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Change management is one of the most important components in the successful operations of a company or business organization. The modern business environment is characterized by numerous changes that are attributable to various factors including technological developments and globalization. In this regard, business organizations or companies increasingly face the need to adopt changes in their operations in order to align their businesses with the industry they operate it. However, the process of instituting organizational change in complex and can hurt a company’s operations if not conducted appropriately. As a result, there are various change management models that have been developed to help the management in instituting and managing organizational change. These models help in management of planned and unplanned change in the organization in order to enhance its efficiency and effectiveness in the industry or market it operates in. Some of these change management models include Kurt Lewin’s Three-Step Change…
Human esource Management Models
Being the regional human resource director of the company, I have recently been informed that there is a restructuring taking place within the organization. This includes the retirement of the company president and his decision to relocate the current headquarters from Northeast to Texas. This will encompass the redeployment of approximately 1,000 personnel. Taking all these aspects into consideration, I have several concerns.
First, I am concerned that employees will not be receptive to the news that they will have to relocate to a new expanse after working there for several years. A major worry is that there will be a decline in employee performance, which will hamper the overall performance and productivity of the organization. Another problem is that the retention level of employees might significantly deteriorate. With turnover comes the need to hand out employee benefits. With respect to indirect as well as…
Daniels, A. (2014). Semper Fidelis! A Recipe for Leading Others. Supervision, Vol. 75 Issue 9, p6
Johnson, R. (2016). 5 Different Types of Leadership Styles. Chron. Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/5-different-types-leadership-styles-17584.html
Ramlall, S. (2004). A review of employee motivation theories and their implications for employee retention within organizations. Journal of American Academy of Business, 5(1/2), 52-63.
Webb, K. (2007). Motivating peak performance: Leadership behaviors that stimulate employee motivation and performance. Christian Higher Education, 6(1), 53-71.
If these managers are unfit at achieving such objectives, the change process will not be effective.
Establish the vision and the strategy
Any change management process must start by building a vision that the new organization will be based on. Same as all companies are built on a vision of their founders, so should the new organization that will result after the change management process, be built on a vision.
Although the manager will create the vision of the new organization, he should make sure that all the stakeholders in included in the process. The vision should not only be directed at how the museum will look like from an artistic point-of-view, but it should also be directed towards its employees and how they will participate in the change management process and in the new organization, and towards the new image that the Louvre will present in comparison with similar…
1. Change Management for Shared Services and BPO (2010). SourcingMag. Retrieved August 22, 2010 from http://www.google.ro/imgres?imgurl=http://www.sourcingmag.com/library/graphics/Framework_for_change_management.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.sourcingmag.com/content/c070618a.asp&h=454&w=445&sz=40&tbnid=d5hnQISSPQ2oRM:&tbnh=128&tbnw=125&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dchange%2Bmanagement&zoom=1&hl=ro&usg=__6JeBM0DmBEEc0EVToXVilzkpzrI=&sa=X&ei=fupwTOLODIPN4AbxnuzSCQ&ved=0CDcQ9QEwAw .
2. Kotter, J. (1995). John P. Kotter's eight steps to successful change. Retrieved August 23, 2010 from http://www.businessballs.com/changemanagement.htm .
3. Cellars, T. (2007). Change Management Models. Retrieved August 23, 2010 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/237685/change_management_models_a_look_at.html .
4. ADKAR -- A model for change management (2007). Change Management Learning Center. Retrieved August 23, 2010 from http://www.change-management.com/tutorial-adkar-overview.htm .
A cheap product will not be able to survive in this rapidly changing business environment. Organization is another extremely important aspect of the necessary managerial skills for any manager desiring guaranteed success at their individual Verizon location. Organization can be as simple as instituting training at work in a pattern that overlooks no single employee. A good manager cannot expect employees to train themselves or improve their work manners without additional help. A strong organized training program is sure to enhance even the most successful company.
A strong leadership team is another necessary important aspect for businesses engaged in the phone industry. Verizon's leadership team must be instituted and adopted without fear at the workplace, because employees who fear their supervisors simply cannot evolve into successful employees interested in the growth of the company. A strong leadership team will effectively manage the business with the overall objective of accomplishing the…
Bass, B.M. (1996). A new paradigm of leadership: An inquiry into transformational leadership. Alexandria: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
Oak, C. & Schoeffler, B. (2002). Management for the 21st Century. Retrieved March 13, 2007, from Insurance Journal Web site: http://www.insurancejournal.com/magzines/southcentral/2002/03/11/mindyourbiz/18984 .
Verizon. (2007). Verizon. Retrieved March 17, 2007, at http://www.verizon.com .
If one takes the broad generalization of the mega-environment (general environment); one finds the conditions and trends that make up the organizational culture or even the society in which one operates. This term actually encompasses a number of similar and disparate factors. The technological part of the environment tends to focus on knowledge; the economic element the means of production, distribution and consumption of wealth; the legal-political element focuses on the governmental or rule-based systems to organize the society; the international element the external relationships, and the socio-cultural environment the attitudes, values, norms, believes and behaviors of a particular group or organization (Organizational Environment and Culture, 2008). All these forces are a sum total of how organizations act and react -- whether regionally or internationally.
The legal-political element of the environment is the systems that organize that environment, the rules that are enforced, and the overall manner in…
Organizational Environment and Culture. (2008). Zainbooks.com. Retrieved from:
Bendell, T. (2005). Structuring Business Process Improvement Methodologies. Total Quality Management, 16(8-9): 969-78.
Brown, L.M. And B.Z. Posner. (2001). "Exploring the Relationship Between Learning and Leadership," Leadership and Organizational Development. May, 2001: 274-80.
By using this type of planning, any company can simulate what would take place in a crisis, and can determine what would be done if it were to actually occur. The old adage of "practice makes perfect" may seem very cliche, but there is some truth to the statement. Even though no company wants or expects to have a crisis in it or technology, the companies that are truly prepared for just about every eventuality will be the companies that have the smallest amount of damage based on the significance of the crisis that takes place (Dezenhall & Weber, 2007). A contingency plan has to stipulate who will perform what activities, so that there is no confusion about that issue during a crisis. This is especially true with a spokesperson, because there should only be one person who is designated to speak for the company and who will provide information…
Barton, L. (2007). Crisis leadership now: A real-world guide to preparing for threats, disaster, sabotage, and scandal. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Dezenhall, E. & Weber, J. (2007). Damage control: Why everything you know about crisis management is wrong. New York, NY: Portfolio Hardcover.
Ulmer, R.R., Sellnow, T.L., & Seeger, M.W. (2006). Effective crisis communication: Moving from crisis to opportunity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Managing the Effectiveness of the Audit Process
Mission and Objectives of the International Audit Department
The IAD stakeholder power-interest grid
The Audit Process
Objectives, Scope and Approach of the Research
Purpose and Mandate
Sustaining People Excellence
Tools and Technology
Infrastructure and Operations
Japan Tobacco International (JTI) is an international tobacco business that is operated by Japan Tobacco Inc. Japan Tobacco Inc. is the third largest player in the international tobacco industry with a market capitalization of 32 billion USD and a market share of 11%. JTI was established in the year 1999 when Japan Tobacco Inc. purchased the operations of United States multinational R.J. Reynolds, for 8 billion USD.
The Internal Audit Department (IAD) of the organization is accountable to the board of directors. The department is headed by the Global Internal Audit Vice President. He took his position in…
Anupindi, Ravi. 2006. Managing Business Process Flows. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Leseure, Michel. 2010. Key Concepts in Operations Management. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Mahadevan, B. 2009. Operations Management. New Delhi: Published by Dorling Kindersley (India), licensees of Pearson Education in South Asia.
Slack, Nigel. 2009. Operations and Process Management. Harlow, England: Prentice Hall/Financial Times.
Today, emergency managers know there are more risks than ever, and emergency management efforts must be coordinated and applied to the terrorist threat, because, no matter how much we don not want to face it, another attack will occur, and emergency management procedures will come into play. Develop a cohesive model now to make the country a little more manageable and coherent during a terrorist attack. Waugh also notes that we must alter the process of terrorism to make it less beneficial to the terrorists. Developing a comprehensive emergency management model can assure a better response from emergency workers, creating fewer deaths and fewer "rewards" for the terrorists, as well.
Farazmand, a. (2001). Handbook of crisis and emergency management. New York:…
Farazmand, a. (2001). Handbook of crisis and emergency management. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Management Action and Productivity
usinesses in developed countries tend to think of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a characteristic that is centered in their own businesses or, failing that, situated in the industries of wealthier nations. The CSR movement is substantively skewed in the direction of the developed world where the motivation for adopting a CSR initiative is driven more by altruism -- or "enlightened self-interest" (Vogel 2006: 18) -- than profit margins. It is unusual to find a perspective that considers CSR from the perspective of a sourcing company. In the centrically-oriented corporate arena of the developed world, CSR is seen as originating with the company that establishes a supply chain with a multinational company -- not the other way around. In order to manage and control ethical issues arising from doing business with overseas markets, many corporations rely on a social compliance model (PricewaterhouseCoopers 2007).
The social compliance…
Buying your way into trouble? The challenge of responsible supply chain management. 2004. Insight Investment, HBOS. London, UK: Acona Investment Consulting. Retrieved http://www.acona.co.uk/reports/Buying+your+way+into+trouble.pdf
Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. 2008. Business Research Methods, 10th Ed. Edition, McGraw-Hill.
Environics International 3rd Annual CSR Monitor. 2002. (In November of 2003, Environics became GlobeScan Incorporated. [Press release] Retrieved http://www.globescan.com/news_archives/csr02_press_release.html
Eslenshade, J. 2004. Monitoring Sweatshops: Workers, Consumers, & the Global Apparel Industry. Temple University Press.
These are contained in the Enterprise Operations Center framework. The center has reach to the group of specialized telecommunication commercial and federally concentrated focused professionals within the CSC. These groups of individuals have thousands of certifications for operating Cisco, Microsoft, Sun, Nortel, Ayaya and many other types of equipment that assists any networking or telecommunication requirements of clients who are working with the Center. (Enterprise Network Managed Services Center of Excellence)
In order to entail the network-wide maintenance at the fingertips, Aglient's Network Troubleshooting Center -- NTC indicates a great leap ahead in the management of enterprise-wide networks. NCT includes a centralized view of network health achieved from various sources, including MON and SNMP and from the same console, centralized expert troubleshooting of remote problems applying distributed network analysis tools. The primary advantages are increasingly lesser respond and fix times and greatly lessened operational costs from both declined engineer travel…
Centralized Troubleshooting of Distributed Networks" Retrieved at http://www.phoenixdatacom.com/ntc.html . Accessed 28 August, 2005
Control your network: Why You Need IP Address Management" (July, 2002) Retrieved at http://www.checkpoint.com/products/downloads/Control_Your_Network.pdf?offer=wiwptAccessed 28 August, 2005
Enterprise Network Managed Services Center of Excellence" Retrieved at http://www.csc.com/aboutus/lef/mds68_off/enterprisenetwork.shtml . Accessed 28 August, 2005
Enterprise wide security on the Internet" Retrieved at http://www.newsviews.info/techbytes03.html. Accessed 28 August, 2005
Comparison to Airbus
oeing is headquartered in Chicago and Airbus is headquartered in Toulouse. oeing was founded 54 years sooner than Airbus. It numbers over 166,000 employees, whereas Airbus only numbers 48,500. oeing's net sales for fiscal year 2002 amounted to a total of $54 billion, Airbus' were less than half ($24 billion). The American company has a total of 14,000 aircrafts on the market; Airbus' aircrafts do not exceed 3,000. oeing also holds other six units, whereas Airbus holds no additional units.
8. oeing 787 Dreamliner vs. Airbus A380
The new oeing aircraft 787 Dreamliner is the company's latest airplane and it is designed to be safer, offer travellers more comfort, consume less fuel (by 20%) and increase its luggage capacity by 40 up to 60%. The Airbus A 380 is the largest airplane on the market, being able to transport up to 800 people at one flight. However…
Boeing Website, http://www.boeing.com , last accessed on November 6, 2007
International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 32. St. James Press, 2000, https://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/The-Boeing-Company-Company-History.html, last accessed on November 6, 2007
The Boeing Overview, retrieved at
Managing Behaviors & Teaching Social Skills
Antisocial behavior in schools in on the rise and has become a concern in school systems, from both a learning perspective and from a safety perspective, as well. Previously, schools have dealt with such behaviors using punitive measures such as expulsion, or even law enforcement measures to attempt to discourage youth from behaving in an undesirable manner. These programs have had little or no effect on curbing behavior problems in schools. Second Step and Boys Town are programs, which implement a positive approach to behavior management. These programs teach youth alternatives to violence and stress problem solving, coping, and conflict management. These programs have had considerably greater success than their predecessors. This research will qualitatively explore the theoretical issues behind the success of these two programs and take a critical look at them to explore ways in which they may be further improved for…
Butterworth, F. (1998, July 26). Why the South's murder rate is so high. The New York Times on the Web. ( http://www.nytimes.com )
Capra. F. (1996). The Web of Life. New York: Anchor Books.
Carlson, N.R. (1994). Physiology of behavior. Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Cohen, D., Nisbett, R.E., & Bowdle, B.F. (1996). Insult, aggression, and the southern culture of honor: an "experimental ethnography." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 945-960.
With the ever-changing health care sector, reimbursement has increasingly been tied to care quality and health care outcomes. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) have particularly been changing the way hospitals are reimbursed, with hospitals that deliver high quality care and report better health outcomes getting higher reimbursements than those that perform poorly. This has led to increasing prominence of the pay-for-performance approach. Under this approach, hospitals that report greater patient satisfaction, reduced error rates, lower readmission rates, and higher recovery rates for chronic illness get higher reimbursements than their poorly-performing counterparts. The implication is that health care organizations must pay greater attention to performance, especially in terms of quality, safety, and individual performance. Measurement and models used in the commercial world for these three aspects are considerably relevant to the health care sector. This paper discusses the usefulness of the total quality management (TQM) model, the Organization…
Ann Bib Innovation Stream
Smith, W., & Tushman, M. (2005). Managing Strategic Contradictions: A Top Management Model for Managing Innovation Streams. Organizational Science, 522-536.
This article was published in 2005 in a very reputable journal. The credentials of the authors and their school affiliations are excellent. One of the authors is affiliated with Harvard Business School which is one of the leading business schools in the world. Organization Science is widely recognized as one of the top journal in the fields of strategy, management, and organization theory. The journal publishes groundbreaking research about organizations, including their processes, structures, technologies, identities, capabilities, forms, and performance.
This article centers on the idea of paradox in management; "The paradox of administration [involves] the dual searches for certainty and flexibility." When this paradox is applied to modern organizations, it can be used to consider how innovation works and…
Models, processes, and techniques of implementing change
Most businesses understand and know that there is a need for change, but few actually know where to start when it comes the implementing change. Change is vital to ensure that a business manages to keep up with the changes taking place in the business world. The businesses that manage change well will thrive, while those that fail struggle to survive. The success of any change within a business is determined by how well people understand the change process. There are three main models that businesses across the world prefer when implementing change. The models are Lewin's change management model, McKinsey 7-S model, and Kotter's 8-step change model.
Kurt Lewin developed Lewin's change management model in the 1950s. Lewin noted that many people prefer to operate within certain safety zones. In order to implement change, he proposed three stages to change.…
Baldwin, T.T., Bommer, W.H., & Rubin, R.S. (2012). Managing organizational behavior: What great managers know and do.
Cummings, T., & Worley, C. (2014). Organization development and change. Boston, MA: Cengage learning.
Hayes, J. (2014). The theory and practice of change management. 4 Crinan St., London, N1 9XW: Palgrave Macmillan.
Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).
The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…
Managing Diversity and Equal Opportunity
With the turn of the 21st century, a dramatic increase is being witnessed in the international flow of labor with repercussion for domestic labor supply and management. The native, racial and emigre mixture of the employees is predominantly important for the workplace. The importance of this domestic cultural multiplicity in the labor force, highlighted by worldwide influences and necessities, has lately encouraged the researchers to focus on the companies' and managers' response to diversity, be it of any form (Watson, Spoonley, & Fitzgerald, 2009).
If the workforce of the present times is compared with the one that was found 20 years ago, it will be easy to observe that there are "more white women, people of color, disabled persons, new and recent immigrants, gays and lesbians, and intergenerational mixes (i.e., baby boomers, Generation Xers, and Generation Nexters)" (iccucci, 2002) today. This situation has given birth…
Hemphills, H., & Hayne, R. (1997). Discrimination, Harassment, and the Failure of Diversity Training: What to Do Now. Westport, CT: Quorum Book. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/23366693/discrimination-harassment-and-the-failure-of-diversity
King, A.S. (1995, December). Capacity for Empathy: Confronting Discrimination in Managing Multicultural WorkForce Diversity. Business Communication Quarterly, 58(4), 46+. Retrieved December 14, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-18023663/capacity-for-empathy-confronting-discrimination-in
Ollapally, A., & Bhatnagar, J. The Holistic Approach to Diversity Management: HR Implications. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 44(3), 454+. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-210224380/the-holistic-approach-to-diversity-management-hr
Riccucci, N.M. (2002). Managing Diversity in Public Sector Workforces. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Retrieved December 14, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/100875091/managing-diversity-in-public-sector-workforces
Managing Human esources
Change and conflict are some of the manager's current challenges. This thesis tries to inquire into the change processes and managers response to conflicts that arise as a result of change resistance. The manifestation of conflict and the impact of conflict are also discussed. The thesis also looks into the different theories formulated to explain change process and their relationship to conflict management. Also covered is the way decision makers can mitigate conflict and bring sanity in their organizations.
Today's managers are faced with the trade off between change and conflict. Change has become an irresistible part of organization and managers must therefore come up withy strategies and policies of managing change in an order to reduce conflict that may hinder the performance and also to reduce performance gap.
Conflict is bound to occur when different individuals have different perception, opinion, ideas and thought. Change and…
Knudsen T.(2003).Human Capital Management: New Possibilities in People Management. Journal of Business Ethics, 21(2),42-45.
Humphreys, M. (2005). Natural Resources, Conflict, and Conflict Resolution: Uncovering the Mechanisms. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49 (4), 23-36.
Kindler, H.S. (2005). Conflict Management: Resolving Disagreements in the Workplace. London: Thomson/Course Technology.
Kotter, J. (1995, march-april). Leading Change:Why Transformation Efforts Fail. Havard Business School Review, 59-67.
The Improve Phase of the DMAIC process is also essential for managing the piloting and testing of the Six Sigma solutions discovered. It is also essential during the new product development process for measuring and quantifying the unique value proposition of the product or service being produced as well. The final phase, Control, is essential in both a Six Sigma and new product introduction process as well (Pestorius, 2007).
The DMAIC process aligns very well to the new product development and introduction process and is used extensively for that purpose in applying Six Sigma to marketing. Six Sigma can change an entire company's culture and make the many processes synchronized and in unison in making new product introductions more profitable and capable of gaining market share as a result.
Brian Cocolicchio (2007). Sales and Marketing the Six Sigma Way. Quality Progress, 40(9), 79. Link: http://www.sixsigmaselling.com/six_sigma_selling/2006/07/about_sales_and.html
Fundin, a.P., &…
Brian Cocolicchio (2007). Sales and Marketing the Six Sigma Way. Quality Progress, 40(9), 79. Link: http://www.sixsigmaselling.com/six_sigma_selling/2006/07/about_sales_and.html
Fundin, a.P., & Cronemyr, P. (2003). Use customer feedback to choose six sigma projects. ASQ Six Sigma Forum Magazine, 3(1), 17-21. Retrieved from http://asq.org/sixsigma/2005/03/use-customer-feedback-to-choose-six-sigma-projects-en.pdf
Hasan, M., & Kerr, R.M. (2003). The relationship between total quality management practices and organisational performance in service organisations. TQM Journal, 15(4), 286-286.
Furuholt, (2006) argues that lack of management engagement to the acceptance of information systems has been a barrier to the implementation of information systems. The issues are even common with organizations in the developing countries where management does not give enough priority to the information systems implementation. Importantly, implementation of information systems requires management support since management will need to approve fund that would be used for IS implementation. Generally, younger people are more interested in the it tools than older people. In a situation where number of older working team outnumbers younger working team within an organization, the IS implementation may be cumbersome.
More importantly, lack of knowledge of information systems may serve as barrier to its implementation. In the developed countries, private and public organizations have already aware the importance of information systems to the organizations. Many organizations in developed countries already realize that it tool is a…
Abukhzam, M. & Lee, a. (2010). Factors affecting Bank Staff attitude towards E-banking adoption in Libya. The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries: 42(2): 1-15.
Ali, S.N.A. (2010). E-government services: an exploration of the main factors that contribute to successful implementation in Libya. PhD thesis, University of Portsmouth.
Bartol, K.M. (1982). Managing Information Systems Personnel: A Review of the Literature and Managerial Implications. MIS Quarterly.
Boh, W.F. & Yelling, D. (2007). Using Organizational Architecture Standards in Managing Information Technology. Journal of Management Information Systems. 23 (3): 163 -- 207.
esearch Objectives and Scope
The main objective of the research then relates closely to the research problem. It is to research the problem of uncertainty as it manifests in the global business environment. Specific issues to be investigated include supply chain management and its related uncertainties, the production process itself and uncertainties related to it, as well as the post-production phase and market uncertainties that are related to it.
Time is also an important factor. Some industries require a long-term time frame in their planning process, which exacerbate uncertainties. The time factor should also be an important consideration in terms of creating a model that can effectively help businesses achieve their manufacturing and revenue goals.
To achieve these aims, the main objective of the research will then be to research industries and companies that operate on a global scale. They will be investigated for the models they have implemented to…
Alonso-Ayuso, A., Escudero, L.F., Garin, A., Ortuno, M.T. And Perez, G. An Approach for Strategic Supply Chain Planning under Uncertainty based on Stochastic 0-1 Programming. Journal of Global Optimization, No. 26, 2003. Retrieved from http://chentserver.uwaterloo.ca/aelkamel/che720/che720-methods-of-optimization-pse/stochastic_optimization/05100412180122714.pdf
Eppler, Martin J., Platts, Ken, and Kazancioglu, Emre. Visual Strategizing: the Systematic Use of Visualization in the Strategy Process. Institute for Corporate Communication, Dec. 2006. Retrieved from http://doc.rero.ch/lm.php?url=1000,42,6,20061207091432-KB/wpca0607.pdf
Gupta, Anshuman and Maranas, Costas D. Managing demand uncertainty in supply chain planning. Computers and Chemical Engineering, No. 27, 7 Feb. 2003. Retrieved from www.sciencedirect.com.
Kazaz, Burak, Dada, Maqbool and Moskowitz, Herbert. Global Production Planning Under Exchange-Rate Uncertainty. Management Science, Vol. 51, No. 7. July 2005. Retrieved from http://myweb.whitman.syr.edu/bkazaz/kazaz-MS-2005.pdf
This means, assessing where the company is currently sitting, examining the various obstacles that are standing the way of achieving the objective and what possible solutions can used to overcome these obstacles. Once this has been identified, you want to begin taking the different solutions and implementing them. This requires that all managers, work together in making an effort to change the work environment for the better. Where, they will embrace of all the different opportunities as a way to increase productivity within an organization. (Gerhart, 1995) Once, there is agreement on how to move forward, managers must begin communicating what is taking place with employees by addressing those issues that are most important. In the case of communication and employee needs, managers would need to conduct regular meetings with employees, discussing a whole host of issues that could be affecting performance. This means that managers must be proactive, where…
Common Workplace Problems and Solutions. (2010). Retrieved March 21, 2010 from Work Expert website: http://workexpert.co.cc/commonworkplaceproblems/
Bower, T. (2003, June 18). Turning Around a Problem Employee. Retrieved March 21, 2010 from Tech Republic website: http://articles.techrepublic.com.com/5100-10878_11-5035052.html
Clinch, G. (1991). Employee Compensation and Firms Research and Development Activities. Journal of Accounting Research 29 (1). 59 -- 78. Print.
Gerhart, B. (1995). Employee Compensation: Theory, Practice and Evidence. Cornell University.
Benefits and Limitations of Mechanistic and Organic Mgmt. Structures the benefits of the mechanistic structure include clear lines of authority, a definite command-and-control structure for making decisions, and very clear role definitions. This organizational structure is excellent for business models where variability is costly and there needs to be a high degree of conformity of processes overall. The downside of this organizational structure is the lack of agility and flexibility, the tendency to limit employee's initiative and creativity, and lack of opportunity to rise on intelligence and creativity instead of seniority. Examples of companies with mechanistic organizational structures include process-goods manufacturing including steel, textile and chemical processing. In addition, armed forces are highly driven by mechanistic structures.
Organic organizational structures have the advantages being very flexible and agile in response to opportunities and threats an organization faces, in addition to support for multi-directional communication and flexibility in job and role…
Deborah Dougherty. (2001). Reimagining the differentiation and integration of work for sustained product innovation. Organization Science, 12(5), 612-631.
Robert Waldersee, Andrew Griffiths, & Jessica Lai. (2003). Predicting Organizational Change Success: Matching Organization Type, Change Type and Capabilities. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 8(1), 66-81.
Catherine L. Wang, & Pervaiz K. Ahmed. (2003). Structure and structural dimensions for knowledge-based organizations. Measuring Business Excellence, 7(1), 51-62.
Management Approach That Offers the Best Outcomes
for Knowledge Development
Understanding business, and what that process contains, is extremely complex. It takes years of study and focus to gain even a rudimentary idea of all a company has to do to remain viable. A company has to have employees who understand their jobs, clear work goals for all concerned in the business, accounting practices that tell the actual financial workings of the company and keep government agencies happy, along with many other processes among the strata. Threads run through all of the working practices of an organization which tend to bind it together. These can be tangible communication channels (email, phone lines, other forms of information technology), or they can be intangible. These intangible communication lines are another layer of complexity which the organizations managers have to control and mold. How people deal with one another is the way an…
Cohen, Debra J. "Knowledge Development -- Future Focus: Emerging Issues -- in Human Resource Management." HR Magazine (2003). Web.
de Dreu, Carsten K.W., and Evert van de Vliert. Using Conflict in Organizations. New York: Sage Publications, 1997. Print.
Fischler, Michael L. "From Crisis to Growth…Race, Culture, Ethnicity, Conflict and Change." Education 124.2 (2003): 396-398. Print.
"Knowledge." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2011.
Management of Technology in Developing Countries Such as Iran
Technology management arrangements of developing countries vary from those of first world ones. The requirement for skill in these states is not growing from within, but somewhat cropping up from new wares imported from first world countries. Technological growth in addition does not consequence from inner data and research, but resulting upon the technology transmission from abroad. In these environments, technology management by customary way is barely effective. These are troubles facing the Islamic epublic of Iran these days and as a consequence organizations controlling the technology management endure non-compliance, then technological development does not trail an accurate trend (obertson, 2002).
Lack of distinctive management, vagueness of technological precedence's, misunderstanding of policy-making roles and inter-organization implementation and management, tremendous government involvement in all fields and lack of specialist manpower are amongst the vital troubles of the topic (Sveiby et. al 2001).…
(1.) Abou-Zeid, E.S. "A Knowledge Management Reference Model." Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(5), 2002. pp. 486-499.
(2.) Bender S. And Fish A. "The Transfer of Knowledge and the Retention of Expertise: The Continuing Need for Global Assignments." Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(2), 2008. pp. 125-135.
(3.) Beveren, V.J. "A Model of Knowledge Acquisition that Refocuses Knowledge Management." Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(1), 2002. pp. 18-22.
(4.) Bhatt, G. "Organizing Knowledge in the Knowledge Development Cycle." Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(1), 2009. pp. 15-26.
Managing High Performance
A familiar challenge for any expanding enterprise is how to find and manage the highest potential employees who can over time mature into leadership positions. While there are always more applicants that positions available in senior management, the task of any leadership team is to accurately and with insight find those employees with the greatest potential of success (uggiero, 2008). From the very informal succession planning techniques small businesses use that are tantamount of planning sessions, to the much more rigorous and thorough high potential employee development programs, there is a very wide variation in approach and results (Bloch, 1996). The intent of this analysis is to provide a small, rapidly growing company with insights into how best to manage the dilemma of having 50% of its workforce looking to advance their careers with a limited number of positions available while also giving the majority of employees…
Bloch, Susan. (1996). Coaching tomorrow's top managers. Employee Counseling Today, 8(5), 30-32.
Kevin S. Groves. (2007). Integrating leadership development and succession planning best practices. The Journal of Management Development, 26(3), 239-260.
Ruggiero, J. (2008). Identifying and Developing High Potential Leadership Talent. Journal of Personal Finance, 7(2), 13-33.
This would allow IM to find individuals from other countries and also to take a more global approach to training and staff development. Hire the "best and the brightest" to rapidly reenergize the organization and product line.
Grow existing lines and existing customers -- Instead of trying to grow rapidly, IM could target its current user base and simply solidify their needs by using market research to contact them and find ways to improve and maintain market share while retaining talent in the current geographical model. This model would be more conservative about hiring and wages, and would of course allow for some expansion, but keeping most of the &D in Waterloo, Canada. This would also retain more control over the design and marketing of the product for those in the organization who prefer to manage each instance and aspect of the organization from a Central --( field mentality.
Research in Motion: Managing Explosive Growth. (2008). Ivey Management Services. Cited in:
Patel, N. (January 22, 2010). Motorola Asks ITC to Ban Blackberry Imports. Endgaget.
Cited in: http://www.engadget.com/2010/01/22/motorola-asks-itc-to-ban-blackberry-imports/
Sweeney, a. (2009). Blackberry Planet: The Story of Research in Motion and the Little Device
Indeed, the control function will create a feedback mechanism that will allow the leader or manager (at all levels of the organization) to be constantly informed as to the way that benchmarks are reached, as well as to any potential problems that might appear along the way. This means that the control function is the first phase in actually correcting the potential errors that might appear in the organization.
In Jack Welch's case, the control function as he applied it allowed him to monitor his group of human resources so as to emphasize the most important and most productive 20% and the underperforming 10%. y monitoring and controlling this benchmark, he was able to induce and maintain an organizational culture based on performance as one of the fundamental and defining goals.
5) One of the strategies by which a healthy organizational culture can be maintained proposes to support a close…
1. Welch, Jack. 2005. Straight from the Gut. Warner Books.
2. Welch, Jack. 2005. Winning. Collins
Historical records show that people always organized themselves in order to work together towards a common objective and they coordinated their efforts to achieve this objective (Accel-Team 2004). It was not until the latter part of the 19th century that the concept of scientific management entered history during the Industrial evolution, but management skills existed long before the 19th century. Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids, ancient Chinese erected the Great Wall of China, the Mesopotamians irrigated their lands and walled their cities and the omans of old put up their roads, aqueducts and notably Hadrian's Wall not without established and superb management standards of their leaders (Accel-Team) and massive obedience and coordination among the followers. The pyramids of Egypt, wonders of the world, each measure 75,600 square feet at the base, 480 feet high and consists of more than two million blocks of stone, each weighing 2.5 tons.…
1. Accel-Team. (2004). Developments from Ancient History. Accel-Team.com. http://www.accel-team/scientific
2. Allen, G. (1998). Management History. Supervision. http://allie.dcccd.edu.mgnmt1374
3. Geocities. (2004). Human Behavior. http://www.geocities.com/the sydication/hr.html
4. McNamara, C. (1999). Very Brief History of Management Theories. http://www.mapnp.org/library/mgmnt/history.htm
It is not that managers do not see the benefit in conflict that they eschew it; it is that conflict is high-risk and can have significant negative externalities, some of which linger with the organization for a long time. Managers are less enthusiastic about conflict because they are taking into account a longer time frame and the totality of externalities, which makes their views a reflection of better information and therefore more accurate than the views of academic researchers.
Recommendations. Carefully manage conflict -- do not use it wantonly. Conflict does not always create positive outcomes sufficient to outweigh the negative ones that are certain to accrue. Take steps to ensure that the conflict is task-focused and not personal. This will limit the amount of damage that accrues from conflict. Create conflict only when necessary -- large scale conflict for small scale problems is dangerous. Conflict is a powerful tool…
Vazquez, E. (2008). Managing conflict across generations in the workplace. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved May 30, 2010 from http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/50103/462996891.pdf?sequence=1
Rahim, M. (2001,a). Managing conflict in organizations. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Cohen, C., Birkin, S., Cohen, M., Garfield, M. & Webb, H. (2006). Managing conflict during an organizational acquisition. Conflict Resolution Quarterly. Vol. 23 (3) 317-331.
Rahim, M. (2001, b) Towards a theory of managing organizational conflict. The International Journal of Conflict Management. Vol. 13 (3) 206-235.
A second problem can be seen in the differences in cultures. This is especially apparent when looking at management styles. What might be considered acceptable in the United States might often be a cultural nightmare in another country. Trying to manage personnel in other parts of the world also brings about issues with communication. The ways in which people communicate is very different around the world. Again, something that would be perfectly acceptable here may often be seen as offensive in another part of the world.
A leader and manager must evaluate organizational competencies and intellectual capital and create and integrate models in order to establish a framework for application of duties to the employees so as to create a good healthy working condition. This will help to motivate all the employees to do their best at the work that they perform. An organization has to focus on determining different…
Globalization. (2010). Retrieved from Answers.com Web site:
Leadership vs. Management. (2010). Retrieved February 28, 2010, from Changing Minds Web
This can come in a number of forms, including rules, "best practices" and job descriptions. Output controls place the focus squarely on the output, with significantly less attention on the behaviors that lead to the output. For example, when a sales person has a quota, that is an output control because the behavior is driven entirely by the end result. Input controls works by placing constraints on process inputs as a means of exerting control. An example might be setting a strict budget for a project. This focuses the manager on sticking to that budget, a process that the organization feels will result in the goals being achieved.
Benchmarking is useful for most firms. The exception would be firms that for one reason or another are not in a competitive environment. For those firms that are in a competitive environment, they can benefit from benchmarking because the benchmark sets the…
McNamara, Carter. (2008). Basics of Action Planning. Free Management Library. Retrieved May 9, 2009 from http://managementhelp.org/plan_dec/str_plan/actions.htm
No author. (2009). Create an Entrepreneurial Culture Among Your Employees. Score. Retrieved May 9, 2009 from http://www.score.org/culture_employees.html
Wheelen, T.L., and Hunger D.J.,(2008). Strategic Management and Business
Policy, (11th ed) Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall
At the same time, he then acts as an interface and communicates to the team the general directions in which the company is moving. However, the project manager also acts as an internal motivator within the team, a coordinator and organizer.
A similarly important role will be played by the project manager in his capacity to act as an interface between the different entities and shareholders involved in a certain project. In order to control scope, several documents should be used, such as, for example, the statement of work, as part of the requests for proposals, or scheduling and budget estimates. For these, the project manager will work with representatives from other departments (marketing and sales etc.), but also with the clients. At the same time, the project manager will have consulted previously with his own team, thus being able to carry to these meetings their own evaluations and estimates.…
Evaluate the impact of globalization and management across borders
After its retrenchment in the U.S., Starbucks is still considering expanding its operations China. "Despite its long presence in the Chinese market -- Starbucks opened its first shop in Beijing in 1999 -- the Seattle coffee giant only has 376 stores on the China mainland, compared with 878 in Japan" (Sanchanta 2011). Starbucks has tried to learn from some of its mistakes domestically in the U.S., such as its super-saturation of certain marketplaces, while incorporating many of the successful lessons of its other ventures, such as its ability to tailor product offerings to local needs. "Cracking the code in China for any company is not an easy task -- there will be a number of winners and lots of losers of people who go there and rush to judgment and don't succeed…The thing I am most interested in when I go…
Clark, Taylor. (2008). How Starbucks colonized the world. The Sunday Times. Retrieved July
21, 2011 at http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/leisure/article3381092.ece
Leadership and management. (2011). Team Technology. Retrieved July 21, 2011 at Retrieved July 21, 2011 at http://www.teamtechnology.co.uk/leadership-basics.html
Sanchanta, Mariko (2011). Starbucks plans major China expansion. The Wall Street Journal.
In my opinion, valuable organizational change is a process. It is nothing that comes from one day to the other. It requires the combined efforts of the organization as a whole: Skilled managers and the commitment of an organization's workforce alike.
Discussion of the paper's results: What are the key findings? What does it add to the body of knowledge?
The key findings of the paper are threefold.
First, the current management of organizational change tends to be reactive in its response to the pace of change that has never been greater than today. Second, successful management of change within organizations is a highly required skill. Third, further research into the nature of change management needs to be conducted and a new and pragmatic framework for change management is needed as a critical success factor for the management of change. It adds to the body of knowledge, that managerial skills…
Empowerment and Performance of Middle Management
The empowerment of middle managers is a paradox that is not easily solved. As this strata or level of management is often given responsibility for making sure goals are achieved yet often they have little actual authority to demand results or use legitimate power (French, aven, 1960). Empowerment from senior management is one potential approach to augmenting the effectiveness of this level of management yet the context of empowerment is just as critical as the support given (Bartunek, Spreitzer, 2006). This paper will analyze the approaches for middle managers to be more effective in their roles, with empowerment being an enabler, not the foundation, of long-term change. For middle managers to achieve that, they must also continually improve and transform themselves from supporters of the status quo (as managers often do) to being transformational leaders in their own right (Jackson, 1991).
Jean M. Bartunek, and Gretchen M. Spreitzer. 2006. The Interdisciplinary Career of a Popular Construct Used in Management: Empowerment in the Late 20th Century. Journal of Management Inquiry 15, no. 3, (September 1): 255-273.
David Collins. 1996. Whither democracy? Lost debates in management empowerment. Empowerment in Organizations 4, no. 1, (January 1): 12-24.
Eisenbeiss, S., and S. Boerner. 2010. Transformational Leadership and R&D Innovation: Taking a Curvilinear Approach. Creativity and Innovation Management 19, no. 4, (December 1): 364-372.
French, J.P.R. Jr., and Raven, B. (1960). The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright and A. Zander (eds.), Group dynamics (pp. 607-623). New York: Harper and Row.
(Building and Maintaining a Diverse Workforce)
Agencies are required to develop a good understanding of their individual strengths and weaknesses so as to plan their programs to their best advantage. An agency acquires this information by evaluating the views of the employees on diversity issues. Analysis of the trends and projections of the workforce in determination of the skills gaps and necessitates and devising successive planning strategies are crucial moves for agency strategic and business planning. Such efforts facilitate the managers with the required facts so as to be aware of the assignment of resources and the making the necessary planning for the future work of the organization and the points of concentration of their energy to produce a high performance organization. (Building and Maintaining a Diverse Workforce)
The successful managers understand the necessary skills for producing a successful diverse workforce. Firstly they should be aware of the discrimination and…
Building and Maintaining a Diverse Workforce" (25 June 2000) Retrieved at http://www.opm.gov/Diversity/diversity-3.htm . Accessed on 15 January, 2005
Creating a Diverse Workforce" Retrieved from Retrieved at http://www.businessweek.com/adsections/diversity/diversework.htm . Accessed on 15 January, 2005
Recruiting and Managing a Diverse Workforce" Retrieved at http://www.vault.com/nr/newsmain.jsp?nr_page=3&ch_id=402&article_id=19018&cat_id=1102Accessed on 15 January, 2005
Green, Kelli A; L. pez, Mayra; Wysocki, Allen; Kepner, Karl. "Diversity in the Workplace: Benefits, Challenges, and the Required Managerial Tools" University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved at http://www.minoritygraduate.com/feature27.asp. Accessed on 15 January, 2005
Management Quality ontrol
Dr. Kaoro Ishikawa is one of the world's idealized leaders in quality management control. He joined Japanese union of Japanese scientists and Engineers in 1949 to research on quality, after knowing that America's produce such as toys and cameras was cheap and defective. Ishikawa's greatest concern was to improve quality management involving every employee from top management to the front-line staff, without relying on professions. His significant contribution to evolution of quality management when he introduced the "fishbone" diagram that emphasized on quality services to customers made him known, and this could only be achieved by quality organization first in production of quality goods and services (Dahlgaurd 2005).
Kaoru was born on July 13th 1915 in Tokyo, and was the eldest son among the Shikawas, and in 1939, he obtained a degree in the University of Tokyo for applied chemistry. This knowledge helped him in construction,…
Cencus, B. o. (1983). Operations Management. Chicago: United States Department of Commerce.
Dahlgaurd, J.K. (2005). Fundamentals of Total Quality Management. Denmark: Routledge publishers.
Ishikawa, K. (1985). What is Total Quality Management -- the Japanese Way. Korea: Prentice-hall publishers.
Management - Is it an Art or a Science?
Management is Art
Management has a lot more closely attached to art than it is to science. usiness management is about working with, as well as influencing other people to fulfill the goals of both the corporations and its associates (2).
Managing in the New Era
Quick transformations that are far-reaching all through each and every feature of business today prompts the corporations to reorganize the method they do things. Even though the customary management replica has developed quite a bit, it is still geared to an unbending composition and command -- and manage state of mind (3). This replica is well modified to an atmosphere where transformation is sluggish and evolutionary rather than fast and radical. It helps put in order procedures and promote a sense of responsibility, order, and discipline (4).
What it is short of is elasticity making…
1) Bjrn Bjerke. Business Leadership and Culture: National Management Styles in the Global. Edward Elgar, 1999.
2) Floyd Norris. A Climb to Riches, One Merger at a Time. New York Times. 2003.
3) Hal R. Varian. Can markets be used to help people make nonmarket decisions? New York Times. 2003.
4) Jeff Madrick. Looking beyond free trade as a solution to helping the developing world. New York Times. 2003.
Undercover Boss is a great show for illustrating core management concepts. A season five episode features the CEO of the Larry H. Miller Company, owner of the Utah Jazz along with eighty other concerns. This episode features issues related to occupational health and safety, customer service and marketing. In the episode about Modell's Sporting Goods, a family-owned business that has been around since 1889, issues related to logistics, wages, and social justice come to the fore. In the first season episode featuring the CEO and president of 7-11, issues related to management and corporate structure, customer service, and quality assurance are brought to light. These three episodes can all be used to better understand textbook concepts, from the particular skills managers need to succeed to ethics and social responsibility. Of these three episodes, the most engaging was the one about Modell's because of the way the owner came to…
Schermerhorn, J.R. (2012). Exploring Management. 3rd edition.
Undercover Boss Utah Jazz: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f_Tc3qCOj68&feature=youtu.be
Undercover Boss Modell's: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8jadl9usH3s&feature=youtu.be
Undercover Boss 7-11:
The people belonging to the third corporate culture are from the engineering culture. This culture is personified by engineers and technical specialists, who believe on the awesome power of the technology in solving the organizational culture. These people believe on the power of the machines in solving human and organizational problems.
According to Schein, people involved with any of the above three cultures often fails to see the other side and the perspective of other culture, often resulting failure in organizational learning. Although people belonging to each of the culture do great service for the organization, yet they fail to see the holistic picture of the organization and fail to share the similar meaning of the organizational problems. The main reasons for these problems certainly occur because of the people inheriting different norms, educational experiences, expectations, and rewards structures in their professions.
Therefore, it is now wonder that an organization…
Schein, Edgar H. (1996) Three Cultures of Management: The Key to Organizational Learning. Sloan Management Review, fall. 9.
When all the needs or expectations of the stakeholders are met, the business will continue to thrive.
Core Human esource Functions
Involuntary turnover is rampant among employees of high talent. These employees form then crucial asset that determine the overall success of the organization. Involuntary turnover occurs due to issues such as frequent absences, premature termination of contracts, sexual harassment or by the mere fact that an employee becomes overqualified for a particular job. Supposing I were a top H manager in my firm I would hire people who are qualified to fill any vacant positions taking keen attention to exclude overqualified persons so as top avoid the occurrence of involuntary turnover in the future (Taylor, 2005).
Additionally, I would introduce strategies that seek to retain employees in the organization. One of the strategies would be to introduce teambuilding activities such as retreats and workshops. I would also ensure that…
Svensson, G., & Wood, G. (2003). The dynamics of business ethics: a function of time and culture -- cases and models. Management Decision, 41(4), p350.
Taylor, S. (2005). People resourcing. London: Chartered Inst. Of Personnel and Development.
One of the strengths of this article is the fact that the author provides several different ways to successfully expand one's companies across international borders. His case studies, which pertain to companies such as IM, Procter & Gamble, TCS and other reputed organizations explain the various factors that influenced which particular strategy or strategies was necessary for these companies to succeed. In that sense, he has effectively produced a blueprint for success that other organizations in similar industries to those discussed in the article can follow.
As such, it is difficult to argue with the Ghemawat's claim that AAA Triangle is required for international expansion, since he offers so many real life examples that follow this model. That is why it is all the more interesting to note the degree of difficulty the author states is involved in attempting to utilize all three strategies simultaneously. It appears that this limitation…
Ghemawat, Pankaj. "Managing Differences: The Central Challenge of Global Strategy." Harvard Business Review, (2007): 1-14.
The World ank model centers on a five-person team called the Performance Advisory Service or PAS (Yandrick 1995). PAS trains supervisors to analyze work performance and personality problems. The supervisor first determines if a skill deficiency is involved or there are personal and environmental factors. He does this by reviewing the employee's records in search of troubled behavioral patterns; consulting with work team leaders, colleagues and support staff in investigating possible problems within the organization; and/or directly exploring the employee's work performance and conduct.
In the last option, the supervisor may ask or remind the employee about the consequence of poor performance; if he or she is being rewarded for poor or nonperformance; if performance matters to him or her; if there are health or stress factors conducing to his or her poor or low-level performance; or if there are external stimuli behind it. Armed now with the different angles…
Brown, J. (1992). How Would You Handle These Prickly Management Problems? Medical Laboratory Observer: Nelson Publishing. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3230/is_n11_v24/ai_13806643
Business Wire. (1999) a.M. Best Company Says Technology Can Solve Insurance Management Problems. Gale Group 2000. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3MKT/is_n78_v97/ai_56542486
Day, CM. (1987). Three Diagnostic Clues to Management Problems. Medical Laboratory Observer: Nelson Publishing. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3230/is_v19/ai_5118836
Heisler, DL. (1989). The Wrong Response to Today's Problems. American Metal Market. Reed Business Information. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3MKT/is_n78_v97/ai_7565287
Managing Across Cultures
Internationalization of the economy has influenced companies to operate their business globally. The global operation has impact managers with several challenges. Market, product, and production plans must be coordinated on a worldwide basis. The global operation necessitates organization structure to balance centralized home-office control with adequate local autonomy. As companies have started their business operation on the international front, the number of their employees has increased. Increase in the employee's abroad management is faced with new global challenges. The three broad international business management challenges were identified by the management gurus as follows (obert, Kossek & Ozeki, 1998):
a) Deployment: To get the right skills where it is required in an organization regardless of the geographical location.
b) Knowledge and creativity distribution: Spreading the knowledge and practices throughout the organization regardless of where they have actually originated.
c) Talent identification and development on global basis: To identify…
Drucker, P. (1988) The Coming of the New Organization. Harvard Business Review issue
Fadel, J. & Petti, M (1997). International HR policy basics.
Global workforce issue April 1997, pp. 29-30
Since, this one lacks structure means that many employees can become confused about their responsibilities. Once this occurs, it can often lead to employee issues, where this confusion can become an issue of contention between the staff and management. As management is telling them to engage in particular activity, yet they don't understand why they are doing such tasks. Over time, this can cause moral to drop as those employees who do not thrive under such a system, begin to lower the overall positive attitude in the work environment. ("Contingency Theory," 2010)
Despite some of the obvious weaknesses, the contingency theory is effective for those organizations that are small. This is because the in formalized structure allows managers / owners the opportunity to adapt to changes that are occurring in real time. Where, they can use their experience and common sense to adjust to various business conditions. As a result,…
Building Emotional Capital. (2004, June 24). Retrieved April 10, 2010, from Executive Education website: http://executive.education.insead.edu/programme/documents/Nissan_004.pdf
Contingency Theory. (2010). Retrieved April 9, 2010, from Values-Based Management website: http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_contingency_theory.html
Babineck, M. (2006, March 13). The Enron Trial. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from Chron website: http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/special/enron/3718892.html
Bissonette, Z. (2008, August 1). How Does General Motors CEO Rick Wagoner Still Have a Job. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from Blogging Stocks website: http://www.bloggingstocks.com/2008/08/01/how-does-general-motors-ceo-richard-wagoner-still-have-a-job/
These form the foundation for creating more agile, and responsive change management strategies. What makes the 7-S Model stand out however is the integration of its seven core factors with a Balanced Scorecard (BSC), which seeks to equate organizational strategies to financial performance. Specifically included in the BSC approach are financial and customer perspectives, internal process perspective, and learning and growth perspective (Kaplan, 2005). The integration of the 7-S Model and BSC Methodology taken together create the most useful framework for initiating and managing change in organizations.
obert S. Kaplan (2005). How the balanced scorecard complements the McKinsey 7-S model. Strategy & Leadership, 33(3), 41-46. etrieved January 21, 2009, from ABI/INFOM Global database. (Document ID: 858853681).
Diane Moody, Andy Smith. (2004, October). Marching to the same beat. Personnel Today,23-24. etrieved January 20, 2009, from ABI/INFOM Global database. (Document ID: 723783371).
Philip . Walsh (2005). Dealing with the uncertainties of…
Robert S. Kaplan (2005). How the balanced scorecard complements the McKinsey 7-S model. Strategy & Leadership, 33(3), 41-46. Retrieved January 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 858853681).
Diane Moody, Andy Smith. (2004, October). Marching to the same beat. Personnel Today,23-24. Retrieved January 20, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 723783371).
Philip R. Walsh (2005). Dealing with the uncertainties of environmental change by adding scenario planning to the strategy reformulation equation. Management Decision, 43(1), 113-122. Retrieved January 19, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 828881461).
Where, the benchmarks will show if the system is helping or hindering the company from achieving its objectives. This is significant, because when it is used in conjunction with flexibility, you can be able to effectively adapt to changes in the markets. With flexibility providing the necessary ingredients to implement such changes, while the use of benchmarks will identify when a management system is becoming unproductive. (Ireland, 2008, pp. 33 -- 39)
The use of knowledge management is when an organization is collecting and analyzing the total amounts of knowledge at their disposal. This would include analyzing all available: resources, employee / managerial skills and documents. This is significant, because it provides a way for an organization to quickly collect and analyze a wide variety of information. At which point, managers can be able to effectively place the different resources and personnel of the company, in those areas where they…
Symptoms of a Dysfunctional Organization. (2005). Retrieved July 9, 2010 from Copper Comm website: http://www.coopercomm.com/dysfnorg.htm
What are Management Control Systems. (2010). Retrieved July 9, 2010 from Wisegeek website: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-management-control-systems.htm
Flamholtz, E. (1998). Case Studies in Changing the Game. Changing the Game. (pp.81 -- 90). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Ireland, D. (2008). Promoting Integrity and Ethical Behavior. Understanding Business Strategy. (pp. 33 -- 39). Mason, OH: South Western.
Managing to Keep Apple Fresh: Organizational Culture
Today, Apple can be regarded one of the most successful companies in the industry within which it operates. At some point, the company was headed for collapse. After Steve Jobs took control as CEO (from 1997), he instituted a drastic turnaround of the firm which has since then more or less dominated the industry. A number of factors have contributed to Apple's success; one of those being effective leadership skills. Steve Jobs knew how to set goals and get everyone to work towards achieving them by amongst other things aligning the organizational culture with the organizational goals. Apple's success story is proof that effective culture management is one of the ingredients of effective leadership. This text will explore the different culture-management practices that have been employed by Apple's leadership.
Organizational culture refers to…
Balthazard, P.A., Cooke, R.A. & Potter, R.E. (2006). Dysfunctional Culture, Dysfunctional Organization: Capturing the Behavioral Norms that Form Organization Culture and Drive Performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21 (8), 709-732.
Bucker, J. & Poutsma, E. (2010). Global Management Competencies: a Theoretical Foundation. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25 (8), 829-844.
Keller, D. (2007). Leading on Top of the World: Lessons from 'Into Thin Air'. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 9 (2), 166-182.
McLaurin, J.R. (2006). The Role of Situation in the Leadership Process: a Review and Application. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 5, 97-113.
c) Change support
In the context of the closing of the Orlon manufacturing operations, a useful approach to the problem would be constituted by the action research. This type of research specifically implies that the individual assesses the situation, but in doing so, also seeks solutions to resolving the problem (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009). This type of research combines the theoretical stance with the practical stance. Through its lenses then, the following steps would be implemented:
Assessment of the means in which the stakeholder perceive the change
edesign of the means in which change is handled in order to ensure that it is understood and embraced by as many stakeholder categories as possible.
d) Fictional change
An important change which could impact DuPont is represented by the need to entirely replace the technological system. Such a change would generate employee reticence due to the elements of novelty, but also…
Blecker, T., 2005, Information and management systems for product customization, Springer
Saunders, M., Lewis, P., Thornhill, a., 2009, Research methods for business students, 5th edition, Pearson Education
Case study: change at DuPont
Again, this might seem like simple good sense; making decisions based on the factual merits of the situation rather than on face-saving or boss-pleasing seems like the only rational way of doing business. Not paying attention to political whims, however, can have serious repercussions for individuals and organizations alike, and truly depoliticizing decisions requires a great deal of introspection, honesty, and self-awareness in the top management officials and decision makers in a company (Hamel 2009).
Achieving this depoliticization is certain to be even more difficult than establishing a democracy of information, as it is difficult to convince people to relinquish power willingly once they have it. The problem is that politicized decision making is only a hair's breadth away -- one might even say is simply a euphemism for -- corrupt decision making. Few debates or issues are more heavily politicized than long-term (and even short-term) government planning, and though…
Burk, M. (1999). "Knowledge Management: Everyone Benefits by Sharing Information." Public roads 63(3).
Hamel, G. (2009). "Moon shots for management." Harvard business review (February), pp. 91-8.
Newman, P. (2009). "Markets, experts and depoliticizing decisions on major infrastructure." Urban research and practice 2(2), pp. 158-68.
Yes, managers are important to organizational success. But this is a logical fallacy question. All organizations, both the successful ones and the utter failures, have managers. So the question isn't about whether managers are important to success -- mathematically there is 100% correlation between having managers and being successful, but also 100% correlation between having managers and being unsuccessful.
Then there is the issue of where organizational success comes from. First, one must define success -- is it profitability? Or exceptional profitability? Short-term, long-term? And there are a lot of variables that contribute to organizational success, not just the actions of management. Further, to determine whether managers are integral to success, and to what degree, would require a control. It is almost impossible to define a control. You could say the managers at Google are really good, but unless there is a parallel universe Google with different managers, how…
Burns, T. & Stalker, G. (1961). The management of innovation. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship
Courtright, J., Fairhurst, G. & Rogers, L. (1989). Interaction patterns in organic and mechanistic systems. The Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 32 (4) 773-802.
Eyre, E. (2015). Mintzberg's management roles. MindTools.com. Retrieved July 5, 2015 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/management-roles.htm
MSG (2015). Steps in strategy formulation process. Management Study Guide. Retrieved July 6, 2015 from http://www.managementstudyguide.com/strategy-formulation-process.htm
True, a virtual team approach with fewer face-to-face meetings might be logistically easier, but it will not in the long-term create a cohesive organizational culture. Human resource staff is available at present to conduct team building exercises to create a greater sense of singular organizational culture, which would be ideal as soon as possible
An even better solution than teams, virtual or otherwise, would be constructing a matrix organization, which would retain some of the functional structure currently under operation. In this structure, every worker reports his or her functional manager as well as to a program manager. But although workers in different sub-specialties like technical employment might retain their loyalty to their functional areas, they would also have links to other group projects that were shared between other areas of the organization. This creates more cohesion in the long run. True, complexity can raise the potential for greater conflicts,…
Transforming an organization can be one of the most difficult propositions any leader can face -- also, one with the most opportunity to make a real difference. Ali Curtis was faced with a set of tough conditions when he first moved into the Red Bulls office. After the previous leader left the organization, Henry, there was a large gap in the organization to fill -- both tactically and technically. When Curtis was announced to fill the position, he was meet with outrage from the loyal fan base and members of the organization. For any leader, this position can seem overwhelming and disheartening. In some of the meetings, disgruntled fans even shouted obscenities at him while he was trying to conduct a meeting.
Coaches are often faced with difficult situations. The situation Curtis faced represents one of the more extreme examples of this fact. It is similar to…
These are the systems in which people are eager to utilize all of their capabilities for their jobs and carry out their task effectively. (Lancioni, 2002) These Workshop engage all the participants rapidly in the simulations. Throughout these simulations participants agree upon the fact that everyone -- every individual -- at different times, experience being on the Top, or sometimes in the Middle, sometimes in the Bottom, we are sometimes Customer and sometimes Supplier -- and our position changes a lot of times even in one day. The Organizational Workshops are highly effective in increasing knowledge and giving insight of systemic conditions that are present in an organization and how everyone react individually towards such conditions. They provide an opportunity to learn latest leadership and other related strategies to handle these systemic conditions as soon they take place. These workshops teach how to improve team collaboration, job performance every day…
Collins, J., (2001) Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap... And Others Don't, HarperBusiness; 1 edition, 50- 70.
Heath, C., (2010) Switch: How to Change Things When Change Is Hard, Crown Business, 300- 310.
Kouzes, J, M and Posner, B, Z., (2012) The Leadership Challenge: How to Make Extraordinary Things Happen in Organizations, Jossey-Bass; 5 edition, 315- 350.
Lancioni, P., (2002) The Five Dysfunctions of a Team: A Leadership Fable, Jossey-Bass; 1st edition (April 11, 2002, 170- 180.
Business Success Through Da Vinci's Philosophical Orientation
The 1999 text How to Think Like Leonardo Da Vinci by Michael Gelb is a useful and entertaining discussion on how the philosophical principles of one of history's greatests thinkers can be applied to modern business practices as well as to self-improvement on an everyday level.
Thinking Like a Manager and Evaluating a Company:
One of the overarching beliefs driving the Gelb philosophy is that one need not necessarily be a genius in order to think like one. To the point, Gelb argues that Da Vinci was particularly graceful at training his mind to think in certain ways, to observe matters according to certain principles which are today applicable to models of leadership. Gelb offers what he calls "seven steps to genius every day" as influenced by the life and working habits of Da Vinci. The seven steps call for the…
Gelb, M. (1999). How To Think Like Leonardo Da Vinci. Dell.
This differentiation refers to the management and administration of the agricultural resources of the kingdom. This in turn involved an organized network of royal foundations. (Wilkinson 116) the second area of administrative concern was the processing of government revenue and "…its redistribution to the various state operations…" (Wilkinson 116) Wilkinson in his book also deals extensively with managements issues in relation to the Egyptian treasury. (Wilkinson 125)
In understanding the background to management in ancient Egypt one has to continually take into account the wide range of concerns and activities that required ordered control and administration. As Erman states in his work Life in Ancient Egypt (1894), "The enormous properties belonging to the temples required of course complicated machinery for their administration & #8230;certain members of the priestly college were deputed to manage the affairs of the treasury, the commissariat and the correspondence…" (Erman 303)
Taking into account the above…
Developing organizational strategy through the Balanced Scorecard also minimizes participants' subjectivity as they take part in the strategy-setting process and enhance managers' ability to assess all programs for strategic impact without bias (onchetti, n.d.).
While financial and customer actions are defined and available in commercial organizations, the corresponding is less easily found in non-profits. A good measure is one that management can significantly control. Non-profit organizations goals are usually influenced by many influential factors and actors beyond its authority. Commercial Balanced Scorecards usually have a financial viewpoint at the peak of the strategic reason and mapping. For the non-profit, financial goals are not the end; they are part of the means. Customary practice is to push the finance viewpoint down to the bottom of the strategy map for non-profits, treating financials as input to the strategic representation. This is difficult because financially oriented goals are also sought after by non-profits.…
Can I apply Balanced Scorecard in a non-profit organization? (2008). Retrieved August 9, 2010,
from Web site: http://www.2gc.co.uk/pdf/2GC-FAQ08-090216.pdf
Ronchetti, Jan L. (n.d.). An Integrated Balanced Scorecard Strategic Planning Model for Nonprofit Organizations. Retreived August 9, 2010, from Web site:
Innovation in its simplest form can be termed as something new or newly introduced into the market. Innovation in the business field is quite necessary since it forms the backbone of a company's growth and that of the economy as a whole. Innovation is the success of every business and must be managed effectively and efficiently (Limerick, 2002).
The ever changing technology and instant global communication have made it easier for companies to find answers to some problems they encounter and more so come up with innovations to improve on the current ones. Companies are also faced with pressures arising from global competition and by this; most of them are seeking the need to manage their innovations. Companies are nowadays attracting and managing innovations by having rewards or prizes for individuals within the company who manages to come up with brilliant and innovative concepts. This will give the…
AFUAH, A. 2003. Innovation Management: Strategies, Implementation, and Profits, New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press.
ALEXY, O. & REITZIG, M. 2012. Managing the business risks of open innovation. McKinsey Quarterly, 17-21.
BROWN & HELEN 2008. Knowledge and innovation: a comparative study of the U.S.A., the UK, and Japan London Routledge.
DANNEELS, E. 2002. The Dynamics of Product Innovation and Firm Competences. Strategic Management Journal, 23, 1095-1121.
In fact I sincerely wanted to help them find positions where they could excel. The lack of trust on their part and the acute resistance to change was so strong that structuring for integration to the point of even defining what conditions needed to be changed to overcome shortcomings and design a new position for them was not possible. As trust was not present and despite my best attempts to earn it through being genuinely concerned about them, all attempts were seen more as patronizing and less about attempting to help them. On the occasion that they did ask for pay increases, I told them they would need to get their cumulative customer satisfaction scores up and also call volumes. Not interested in the position or excelling at it, these employees refused to improve and when let go, saw it as very personal given my continual efforts to help them…
Alexander, Kenneth O. "Worker Ownership and Participation in the Context of Social Change: Progress Is Slow and Difficult, but it Need Not Wait upon Massive Redistribution of Wealth. " the American Journal of Economics and Sociology 44.3 (1985): 337. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 25 Oct. 2008
Timothy Bartram, Gian Casimir. "The relationship between leadership and follower in-role performance and satisfaction with the leader:the mediating effects of empowerment and trust in the leader. " Leadership & Organization Development Journal 28.1 (2007): 4-19. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 24 Oct. 2008
Douglas Brownlie, Paul Hewer, Beverly Wagner, Gran Svensson. "Management theory and practice: bridging the gap through multidisciplinary lenses. " European Business Review 20.6 (2008): 461-470. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 24 Oct. 2008
Huei-Fang Chen, Yi-Ching Chen. "The Impact of Work Redesign and Psychological Empowerment on Organizational Commitment in a Changing Environment: An Example From Taiwan's State-Owned Enterprises. " Public Personnel Management 37.3 (2008): 279-302. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest 27 Oct. 2008