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Organizational Framework for Manufacturing Technology Using Woodward's Model
The Woodward model describes three organization designs including: small batch and unit technology, large batch and mass production, and continuous process production. Toyz is classified as small batch and unit technology. Toyz is classified as small batch and unit technology because it "manufacturers and assembles small orders to meet specific needs of customers (Daft, 256)." Although custom work is usually a norm of such an organizational structure, in the case of Toyz the creation of the products are not made to order but they are unique. In addition the manufacture of Toyz products is highly dependent upon individual operators as opposed to the process being highly mechanized. In addition the management system is defined as organic. An organic system simply means that they are free flowing and adaptive and requires the use of fewer procedures as opposed to being mechanistic.
Daft R.L. (2009) Organization Theory and Design. 10th Edition. Cengage Learning
Cultural Dynamics: Rise of Manufacturing Japan Technology in Postwar
Japan was one of the countries that had been devastated by the holocaust of the Second World War. Despite the devastating experience that the country experienced during the war, Japan dedication has made the country to become one of the top technologically developed countries in the world comparatively with the United States and German.
The objective of this study is to review the article titled " In Search of 'Wakon': The Cultural Dynamics of the Rise of Manufacturing Technology in Postwar Japan"[footnoteRef:1]. The book reveals that Japan develops a unique cultural dynamic to achieve a rise in the manufacturing technology. [1: Koizumi, Kenkichiro. "In Search of Wakon: The Cultural Dynamics of Manufacturing Technology in Postwar Japan.]
Review of the Article
Koizumi was amazed about the technological advancement that happened to Japan 25 to 35 years after the second world war[footnoteRef:2]. Few…
Koizumi, Kenkichiro. "In Search of Wakon: The Cultural Dynamics of Manufacturing Technology in Postwar Japan." Technology and Culture 43, no. 1 (2002): 29-49. doi:10.1353/tech.2002.0024.
Yamamura, Eiji, Tetsushi Sonobe, and Keijiro Otsuka. "Time path in innovation, imitation, and growth: the case of the motorcycle industry in postwar Japan." Journal of Evolutionary Economics 15, no. 2 (2005): 169-86. doi:10.1007/s00191-004-0239-3.
The modeling environments was so accurate it could deliver results that aligned at a 95% accuracy rate with the actual results achieved. Another advantage was the use of knowledge management to orchestrate multichannel selling, marketing and service scenarios across the client's specific requirements and needs. The analytics and knowledge management systems were also combined successfully to create a constraint-based engine as well. All of these factors were critical to the success of the system.
The cons of this modeling approach were the lack of precision on pricing ands the ability to model the more finely-tuned aspects of the programs. There was not enough data to create a profitability measurement and the use of constraint modeling at times could leave out the more unpredictable aspects of the marketing mix. hile the virtual marketplace proved effective for testing message, media and defining audience, it lacks the precision necessary for making long-term, highly…
Ball, Leslie D. "IT Education Success Strategies for Change Management." Information Systems Management 17.4 (2000): 74-7.
Benamati, John, Albert L. Lederer, and Meenu Singh. "Information Technology Change: The Impact on IT Management." The Journal of Computer Information Systems 38.4 (1998): 9-13.
Bordum, Anders. "The Strategic Balance in a Change Management Perspective." Society and Business Review 5.3 (2010): 245-58.
Eastman, Doug, and Claire McCarthy. "Embracing Change: Healthcare Technology in the 21st Century." Nursing management 43.6 (2012): 52.
Furthermore, Drago argues there are substantial developmental costs when technology is concentrated in the hands of a few, most notably more advanced countries, creating a so called "digital divide" between rich and poor countries. Even in developed countries, increased productivity is eliminating many jobs in manufacturing, transportation and other high-paying industries (Innovations in technology and globalization: Introduction to the information era) and outsourcing is moving these jobs to countries with less expensive labor. This problem continues to gain considerable public attention in light of the severe economic downturn where unemployment is escalating.
Drago, T. (2001, May 25). Adapting technology to the needs of each society. http://www.igc.org/globalpolicy/globaliz/special/2001/052tech.htm .
Innovations in technology and globalization: Introduction to the information era. http://workinfonet.bc.ca/lmisi/Making/chapter2/TANDG1.htm
Muroyama, J.H., and Stever H.G. (1988). Globalization of technology: International perspectives. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309038421
Drago, T. (2001, May 25). Adapting technology to the needs of each society. http://www.igc.org/globalpolicy/globaliz/special/2001/052tech.htm .
Innovations in technology and globalization: Introduction to the information era. http://workinfonet.bc.ca/lmisi/Making/chapter2/TANDG1.htm
Muroyama, J.H., and Stever H.G. (1988). Globalization of technology: International perspectives. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309038421
Seven Key Elements for Successful Implementation
Norman inette, Jr.
Manufacturing organizations are built on the premise that they possess the ability to provide a wide variety of quality products for their customers. This reputation is dependent upon the constant review of existing processes and the identification of new and innovative methods of production that will enhance and increase the diversification of product lines. One such process that has proven itself as a valuable commodity in recent decades is World Class Manufacturing. This process involves a number of complex steps encompassing a variety of business units that are subject to continuous review and improvement. This process is designed to maximize employee productivity at all levels of the organization, from the assembly line to executive management. A successful World Class Manufacturing strategy will provide the organization with numerous opportunities for growth and will enable a successful transition to unique…
Ahmad, S., and Schroeder, R. (2002). The importance of recruitment and selection process for sustainability of total quality management. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 19(5), 540-550.
Benton, W.C., and Shin, H. (1998). Manufacturing planning and control: the evolution of MRP and JIT integration.
European Journal of Operational Research, 110, 411-
Damiani, A.S.M. Looking for the Gold: A TQM Success Story. POSPublications.
Often companies who have highly configurable products or services, such as Dell or in the services businesses, insurance and healthcare companies, need to provide customers with the ability to customize products in real time to their needs. Product configurators today are being used in e-business systems in these industries to provide suppliers with advance visibility of customer demand while capturing orders accurately at the same time (Aurich, Wolf, Siener, Schweitzer, 2009). The quote-to-order process encompasses creating customized products and services while staying within the constraints of profitability for an enterprise (Sawik, 2011). Studies also indicate the greater the level of system integration in these process areas, the higher the level of eturn on Investment (OI) achieved by companies who commit to making their systems work with each other in real time (Das, 2011). The greater the accuracy and velocity of information in the build-to-order, configure-to-order and engineer-to-order workflows of companies…
JC Aurich, N Wolf, M Siener, & E. Schweitzer. (2009). Configuration of product-service systems. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 20(5), 591-605.
Barrett, J. (2007, November). Demand-Driven is an Operational Strategy. Industrial Management, 49(6), 14-19,5.
Das, K. (2011). A quality integrated strategic level global supply chain model. International Journal of Production Research, 49(1), 5.
Hernandez, J., Poler, R., Mula, J., & Lario, F. (2011). The Reverse Logistic Process of an Automobile Supply Chain Network Supported by a Collaborative Decision-Making Model. Group Decision and Negotiation, 20(1), 79-114.
Technological and Organizational Change
Advances in Computer-Based Technology and Advanced Manufacturing Technology have created a business environment driven by a need to deliver quality products and services, faster. And, in its wake pushed up fresh challenges to exploit new services and technologies faster and prospect of new markets. The seamless access to technological change is constrained by international and host government laws, political environment, and intellectual property right, which are significant issue.
Clearly, in a scenario that is characterized by such a heightened sense of urgency, organizations must understand, adopt, adapt, innovate, and drive the change. The technological changes lead to organizational change but conversely; organizational changes do not automatically imply inclusion of technological change.
Contextual Critique of Adoption and Change
There is a growing sense of discomfort with the traditional theory of adoption and diffusion. Primarily because, these theories in practice do not provide sufficient insight into complex adoption…
Technology, Society & Politics
The role of technology in society, politics and economics: Analysis of the works of Kuhn, Rhodes, Christensen, Levy and Toulmin
The development of technology with the onset of the Industrial Revolution, capitalism, and modernism created significant changes in the culture and institutions of human societies. Where technology used to be associated with machinery and manufacturing, technology in the 20th century gradually became associated with computer technology. Scientific developments shifted from macro to micro; human power centered from physical labor to intellectual improvement/development. As civilization progressed towards modernism in the 20th century, technology has become more invasive to people's lives. Inevitably, technology has penetrated not only the science sector, but other institutions as well, particularly human society's culture, politics, and economy.
Indeed, the significant role that technology played in the culture, politics, and economy of modern society has been debated and expressed through discourses by famous philosophers…
Christensen, C. (1997). The Innovator's Dilemma: When new technologies cause great firms to fail. Harvard Business School Press.
Kuhn, T. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Available at: http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/kuhn.htm .
Levy, S. (2001). Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. Penguin.
Rhodes, R. (1995). The Making of the Atomic Bomb. Simon & Schuster.
The first was instant photography, where both photographer (and human subject) could sample their image immediately. The second was digital photography, with a different -- and less expensive -- type of instant image.
Garn observes that Polaroid's instant film led the way to an even more immediate film processing technique: the digital image. "Ironically, this alternative hastened the demise of Polaroid" (Garn).
Current Status of the Technology
The current status of Polaroid technology is questionable. ith the rise of digital filmmaking and photography -- Polaroid, once at the height of the photography industry, has plummeted. In the 70s, Polaroid had the SX-70, "the first integrated camera and film system [that allowed] the pictures to develop outside the camera by themselves" ("Polaroid Corporation"). Kodak followed with its EK-4 and EK-6 after severing ties with Polaroid. Law suits followed. Polaroid eventually won $925 million in damages as a result of infringement by…
"About Impossible." The Impossible Project. Web. 13 July 2011.
Bray, Hiawitha. "Polaroid shutting 2 Mass. Facilities, laying off 150." Boston Globe. 8
Feb 2008. Web. 13 July 2011.
Garn, Andrew. "Polaroid: Instant Joy." A.M. Richard Fine Art. 2010. Web. 13 July
Vertically integrated information systems then are key to many company's competitive advantage in being able to respond quickly to the needs of their distribution channel partners and customers. Supply chains are the most complex type of vertically integrated information system in manufacturing firms.
3. What is a client/server system? What is a client? What is a server? Why would an organization choose to implement a client/server system?
A client/server system is also referred to as a client/server network as it relies on a series of integrated systems in which the processing power is distributed between a central server and a number of client computers (Brown, DeHayes, Hoffer, Martin, Perkins, 2009). A client can be either an application, as is the case with Salesforce.com accessing customer data for example on a remote server through a Web browser, or a complete computer system accessing a server. Increasingly clients are Web browser-based and…
Alnoor Bhimani, & Mthuli Ncube. (2006). Virtual integration costs and the limits of supply chain scalability. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 25(4), 390-408.
Brown, C.V., DeHayes, D.W, Hoffer, J.A., Martin, W.E., Perkins, W.C. (2009). Managing information technology: (6th ed.).Prentice Hall. ISBN: 9780131789548
Scott M. Lewandowski. (1998). Frameworks for Component-Based Client/Server Computing. ACM Computing Surveys, 30(1), 3-27.
N GPC Mahalik, & SK Lee. (2002). Client server-based distributed architecture for concurrent design of DCS networks: A case study. Integrated Manufacturing Systems, 13(1), 47.
" (Fitzgerald, 2006) Groupware technologies are those of either: (1) 'synchronous' groupware; or (2) 'asynchronous' groupware. Synchronous groupware is used when real-time communication is needed and Asynchronous groupware is used where users access group information at different times. Another groupware technology feature is whether the users are working in the same location or in different locations. For the company that has several various workgroups that, while separate units, are required to work in collaboration with one another, enabling business communications within the organization is key to efficiency and productivity for the company.
IV. CUSTOMER SUPPORT PLAN
In the initiative to implement information technology across the organization it is critically important that a customer support plan be in place to assist customers with any complications or confusion that might arise due to the new processes and methods related to the use of the Information Technology. A customer support plan requires support…
Arunthari, Santipat (2005) Information Technology Adoption by Companies in Thailand: A Study of Enterprise Resource Planning System Usage. Information Systems - University of Wollongong. Online available at http://www.library.uow.edu.au/adt-NWU/uploads/approved/adt-NWU20060303.100631/public/02Whole.pdf
Bjork, B.C. (2005) Factors Enabling Information and Communication Technology Diffusion and Actual Implementation in Construction Organizations. Online available at http://www.itcon.org/data/works/att/2005_14.content.02646.pdf chapter 2
CRM Implementation - Implementing a Customer relationship Management System 25 July 2005 Microsoft Dynamics CRM. Online available at http://www.microsoft.com/dynamics/crm/using/12/implementationprovenprocess.mspx
Fitzgerald, Patrick W. (2006) Groupware and Continuous Improvement in Knowledge-Based Organizations. Online available at http://www.saumag.edu/abis/ABIS_Proceedings_March06.pdf
Development of technology has also improved the management of global logistics by encouraging firms to implement the EP systems. The global logistics planning as well as execution processes are still behind mostly when it comes to logistic management and supply chain. Therefore, creating a web-based system (EP) will create interactions with people around the world when purchasing goods and services online. The system created will also help the firms in managing the global transportation carriers, rates and execution in an environment.
Technology has improved the management of global logistics by impacting on the supply chain processes. The customers are now digitally connected by allowing the firms to have their personal portals updated again and again with the tracking numbers put in place.
Technology has also contributed to transparency in a supply chain, improving the links in the firms' chain, a trend that should be replicated among al big logistics companies…
Albright Brian, (2002). New technology reads 'hidden' bar codes. Frontline Solutions,3(12):47-49.
McCarthy, Jack, 2002, the wireless road taken. InfoWorld, 24(47): 38-40.
Compare Business Products, (2009). Technology impact on supply chain. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://www.comparebusinessproducts.com/briefs/technology-impact-supply-chain
It must the compare it with the returns the company is earning without going for the proposal. The new vessels required for the project will increase the transportation time. Great lakes Carriers must consider the increasing international oil prices and its potential implications on the company's costs.
Supply Chain Considerations
There are a few supply chain issues that are important to be taken into consideration. It is important that Great Lakes Carriers consider the fact that the new proposal will increase the transportation time in many cases as compared to other alternatives such as rail and road. The company will have to see that how many clients will agree to trade off lower transportation time and costs with increased benefits of FID. This is important because in many cases, businesses want their goods to be transported in minimum possible time and increased transportation time will make them reschedule their stocking…
Visich, J., Li, S. & Khumawala, B. (2007). Enhancing product recovery value in closed-loop supply chains with RFID. Journal of Managerial Issues. 19(3), 436-445.
The loss of letter writing as a feature of regular human interaction is a subtle incremental change.
When sufficient changes accumulate, increasing cultural distortion leads the society toward dysfunctionality or a new state of equilibrium via cultural revitalization. One example of a revitalization movement (still underway) is feminism. Feminism arose in the West because females were given a taste of economic freedom during WWII when they successfully filled the heavy manufacturing jobs formerly occupied almost exclusively by males. What made their success possible in the assembly line? Machine tools intended to amplify a man's strength amplified a woman's strength to the same level. Now that females have thoroughly diffused through the workforce, the re-definition of "feminine" is influencing the direction that the commercial exploitation of science is taking. Technology influenced society, and society has responded by influencing technology.
The fact is, people have needs and technology tries to fill them.…
Bass, Frank (1969). "A New Product Growth Model for Consumer Durables." Management Science 15:5, 215-227.
Wacjman, Judy. (2002) "Addressing Technological Change: The Challenge to Social Theory." Current Sociology. 50:3, 347-363.
Wallace, Anthony F.C. (1956). "Revitalization Movements" American Anthropologist, New Series 58:2, 264-281
Management was forced into ad hoc solutions because of its inability to model different demand and supply conditions in advance and develop appropriate contingency plans. The pace of gathering and processing data was simply too slow for such an intense period.
The S&OP software represented a marked improvement in supply chain management for Sunsweet. The company was able to even out its production over the course of the year (it is not explained how this works with a perishable product). Sales forecasts were improved. Production was developed over the long run, allowing it to reduce the number of seasonal workers it hired. The system delivered a return on investment of 15-20%. Moreover, management was able to handle its planning, scheduling and analysis tasks in a much shorter time frame -- hours instead of days -- with the new software, freeing up managerial time to perform other tasks, and improve…
Technology from French Revolution to U.S. Civil ar
Attention Sentence: Only about sixty to seventy years passed from the French Revolution in the late 1700's and the United States Civil ar in the 1860's. However, the technology and methodologies that were used during the two conflicts were quite different despite only three generations passing in between
Given the necessity for bigger and better technology, the advent of the Industrial Revolution and other factors, there was a mind-blowing amount of technology progress in the United States from 1790 to 1861 and the upgrades and updates run the gamut in terms of sources, benefits and reach.
Major Points Supporting Thesis: There was a paradigm shift in terms of technology from the late 1700's to the mid-1800's. Everything improved greatly including transportation, weaponry, transportation, energy and other things.
Major Point One - Battle from Sea
a. There were a number of major changes…
AP Study Notes. "A Growing National Economy - AP U.S. History Topic Outlines - Study Notes." Apstudynotes.Org, 2016, https://www.apstudynotes.org/us-history/topics/a-growing-national-economy/ .
Glass, Brent. "Technology Of The 1800S - The Gilder Lehrman Institute Of American History." Gilderlehrman.Org, 2016, http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/jackson-lincoln/essays/technology-1800s .
Marshall, Michael. "Timeline: Weapons Technology." New Scientist, 2016, https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn17423-timeline-weapons-technology/ .
Prior to launching into an assignment to create a Technology Assessment Committee, it is prudent to offer an in-depth description of a TAC, and the need therein.
Introduction to Technology Assessment in Hospitals
Technology Assessment Committee should be "incorporated into the strategic management of a hospital," according to Uphoff & Krane, and perhaps that is an understatement. Why? For two critical reasons: 1) Given the pivotal need for constant upgrading of technologies which hospitals rely upon for the delivery of maximum health care to patients, and the fact that financial resources are scarce in many hospitals, a TAC is vital; and 2) Given the fact that stress and burnout are being reported as widespread among health care professionals - and that there are key decisions to be made as to whether to spend money to bring in new technology or spend money to upgrade working conditions and pay…
Implications for Homeland Security and Law Enforcement:
Generally, any biological weapons attack that necessitates a federal response requires local authorities to provide site security while also ensuring that maintenance of essential police and emergency services by local agencies who are most familiar with the geography and public utilities.3 in that respect, biological weapons terrorist attacks require effective crisis management planning well in advance to establish emergency mobilization procedures and to ensure logistical command continuity, reliable interagency communications, and assignment of responsibilities among many different responding agencies in a manner that optimizes their combined resources and capabilities.4
Combined with the recovery of literature captured from Taliban and al Qaeda by U.S. forces in Afghanistan in 2002 pertaining to instructions for manufacturing and dispersing biological weapons, the revelations after the 2001 Anthrax attacks only raises the importance of reexamining the risk of biological terrorism in connection with the continuing domestic preparedness…
Carlson, J.A. Demands on Police Services in a WMD Incident; FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 77 No. 3. Mar/08. pp 1-6.
Carter, D.L. The Law Enforcement Intelligence Function: State, Local, and Tribal Agencies; FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 74 No. 6. Jun/05. pp 1-9.
Johnson, B.R. A Look at Fusion Centers: Working Together to Protect America;
FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 76 No. 12. Dec/07. pp 28-32
Capital-Intensive Manufacturing Method
In order to properly calculate the estimated break-even point in annual unit sales of the new product if Martinez Company uses the capital-intensive manufacturing method, the first step is to add the manufacturing cost of this methodology. On a per unit basis, those costs are $5 +$6+$3 for a total of $14 per unit. Therefore, for every unit sold the company will profit $16, which is that $14 minus the $30 unit sales price. While the company is profiting $16 for each unit sold, it has a fixed manufacturing cost of $2,508,000 for choosing this particular methodology. Additionally, the company must compensate for an annual incremental selling expense of $502,000 as well as $2 for each unit sold. It has been noted that, "the incremental cost of selling an additional item is the difference between the cost of selling with the item included and the cost of…
Hendricks, K.B., Singhal, V.R. (2003). The effects of supply chain glitches on shareholder wealth. Journal of Operations Management. 21, 501-522. Retrieved from http://www.wlu.ca/documents/17399/glitch_shareholder_jom.pdf
Lederer, P.J., Singhal, V.R. (1994). The effect of financing decisions on the choice of manufacturing technologies. International Journal of Flexible Manufacturing Systems. 6 (4), 333-360.
Marginal & incremental costs. (No date). http://productivity.in . Retrieved from
Green with Information Technology
There has been a corresponding growth in innovations in information technology and the recognition that companies of all sizes and types must reduce their impact on their environment by adopting so-called green practices. For micro-businesses with just one or a few employees, this may mean something as simple as recycling aluminum cans and paper, but for larger enterprises, going green may mean the investment of significant amounts of resources up front with the expectation that the payback on these investments will be worthwhile, both in terms of energy savings as well as through an improved corporate image. To determine how companies can benefit from going green today, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to provide a definition of going green with information technology, an analysis of the impact of going green with information technology on the environment, and a discussion concerning the pros…
Basile, T.J. (2008, July). A green formula. PM Network, 4, 22.
Chen, A., Dietrich, K.N. & Huo, X. (2011, April). Developmental neurotoxicants in e-waste: An emerging health concern. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(4), 37-39.
Huang, Y-C, Ding, H-B & Kao, M-R. (2009, July). Salient stakeholder voices: Family business and green innovation adoption. Journal of Management and Organization, 15(3), 9-10.
Morey, T. (2012, March/April). Going green beyond the greenhouse. The Agricultural Education
For the C-level executive team at Oasis the most critical strategic decision with regard to Web 2.0 technologies is processes, systems and functional areas can take the greatest advantage of their benefits. It is clear that the globally-based distributed order management process could be much more collaborative given its breadth of activity across so many manufacturing centers. The need for creating a collaborative distributed order management system globally is what differentiates best-in-class manufacturers from those that struggle to stay profitable (Alt, Gizanis, Legner, 2005). The use of Web 2.0-based applications for enabling greater levels of collaboration globally in the Oasis product development teams is also a high priority, as this specific process is essential for the new product development and introduction (NPDI) process to be effective. The rapid adoption of collaborative new product development processes has continued to revolutionize the development of new products and services, and has been particularly…
Adel M. Aladwani. 2001. Change management strategies for successful ERP implementation. Business Process Management Journal 7, no. 3, (January 1): 266-275.
Rainer Alt, Dimitrios Gizanis, and Christine Legner. 2005. Collaborative order management: toward standard solutions for interorganisational order management. International Journal of Technology Management 31, no. 1,2, (January 1): 78-97.
Bernoff, J., and C. Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3, (April 1): 36-42.
(Brown, He, 2007)
Lowering the Water
The author of this report has been asked to give a brief set of responses to a test case relating to a company by the name of Smitheford Pharmaceuticals. The company is undergoing a review that has its goal of being the lowering of inventory costs. Concurrent to that will be a picture diagram that is a stack of rocks that is under water. The concept behind the picture is that more and different faults and issues will be exposed if the water level of the pond is lowered. Each rock will be explained and the obvious metaphor that is being created and explained via the picture will be laid out to the people in the meeting. While reducing inventory costs is a good goal to have, revealing the problems and shortcomings that are keeping costs high is imperative when it comes to fixing the problem.
Poler, R., Hernandez, J., Mula, J., & Lario, F. (2008). Collaborative forecasting in networked manufacturing enterprises. Journal Of Manufacturing Technology Management, 19(4), 514-528. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17410380810869941
Saraph, J., Benson, P., & Schroeder, R. (1989). An Instrument for Measuring the Critical Factors of Quality Management. Decision Sciences, 20(4), 810-829. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5915.1989.tb01421.x
Talking Logistics with Adrian Gonzalez,. (2015). The High Cost of Poor Supplier Relationships - Talking Logistics with Adrian Gonzalez. Retrieved 2 March 2016, from http://talkinglogistics.com/2015/05/20/the-high-cost-of-poor-supplier-relationships/
Controlling water infrastructure
Much contemporary research and literature over the need for water include recognition of ethical issues for example water like a public good assert Gleick (2004) and Tipping et al. (2005). Hence, overall scope of management should be extended to incorporate the social size of water systems; which means all stakeholders have to be informed and incorporated in making decisions for the development and use of long-term sustainability water systems. Exterior systems or water stresses could possibly be the primary change motivators for controlling water systems. Global warming might be one particular example heavily affecting water systems because of elevated frequency of extreme weather for example flooding, storms and droughts (Clemitt, 2007). Around Australia, droughts and water stress within the primary metropolitan areas forced the adoption of an entire new selection of methods to controlling water. Water sector is facing institutional changes that need modernization as well…
Ashley, R. And Cashman, A. (2006). The impacts of change on the long-term future demand for water sector infrastructure. Infrastructure to 2030, Chapter 5 OECD, pp. 241 -- 349.
Clemitt, M. (2007). Ageing infrastructure: is neglected maintenance putting Americans in danger? Congressional Quarterly Researcher, 17 (34), pp. 793 -- 816.
Copeland C, Tiemann M. (2008). Water infrastructure needs and investment: review and analysis of key issues. Congregational research service report, RL31116.
Doshi, V., Schulman, G. And Gabaldon, D. (2007). Lights! water! motion! Booz Allen Hamilton.
Call centers have become a very vital component of business today and employ several million people the world over. Their increasing role and place in operations have made them a target for researchers looking to study operations management. This has been the case in several fields including capacity planning, personnel scheduling, queuing and forecasting. Further, with the advancement of information technology and telecommunications, new challenges have arisen that call centers all over the world have to face and various technologies have complicated the operations of call centers (Aksin, Armony & Mehrotra, 2007). Operation Technology (OT) helps in the creation of physical value as well as in the process of manufacturing. It consists of sensors, software and devices needed for the control and monitoring of equipment in a plant as well as the plant as a whole. On the other hand, Information technology (IT) brings together all the required pieces of…
technologies used in various industries. e will also explore the operations management procedures that are used in these industries. Let's begin with a look at IBM, which is part of the technology industry. IBM utilizes advanced technologies in many operational management procedures. According to the IBM website these technologies are particularly important to supply chain management. The website explains that the company offers end to end business solutions, employs 5500 industry specific consultants and offers flexible financing. All of these processes aid the company in the area of operations management. ("Forecast and demand planning solutions from IBM")
The apparel manufacturing/textile industry is quite different from the technology industry because it still requires a great deal of manual labor. The tour that we reviewed in this industry was from the Northeast Knitting Mill. This company was established in 1911 for $50. The tour of the manufacturing facilities displays the circular knitting…
Company Information. 2003. Dole International. 2 April 2003. http://www.dole.com/company/index.jsp
Factory Tour." 2003. Northeast Knitting Mills. 2 April 2003. http://www.neknitting.com/tour.htm
Forecast and demand planning solutions from IBM." 2003. IBM Global Industries. 1 April 2003. http://www-1.ibm.com/industries/businesssolutions/doc/content/solution/199577107.html
Tour of the HPD." 2003. Honda Performance Development. 1 April 2003. http://www.hondaracing.com/hpd/tour_hpd.html
This is a secondary revolution occurring in many compan9ies today directly as a result of technologies making the initiative of having employees use human resources securely, reliably, anytime they want - all leading to reduced costs and higher levels of customer satisfaction.
American Management Association, 2005- Excerpts from 2005 Electronic Monitoring & Surveillance Survey: Many Companies Monitoring, ecording, Videotaping -- and Firing -- Employees. etrieved January 12, 2007 from the Internet:
Alstyne, Marshall van, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Stuart Madnick (1997) -. "The Matrix of Change: A Tool for Business Process eengineering." MIT Sloan School Working Papers available online. etrieved January 12, 2007 from the Internet:
Alstyne, Marshall van, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Stuart Madnick (1995) - "Why Not One Big Database? Principles for Data Ownership." Decision Support Systems 15.4 (1995): 267-284.
Flynn & Hackett (2005) - Webcast: A Strong Acceptable Use Policy Protects Your Company and Your Employees.…
American Management Association, 2005- Excerpts from 2005 Electronic Monitoring & Surveillance Survey: Many Companies Monitoring, Recording, Videotaping -- and Firing -- Employees. Retrieved January 12, 2007 from the Internet:
Alstyne, Marshall van, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Stuart Madnick (1997) -. "The Matrix of Change: A Tool for Business Process Reengineering." MIT Sloan School Working Papers available online. Retrieved January 12, 2007 from the Internet:
Now the Cincom main website and ancillary sites all are compatible with the pple iPad, iPhone and iTouch, in addition to the comparison features on the site itself, which allows for different software applications to be compared as well. s Cincom sells its own guided selling system, the company uses this technology to provide customers with knowledge-based search throughout the entire product lines and also through specific prepackaged solution bundles as well. This has been very effective in upselling customers to a specific, customized solution.
The use of information technologies has also drastically changed how the distribution of products is also handled, in addition to the delivery of services. Cincom had in the past relied on a manually-based contract management system that took months at times to coordinate pricing, delivered software updates and special requirements of customers. Each contract had to be manually updated and each change had to be…
A secondary factor is how the use of these technologies has accelerated the use of comparison analysis on the part of customers. Now the Cincom main website and ancillary sites all are compatible with the Apple iPad, iPhone and iTouch, in addition to the comparison features on the site itself, which allows for different software applications to be compared as well. As Cincom sells its own guided selling system, the company uses this technology to provide customers with knowledge-based search throughout the entire product lines and also through specific prepackaged solution bundles as well. This has been very effective in upselling customers to a specific, customized solution.
The use of information technologies has also drastically changed how the distribution of products is also handled, in addition to the delivery of services. Cincom had in the past relied on a manually-based contract management system that took months at times to coordinate pricing, delivered software updates and special requirements of customers. Each contract had to be manually updated and each change had to be approved by the controller of the company. As of 2009, the company completely redefined their contract management system and had it integrate into the Microsoft CRM system. This provided advance notice to the sales teams when a contract was about to expire, defined the terms of the contract, showed the history of the contract, and provided a scorecard of the lifetime value of the customer. With all this information, the sales teams now know when to begin discussions around a contract renewal and also know exactly what the prices are for the customers.
Within Cincom, any new software application cannot be released until a contract has been updated. In the past, the contract would be walked down to software distribution, where a CD was made and then shipped to the customer. This is no longer the case because software distribution is integrated directly to the contract management system. Now when a contract is renewed the CD is automatically prepared and shipped within hours. Customer satisfaction is way up as a result. A second area of where the combination of the CRM and contract management systems is paying off is in getting premium customer support sold to the largest accounts. Now with the combination of contract value and CRM data, sales reps are better able to manage their time and target only the most profitable and potentially high value customers for service upgrades. The result has been a 18% increase in profits for services in the last twelve months.
Apple -- Outsourcing manufacturing operations
Apple Inc. is a very powerful American company that has been outsourcing its manufacturing in a very successful manner and for a very long time as, majority of its manufacturing takes place in China.
It has been since the 1970s that the concept of outsourcing is being used however; it is only in the recent years that it has become very popular as big companies such as Apple have started making use of it. Today more and more companies are opting to outsource a lot of their projects and departments whether on a national level or on an international level. This is being done by the companies in order to improve their efficiencies and reduce their production costs.
There are a lot of advantages associated with outsourcing such as, low production costs, faster delivery, more products in less time, increased cash flow, quick and…
Duhigg, C., Bradsher, K., (2012, January 21). How the U.S. Lost Out on iPhone Work. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/22/business/apple-america-and-a-squeezed-middle-class.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1& ;
Corbett, M. (2004). The Outsourcing Revolution. Retrieved September 12, 2014 from http://www.economist.com/media/globalexecutive/outsourcing_revolution_e_02.pdf
Outsourcing to China A Case Study Revisited Seven Years Later. (n.d.). Retrieved September 12, 2014 from http://www.dfma.com/truecost/revisited.pdf
Suddenly instead of focusing on price competition American manufactures could ratchet up customer expectations and meet them, winning customer loyalty at a profitable price. In effect American industries that don't go after these process efficiencies are in effect handing their potential for profits to other nations; industry as competing on price is in effect competing to lose profitability over time. Instead American manufacturing must re-center on competing with aggressive intelligence and a focus and intensity to serve the customers they have more than any global competitor. To get to this level of performance against global competitors who are already focused on process efficiencies with customers at the center of them, American manufacturers must embrace lean manufacturing principles, processes and procedures to make their operations more efficient and profitable (Mann, 2009). This needs to get beyond using Six Sigma to simply re-architect specific processes; the focus must be strategic and on…
Michael Burkett. (2005, July). The "Perfect" Product Launch. Supply Chain Management Review, 9(5), 12-13.
Patrick Crampton-Thomas. (2006, May). Enabling Profitable Growth Through Demand Driven Supply Networks. Supply Chain Europe, 15(2), 18-21.
Jeffrey H. Dyer & Kentaro Nobeoka. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks, 21(3), 345-367.
Kasra Ferdows. (2006). Transfer of Changing Production Know-How. Production and Operations Management, 15(1), 1-9.
Outline how a strategy of globalization will impact on a policy of pursuing economies of scale advantages
Globalization is now becoming a critical aspect in regards to business operations. Due primarily to technological advances, and economic development, a more interconnected world is becoming standard. As such companies that rely primarily on fixed assets will depend more heavily on economies of scale to reduce the unit cost of each unit produced. Due to globalization, it is not uncommon for fixed assets to be structured geographically in a multitude of countries. By having operations domiciled in various countries, companies can further their cost advantages through economies of scale. Global auto manufactures use this technique extensively in the production of their vehicles. Auto manufacturers rely heavily on fixed assets to produce and assemble vehicles. These assets irrespective of production will cost the company. As such Toyota has incentive to spread the…
1) Halkias, Maria (July 28, 2009). "Macy's tailors stores, including new Fairview location, to match local tastes." Dallas Morning News. Retrieved May 1, 2010
2) Jones, Andrew (2010) Globalization. Key Thinkers. Cambridge: Polity Press, John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 074564322
3) Silvestre, Joaquim (1987). "Economies and Diseconomies of Scale." The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics 2. London: Macmillan. pp. 80 -- 84. ISBN 0-333-37235-2.
technology and social change, and discusses how they are related.
Ever since the prehistoric eras, technology has had a role to play in the lives of human beings. Mankind has invented and perfected means of communicating, traveling, manufacturing goods, curing ailments, growing food, constructing edifies and meeting other requirements using technology. Thus, one may claim that by means of technology, we have transformed our world (ITEA, 1996; ITEA, 2006). At present, all human activities are reliant on different machines with technological dominance being at a record level in the current era. For instance, automobiles have transformed how and where individuals live, and a colossal infrastructure encompassing roads, service stations, bridges, rules and insurance policies has developed. Technology impacts individual participation in the democratic process and successively impacts what must be taken into account for preparing pupils to actively participate in democratic societies (Crowe, 2006).
Most specifically, social change implies the…
Crowe, A. R. (2006). Technology, citizenship, and the social studies classroom: education for democracy in a technological age. International Journal of Social Education, 21(1), 111-121.
Howard, P., Busch, L., & Sheets, P. (2010). Comparing Digital Divides: Internet Access and Social Inequality in Canada and the United States. Canadian Journal of Communication, 109-128.
International Technology Education Association. (1996). Technology for All Americans. Reston, VA: Author.
International Technology Education Association. (2006). Technological Literacy for All (2nd Ed.). Reston, VA: Author
Called a constraint engine, the approach these software applications use is to concentrate on a unique set of customer inputs, typically gained over a website, to provide a solution set for the customer. Cisco has created a guided selling system that will configure an entire network, and American Power Conversion has also created one that can configure an entire raised floor it installation. The use of guided selling systems and configurators for the strengthening of customer relationships has been a very successful strategy on the part of the companies mentioned in addition to many others, as this technological approach saves salespersons' time while also providing customers what they need when they need it, as is the case with commodity products for example.
Lager, M (2006). Pointing to Profits. Customer elationship Management, 10(5), 24-28,30. etrieved March 13, 2008, from ABI/INFOM Global database. (Document ID: 1033819151).
Ong, K, Lin, Q., Nee,…
Lager, M (2006). Pointing to Profits. Customer Relationship Management, 10(5), 24-28,30. Retrieved March 13, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1033819151).
Ong, K, Lin, Q., Nee, AY (2006). Web-based configuration design system for product customization. International Journal of Production Research, 44(2), 351-382. Retrieved March 12, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 943906011).
Again, Mc Donald's has managed to deal with competitive threats posed by both these market players due to the fact that the prices that Burger King, Starbucks and Costa Coffee charge are much higher than that charged by Mc Donald's. The primary reason behind higher prices of Costa Coffee and Starbucks is the fact that their target market is much stronger and niche as compared to that of Mc Donald's. The recent economic crunch however, has benefitted Mc Donald's as many people who prefer sophisticated ambience, due to their lower purchasing power and increased inflationary pressures now prefer Mc Donald's over the likes of Starbucks and Costa Coffee. As a result, Mc Donald's is the strongest market player in the Global region today.
Mc Donald's target market includes all the people who travel for leisure and/or business purposes and prefer to have a luxurious accommodation. The cafe provides best possible…
Afuah, A. 2009, Strategic innovation: new game strategies for competitive advantage. UK,
Taylor & Francis.
Akhter, S 2003, Strategic planning, hyper competition, and knowledge management. Business Horizons.
Black, J. (2004). Integrated Marketing Communications. College and University, 80(1), 53+. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5045074006
ith a strong customer and employee basis, the company envisions taking early leadership of the global market. This is also to be based upon management excellence on a local scale. The management team is envisioned to be capable of translating vision into performance on both a local and global scale, while also investing strategically to maximize profitability and performance.
d. In terms of Research and Development, Applied Materials has increased its investments despite economic downturns. The purpose of this was to increase its potential future profitability by providing advanced manufacturing systems for its customers worldwide. This proved to be a good strategy, as the company had build a broad product line that catered for nearly every chip manufacturing stage. In order to reach the next step; integrating systems to perform a specific process sequence, a new facility was needed, and 1997 saw the beginning of construction on the Equipment and…
With a strong customer and employee basis, the company envisions taking early leadership of the global market. This is also to be based upon management excellence on a local scale. The management team is envisioned to be capable of translating vision into performance on both a local and global scale, while also investing strategically to maximize profitability and performance.
d. In terms of Research and Development, Applied Materials has increased its investments despite economic downturns. The purpose of this was to increase its potential future profitability by providing advanced manufacturing systems for its customers worldwide. This proved to be a good strategy, as the company had build a broad product line that catered for nearly every chip manufacturing stage. In order to reach the next step; integrating systems to perform a specific process sequence, a new facility was needed, and 1997 saw the beginning of construction on the Equipment and Process Integration Center (EPIC).
EPIC represents the first facility of its kind in the semiconductor industry, in its capacity as a dedicated 200mm pilot line integration facility. Specifically, the Center enables the company's customers to make their technology transitions with greater speed and ease. To do this, the Center enables them to evaluate and integrate new manufacturing systems in advance of installing these. This provides the company with an important leading edge in the global marketplace. To accomplish this was a challenge on multiple levels that did not end with the Center opening its doors in 1998. Indeed, in order to adhere to its central aims, engineers for the center had to effectively implement systems by which they could set up their systems as often as once per month and make quick modifications according to differing requirements.
Pencil Manufacturing and Marketing
Production and Marketing of Pencils
Profit and Loss
Principle of Profit
Factors of Production
Economic Conditions Affecting the Business
The Equilibrium Point or Market Price
Competition within the Free Market
Benefits and Limitation of Free Market
Import and Export of Pencils
Strategies for eaching Global Market
Managing Business Ethically and esponsibly
easons for Business Ownership
Development of the Industry
Cross-Functional Semi-Managed Teams
Techniques to Improve Manufacturing
Operation Management Planning
Facility of Location
Motivation of Employees
Training the Employees
Objectives of Compensation and Appraisal
Determining Human esource Needs
Determining Threats to the Industry
This paper discusses the complete process of manufacturing of a…
Coper, L. (2010, July 1). Marketing Week. Five Strategies for a Successful Market Brand.
Dube, L. (1998). The copying Pencil. Composition, History, Conservation and Implications.
Francis, M. (2007, January 20). Changing Minds. Effective Management.
Ingram, D. (2009). Small Business. The Difference Between Process and Product Layout Manufacturing.
Fuzzy Logic-Based Control of Manufacturing Processes
Enormous advances in technology have made everyday life much easier. New developments within control systems have allowed for greater empowerment for individual devices, which often takes the burden off of the user. Among the many new technologies based on artificial intelligence, Fuzzy Logic Control System is the most popular and most applicable system. Almost in all domains, Fuzzy logic has a broad application area. It is safe to say that we can replace all control-based systems by Fuzzy Logic Control System. FCLS can be used in a great variety of commercial and industrial applications, showing its strength and prominence as a new technology prompt for future innovation.
Fuzzy Logic is a principle within artificial intelligence that is based primarily off the notion of logical reasoning that humans use daily in the context of the normal everyday lives. There are a number of instances where…
 Altrock, Constantin. (2012). Fuzzy Logic and NueroFuzzy Technologies in Appliances. Universidad de Antioquia. [Online] Available at http://ingenieria.udea.edu.co/investigacion/fuzzycon/FuzzyLogic/FuzzyLogicinAppliances.pdf
 Chen, Guanrong & Pham, Trung Tat. Introduction to Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Logic, and Fuzzy Control Systems. CRC Press. 2000.
 Dewy, Douglas. (2013). Fuzzy Logic. Omega Engineering. [Online]. Available at http://www.omega.com/techref/fuzzylogic.html
 Emami, Sarmasti, "Fuzzy Logic Applications in Chemical Processes," The Journal of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, 1(4), 339-348.
However, there are changes in customer tastes, which influence steel demand. Moreover, the new technology is increasingly influencing the production of steel and many companies are gaining competitive edge using the latest technology in the steel manufacturing. Moreover, the cost cutting is another trends happening within the industry because organizations are increasingly source for high quality materials at lower costs to produce at low costs thereby offering the product at low prices in the market. More importantly, many steel companies have taken the advantages of internet technology to offer their products online. Using the internet method to offer products to consumers, many companies have been able to offer their products internationally.
Nucor Corporation and AK Steel are our primary competitors because the companies use the retail outlets to sale its products to both retailers and consumers. Moreover, in a steel industry, brand is a powerful tool that organizations employ to…
Clinton, B.D. Van der Merwe, a. (2006). Managerial Accounting: Approaches, Techniques, and Management Processess. Cost Management . New York: Thomas Reuters RIA Group.
Garrison, R.H. Noreen, E.W. & Brewer, P.C. (2012). Managerial Accounting, 14/e. McGraw-Hill.
Shim, J. & Siegel, J.(2011). Schaum's Outline of Managerial Accounting, 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill.
Owning a business can be difficult and challenging, but can also be highly rewarding. This paper will address a manufacturing business that will employ a minimum of 20 people. When a person has employees, how he or she operates the business changes drastically as compared to a business where the owner is the only "employee." With that in mind, it is vital to be aware of the issues the business will face and how those issues should be handled in order to allow the business to grow and prosper. The first thing that needs to be done is to create a good strategy by which the business will operate. That will be addressed in the following pages, along with how the strategy impacts the process selection and product design. Additionally, supply chain management and total quality management will also both be discussed, along with just-in-time manufacturing and…
Cooper, M.C., Lambert, D.M., & Pagh, J. (1997) Supply chain management: More than a new name for logistics. The International Journal of Logistics Management, 8(1): 1 -- 14
Cua, K.O., K.E. McKone, K.E., & Schroeder, RG. (2001). Relationships between implementation of TQM, JIT, and TPM and manufacturing performance. Journal of Operations Management, 19(6) 675-694.
Hines, T. (2004). Supply chain strategies: Customer driven and customer focused. Oxford: Elsevier.
Hirano, H. & Makota, F. (2006), JIT Is flow: Practice and principles of lean manufacturing. New York: PCS Press, Inc.
ELIANT ON TECHNOLOGY?
Importance of Technology
Now-a-days, technology has revolutionized everything that is happening around the world and most of the people are heavily dependent on modern technology. Since people are relying more on technological gadgets, it has been observed that there has been decline in various skills especially writing, communication and critical thinking skills. However, some argue that technology has brought positive implications in people's lives and unlimited benefits outclass the drawbacks associated with technology (May & Marsden, 2010). As technological gadgets such as laptops, computers, iPads, iPhones and tablets have become a vital part of everyone's life, people are making less use of their ideas and relying on suggestions made by these technological software.
There is no denial of the fact that technology in various cases has made lives simpler for people but there are numerous consequences associated with each technological development which becomes evident after years of…
Antonio, E. (2010). Comparative analysis of cultural dimension in the management of Japan and Romania. Retrieved September 28, 2012 from http://fse.tibiscus.ro/anale/Lucrari2010/039.%20Antoniu%20Eliza.pdf
Baxter, J. (2009). The Good and the Bad Things About Technology: Technology Pros and Cons. Retrieved September 28, 2012 from http://voices.yahoo.com/the-good-bad-things-technology-4584097.html
Ghemawat, P., & Reiche, S. (2010). National Cultural Differences and Multinational Business. Retrieved September 28, 2012 from http://www.aacsb.edu/resources/globalization/globecourse/contents/readings/national-cultural-differences-and-multinational-business.pdf
Kobayashi, J., & Viswat, L. (2010). Cultural Expectations in Expressing Disagreement: Differences between Japan and the United States. Retrieved September 28, 2012 from http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/PTA/Nov_2010_Kobayashi.pdf
The company has an efficient innovative management strategy that is committed to research and development in its products, processes and services. Strategic sourcing and franchising has been a key innovative management strategy for United Technologies more so in venturing into international markets and competing with other firms in several countries. The innovative management approach for united technologies has greater prospects for the growth of the firm and it can be applicable to other sectors or industries. The strategy can be applicable to the aviation industry in relation to extension of products and services since the sector transverse across the globe. This can be achieved through strategic sourcing, acquisition, franchising and joint-venture agreements with other firms in emerging markets and it has the potential for improving revenue and expansion of market share for the aviation industry.
Afuah, a. (2003). Innovation Management: Strategies, Implementation and Profits. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Afuah, a. (2003). Innovation Management: Strategies, Implementation and Profits. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hill, C., & Jones, G. (2010). Strategic Management Theory: An Integrated Approach. London: Cengage Learning.
Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2010). Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization, Concepts. New york: Cengage Learning.
Ko, Y.T. (2009). Innovative Management. Berlin: VDM Verlag.
Coordinated Information Technology:
There is a great deal of interest in the implementation of Information Technology for the achievement of coordinated management of operations and other organizational aspects. In the past few years, EP systems have emerged as effective agents for such coordination despite of the difficulties in implementing and maintaining them. On the contrary, information technology initiatives that are less ambitious have been easier to implement though they normally fail in achieving enough coordination. Consequently, large scale initiatives have been recommended because they are advantageous though the degree of their competitive advantage is uncertain. Therefore, there are numerous concerns on whether skill in implementing coordinated information technology provides competitive advantage to an organization.
The process of implementing Enterprise esource Planning Systems does not consist of a one-size-fits-all strategy because of the need to identify the appropriate program. The lack of the strategy also emanates from the differences…
Gore, A. (2008). Exploring the Competitive Advantage Through ERP Systems. Retrieved from Department of Industrial Engineering and Management -- University of Oulu website: http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9789514287497/isbn9789514287497.pdf
Neal, H. (2010, March 11). ERP Implementation Strategies -- A Guide to ERP Implementation
Methodology. Retrieved April 7, 2012, from http://blog.softwareadvice.com/articles/manufacturing/erp-implementation-strategies -
Ethics in Technology
Business - Management
The purpose of this paper is to highlight and present the ethical issues that are involved in using modern technology. The paper highlights some of the current ethical issues faced by computer users that are due to unethical practice and lack of proper ethical policies by different businesses. The paper pinpoints the causes and gives recommendation on how the current issues can be minimized. A portion of this paper also consists of lawsuits that have recently occurred due to unethical practices adopted by businesses.
Ethics in Technology
We live in a modern era, the era of modern technology and innovation. Our lives are encircled by modern creations. These technology and advancement have surely brought comfort and ease in our life but unfortunately, the use of modern technology has also given rise to many ethical problems out of which few are a topic of discussion…
Anderman, E.M., & Burton Murdock, E. (2007). Psychology of academic cheating. (p. 1). California, USA: Elsevier Academic Press.
Morley, D., & Parker, C.S. (2009). Understanding computers: Today and tomorrow, comprehensive. (12th ed., p. 712). Boston, USA: Course Technology Cengage Learning.
Rogozea, L. (2009). Towards ethical aspects on artificial intelligence. Manuscript submitted for publication, Transylvania University of Brasov, Romania. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/1044129
How Technology Shapes Society
A society is a conglomerate of people who, for some reason, are throw together in a particular bounded region. The group has to make laws that will govern their actions and they also determine how they will live together in the most productive manner. But, there are events and devices that some say can change the way this group of people behaves and what laws they will make for one another. For example, an early hunter-gatherer society subsisted on what they could kill and find. Then someone invented the hoe, and they became cultivating societies (Keel, 2011). This meant that the people did not have to roam so far afield to find they needed to exist. Thus they could stay closer together and build up societies. Small events sometimes shape great changes in society without the people within the society realizing that the invention will…
Anderson, P., & Tushman, M.R., (1990). Technological discontinuities and dominant designs: A cyclical model of technological change. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(4), 604-619.
Beals, G., (1997). The biography of Thomas Edison. Retrieved from http://www.thomasedison.com/biography.html
Carlson, W.B., (1992). "Artifacts and frames of meaning: Thomas A. Edison, his managers, and the cultural construction of motion pictures," in W.E. Bijker and J. Law Shaping technology/building society: Studies in sociotechnical change. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, pp. 175-198.
Chandler, D., (2002). Technological or media determinism. Retrieved from http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/tecdet/tdet01.html
sound technologies and sound design in Film
Sound in films
Experiments in Early Age
Commercialization of sound cinema: U.S., Europe, and Japan
Unified sound in film production
Sound designers in Cinematography
Sound Recording Technologies
History of Sound Recording Technology
Film sound technology
Modern Digital Technology
History of sound in films
Sound Recording Technologies
The film industry is a significant beneficiary of performing arts. The liberal arts combined with latest techniques and advancements experienced a number of stages. The introduction of films and sound in films was a significant development of its times. The introduction of first film along with sound was a unique event and it revolutionized the industry in such a way that it influenced every individual related to the industry to start thinking on creative and innovative grounds for improvements. The stages of films can be identified as silent films…
Alten, SR 2008, Audio In Media, Thomson Wadsworth, USA.
Altman, R 2004, Silent Film Sound, Columbia University Press, USA.
Ballou, G 2008, Handbook for sound engineers, Focal Press, USA.
Beck, J & Grajeda, T 2008, Lowering the boom: critical studies in film sound, University of Illinois Press.
Case analysis Pharma Technologies: A biotechnology firm, Pharma Technologies, developed a competing method treatment erectile dysfunction
Pharma Technologies Inc. based in Canada at a major medical research University in February 1999, wanted to develop a product to compete with Viagra which is developed by Pfizer. PTI obtained a patent for developing a revolutionary sexual dysfunctional treatment drug. The company is faced with financial problems to assist it in developing the new drug. Before a drug can receive full approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), it needs to undergo several testing phases. These testing phases consume a lot of time money. The case study indicates that it can cost over $500 million and take 10 years before the drug is approved for manufacturing and marketing Herbert, 2004.
The patent the company obtained has a life span of 20 years. The patent is obtained when the development process…
http://www.uk.sagepub.com/upm-data/12289_Chapter_1.pdfHerbert , J. (2004). Pharma Technologies Inc., Pg 72-79, from Taylor, R.S., Drummond, M.F., Salkeld, G., & Sullivan, S.D. (2004). Inclusion Of Cost Effectiveness In Licensing Requirements Of New Drugs: The Fourth Hurdle. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 329(7472), 972-975.
Ayers (2000, p. 4) describes a supply chain as "Life cycle processes supporting physical, information, financial, and knowledge flows for moving products and services from suppliers to end-users." A supply chain can be short, as in the case of a cottage industry, or quite long and complex as in the manufacture, distribution, and sales of automobiles. In fact, the automobile supply chain has its origin in the mining of the iron ore used to make many of its components.
Forward-looking companies and industries are beginning, now, to leverage the communication power of the Internet to improve their supply chain efficiencies. In the same way that early computers offered improved efficiency within the walls of a company, the promise of "Internet Technologies" (IT) now offers potentially far-reaching positive effects throughout a company's entire manufacturing supply chain. If the changes brought about by an "Internet revolution" such as thin-client technology; seamless integration…
Aerospace engineering online (2004). Retrieved December 18, 2004 from http/ / www.sae.org/automag/techupdate_2-00/06.htm.
Andrews, F. (2001). "Dell, it Turns Out, Has a Better Idea than Ford." Lean strategies
Group -Manufacturing and supply chain consultants. Retrieved December 19, 2004 from http/ / www.leanstrategies.com/dell-ford.htm.
Ayers, J.B. (2000). Handbook of Supply Chain Management. Boca Ratan, FL: St. Lucie Press.
The impact of IS/IT on manufacturing begins with an analysis of firm's value-chain analysis.
Well-structured information systems allow companies to integrate and coordinate information with the value-chain activities, identify significant changes and trends in the company performance and compare similar activities performed in different locations (Bashein, Markus, and iley, 1994). These information systems also allow managers to make non-programmed manufacturing decisions, as Decision support systems and EP systems can aid management in handling complex manufacturing decisions by providing quick and proper solutions of non-recurring manufacturing problems.
The use of IS networks are also necessary to support just-in-time (JIT) inventory management systems, which dramatically reduce inventory costs by closely coordinating suppliers' deliveries and manufacturers' production schedules. Similarly, external IT networks make it practical to improve business delivery processes. IS/IT offers an organization the ability to effectively leverage information resources for manufacturing activities (Tomasko, 1993).
Traditionally, product development processes have been…
Bashein, B.J., Markus, M.L., and Riley, P. (1994). Preconditions for BPR success, and how to prevent failures. Information Systems Management, 10(1): 7-13.
Boar, B. (1994). Information technology and business alignment: A strategic assessment. In B. Voss and D. Willey (Eds.), Handbook of Business Strategy. New-York: Faulkner & Gray, pp. 173-188.
Davenport, T.H. (1993). Process innovation: Reengineering work through information technology. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business Press.
Tomasko, R.M. (1993). Rethinking the corporation: The architecture of change. New York: Amacom.
Creating Sound Technology-Focused Initiatives for Intel
Intel, a manufacturer and designer of microprocessor chips, is one of the leading technology companies critical in the global evolution of electronic products. But how so? What strategic initiatives are in place that allows Intel to execute its business strategy, remain competitive in an ever-growing competitive market, and continue to innovate? If Intel's strategies are in place, how do they propel Intel's products that will create new opportunities, new innovation, and the next generation of microprocessors?
This paper analyzes the strategies that Intel currently has in place, core competencies that feed those strategies, and how those strategies lead to product innovation and protection with the ultimate goal of creating technology-focused initiatives that Intel should be engaged in. The emphasis for Intel is to be able to adapt to a changing (and sometimes chaotic) industry, thus technological revolution must always be around the corner…
Author Unkown (2011 May 5). How Intel's Tri-Gate Transistors Could Change the Chip Industry. PC Magazine Online. Retrieved June 1, 2011 from http://find.galegroup.com/gtx/infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T003&prodId=AONE&docId=A255562143&source=gale&srcprod=AONE&userGroupName=plan_smcl&version=1.0
Intel (2011). 2010 Annual Report. Retrieved June 1, 2011 from http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/INTC/1277767236x0x452211/09bda9e7-c35f-4baf-b4a6-88123d063fa5/Intel_2010_Annual_Report.pdf
Intel (2011). Intel Reinvents Transistors Using New 3-D Structure. Retrieved June 1, 2011 from http://newsroom.intel.com/community/intel_newsroom/blog/2011/05/04/intel-reinvents-transistors-using-new-3-d-structure
Ojo, B. Don't Bet on Intel to Buy an FPGA Giant. Electronic Engineering Times 1574 (2010): 13. Academic OneFile. Retrieved June 1, 2011 from http://find.galegroup.com/gtx/infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T003&prodId=AONE&docId=A217481582&source=gale&srcprod=AONE&userGroupName=plan_smcl&version=1.0
Applying Statistical Process Control Pharmaceutical Manufacturing
The use of applied statistics in studying a pharmaceutical manufacturing process is examined in the work of Tiani (2004) reports that health care quality is critically important in society and the quality of health care is important to all individuals. It is important that treatment is given in an accurate manner and this is particularly true of medications given to patients as it is expected that "the bottle of medicine has the specified number of tablets and that each tablet contains the specified quantity of the correct drug." (Tiani, 2004)
Legal and Regulatory Framework
There are legal and regulatory requirements set out in the law of the United States that the quality of medications be controlled in the pharmaceutical industry. The regulations are contained in federal statutes and outline "a quality control functions that emphasizes inspection and defect detection, and pharmaceutical quality control technology."…
Shanley, Agnes (2011) No Time for Process Control? PharmaManufacturing Magazine. Retrieved from: http://www.pharmamanufacturing.com/articles/2010/123.html?page=full
Janardhan, 2011, Pala Bashanam (2011) Pharmaceutical Manufacturing: Embracing Process Analytical Technology. Pharma Focus Asia. Retrieved from: http://www.pharmafocusasia.com/manufacturing/pharmaceutical_manufacturing_pat.htm
Moore, V (2003) Statistical Process Control. Chapter 24 9 Apr 2003. Retrieved from: http://www.uncp.edu/home/marson/360chapter24.pdf
Guidance for Industry Process Validation: General Principles and Practices (2011) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) Jan 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.pharmamanufacturing.com/wp_downloads/pdf/FDAProcessValidationJan2011.pdf
Chinese Manufacturing Industry
The social group that I choose to analyze is the population involved with the Chinese manufacturing industry. I choose this particular group is because of three reasons. The first reason is China's economic develop is growing rapidly relative to the rest of the world. Another interesting fact is that compared with other countries, Chinese labor is much cheaper yet there is still a high skill level. Because of these factors, a large number of products are exported every year and some people have called China "factory of the world." The final reason is personal and it is because I am a Chinese, I have an intimate knowledge with China, and my family is also currently engaged in the manufacturing industry. I have access to information about the environment, economics, and politics that has led to the number of manufacturing companies in China that is currently…
Batson, A. (2007, Nov 05). Politics & economics: In china, big firms benefit from push to curb supply. Wall Street Journal Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/399090053?accountid=28041
Han, Y., Zheng, E., & Xu, M. (2014). The Influence from the Past: Organizational Imprinting and Firms' Compliance with Social Insurance Policies in China. Journal of Business Ethics, 65-77.
He, Y. (2014). The Dynamic Mechanism and Empirical Study on Distribution and Manufacturing Sector Co-evolution: Evidence from China. International Journal of u -- and e-Service, 317-328.
He, Z., & Liu, H. (2002). An analysis and strategic study of quality management in chinese manufacturing industry. IIE Annual Conference.Proceedings,, 1-6. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/192469571?accountid=28041
S. Advocates of outsourcing respond that the accumulated revenue can be used to fuel development in the local economy, including domestic businesses in the developing world, making a nation more rather than less independent. Also, U.S. businesses must be more mindful of conditions abroad, given that their own livelihood depends on a stable foreign workforce. Globalization of the economy creates a more interdependent and peaceful world.
Proponents of outsourcing find further evidence in their advocacy of the practice by the explosive growth in the it sector in the U.S., even while jobs were being outsourced overseas. This suggests outsourcing created a win-win situation for all industries, even the industry where the outsourcing was taking place. However, the question remains as to whether outsourcing benefits all sectors of the U.S. workforce in an equitable fashion. Within the U.S., after the recession, the bulk of jobs lost were in the manufacturing sectors…
Understandably, information technology caused experts to rethink successful business models. The 1990s represent a nearly clean slate in the remodeling of business because of information technology. Scott and Morton have identified five markers that serve analysts and experts in creating the business model which now emanate from information technology outward, and links other entities and customers in a seamless way.
The markers of the revolution in corporate structure and managerial practice are multifold, but the essence of the changes can be captured by five items:
First, in terms of the classic corporate structure, the most startling of these reforms is the shift to matrix management. The traditional corporation was organized by business and/or function, with clear lines of authority and a strict division of labor. But in the new structures, there are overlapping responsibilities, and managers report simultaneously to several superiors. This organizational form was not completely…
Allen, T.J. & Morton, M.S. (Eds.). (1994). Information Technology and the Corporation of the 1990s: Research Studies. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved March 1, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=96197382
Bednarzik, R.W. (2005). Restructuring Information Technology: Is Offshoring a Concern? Employment Trends by Industry and Occupation Suggest That Offshoring in the Information Technology Sector Occurs, but Not to a Great Extent. Monthly Labor Review, 128(8), 11+. Retrieved March 1, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011979549
Farmer, B. (2007, June 25). A World of Opportunity: Although Some World Economic Changes Have Negatively Affected American Workers, the United States Is Uniquely Positioned to Thrive in the Global Economy. The New American, 23, 12+. Retrieved March 1, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021577367
Information Technology and the Small usiness
Information technology has had an impact on all areas of society, including a major impact on the business world. For some small businesses, there is an assumption that information technology is only required for major businesses operating on large scales. In contrast, it is suggested that information technology may be even more important to the small business than it is to the large business. Small businesses are often required to be successful against the odds, and while facing major competitive forces. Information technology can provide the kind of advantages that can make the difference. To illustrate this, five areas where information technology can be effectively applied in the small business will now be discussed.
Information and Decision Making
As the business environment becomes more competitive there becomes a greater need for every business to make good decisions. For the small business especially, there…
Gates, B. (1999). Business @ The Speed of Thought. New York: Penguin.
Girard, K. (2003). How Levi's got its jeans into Wal-Mart. CIO Magazine July 15, 2003. Retrieved February 22, 2004. URL:
Gronroos, C. (1994). From marketing mix to relationship marketing: Towards a paradigm shift in marketing." Asia-Australia Marketing Journal, 2(1), 9-29.
Technical System: Information, Information Technology, And Information Systems
The Technical System:
Information, Information Technology, and Information Systems
The use of Enterprise esource Planning (EP) systems to manage the manufacturing and services processes with companies is one of the most critical areas of enterprise software there is. Google, Yahoo and other search engines, in their search taxonomies also classify EP systems as manufacturing systems, and this is because of the highly coordinated approach these applications bring to running an enterprise. The business activities and functions support, information the applications of an EP systems provide and the knowledge that users need to successfully manage based on its analysis and reporting are provided.
Fundamentals of EP Systems
At the center of EP systems are the accounting and finance modules that include Accounts Payable and Accounts eceivable, General Ledger and Financial eporting (Edwards, Coutts, 2005). These form the coordination point of the EP system…
J Edwards, & I Coutts. (2005). Easing the implementation and change of manufacturing software systems. International Journal of Production Research, 43(10), 1965-1981.
Law, C., Chen, C., & Wu, B.. (2010). Managing the full ERP life-cycle:
Considerations of maintenance and support requirements and IT governance practice as integral elements of the formula for successful ERP adoption. Computers in Industry, 61(3), 297.
Malhotra, R., & Temponi, C.. (2010). Critical decisions for ERP integration: Small business issues. International Journal of Information Management, 30(1), 28.
Dell Inc. Marketing and Manufacturing Process Integration
Based on analysis of Sources: (Kapuscinski, Zhang, Carbonneau, Moore, eeves, 2004) (Gunasekaran, Ngai, 2009) (Bilek, 2010)
Discussion of Current Business Issues
Today Dell suffers from not having enough insight into the most critical customer relationships necessary to grow its emerging virtualization and Cloud computing businesses, as the company's approach to managing by technology instead of customers created a very myopic mindset. The transition from being purely technology- and product-centric to one that puts customer feedback and their insights into the center of a business model can only be achieved by measuring processes and improving them (Liu, Guo, Lee, 2011). Nowhere is this more evident than in the company's quoting process. Ironically for a company so well-known for its build-to-order process online, tis enterprise-wide quoting systems are seriously broken and often can take weeks to produce a highly specific quote for a…
Bilek, G.. (2010). The Value of Information Sharing in a Build-to-Order Supply Chain. The Business Review, Cambridge, 15(1), 131-136.
Ernst, H., Hoyer, W., Krafft, M., & Krieger, K. (2011). Customer relationship management and company performance -- the mediating role of new product performance. Academy of Marketing Science. Journal, 39(2), 290-306.
Finnegan, D., & Currie, W.. (2010). A multi-layered approach to CRM implementation: An integration perspective. European Management Journal, 28(2), 153.
Gunasekaran, a., & Ngai, E.. (2009). Modeling and analysis of build-to-order supply chains. European Journal of Operational Research, 195(2), 319.
The consequence of which is the increased decline in the cycle time for the inventory replenishment cycle. In such manner the Internet turns to become the real time solution for perpetual demand and replenishment. While the customer orders for a new product through the Internet, another set of raw materials will be replenished throughout the supply chain. The lead time moves from the serial product flow to instantaneous information flow. SCM traditionally has been involved with the cycle time reduction in terms of lead time compression that would entail the results. (Internet-enabled supply chain management)
The Internet can entail for the replacement of lead-time and waste for information and with more effective timely information, it is possible to reduce and avoid such costs. To make the SCM more effective it is possible to provide for internal sharing of information through Intranet that supports internal process within the organization. The sales…
Donovan, Michael. R. E-Supply Chain Management: Managing the Extended Enterprise.
Retrieved at http://www.rmdonovan.com/pdf/e_SCM_PARTII.pdf. Accessed 20 September, 2005
Elamin, Ahmed. Supply chain project links RFID with Internet. 26 August, 2005. Retrieved from http://www.foodproductiondaily.com/news/news-ng.asp?n=62116-rfid-epcglobal-fresh-produceAccessed 20 September, 2005
E-Supply Chain Management: Prerequisites to Success. Retrieved at http://www.rmdonovan.com/pdf/e_SCM_PARTI.pdf. Accessed 20 September, 2005
Disruptive Technologies for the Military
Disruptive technologies are innovations that aid in creating new markets, eventually going on to disturb or even dismantle the current value networks and market, and to displace an older technology. Clayton M. Christensen, a professor at Harvard Business School, coined this term, now used frequently in technology and business literature for describing innovations that bring about improvements to any service or product, in ways not expected by the market (Lucas, 2012). The Professor first made use of the term in his best-seller "The Innovator's Dilemma" (published in the year 1997), wherein he classified new technologies into two groups: disruptive and sustaining. The former category refers to novel, inadequately refined technology, typically associated with performance issues, known only to some group(s), and normally lacking any proven practical use. Meanwhile, the latter category includes familiar technologies undergoing successive improvements. Disruption may be viewed from another perspective, if…
Brimley, S., FitzGerald, B., Sayler, S. & Singer, P.W. (SEPTEMBER 2013). Game Changers: Disruptive Technology and U.S. Defense Strategy, Center for American New Security
Christiansen, C. (1997). The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail, Boston: Harvard Business Review Press.
FitzGerald, B., Sayler, K., Lynn III, W.J. & Stavridis, J. (JUNE 2014). Creative Disruption Technology, Strategy and the Future of the Global Defense Industry, Center for American New Security.
Fonseca, M. (03/02/2014). Guide to 12 Disruptive Technologies. IntelligentHQ.com digital, retrieved from http://www.intelligenthq.com/technology/12-disruptive-technologies / on 20 February 2016
The main argument in favor of this solution is the time efficiency it generates. The purchased application will be installed in the shortest possible time, whereas the installation of the internally developed software will only be possible in two years time. The company does not have two years to spend on waiting around for a better customized solution, as it is already threatened by the potential loss of customers due to an inadequate information system.
The second reason is that of the financial costs implied, in the meaning that the already developed application is more cost effective. Considering however that the managerial team finds it difficult to part with the perceived advantages of the internally developed solution, a compromise could be made in that of using the application from EMS for the time being, and based on the improved financial results it would generate, to construct a special budget, designated…
Brown, C.V., DeHayes, D.W, Hoffer, J.A., Martin, W.E., Perkins, W.C., 2009, Managing Information Technology, 6th edition, Prentice Hall, ISBN: 9780131789548
Vinten, G., 1998, Skills Shortage and Recruitment in the SME Sector, Career Development International, Vol. 3, Issue 6
2006, Does it make sense to develop your own customized software? Or are you better served by buying an off the shelf solution? Small Business Resource Center, http://www.smbresource.com/custom_software.html last accessed on January 14, 2010
Though there are an increasing number of manufacturers who are successful in implementing lean principles to the factory floor, using them to the rest of the organization has a long way to go. (Moving lean beyond the factory floor)
To conclude, History has established that Lean Manufacturing is here to settle. The query is, "Will your company adopt Lean Manufacturing and make it an enduring company strategy and eventually a way of life?" The answer to this query will decide whether the company will endure in the ever more aggressive manufacturing environment that we live in. (Timco, 2001)
Becker, onald M. (June, 2001) "Lean Manufacturing and the Toyota Production System" Automotive Manufacturing and Production. pp: 12-16
Chaneski, Wayne S. (February, 2001) "Companies Starting to Think About Lean Manufacturing" Modern machine Shop. pp: 10-15
Clarke, J. (14 July, 2004) "Lean's Benefits are Clear, but Many Manufacturers are Significantly Behind their…
Becker, Ronald M. (June, 2001) "Lean Manufacturing and the Toyota Production System" Automotive Manufacturing and Production. pp: 12-16
Chaneski, Wayne S. (February, 2001) "Companies Starting to Think About Lean Manufacturing" Modern machine Shop. pp: 10-15
Clarke, J. (14 July, 2004) "Lean's Benefits are Clear, but Many Manufacturers are Significantly Behind their Vision for Lean, says Aberdeen Group Report" Business Wire. pp: 5-11
Harbour, Ron. (December, 2001) "Leaders are responsible for lean - Opinion & Analysis: Manufacturing" Automotive Industries. pp: 17-20
This move is to lock out EP systems from other nations running their factories and ensure their lasting manufacturing competitive advantage.
Still, the onslaught of manufacturing continues to China. Dell Computer for example opened a manufacturing center in Xiamen, along the coast of China that borders Taiwan, and IBM has a sizeable office and development center in Shanghai. The most troubling aspect of this however is how quickly corporations in western nations including the U.S. will trade information and even the potential freedom of people to gain access to China. The release of personal information by Yahoo of a blogger in China and the about-face of Google on sharing search data with China on their citizens are cases in point.
Friedman (2005) - Thomas . Friedman, author. The World is Flat. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. New York, NY.…
Friedman (2005) - Thomas R. Friedman, author. The World is Flat. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. New York, NY. Published 2005