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1. Screening Mammography
Mammography plays a central part in early detection of breast cancers because it can show changes in the breast up to two years before a patient or physician can feel them. Current guidelines recommend a screening mammography every year for women, beginning at age 40.
Research has shown that annual mammograms lead to early detection of breast cancers, when they are most curable and breast-conservation therapies are available (Mammography).
2. Diagnostic Mammography
Diagnostic mammography is used to evaluate a patient with abnormal clinical findings such as a breast lump or lumps that have been found by the woman or a doctor (Mammography).
Routine Mammogram Saved Her Life
Following a routine mammogram in July 1998, Debi Koon received a call from her physician saying there was an area of concern in one of her breasts. A follow-up visit and second mammogram the next day both identified an abnormal…… [Read More]
The created a need to research and develop a better method of mammography, which lead to the development of the new digital machine.
What is digital mammography?
Conventional film screen mammography uses low energy x-rays that pass through a compressed breast during a mammography examination. The exiting x-rays are absorbed by film (x-ray film) which is then developed into a mammography image that can be held and looked at by the radiologist. With digital mammography, low energy x-rays pass through the breast exactly like conventional mammograms but are recorded by means of an electronic digital detector instead of the film (Digital Mammography Submitted by: Mark Helvie, M.D. (http://www.cancernews.com/data/Article/210.asp)."
This image can be displayed on television styled monitors almost instantly, which provides the screener the ability to manipulate the image while the patient is still in the exam room. If another image is needed it can be done quickly…… [Read More]
Missed reast Carcinomas
Mammography is a particular type of imaging which use an x-ray system, which has a low-dose for the purpose of detecting breast cancer at a very early stage. ut even with the help of Mammography, in 10-30% cases of breast cancers would be missed. y way of this paper an attempt has been made to understand the factors, which cause for missed breast cancers, and discuss ways to reduce the false negative rate of mammography.
The false negative rate of mammography was around 8-10% according to the data of the reast Cancer Detection Demonstration project. Another study was of the opinion that the rate of missed breast cancers with regard to mammography was very high as 35%. (Harvey, Fajardo, Lnnis, 1993) In another study of 10 radiologists the true cases of cancers were considered to be in 74-96% cases which were understood after analyzing 150 mammograms. (Elmore,…… [Read More]
Dr. obb-Nicholson's data best supports the scenario that more incidents of breast cancer will be discovered due to the reduced number of screenings that the new guidelines suggest. According to the numbers she gives, the mortality rate for breast cancer decreases every year and this decrease can be attributed to the previous screening guidelines. She writes that the USPSTF has based the new guidelines on statistics rather than clinical data and the message that they are conveying to the public is that the number of deaths that regular screenings at beginning at the age of forty is too small to keep the guidelines as they were previously. (6)
The best approach would be to keep the guidelines the way they were before the change. There was not enough clinical data to support the change in guidelines. Also, because the mortality rate for breast cancer has steadily declined with women following…… [Read More]
As a woman enters her geriatric years, many unique problems are also faced. Her post-menopausal period leaves a woman with increased risk of osteoporosis, and hormone-replacement therapy may need to be considered or dismissed depending upon the needs and wellness of the individual women. Additionally, increased risk for obesity begins nearly at the adolescent period, when women's hormone loads change and often activity of childhood decreases. The incidence of obesity and overweight among women perpetually increases with every year of life. ("Overweight, Obesity Threaten U.S.," 2002, p. 8)Obesity and overweight, as one of the most significant conditions associated with several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, increased risk of stroke and hypertension should be developed as a lifespan issue, as the needs of intervention and prevention change as women age and go through various stages of life.
While women have functional characteristics that require specialized health care,…… [Read More]
The Agency for Healthcare esearch and Quality has issued its recommendations for breast cancer screening. In this article, they make a few different recommendations. First, they recommend screening for women 50-74 years. They note that women under 50 should make the choice for themselves as to whether or not they wish to begin screening. They note that there is little evidence to support screening age 75 onward. This body, however, recommends against teaching breast self-examination.
Also noted is that "the current evidence is insufficient to assess the additional benefits and harms of clinical breast examination beyond mammography. They also find that there is insufficient evidence of incremental benefits for the use of digital mammography or MI. The lack of evidence does not mean that these things are ineffective or do not provide value, just that there is no evidence that they do, which is different.
The most controversial aspect…… [Read More]
An appointment will enhance a woman's life by providing peace of mind knowing that there is no sign of breast disease or cancer or assisting with detection of breast disease or cancer and allow for a plan of action to take place for treatment.
Studies consistently show that low income, low educational attainment, lack of health insurance, inability to speak English, lack of awareness of breast cancer risks and screening methods, acculturation level and lack of physician referral play important roles in the lower rates of screening utilization by Hispanic and African-American women. Hispanic women have lower breast cancer rates but are 20% more likely to die from the disease because they are less likely to seek health care services than other ethnic groups. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among African-American women and they are more likely to be diagnosed with larger tumors and more advanced stages of…… [Read More]
Overall sensitivity for whole-body and PET/CT was 96% and 93% respectively, while specificity was 87% and 88% respectively.
The study showed that both methods are relevant for detecting metastases in breast cancer patients, but also showed that the method chosen should be appropriate to the type of tumor which may be suspected based upon the laboratory and clinical findings. While the study found that both 1.5- and 3-tesla MI scanning were feasible for the purpose of finding metastases, the team discovered that there is still much work to be done on refining the methods used for 3-tesla scanning. This could lead to further improvements in the results yielded by this method.
Breast gamma imaging spots DCIS better than mammo, M
Breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) is a functional study which is unaffected by dense tissue, implants or architectural distortion in the breast. The aim of the study was to…… [Read More]
Systematic esearch eview
Critique of Systemic esearch (S) ELATED TO NUSING
Critique of a Systematic esearch eview (S):
Breast self-examination, breast awareness, and practices of systemic review
Breast cancer is one of the most deadly and fastest-spreading cancers in the world today. To mitigate the tide of this epidemic should ideally include preventative measures as well as proactive treatments. The purpose of the literature review "Breast self-examination, breast awareness, and practices of systemic review" by Parvani (2011) was to assess the current research findings on the degree to which breast self-examination and more general breast self-awareness campaigns were useful in increasing the rates of early detection of breast cancer.
esearch rigor of selected studies
Studies were not screened for specific levels of research rigor. General medical databases were searched for relevant studies using Medline, CINAHL, PubMed, Science Direct, and Cochrane using words such as "breast awareness," difference," "breast self-examination," breast…… [Read More]
Nursing, Best Practices
The disorder selected from the Women's Health Initiative study is breast cancer. As inferred by Amonet al (2012), breast cancer continues to be the second leading cause of cancer mortality amongst women in the United States. Similar to all kinds of cancer, the anomalous tissue that constitutes breast cancer is the patient's individual cells that have multiplied beyond normative levels. In addition, these particular cells may also travel to different parts of the body in which they are usually not found. When these cells move throughout the body randomly, the cancer is deemed to have advanced. Statistics indicate that, in the year 2015, 230,000 women in the United States were diagnosed with breast cancer and out of this, 40,000 of them died. This indicates the importance of treating the disease across the world (Ziegler et al., 2016). The stages of breast cancer range from early breast cancer…… [Read More]
Breast cancer forms the second largest cause of deaths from cancer in American women. In the year 2015, roughly 232,000 women, mostly between 55 and 64 years of age, showed positive cancer diagnoses, with 40,000 succumbing to the disease. The median breast cancer-linked mortality age is 68 years. The US PSTF (Preventive Services Task Force) advises all females aged between 50 and 74 years to undergo screening mammography once every two years. Women may individually even decide to commence screening mammography before turning fifty. Those who set greater store by the potential advantages as compared to disadvantages of screening can even opt for screening once in two years once they turn forty. For those displaying average breast cancer risk, much of the benefits linked to mammography will result from two-yearly screening between 50 and 74 years of age. Of all age groups, the 60-69-year-old group displays the greatest likelihood of…… [Read More]
Anticipatory Guidance Project
Mammogram screenings guidelines
The suitability of screening mammography has been a contentious issue because of a number of reasons. For instance, the lack of consistency of screening guidelines reveals the complexities in coming up with definitive conclusions on the suitability of the procedure. Another issue with mammographic screening is the degree to which a mammography helps to reduce mortality among women. There have been arguments from some quarters that there is no evidence that mammography reduces mortality. In addition, sometimes screening can provide false-positive results resulting in needless additional testing, which may include the probability of invasive surgical processes. These controversies have elicited intense debates from various components of the society.
Background information about the guidelines
The American Cancer Society gives a number of guidelines on mammogram screenings (The American Cancer Society, 2013). First, it recommends that women who are 40 years and older of age should…… [Read More]
Demographic Perception Survey of Patients with Atypical CP Who Present to Cardiac Care Doctors and Patient Outcomes
This study intends to examine gender differences in individuals who present to cardiac doctors with chest pain and specifically, atypical chest pain in women. The work of Debra L. Issac (2000) states that over the past ten years "there has been increasing awareness of both the importance of CAD in women and of the significant differences between men and women who have the disease. Potential gender biases, both within the medical community and within the general population of women themselves also have been identified. These gender differences and biases have the potential to influence investigation and management of suspected or confirmed CAD in women, and should be taken into consideration when faced with a woman with potential cardiovascular disease." (p.157)
Issac also states that chest pain in women is "common and often non-ischemic.…… [Read More]
Attorneys, however, note that the suits are reflective of an increase in negligent doctors, who are hard pressed to serve a larger and more demanding patient load. Medical care is more costly and it is true that doctors fail to establish bedside relationships with their patients. Others point out that problems lie at the door of the insurance industry and management of hospitals (Committee, p. 1).
Because we discovered the problem in time, Mr. Jones was able to apologize and explain to the patients affected concerning the true nature of his outbursts. They did not have to pay for their treatment and none of them brought lawsuits against Mr. Jones or the hospital. We retained Mr. Jones, but advised him to notify the management if it appeared that there might be future outbursts. It is true that hospitals are much more diligent today because of risk management practices. Because of…… [Read More]
Ethical Dilemma in a Department of Veterans Affairs Tertiary Healthcare Facility
Selection of the environment.
Selected environment. The environment for the proposed study will be a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center (hereinafter alternatively "VAMC") that provides the full complement of tertiary healthcare services. The pseudonym for the selected facility will be "Lincolnville VAMC" (because the VA's motto is derived from Lincoln's second inaugural address).
Description of environment and rationale for selection. The Lincolnville VAMC provides tertiary healthcare services for veterans living in a 25-county area in a midwestern state. Besides its operations in the main facility, the Lincolnville VAMC also operates two community-based outpatient clinics. Some of the primary services offered by the Lincolnville VAMC include:
Behavioral Health Service: This service provides consultation, evaluation, and treatment for a variety of issues that can impact emotional well-being.
2) Pharmacy: This service processes more than 80,000 prescriptions each month.
3)…… [Read More]
omen's Health -- Focused on prevention and care for breast health, mammography, etc.
Transplant Programs - Swedish is one of seven kidney transplant centers and one of just four liver transplant centers serving the entire Pacific Northwest. The Organ Transplant Program at Swedish is at the forefront of new advances in transplantation surgery, including pancreas transplants and transplants between unrelated living organ donors and recipients (Swedish Medical Center, 2011).
Service design, operational activities, strategic decisions- Swedish is nothing but on the move -- strategically and tactically. In October, 2011, Swedish opened a new full-care facility with a 550,000 square foot campus in the city of Issaquah, southeast of Seattle city proper. This new facility was designed to be an entirely new hospital experience. Some of the operational innovations include a new Childbirth Center with eight new Labor/Delivery/Recovery rooms that include sleeping areas for partners, iPod access and a hotel room…… [Read More]
Job Title: Chief Financial Officer, CFO, Controller, Directory of Finance
Company: NW Healthcare Services, Inc.
Mission and Description: As a nonprofit health-care provider, NWHCS takes seriously our responsibility to provide access to the services, expertise and facilities needed by our communities.
Our commitment to improving the health of our region extends beyond normal patient care. Whether through physician clinics, health education, charity care, our mobile mammography program or other means of outreach, we're committed to caring for the people of our region and beyond. NWHCS is licensed for 217 beds and has 1, 2000 employees and more than 400 physicians with privileges. It is also aligned with Lutheran Medical Center, Greater Oswod Metropolitan areas largest non-profit health-care provider with 1,245 licensed beds, has three hospital campuses in Oswod (First Hill, Cherry Hill and Ballard) and a fourth under construction in Issaquah. It also operates an extensive network of…… [Read More]
" hile it is true that some plane crashes cannot be prevented, there are measures that can be taken to ensure that when a crash does occur, the proper help gets to the scene in time.
The first secondary measure for a plane crash is "Foster informed, empowered individuals and communities." hether the witness of a crash is a doctor or a hospital secretary, everyone can play a role in assisting at the scene. If nothing else, the person can call authorities and report the crash. For hospital staff, education in basic first-aid is standard at most hospitals and this includes sufficient knowledge to aid a victim in stopping bleeding or splinting a leg.
The second measure is "Develop and maintain the workforce needed for national health security." ith most hospitals understaffed, there is a real need for more nurses in the event of an emergency. Otherwise, a nearby hospital…… [Read More]
Stereotactic Breast Biopsy
Breast cancer is a very common disease, and is the most common type of cancer in women, although it is not unheard of for a man to have breast cancer. About one women in eight (12% of all women) will develop breast cancer at some time in her life. Approximately 50,000 women die from breast cancer every year. Early detection is an important factor in the successful treatment of breast cancer. Utilizing monthly self breast exams, periodic professional exams, and mammography breast cancer can usually be detected early. With early detection, breast cancer can be treated more effectively and patient outcomes improve. Mammograms are an essential part of this screening process. Although there is some controversy, the generally accepted recommendations for mammogram include a screening mammogram at age 35, annual mammograms every one or two years from age 40-50, and an annual mammogram after age 50. The…… [Read More]
This RIS includes Toshiba digital desktop telephones, plus 24 SpectraLink wireless telephones; these wireless phones were programmed to extend the features and capabilities of the users' desktop telephones to anywhere they roam at the 22-bed hospital; however, other wireless technologies such as cellular, could not be used due to the interference with sensitive medical equipment (Just the right prescription 24). The hospital's chief operating officer, Darryl Thornton, reported, "Being able to be mobile, yet still receive all our telephone calls, has greatly improved our efficiency and productivity. Toshiba's SpectraLink solution was the only one we found that would extend our desktop telephones to the palms of our hands" (Just the right prescription 24). The RIS also accommodated the needs of the hospital's remote users: "The system is so flexible that we were able to connect our remote users and still have it look like they are located at our corporate…… [Read More]
It uses a great deal of expensive and cutting-edge technology, and none of this is cheap. hile DR can do a great deal for a hospital radiology department, that department also must have the funds available to support what needs to be purchased and accomplished where DR is concerned if the department chooses to use this technology.
Image quality, other than cost, is quite probably the largest issue that is faced by those that wish to use this new technology. Therefore, it is important to discuss and compare the differences between the image quality of CR and the image quality of DR, so that more can be understood regarding the differences between them. One study looked at the plate readers that are used for CR images, and found that there were enough statistically significant differences between different plate readers as to indicate that there may be problems with…… [Read More]
The Act creates a positive balance between government interests to save money and the interests of Medicare recipients to receive a wide range of drugs for their specific needs. The current ban on government negotiations with pharmaceutical companies serves to protect Medicate recipients by using the positives of the free market, such as the experience and purchasing power of PBMs. hile there are serious potential problems with this approach, such as the potential for fraud between pharmaceutical companies and private interests, overall the ban on government negotiations with pharmaceutical companies provides a good balance between recipient and government interests.
American Legislative Exchange Council. Prescription Drugs. 19 October 2005. http://www.alec.org/2/4/talking-points/7.html
Barry, Patricia. New Salvos in the Prescription Drug ars: Class action suits are exposing schemes that gouge consumers. AARP Bulletin, January 2005.
19 October 2005. http://www.aarp.org/bulletin/prescription/a2005-01-06-salvos.html
Dealey, Sam. Drug Dealings: Democrats had it right before. National Review Online, May…… [Read More]
The use if Magnetic esonance Imaging (MI) has greatly altered the ability of medical care professionals to diagnose illnesses in patients. The purpose of this discussion is to examine Pathologies and Diagnosis discovered through the use of MI. All of the research for this analysis will come from resources that are no more than five years old.
Pathologies and Diagnosis discovered through the use of MI
One of the diagnoses that the MI has been credited with is Pancreatic Cancer. According to an article found in USA Today, new MI's are now allowing for the early detection of pancreatic cancer, which usually spreads to other organs before it is detected. The article asserts that Until recently, the ability of radiologists to detect pancreatic cancer was limited by problems associated with existing MI and computed tomography (CT) requirements. For example, distortions in MI images caused by the pulsing of blood…… [Read More]
The maintenance stage can be brainstormed with students and staff from the middle school in future months, based on the response and enthusiasm students have displayed in carrying out the initial project, and based on the number of days missed because of sickness after the hand-washing project vs. The average number of days of school missed due to illness prior to the hand-washing project. Shown that actions like hand-washing can prevent sickness, students will come on board other health-related issues.
May 29, 2006. I believe that if I have shown good research techniques in presenting my proposal for this program, and if I employ logic as well as creative planning and understanding of today's middle school-level abilities, I will succeed. Meantime, after every session on my computer, I will wash my hands in hot water for 15 seconds, because there are hundreds if not thousands of bacteria on these keys,…… [Read More]
Circle of Life Framework in Breast Health Education
Article Critique Analysis: Use of the Talking Circle for Comanche omen's Breast Health Education, by E. Haozous, V. Eschiti, and J. Lauderdale
The journal article, "Use of the Talking Circle for Comanche omen's Breast Health Education" by E. Haozous et. al. (2010), promotion of education on breast health was explored using a specific and unique tradition as the framework of the study. This tradition, called the Circle of Life (COL), is an "intertribal cancer prevention program focused on breast health education" and is specifically implemented among American Indian (AI) women (378). Using the COL as framework, the authors aimed to achieve "cultural congruency" in exploring, discovering, and identifying the different dimensions concerning breast health education and promotion effectiveness in the context of AI women's culture -- specifically, Comanche women (378). Harmonized understanding of the Comanche community, female and health cultures led to…… [Read More]
Evolution of Health Care Information Systems
The objective of this study is to compare and contrast a contemporary healthcare facility or physician's office health care facility or physician's office operation of 20 years ago and to identify at least two major events and technological advantages that influenced current HCIS practices. The physician's office and health care facility of 20 years ago was a paper-based operation. All records were paper records, appointments were written on calendars and prescriptions were handwritten, notations on the patient's health records was done by writing on the physical paper record and all hospital orders were written by hand. During the 1970s hospital growth and expansion occurred and the expenditures for Medicare and Medicaid were on the rise. At this time mainframes were still in use and microcomputers became available and not only were they smaller but they were also less expensive. However, transformation did not come…… [Read More]
To be part of something that I can give my absolute one hundred percent to, along with having the perpetual opportunity to challenge myself to learn and grow, is a dream that any driven person intricately decorates through the course of their life. hether one aspires to become an economist or whether one wishes to join the military, their dream is built on ambition and hope that they will find their place in something they consider their niche. My niche, if I am being perfectly honest is being challenged. I have always wanted to blend my scientific background with a chance to explore which is primarily why radiologic technology is the path for me! My interest in Radiologic Technology stems from the fact that it is absolutely quintessential when it comes to the medical field. As we know, it is used for the production of images of all…… [Read More]
Standards of Care/Mental Health/Cultural Competence
EMEGING STANDADS OF CAE/MENTAL HEALTH/CULTUAL
Sometime in 1999, the Surgeon General released Mental Health: A eport of the Surgeon General. Inside this report, it acknowledged that not every Americans, particularly minorities, are getting the equal mental health treatment, a discovery that provoked the Surgeon General to give out a supplemental report on differences in mental health care for individuals of color (Donini-Lenhoff, 2006). The addition, which was available in 2001, sends out one obvious message: culture does actually count. Cultural competency is considered to be one the vital ingredients in closing the differences hole in health care. It is looked as the way patients and doctors are able to come together and then talk about health issues without cultural differences stopping the conversation, nonetheless improving it. Fairly simply, health care services that are deferential of and receptive to the health beliefs, practices and cultural and…… [Read More]
Public health screening activities in programs are also essential in ensuring this level of prevention is ensured. A good example is organized screening programs targeted at the community.
The third level of prevention, tertiary prevention, involves bother rehabilitative and therapeutic measures once the person already has the symptoms and signs of the disease. Tertiary prevention has several goals, which include preventing damage and pain that may arise from the disease, slowing down the progression of the disease, preventing the disease from causing complications, giving optimum care to people with signs of the disease, and helping those with the disease to live healthy lives afterwards. A quintessential example of tertiary preventive activities includes treating diabetics to prevent complications that occur as a result of the disease such as liver and kidney failure. Other examples are management of patients with chronic heart disease with therapy and medication, physical and occupational therapy as…… [Read More]
Arroyo Fresco Community Health Center Case Study
Organization Strategy for Arroyo Fresco Community Health Center
This paper analyzes the major strategic challenges that are confronted by Arroyo Fresco Community Health Center. In addition to that, this paper also develops a new strategy for the organization and puts light on the action plans that would be followed for the attainment of the new strategic goals.
Arroyo Fresco Community Health Center Case Study
Arroyo Fresco community health center is a community healthcare center. The organization operates in western Arizona, where it has 11 clinics and 4 mobile service vans. In the year 2005, the organization generated total revenues of around 29.7 million dollars. The organization has a total of 254,137 visits. Out of these 254,137 visits 192,403 were medical visits, whereas, the remaining 61,734 were dental visits. (Staff Members of…… [Read More]
STD Testing: Community Health Outreach
When it comes to health care in the United States, it is often those most in need that find themselves somewhat neglected and under serviced. Nonetheless, state programs and coalitions do make an effort to prevent any person, regardless of economic status or other differentiating factors, from going without the care that he or she needs. The main challenge is to make certain populations aware of programs and clinics that are available to provide for their care. As a result of low socio-economic status, these populations are often not only underserved, but also unaware of the fact that they can do something about their health status, especially when it comes to issues such as STIs. In New Jersey and Camden City specifically, statistics show that, in addition to the worsening effects of STIs and other related conditions, the population tends to neglect seeking help, mainly…… [Read More]
Facility esearch and Selection
The report describes the facilities, need and services offered in an Ambulatory Care Clinic.
VICTIMS IGHTS MOVEMENT
Health practitioners should expect some very dramatic changes in the area of ambulatory care within the next decade. Driven by different factors, which include double digit improvement in some major outpatient areas, health care managers should expect the trend that began in the 80s to continue. The issue of ambulatory care is now a major issue for health care providers. A lot of health care institutions experienced some growth, spanning double digit in major outpatient sectors and significant changes in some major inpatient services to the modes of outpatient only. Hospitals are expected to adopt a new philosophy and plan of action for system redesign, carrying out a scrutiny of the traditional way of making the needed care available with the aim of surviving in the future. While these…… [Read More]
massive shortage of radiologic technologists of the 1990s has abated, there is still some shortage of workers in the field. Most such workers ply their trade in large hospitals, which average 21 imaging workers. ural facilities have a harder time recruiting workers, so hospitals in the most desirable locations might not even experience a shortage at this point. Key to recruiting for rural hospitals is thus to outcompete the urban facilities, but they must also look to their own areas for talented people who can be guided into the profession.
ecruitment and retention are ultimately linked. Factors like training programs for career development solve problems both for facilities and workers. Workers like the control that such programs give them over career development -- this is a selling point both during the recruiting process and thereafter as well. For the hospital, such training results in workers who cost more, but who…… [Read More]
Nursing Leadership and Management
Organizational Analysis -- The Organization
The hospital is well recognized and has been named a top 100 Heart hospital and top 100 hospitals nationally. The organization also has a nationally ranked children's hospital that has newborn and pediatric intensive care services. Sanford Medical Center is a level II trauma center that is supported by AirMed transport services that cover a three-state area. The services offered within the facility include:
• 3D Mammography
• Allergy & Immunology
• Behavioral Health
• Breast Health
• Dermatology & Cosmetic Services
• Diabetes & Endocrinology
• Ear, Nose & Throat
• Emergency Medicine
• Family Medicine
• Palliative care
• Laboratory and Pathology
Sanford Medical Center is a not-for-profit rural health facility. The facility does partner with the community to bring health and healing to the…… [Read More]
Pharmacotherapy for Hematologic Disorders
The hematologic disorder selected in this case cancer –specifically, breast cancer. It is important to note, from the onset, that breast cancer has been identified as one of the leading causes of death amongst women across the world. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – CDC (2018), without taking into consideration some skin cancer types, breast cancer is not only “the most common cancer in women” in the United States, but also “the second most common cause of death from cancer among white, black, Asian/Pacific Islander, and the American Indian/Alaska Native women.” The first position, as far as mortality rates amongst women with cancer is concerned, is occupied by lung cancer.
The most prominent symptom of breast cancer is a lump inside the breast. Other symptoms, according to the National Cancer Institute (2018), could be inclusive of an inverted nipple, sore nipple, and…… [Read More]
Lowe, Kate. "Hong Kong's Missing History." History Today, 41.12 (1991) [8 Jun 2012]
Category of the source
"Hong Kong's Missing History" is an electronic version of a journal article. History Today is a journal that is geared towards a popular audience, but is written by journalists with strong academic backgrounds in history.
This article was written upon the eve of the takeover of the prosperous, capitalist British colonial possession of Hong Kong by China. It suggests that the cosmopolitan identity of Hong Kong is unique, and still evolving, and cannot be subsumed under either a British or a Chinese national character.
Q3. A quick list of key points
Hong Kong's status as part of China is described as inalienable, in terms of legitimate historical clams. However, despite the dubious nature of Great Britain's dominion over Hong Kong for so many years, the people of Hong Kong did not necessarily…… [Read More]