old Tippecanoe." His accomplishments included annexing Texas and…… [Read More]

References

Editors. "Biographies." Vice-Presidents.com. 2006. 22. Sept. 2006. http://www.vicepresidents.com/Biography%202006.htm

Editors. "The Presidents of the United States." WhiteHouse.gov. 2006. 22 Sept. 2006. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/index2.html
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Colossus The Rise and Fall

Words: 2025 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6843548

I elieve our money in Iraq would e much etter spent in these arenas, which are underserved now, and which have long een under the auspices of relief organizations and the United Nations, among others. Instead of shoving our ideas down other country's throats, I wish we would take a more humanitarian role, and stop trying to convert everyone to democracy and our own way of thinking.

One of Ferguson's arguments for lieral imperialism is the argument that many Third World and evolving nations do not have the resources or even the ailities to govern themselves, and this is certainly a compelling argument. He writes, "Might it not e that for some countries some form of imperial governance, meaning a partial or complete suspension of their national sovereignty, might e etter than full independence, not just for a few months or years ut for decades?" (Ferguson 170). This statement is…… [Read More]

bibliography take up nearly 60 pages of this book, and his references are solid, everything from primary documents to interviews, texts, and peer-reviewed journal articles. He uses extensive quotes from American and worldwide sources to make his points, and backs up his many opinions with sound, well-researched material. This book is controversial at best, but it is a book that should be on the bookshelf of every American who worries about the future and wonders what history has in store for the United States and its foreign policies. If America continues to build an empire, as many believe it is currently doing, I believe we will make more enemies in the world, and that will lead to more violence, terrorist attacks, and a very negative view of America and Americans. I believe America has a vital role in the world order, but I do not believe in the necessity for a liberal empire, even though Ferguson does argue his ideals quite well. I believe instead that America should be more benevolent, less militaristic, and more concerned about fixing some of the problems at home, like inflation, hunger, bankruptcy, immigration, and the many other issues that are threatening the well-being of Americans. That may seem selfish, but right now, it seems like the only way many Americans are going to survive the crises that face us right here at home.

References

Ferguson, Niall. Colossus: The Rise and Fall of the American Empire. New York: The Penguin Press, 2004.
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Marshall Smelser the Democratic Republic 1801-1815

Words: 797 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33650485

Democratic Republic

The author of The Democratic Republic: 1801-1815 is historian Marshall Smelser. In this text, author Smelser covers a decade and a half of American history. This book describes the administrations of both President Thomas Jefferson and nearly the entire administration of President James Madison. It also covers all major historical events of the era in ways that are easily accessible, even to those who are not well-educated in American history. Marshall Smelser focuses both the actual historical events themselves, but also in how these historical events related to the creation and implementation of diplomacy between the United States and other countries.

Many historians and authors of historical texts are guilty of being, at the very least, subconsciously biased in favor or against the object of their writing. More often than not, these biases are quite obvious. However, most historians do not admit that they have these biases, if…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Smelser, Marshall. The Democratic Republic: 1801-1815. New York: Harper & Row. 1968.

Print.
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Slavery the Civil War and the Preservation

Words: 2726 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76629825

Slavery, The Civil ar and the Preservation of the Union

In the face of oppression and harsh treatment, slaves formed communities as a coping mechanism and to resist the belief that they were simply property. Members of these slave communities came together often to sing, talk, and even plan covert plots to runaway or sabotage the system in which they were living. Slaves married, had children and worked to keep their families together. Families were often broken up as members were sold off to different masters, but when a family was kept together, nuclear families of two parents and their children working for the same master were common. It was in these communities that countless elements of African-American slave culture were passed on for generations, including skills such as medical care, hunting, and fishing as well as how to act in front of whites, hiding their feelings and escaping punishment.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buchanan, James." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/B/BuchannJ1.asp.

Lincoln, Abraham," Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/L/LincolnA1.asp.

Missouri Compromise." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/m/missrc1omp.asp.

The Terrible Transformation." Africans in America. PBS Online. 14 December 2002.  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/title.html .
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U S Political Party System

Words: 1132 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73022279

Anti-Federalists and the Constitution in the Development of Political Parties

The Development of Political Parties

The Constitution and Political Parties

The Changing Ideology of Political Parties

Even before the adoption of the Constitution, political parties were beginning to form. Those who favored the Constitution were called Federalists, and were led by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. Another group, led by Thomas Jefferson, opposed the adoption of the Constitution and was known as Antifederalists. The Antifederalists broke up after the Constitution was ratified, but they set the stage for the development of other political parties, resulting in the two party system that we have today.

The Development of Political Parties

The debate over the Constitution split people into two groups. Those who favored ratification believed that a strong federal government that would dominate the individual states. Hamilton particularly argued that the future of the country depended on the development of a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brief History of the Democratic Party." 2003. Democratic National Committee. 30 April 2003 http://www.democrats.org/about/history.html.

Elkins, Stanley and Eric McKitrick. The Age of Federalism: The Early American Republic, 1788-1800. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Main, Jackson Turner. The Antifederalists: Critics of the Constitution, 1781-1788. Chapel

Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1961.
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Divorce Rate of U S Army Special Forces vs U S Regular Army

Words: 1590 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21682072

political themes of early American politics, the major players, and issues that arose in the political arena of the time; with specific reference to Samuel Adams: adical Puritan, by William Fowler, and Founding Brothers: The evolutionary Generation, by Joseph Ellis. It has 4 sources.

The first part of this essay analyzes ideological, historical, personal and administrative features of the first American government, and uses these to explain the 'contradiction' existent in American national identity ever since.

The chief contributors to the 'contradiction' or 'argument' mentioned above were the ideas about government and public life that Samuel Adams gained from his Puritan heritage and then from his experiences during the revolutionary period; the major causes of the American evolution; the "Spirit of 76" or the Whig principles; the republican ideology stated in the Declaration of Independence; the changes in the organization of government from the Articles of Confederation to the U.S.…… [Read More]

References

Garraty and Barnes, (2000). A Short History of the American Nation, Vol. 1, 8th Ed. 2000, Chapter 4. pp. 107-117.

Fowler, W.M. (1997). Samuel Adams: Radical Puritan. Knopf.

Ellis, J.J. (2000). Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. Knopf.

Boston Gazette, April 4, 1768
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Bob Hope

Words: 1080 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90897509

Bob Hope was born Leslie Townes Hope in Eltham, England in 1903; when he was a child, his family moved to Cleveland, Ohio. He died in California in July, 2003, a few months after his 100th birthday. (Fagan, A01) Amazingly, he performed in his last TV special in 1996 at the age of 93.

Bob Hope started out as a young man as a vaudeville song-and-dance man, but moved rapidly to comedy. By 1930, Hope had reached vaudeville's pinnacle, the Palace, and moved on to leading roles in Broadway musicals such as Roberta and Red, Hot and Blue. Next, he began appearing on radio, and then moved to Hollywood, where he starred in 50 films, and had cameos in 15 more. (Fagan, A01) His first movie was The Big Broadcast of 1938 and his last appearance was a cameo in Spies Like Us in 1985.

He also influenced other comedic…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arnold, Gary. (2003) Bob Hope leaves legacy of memories. The Washington Times, July 29, B05. Retrieved May 5, 2004 from Questia database, www.questia.com.

Fagan, Amy. (2003) Bob Hope dies, leaving a century full of memories; Legendary career included shows for U.S. troops. The Washington Times, July 29, A01. Retrieved May 5, 2004 from Questia database, www.questia.com.

Honeycutt, Kirk. (2003) Film was natural medium for fast-talking quipster. (Bob Hope: 1903-2003). (Biography) Hollywood Reporter, July 29, no page given. Retrieved May 5, 2004 from Highbeam Research database, www.highbeam.com.
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Barings Bank Baring Bank -

Words: 334 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50762319

In fact the price of the securities decreased, and due to the large invested sums, the bank went into bankruptcy.

The reasons that led to the fall of the Baring bank institution were the inadequate organizational structure, more specifically the lack of control on such important financial transactions. Although timing is crucial in taking advantage on the opportunities on the market, due to the large sums involved, a committee of 2-5 investment managers should be used in this case, in order to diminish the risk and responsibility of such an investment. Besides the actual decision, the committee should handle the financial statements related to the transactions in a proper manner, and then submit the records to an audit independent company. The company failed to take the necessary measures, and relied solely on one individual, fact that resulted in the company entering into bankruptcy and the employee being imprisoned for a…… [Read More]

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History of Huey P Long

Words: 4624 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53698843

The session erupted in brawl, and in the end, the vote favored impeachment

. This became known as "loody Monday." This time, Long's bullying tactics did not work.

Long took his case to the people, claiming that his impeachment was a raucous attempt by Standard Oil to deprive the people of what they deserved. As the trial began, Long passed around "Round Robin" document that was signed by more than one -- third of the Senate members. The round robin document stated that they did not believe his offenses warranted removal from office

. As it takes an over two-thirds vote to remove him from office, the impeachment attempt failed. Long rewarded his faithful with state jobs, favors and some say cash as well

. Long became more harsh with his enemies, founding a newspaper to promote his ideas. Long began to receive death threats and was forced to surround…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Andrews, James and Zarefsky, David. American Voices: Significant Speeches in American history 1640-1945. (White Plains, NY: Longman, 1989.)

Authier, Philip. Duplessis, warts and all. 22 May 1999. Wednesday-Night. Available from  http://www.wednesday-night.com/Duplessis.asp . Internet: accessed 29 September 2008.

Botting, Gary. Fundamental Freedoms and Jehovah's Witnesses. (Calgary, Alta: University of Calgary Press. 1993).

Corner, Richard. The Kingfish and the Constitution: Huey Long, the First Amendment, and the Emergence of Modern Press Freedom in America. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996).