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The reason as to why people believe that Marijuana is illegal is wrong and attempts should be made to legalize it.
There are a lot of studies that state that by using drugs lot of medical problems may be caused. But studies have proved that this is not true and not as harmful as junk food, tobacco and alcohol. (Bowman 8a). Also individuals feel that Marijuana is addictive in nature but it is not so. (Bowman 8a). There are other studies also that state the same, as to the drug not being addictive, like the study conducted by the American Journal of Nursing. (Brown, 13).
Marijuana though is considered as a Schedule I drug that goes to state that it is of no medical value is not so, as it helps in numbing pain for cancer patients, eases the eye pressure in glaucoma and also soothes muscle spasms…
1. Bowmen, Tom. "Schmoke says debate on decriminalization of drugs is gaining momentum." The Sun. (7-13-1989): 8A.
2. Brown, Christopher. "Bring Drugs Within the Law." The Economist. (5-15-93): 13.
3. Evans, Martin. "Schmoke urges NAACP to back decriminalization of drugs." The Sun. (7-13-89): 9A.
4. Grinspoon, Lester. "The Shifting Medical View on Marijuana" Sunday, August 17, 2003, Boston globe. Retrieved from www.commondreams.org/views03/0817-02.htm Accessed on 02/10/2004
The relationship between marijuana and harder drugs changes over time as different drugs become more or less popular. Because marijuana is the most popular illegal drug in the U.. today, people who have used less popular drugs (heroin, cocaine, LD) are also likely to have used marijuana. Most marijuana users have never used any other illegal drugs (Morral 2002, Kandel and Davies, 1992).
Opponents also argue that marijuana can cause permanent mental illness. However, there is no convincing scientific evidence that marijuana causes psychological damage. ome users may experience distress following ingestion, and while these experiences can be frightening, the effects are temporary. Large doses can cause temporary toxic psychosis, but this generally occurs rarely and almost always when eaten rather than smoked (Iverson 2005, Weiser and Noy 2005, Andreasson 1987, Degenhardt 2003, Weil 1970).
Opponents further argue that marijuana is highly addictive, leading long-term users to experience dependence and…
States who oppose marijuana legalization frequently cite the correlation between "innocent" marijuana use, and more serious drug offenses, arguing that marijuana use is correlated with increased probability of moving on to more significant drug use later in life. Leading research proves that marijuana does not cause people to use hard drugs and asserts that this gateway theory presents the statistic association between common and uncommon drugs as a causal relationship rather than a correlation. The relationship between marijuana and harder drugs changes over time as different drugs become more or less popular. Because marijuana is the most popular illegal drug in the U.S. today, people who have used less popular drugs (heroin, cocaine, LSD) are also likely to have used marijuana. Most marijuana users have never used any other illegal drugs (Morral 2002, Kandel and Davies, 1992).
Opponents also argue that marijuana can cause permanent mental illness. However, there is no convincing scientific evidence that marijuana causes psychological damage. Some users may experience distress following ingestion, and while these experiences can be frightening, the effects are temporary. Large doses can cause temporary toxic psychosis, but this generally occurs rarely and almost always when eaten rather than smoked (Iverson 2005, Weiser and Noy 2005, Andreasson 1987, Degenhardt 2003, Weil 1970).
Opponents further argue that marijuana is highly addictive, leading long-term users to experience dependence and withdrawal. However, research indicates that most people who smoke use it only occasionally. Less than 1% smoke on a daily basis, and an even smaller minority develop either psychological or physical dependence (Johnson 1996, Kandel et al. 1997, Stephens et al. 1993). Opponents also argue that the drug has become more potent today in the past, therefore today's youth are using a much more dangerous drug. However, it is important to remember that when today's youth use marijuana, they are using the same drug that was used in the 1960s and 1970s. A small number of low-THC samples were seized by the Drug Enforcement Administration and found a dramatic increase in potency. These samples were not representative of the marijuana generally available to users during this area. Potency data from the early 1980s is more reliable and shows
Marijuana Legalization: Pro or Con?
Support for marijuana legalization has increased in recent years, particularly since a number of states have legalized the drug, even though the substance is officially prohibited on the national level. The War on Drugs has had a disproportionate effect upon many communities, and there is strong support for decriminalization at minimum, given the argument that enforcement has disproportionately impacted historically discriminated-against communities in a negative fashion. There is also growing recognition for marijuana’s use in palliative care, which has increased the positive public perception of the drug as a whole. But still, questions remain about safety and long-term legalization’s impact and data remains ambiguous about whether legalization is a net positive or negative for impacted communities.
For example, in Colorado and Washington, “within Washington, the rate of perceived harmfulness of marijuana use decreased and the rate of past month use increased among eighth and 10th…
Cerda, M., (et al.). “Association of State Recreational Marijuana Laws with Adolescent Marijuana Use.” JAMA Pediatrics, 171. 2(2017):142-149. Web. May 6, 2019. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2910149/pdf/nihms152149.pdf
“Colorado Division of Criminal Justice Publishes Report on Impacts of Marijuana Legalization in Colorado.’ October 28, 2018. Web. May 6, 2019.
Hall, Wayne, and Louisa Degenhardt. “Cannabis Use and the Risk of Developing a PsychoticDisorder.” World Psychiatry, 7.2 (2008): 68-71. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2424288/
McCaffrey, Daniel F. (et al). “Marijuana Use and High School Dropout: The Influence of Unobservables.” Health Economics, 19.11 (2010): 1281-99. Web. May 6, 2019. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2424288/
Mohn, Tanya, “Driving Under the Influence: Legalized Marijuana\\'s Impact on Traffic Safety Tackled In New Guide.” Forbes. October 23, 2018. Web. May 6, 2019. https://www.forbes.com/sites/tanyamohn/2018/10/23/driving-under-the-influence- legalized-marijuanas-impact-on-traffic-safety-tackled-in-new-guide/#4c4d69564fac
“The War on Marijuana in Black and White.” ACLU. Web. May 6, 2019. https://www.aclu.org/issues/smart-justice/sentencing-reform/war-marijuana-black-and- white
Federal Government Control Marijuana Legalization?
uthor's note with contact information and more details of collegiate affiliation, etc.
t least a quarter of the advisory is spent asserting the agency's drug approval authority, including the caution that seeking "to bypass the FD drug approval process would not serve the interests of public health because [it] might expose patients to unsafe and ineffective drug products." Clear away the smoke from the advisory and you find that behind the battle over medical marijuana is the underlying power struggle pervading many of our health care discussions, from abortion to health care access to physician-assisted suicide.
Should the State or Federal Government Control Marijuana Legalization?
It is the opinion of the author that the control over marijuana legalization should be divided between both state and federal government. Power should always be divided. Division of power acts as a safeguard for the people and citizens. Division…
A state should exercise the power to allow or not allow the legal use of marijuana within its borders. Gostin concurs as he states:
"Although states should be free to be inventive in the face of difficult social problems, they ought not negate federal authority to set national standards for health protection. Rehnquist Court's federalism jurisprudence rarely has protected innovate state experiments but rather has simply repudiated federal health and safety regulation. Not only has the Court thwarted federal regulation of firearms and violence against women, but it has also struck down environmental regulation and antidiscrimination legislation." (Gostin, 2005)
A state should be allowed to decide within what confines the legality exists. A state should also clearly define penalties for breaking such a law. If a state does or does not, by due process, pass a law approving legal marijuana use and possession, that state should be able to do that without interference from the federal government. What the federal government should be allowed to do is respect state authority. The federal government should also be the regulating body. The federal government should procure statistics from these states: if the statistics reveal marijuana use is totally destroying the state and causing everyone to hemorrhage money, and can with satisfaction on the state and federal levels, demonstrate that the
POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF LEGALIZING MAIJUANA
Debates over the legalization of marijuana have existed for a long time in my community. As people foresee the possibility of its legalization shortly as it has happened in other states, it is appropriate for use to weigh the benefits and demerits of the eventuality in our society. The overall shift from illegal sales onto market-based systems will inevitably open floodgates to different users.
There are many pros in the legalization of marijuana to the community. Prohibition should be weighed against personal freedom losses. Many nations uphold the responsibility of respecting an individual's free will and self-determination rights. Immorality was resulting from marijuana use six mostly based on individual sets of moral beliefs (Martin, osenthal & Carter, 2011). Taking moral stands against the implementation of recreational drugs or fight against the evils arising from illegal drug trade increases their popularity among users.…
Ditchfield, J., & Thomas, M. (2014). The Medical Cannabis Guidebook: The Definitive Guide to Using and Growing Medicinal Marijuana. New York: Green Candy Press.
Johnson, A.T. (2009). Medical Marijuana and Marijuana Use. New York: Nova Science.
Martin, M., Rosenthal, E., Carter, G.T. (2011). Medical Marijuana 101. New York: Ed Rosenthal
The debate around the legalization of marijuana has been around for a number of decades now and from the political podiums to the confines of medical consultation rooms and laboratories, marijuana has raised mixed reception and reactions from those who want it legalized as those who abhor it in equal measure. There are however various reasons why marijuana needs to be legalized in the US.
Logically speaking, a significant 40% have admitted to have used marijuana in one way or the other. This shows that if it has adverse health side effects then it could have already manifested itself as in the case with the hard drugs like cocaine. Indeed, it is said that marijuana has far much less health impact as compared to the already legalized recreational drugs like alcohol and tobacco.
There is a misconception that marijuana is addictive yet there are no backing data to…
Head T., (2017). 8 Reasons Why Marijuana Should Be Legalized. Retrieves September 24, 2017 from https://www.thoughtco.com/reasons-why-marijuana-should-be-legalized-721154
There is a need to legalize marijuana and allow people an alternative source of health care to that which is provided by the pharmaceutical industry. Big Pharma is responsible for the opioid epidemic devastating lives today. Marijuana is a naturally occurring plant that people have used responsibly for thousands of years. It is time to take back control of the lives of people and legalize marijuana. This proposal explains why that would be beneficial and how the government can take action now.
Introduction (Purpose and Problem)
Marijuana has been legalized by many different states in recent years. However, it still remains a schedule 1 narcotic according to the federal government, which means under federal law it is considered a substance as dangerous as heroin and cocaine (DEA). The history of marijuana usage in the U.S. shows that the plant was always legal up until the era of Prohibition and…
ecently, Uruguay became the first country to legalize in its entirety and without qualification the marijuana trade. Uruguayan senators spent a total of twelve hours debating the issue, which was proposed by the country's President. The bill was described by its proponents as "an unavoidable response to reality, given that the 'war' on drugs had failed" (BBC, 2013, 1). The law allows registered citizens to buy up to 40g per month. The law is the first of what could be many as South American nations in particular are coming to the realization that drug prohibition, backed by American interests with the support of the United Nations, has left the continent with powerful and violent gangs that control the trade, while doing nothing to stem consumption (Ibid). Indeed, the UN has already weighed in by stating that Uruguay's legislation is in contravention of the international treaties that are enforced by…
BBC. (2013, 1). Uruguay becomes first nation to legalise marijuana trade. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved December 12, 2013 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-25328656
BBC. (2013, 2). Uruguay marijuana move 'illegal' -- UN drugs watchdog. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved December 12, 2013 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-25340324
Chaloupka, F. & Laixuthai, A. (1997). Do youths substitute alcohol and marijuana? Some econometric evidence. Eastern Economic Journal. Vol 23 (3) 253-275.
Chokshi, N. (2013). After legalizing marijuana, Washington and Colorado are starting to regulate it. Washington Post. Retrieved December 12, 2013 from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2013/10/09/after-legalizing-marijuana-washington-and-colorado-are-starting-to-regulate-it/
The active chemical ingredient, THC, is accessed by smoking marijuana and is used for both recreational and medical reasons. The pro-legalization supporters and the anti-legalization supporters are divided by ethical and medical viewpoints. The use of marijuana is linked with health risks, but it is also associated with beneficial medical and therapeutic uses. Opponents of legalization also raise concerns about marijuana abuse, dependency, and its stance as a "gateway" drug which could lead a user to try "harder" drugs. Tobacco smoking and drinking alcohol give concerns for abuse, dependency, and have been linked with the use of "harder" drugs, however these substances remain legal.
A total of 14 states have allowed for the use of marijuana for medical purposes, and some studies have indicated the benefits of decriminalization of marijuana as law enforcement efforts and resources can be used for more significant crimes. There is a concern that the legalization…
Drewe, M, F Drewe, and A Riecher. "Cannabis and risk of psychosis." Swiss Medical Weekly. 134. (2004): 659-663. Print.
Grossman, M, F Chaloupka, and K. Shim. "Illegal Drug Use and Public Policy." Health Affairs. 21.2 (2002): 134-145. Print.
Joffe, A, and W. Yancy. "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth." Pediatrics. 113. (2004): e632-e638. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. .
Leung, Lawrence. "Cannabis and its Derivatives: Review of Medical Use." Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 24.4 (2011): 452-462. Print.
It has been proved that drug dealers succeed in selling their drugs, even with the measures introduced by the American government.
Countries like the Netherlands have become famous due to their tolerance of cannabis and millions of tourists visit them every year as a result. Considering the fact that the Netherlands has continued to have a great cultural value, and, that it has continued to have more tourists visiting it because of reasons other than its cannabis coffee shops, it is obvious that the Dutch have not been affected by the legalization of Marijuana.
Buckley Jr. illiam F. "Is Marijuana Fear a Myth?" National Review, Vol. 49, December 8, 1997.
Goode, Erich. "Marijuana." (Atherton: 1969)
isheit, Ralph A. "Domestic Marijuana: A Neglected Industry." (Greenwood Press: 1992)
Gerber, Rudolph J. Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics. (Praeger: 2004)
Chambliss, illiam J. "Another Lost ar: The Costs and Consequences of…
Wolf Shenk, Joshua. "Why You Can Hate Drugs and Still Want to Legalize Them." Washington Monthly, Vol. 27, October 1995.
"The War on Drugs: Fighting Crime or Wasting Time?" American Criminal Law Review, Vol. 38, 2001.
Souder Mark, Zimmer Lynn. "Q: Is the Government's War against Marijuana Justified as Public Policy?" Insight on the News, Vol. 13, January 12, 1998.
Cherry, Kendra. (2013). What is a cross-sectional study? About.com. Retrieved:
Cross-sectional vs. longitudinal studies. (2009). At Work, 55. Retrieved:
Guns don't kill people; people kill people
While I appreciate your efforts to apply the three criteria of judging causation to the question of gun control, I think there are other variables that must be taken into consideration in evaluating the first criteria. Even if the intention may be present regarding the desire to kill another human being, regardless of whether there is a gun present or not, it is difficult to argue that the presence of guns make the commission of a crime far easier than many other weapons. Stabbing or harming someone in a fist fight can be deadly, but it is much easier for someone to coolly and impersonally use a gun to commit murder from a distance.
Perhaps a better way of phrasing the…
" Moreover, instead of spending billions of dollars on fighting the war, the Mexican government could channel this money -- which is significant for the Mexican economy -- into meeting the population's social needs, thus decreasing the incentives for Mexico's youth to resort to crime.
Prohibition of marijuana, one might even argue, is the lead cause of violence in Mexico. It is the prohibition that drives the drug market to the underground. In the underground world, the disputes between buyers and sellers cannot be resolved through legal means such as lawsuits and arbitration. So, they are often resolved through violence. hen the United States banned alcohol during Prohibition in 1930s, the level of violence increased but as soon as the ban was lifted, the level of crime and violence dropped to the pre-Prohibition levels. As Miron points out, [v]iolence is the norm in illicit gambling but not in legal ones.…
Camin, Hector Aguilar and Jorge G. Castenada. "California's Prop 19, on Legalizing Marijuana, Could End Mexico's Drug War." Washington Post. 5 September 2010. Web. 3 May 2011.
Forsyth, Jim. "U.S. Should Legalize Drugs, Says Former Mexican President Fox." Reuters. 3 May 2011. Web. 3 May 2011.
Johnson, Gary. "Legalize Marijuana to Stop the Drug Cartels." Huffington Post. 26 August, 2010. Web. 3 May 2011.
Miron, Jeffrey, a. "Commentary: Legalize Drugs to Stop Violence." CNN Online. 24 March 2009. Web. 3 May 2011.
The design of the study was to compare the patterns and frequency of recreational drug use of various types, and of the attitudes expressed by residents of California to the behavior and attitudes on the same issues in the 10 other states after California legalized marijuana for medicinal use in 1996. The number of respondents in California was 2,651 and a total of 12, 916 in the other 10 states. The Trevino and ichard study (2002) involved a sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users surveyed for their responses to questions about their opinions about the legalization of marijuana, and also of other illicit recreational drugs such as cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamines.
The Page, Verhoef, Stebbins, Metz, and Levy study (2003) utilized a self-reported questionnaire developed specifically as a tool for this study designed to identify differences in the choices made by patients with MS to use marijuana as…
Khatapoush, S. And Hallfors, D. "Sending the Wrong Message': Did Medical
Marijuana Legalization in California Change Attitudes about and Use of Marijuana?" Journal of Drug Issues, (Fall 2004): 751 -- 770.
Page, S.A., Verhoef, M.J., Stebbins, R.A., Metz, L.M., and Levy, J.C. "Cannabis Use
as Described by People with Multiple Sclerosis." Canadian Journal of Neurological Science, Vol. 30 (2003): 201 -- 205.
legalization marijuana. Your written proposal include elements listed address considerations: •An analysis public policy criminal justice interrelate. •Why feel social change relevant criminal justice system important policy initiate foster change improvement.
There has been much controversy regarding the legalization of marijuana in recent years, as its number of supporters has increased directly proportional to the number of individuals opposing it. When considering matters from a perspective involving public policy, the legalization of marijuana is going to cause increased marijuana use. Consuming more marijuana can lead to people's health being negatively affected but it can also generated more revenue for the government as a result of taxes. Even with this, the fact that governments would gain control over marijuana sales would mean that they would be able to control the amounts that people use as a result of introducing more or less harsh taxes. Education would make the difference between a…
Fox, S., Armentano, P., & Tvert, M. (2009). Marijuana Is Safer: So Why Are We Driving People to Drink?. Chelsea Green Publishing.
Galston, W.A. & Dionne, E.J. "The New Politics of Marijuana Legalization: Why Opinion is Changing," Retrieved September 9, 2013, from http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2013/05/29-politics-marijuana-legalization-galston-dionne
Ruschman, P. (2009). Legalizing Marijuana. Infobase Publishing.
legalization of marijuana and its benefits to the society. Our arguments are focused on its medicinal value, income generated (economic value) to the state as well as the possible losses to tax payer's money as a result of trying to implement its prohibition. Our analysis is done via a thorough review of relevant literature containing expert opinions. We support our proposition that marijuana can be a benefit to society through its legalization. This is due to its medicinal value, revenue stream to the state and the reduced cost attributed to decreased prohibition budgets.
Marijuana which is the most commonly used illicit drug has faced has been heavily debated on issues of legalization and safe use. The debate has been so intense to an extent of which it has turned political (NYT, 2008). A recent study by Angus eid concluded that a majority of Americans are in support of marijuana legalization…
Angus-Reid (2009).Majority of Americans Support Legalizing Marijuana
British Medical Association (1997). Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis. Harwood Academic Pub.
Bensinger, P. (2010, Octobe 15). Legalizing marijuana unacceptable, danger to society. Chicago Tribune .
One very important aspect related to smoking marijuana concerns the number of deaths reported on an annual basis linked to using other legal and illegal substances. For example, according to the U.S. ureau of Mortality Statistics, 400,000 Americans die annually as a direct result of smoking cigarettes; 100,000 die prematurely from drinking alcohol; some 20,000 die from abusing legal prescription drugs like Oxycontin, Valium, Percodan, and other drugs prescribed by physicians; 2,000 die from the effects of consuming too much caffeine, mainly from heart failure, while the number of Americans who die from smoking marijuana currently stands at zero, an indication that smoking marijuana does not directly cause any known fatal and debilitating disease ("The Legalization of Marijuana," Internet).
Therefore, considering the number of Americans who die prematurely from consuming alcohol which has been legal since the end of Prohibition in the early 1930's, there is no logical reason not…
Franklin, Michael J. The Pros and Cons of Marijuana Legalization in the United
States. New York: Random House, 2006.
"The Legalization of Marijuana." 2009. Internet. Accessed November 24, 2009
from http://www.legalizationofmarijuana.com .
The exact amount lost under prohibition is difficult to estimate, but probably approaches several billion dollars.
Secondly, the projected problems for youth and workers and the state of the nation as a whole are far grimmer than the reality, which has been shown in other countries to actually decrease abuse of the substance. Dr. Lester Grinspoon assures that, "Marijuana itself is not criminogenic; it does not lead to sexual debauchery; it is not addicting; there is no evidence that it leads to the use of narcotics." (4).
Finally, the facts show that the war on drugs has undeniably failed. Illegal street drugs continue to frustrate law enforcement officials who have yet to make a noticeable dent in the status quo. Ed Rosenthal and Steve Kubby quote U.S. District Judge Thomas eisman as saying, "e've just about lost a generation of young people. e're building new prison beds at the rate…
Benjamin, Daniel K. And Miller, Roger Leroy. Undoing Drugs. New York: Basic Books. 1991. Print.
Bowman, Tom. "Schmoke Says Debate On Decriminalization Of Drugs Is Gaining Momentum." The Sun, 13 July 1999: 8A. Print.
Bruce, Cara. "The Economics of Marijuana Reform." Young Money. 7 December, 2009. Web. 3 January 2010.
Grinspoon, Lester.(1996) Marihuana reconsidered. Oakland, Quick American Archives. Print.
Medical Marijuana Use and the National Drug Policy
It is clear that the marijuana plant covers numerous elements that may prove prized when it comes to treating a variety of symptoms illnesses or, leading numerous individuals to argue that it should be made legally obtainable for medical determinations. The states of Colorado and Washington in the United Sates have legalized marijuana for fun use. However, there is a quantity of other states which have legalized basic marijuana for "medical" utilization. esearch shows that even more states are passing laws that permitting individuals to start practicing medical marijuana. Therefore, if an individual lives in a state where medical marijuana is permitted and their physician trusts that it would benefit, they will get what is called a "marijuana card." With that said, this paper will discuss medical marijuana use and the national drug policy.
When it comes to national policy, twenty-three states…
Drug Policy: Marijuana. (2014, December 23). Retrieved from National Association of Drug Court Professionals: http://www.nadcp.org/drugpolicy
Marijuana Resource Center: State Laws Related to Marijuana. (2013, January 12). Retrieved from State of the Union: http://www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp/state-laws-related-to-marijuana
Marijuana, M. (2015, Janurary 18). Have Medical Marijuana Laws Contributed to Greater General Marijuana Use by Adults? Retrieved from http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/view.answers.php?questionID=000242
State Medical Marijuana Laws. (2014, Janurary 17). Retrieved from National Conference of State Legislatures: http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/state-medical-marijuana-laws.aspx
Marijuana Legalization and Public Health
Issues associated with the Public Health Implications of Marijuana Legalization
The legalization of marijuana use in various states in the U.S. has contributed to a surge in of a public health problem associated with marijuana use. A significant increase in the use over the past two decades points to an estimated quarter of the American population that has used the drug. Marijuana use amongst senior high school students has surpassed cigarette-smoking cases. Consequences of marijuana use emanate from a comprehensive and scientific research by the World Health Organization (WHO) and other health organizations on this subject (Department of Health and Human Services, 1982).
Findings on the health hazards caused by marijuana use include interference of mental functioning by marijuana due to the acute intoxication of the drug. The use has curtailed coordination of tasks, a skilled performance of activities such as driving, and complex tasks…
Basharat, P., Sussman, G., Beezhold, D. & Leader N. (2011). Hypersensitivity Reactions To Marijuana. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011 Feb; 127(2)(Suppl. 1): AB178. From http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2010.12.707
CDC. (2013). Notes from the Field: Severe Illness Associated with Reported Use of Synthetic Marijuana -- Colorado, August -- September 2013. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6249a7.htm?s_cid=mm6249a7_w
Department of Health and Human Services (13 August 1982). "The Surgeon General's Warning on Marijuana." MMWR Weekly, 31(31);428-9. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00001143.htm
Frizell, S. (2014). Obama on Marijuana Legalization: 'It's Important for It to Go Forward. Time. Retrieved from http://swampland.time.com/2014/01/19/obama-on-marijuana-legalization-its-important-for-it-to-go-forward/#ixzz2qzPk6zX1
Despite the fact that certain parties (as in Chicago) may be arguing that the war on drugs cost billions a year, it must not be forgotten that the war on drugs also yields revenue for the government, and that legalizing drugs would cost more than it saved. "Marijuana... harms society by causing lost productivity in business...and by contributing to illnesses and injuries that put further strain on the health care system." (National Drug Council) if drugs were legalized, they would increase health costs, especially among poor and black communities (which are more likely to take drugs and to be on federal support) and from there on the medical support system and taxpayers of the country. Additionally, such use would negatively effect businesses and families, and the loss in taxes from income earned could be significant.
In conclusion, marijuana restrictions should in no way be relaxed, because marijuana is a serious…
Hager, Paul. "Marijuana Myths http://www.cs.indiana.edu/hyplan/hagerp/myths.html
Maginnis, Robert L. "Legalization of Drugs: the Myths and the Facts http:www.sarnia.com/groups/antidrugs/argument/myths.html
National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws http://www.norml.org
Office of the National Drug Control Policy http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/
Legalization of Marijuana
Marijuana is one of the most popular recreational drugs in the United States, exceeded in popularity by only alcohol and tobacco. Recent research reveals that "more than 70 million Americans have smoked marijuana at some point in their lives, and that 18-20 million have smoked during the last year (NORML, 1999)."
According to R. Keith Stroup, Esq., the executive director of National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML, 1999), "Like most Americans, the vast majority of these millions of marijuana smokers are otherwise law-abiding citizens who work hard, raise families and contribute to their communities..." A national survey revealed that 32% of voting adults in the U.S. have acknowledged having smoked marijuana at some point in their lives.
The legalization of marijuana has been a topic of controversy for several years. Many proponents of the drug argue that marijuana should be legalized for both medical…
Marijuana Policy Project (MPP). (March 30, 1998). Multiple Sclerosis Patient Arrested for Using Medicinal Marijuana in U.S. Rep. Jim Rogan's Office. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.mpp.org/releases/nr033098.html .
National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML). (1999). Federally Commissioned Study Supports Medical Marijuana, Dismisses Drug's "High Potential For Abuse. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.norml.org /medical/iomresponse.shtml.
National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. (1999). Testimony of R. Keith Stroup, Esq. Retrieved from the Internet at
" In fact, the hite House admits that "a direct cause and effect relationship between marijuana use and subsequent use of other drugs is hard to prove." At the same time, the hite House tries to convince readers that adults who were early marijuana users were more likely to have used cocaine, heroine, and other drugs. Both websites offer a balanced viewpoint on the gateway drug issue, but the MPP makes a more convincing argument.
The hite House publication called "hat Americans Need to Know About Marijuana" is available in PDF format, either as a full file or in sections. The PDF format is convenient for people who wish to save the document to their hard drive and read it at a later date, and is also easy on the eyes. However, there are drawbacks to PDF files, such as the lack of hypertext and the amount of memory usage…
Marijuana Policy Project website at http://www.mpp.org/index.html .
What Americans Need to Know About Marijuana." 2003. Online at http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/ publications/amer_know_marij/.
Legalization of Marijuana
Marijuana or Cannabis is actually a plant, which has the scientific name 'cannabis sativa' and was originally used for ordinary purposes such as for fabric making and cloth weaving. Some are of the view that it was also used as sails when shipping industry had not become technologically sophisticated. The plant was also once used for the treatment of psychiatric conditions but after it was banned in the country, marijuana was forced to vanish from the medical field too.
Marijuana became a problem when people started using it as a drug in the form of powder. This is because marijuana affects chemical processes in the brain and puts a person in a state of elation. But all this is temporary and a person becomes so addicted to this drug that he cannot stay away from it. The dangerous impact on marijuana on the brain is also evident…
Cannabis" Accessed online 27 April 2004: http://www.cannabis.net
Richard Rudgley, The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive substances, Little, Brown and Company (1998),
The process is even unlikely to stop if dealers are arrested, given that clients remain and support the market. The government however is not probable to change its convictions concerning marijuana in the near future, most probably because marijuana continues to be linked to crime and more dangerous drugs.
Weisheit, Ralph a. Domestic arijuana a Neglected Industry (New York: Greenwood Press, 1992)
The masses continue to absurdly blame marijuana, even though they are unaware of its potential. Numerous people (even marijuana consumers) are indifferent toward the industry marijuana could produce and prefer to keep it at the present level, most probably because they are afraid of the law and for the fact that they are reluctant to go through what they perceive as being a great deal of trouble.
Yacoubian, George S. "Assessing the Relationship between arijuana Availability and arijuana Use: A Legal and Sociological Comparison between the United States…
Marijuana supporters lobby regarding how the substance cannot possibly produce any harm, to its users or to society in general. However, given that accidents of all kinds frequently happen as a result of people consuming marijuana, conditions are critical and the government needs to define an agenda that would effectively fight the substance.
"Official Statement of the Yes on Proposition 19 Campaign in Response to Election Results." Retrieved November 19, 2010, from the Yes on Proposition 19 Website: http://yeson19.com/node/316 http://yeson19.com/node/316
Cannabis is no longer the drug that had little supporters in the past, as more and more people have discovered that it is not actually as harmful as those against it have preferred to think it is. In spite of the recent failures in legalizing marijuana in California, the state has nonetheless experienced a notable change in convictions regarding the drug, as numerous people are no longer against it.
Others believe that it is no better than other drugs and can even be more dangerous when used for long periods of time ("Medical Marijuana," 2008).
After centuries of use, it seems ridiculous that the government would get up in arms about marijuana proliferation for personal or medical use in the United States. If marijuana can relieve the symptoms of deadly diseases, allowing those suffering from them to be more comfortable, it should be used. In addition, Guither (2009) makes it clear that the reason marijuana was made illegal was not a result of scientific evidence or the opinions of experts. Instead, the illegalization of marijuana was fueled by political, economic, and social incentives. By legalizing marijuana, the United States would free law enforcement from focusing on this problem to train their focus on real crime.
Guither, P. (2009). Why Is Marijuana Illegal? etrieved June 18, 2009, from Salon.com.…
Guither, P. (2009). Why Is Marijuana Illegal? Retrieved June 18, 2009, from Salon.com.
"Medical Marijuana." (2008). Retrieved June 18, 2009, from Pro-Con.org. Web Site:
He argues that 15 million Americans used drugs over and over again last year, but very few harms were actually produced. To punish all 15 million users for the few harms is unfair, but again he does say that. He also argues that racial inequalities make the system unfair. Minorities are no more likely to use drugs, but they are far more likely to be arrested, tried, and convicted, and minority communities are devastated because of this selective enforcement. He finally takes a stand and admits Americans should be outraged by this.
The author effectively refutes arguments that drug use would soar if it were decriminalized. The price of drugs would not go down, he claims, even if it became legal to sell them. Taxes would take care of that. Lawsuits would be allowed against producers for harmful effects. To remain in business, drug producers would have to pay the…
Goldberg, Raymond (Ed.), Taking Sides: Clashing Views in Drugs and Society, 7th edition.
New York: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin.
Husak, Douglas. "Drug Legalization," Criminal Justice Ethics, (Winter/Spring, 2003), 21-29.
This is largely because there are two major reasons for the legalization of marijuana i.e. medical grounds and the potential revenues it could bring to the government. The decriminalization of the use of the drug can be a major point of governmental revenue through taxation of the sale of the drug. Secondly, as evident through history, the value of the drug to the medical field outweighs the disadvantages of its potential abuse in addition to its significance to both the paper and clothing industries ("Legalizing Marijuana," n.d.).
The decriminalization of the use of the drug will be of huge profit to the government because of the huge amounts related to the average price of the drug. Through this initiative, entrepreneurs are likely to begin their own operations because of the noticeable huge profits made in the marijuana market. Consequently, the supply of the drug on the streets will increase significantly…
"Legalizing Marijuana." (n.d.). Marijuana Leaf. Retrieved from the University of Rhode Island
Messerli, J. (2011, June 8). Should Marijuana be Legalized under any Circumstances? Retrieved
March 8, 2012, from http://www.balancedpolitics.org/marijuana_legalization.htm
Drug treatment represents only part of the equation to combat drug-related crime. Alternatives to the war on drugs such as legalization, decriminalization and harm reduction may initially sound like they are more compassionate approaches to the drug problem, but the reality is that they won't work as shown by the Netherlands's experience with decriminalization of drugs. The truth is that the war on drugs has accomplished a great deal more than these alternatives ever could and that Americans are a lot better off because of it. For all the reasons presented in this paper, the legalization of drugs is a really bad idea.
10 main pros and cons on medical marijuana. ProCon.org. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.org/pop/conflicts.htm
Cromie, W.J. (1998, March 19). War on drugs a failure, Americans say." Harvard University Gazette Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/1998/03.19/WaronDrugsaFail.html
Drug use trends (2002, October) Office…
10 main pros and cons on medical marijuana. ProCon.org. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.org/pop/conflicts.htm
Cromie, W.J. (1998, March 19). War on drugs a failure, Americans say." Harvard University Gazette Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/1998/03.19/WaronDrugsaFail.html
Drug use trends (2002, October) Office of National Drug Control Policy. The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/ publications/factsht/druguse/
Effectiveness of the war on drugs (2002). Drug Policy Alliance. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.drugpolicy.org/library/factsheets/effectivenes/index.cfm
The author of this report has been asked to analyze and expand upon a particular issue or matter within the law as it exists in the United States. The author of this report has chosen to look at the use of medical and/or recreational marijuana. The laws that exist as it relates to marijuana are quite different from jurisdiction. It is quite intriguing as marijuana is completely illegal in some states, legal only for medicinal applications in other states and legal for any use in states like Washington and Colorado. While it does not make sense from a law standpoint, there does seem to be a so-called method to the madness thus far even if some laws are obviously being ignored or at least relaxed.
Even more intriguing is that marijuana is technically still illegal at the federal level but enforcement of banking regulations surrounding marijuana-related commerce where…
Economist. (2014). The difference between legalisation and decriminalisation. The Economist. Retrieved 23 April 2016, from http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2014/06/economist-explains-10
Roberts, M. (2016). Kansas Attempting to Prove Colorado Marijuana is Wreaking Havoc on State.
Westword. Retrieved 23 April 2016, from http://www.westword.com/news/kansas-attempting -
Even proponents of medical legalization concede marijuana cannot cure or even alleviate the symptoms of MS or glaucoma, merely act as a narcotic. True, other narcotics exist on the market today -- and like marijuana, they are also addictive. Whether they are more or less addictive than marijuana remains uncertain, but advocates say the chronically ill should be able to choose what works best for them while opponents say only tested, carefully titrated drugs should be used as palliatives.
Weighing the rights of the sick with marijuana's long and short-term side effects is a delicate balance. When marijuana is smoked, users often suffer similar short as well as long-term problems to those of regular smokers, including a smoker's cough and breathing problems. In fact, "marijuana smoke contains 50% to 70% more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than does tobacco smoke" (Legalization of marijuana, 2010, Legalization of marijuana). The active agent in marijuana, THC,…
Amsterdam drugs. (2005). Amsterdam Info. Retrieved July 14, 2010 at http://www.amsterdam.info/drugs/
DuPont, J. (2007, October 30). On the legalization or not of marijuana. The New York Times.
Retrieved July 14, 2010 at http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/10/30/on-the-legalization-or-not-of-marijuana/
Legalization of marijuana. (20110). Legalization of marijuana.
Europe's more liberal drug policies are not the right model for America.
Most non-violent drug users get treatment, not jail time. (Legalization, 2010).
There are no benefits for society in the legalization of marijuana. The money from the taxing of the marijuana will end up being use to regulate and enforce the dispensaries. The money to treat the addiction will be another source of lost revenues from the taxation.
Increased usage by underage teens will be the same as cigarettes and alcohol and will increase as the price drops as it did in the Dutch experiment. Kids will be introduced onto the drug culture that leads to the use of the harder narcotics as a result of the increased access to the marijuana. The benefits will be just moved from one area to other areas of criminalization.
DEA website. 2010. etrieved on May 10,…
DEA website. 2010. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/jan-june01/drugs_marijuanaharm.html
"Feature: Hundreds of Los Angeles Medical Marijuana Dispensaries Face Closure Under New Rules Passed by Council" 2010. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://stopthedrugwar.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Criminalisation, legalization and the mixed blessing of medicalisation in the U.S.A." einarman discusses the issues related to the use of Marihuana. Marijuana or Marihuana has long been used to in America for recreational and medicinal purposes. As Manderson stated, "Debates on the reasons and rationalizations behind drug laws, their cost-effectiveness and their possible moral justification, have for a long time and will continue to rage" (Manderson, 1995, p. 800). Even with the recent mainstream shift towards legalizing of marijuana use from California to Colorado, many still attach negative connotations to marijuana, maintaining the image of marijuana as a deviant and immoral behavior. Keeping this in mind, one must understand the origins of marijuana use in America to see why it was deemed a deviant and illegal activity.
Marihuana was first introduced into America on a substantial scale during the 1910's by migrant Mexican workhands in the Southwest. During this time,…
Bulman-Pozen, J. (2013). Unbundling Federalism: Colorado's Legalization of Marijuana and Federalism's Many Forms. University of Colorado Law Review, 85(4), 1-14. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2366388
Fraser, S., & Moore, D. (2011). Cannabis in cultural and legal limbo: Criminalisation, legalisation and the mixed blessing of medicalization in the U.S.A. In The drug effect: Health, crime, and society (pp. 171-184). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
HALL, W.D., & LYNSKEY, M. (2005). Is cannabis a gateway drug? Testing hypotheses about the relationship between cannabis use and the use of other illicit drugs. Drug and Alcohol Review, 24, 39-48.
Himmelstein, J.L. (1983). Contemporary Crises Crime law social policy. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, 7, 13-38.
Legalization of Marijuana in Washington State
The legalization of Marijuana would allow for the government to have more regulation over the drug and its users. This of course does not come without rules and blankets like how cigarettes and alcohol come with warnings when purchased. If Marijuana were to be legalized, it can be sold with a list of active ingredients, purity levels and warnings like those of pharmaceutical drugs; this would let people know more about the drug. Marijuana does not have any harmful effects besides for the user, who is willing to accept those risks when in taking the drug. Countries that have legalized Marijuana, such as Amsterdam, have had positive results. The legalization of Marijuana has more benefits for the state of Washington than negative aspects.
The state of Washington has enacted laws on the legalization of medical Marijuana. This is due to modern research which suggests…
Alan W. Bock, The Politics of Medical Marijuana (Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks Press, 2000), null7, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98432636 .
Erich Goode, The Marijuana Smokers (New York: Basic Books, 1970), 211, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99522922
Erich Goode, ed., Marijuana (Chicago: Atherton, 1969), 16, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=96962183 .
James S. Frideres, and Lyle G. Warner, "Attitude-Action Relationships," Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 17, no. 2 (1980): 109, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95707042 .
Future of Marijuana in America:
Marijuana or cannabis was first identified by the Chinese in c. 2737 BCE and has since been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. The introduction or arrival of medicinal cannabis in America was characterized with an amazingly colorful and checkered history. Medicinal cannabis was characterized with initial robust use in the United States, which faded after the development of aspirin and opioids. The decreased used culminated in the criminalization of cannabis in America in 1937 despite of the contradictory advice of the American Medical Association, which was submitted on record to Congress. However, the use of marijuana has emerged as a major issue in the past few decades because of the renewed interest in medicinal cannabis. Actually, several stakeholders in the health care sector including the American College of Physicians, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Institutes of Health have supported further research and…
Aggarwal et. al. (2009, June). Medicinal Use of Cannabis in the United States: Historical
Perspectives, Current Trends, and Future Directions. Journal of Opioid Management, 5(3), 153-68.
Cardinale, A. (2014, January 14). A Brief History of How Marijuana Became Illegal in the U.S.
Retrieved July 16, 2014, from http://mic.com/articles/78685/a-brief-history-of-how-marijuana-became-illegal-in-the-u-s
There is much more to the issue and how it is addressed than that (Seamon, 2007). These states are:
Washington (Seamon, 2007)
Criticisms of Decriminalization
The war on drugs has been in the news for some time now, and marijuana has been included in that war. It continues to be listed as important in the speeches of many politicians, and it continues to be at the forefront of a great many debates about how our tax money should best be spent (Gray, 2005; Pacula, 2003b). One of the main concerns of the war on drugs, however, does not deal with what politicians think about it. Rather, it deals with what police think about it. Police are, after all, the ones that are out there on the streets every day, trying to fight the…
Anslinger, H.J. & Tompkins, William F. n.d. "The traffic in narcotics." Drug Library. Retrieved at http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/people/anslinger/traffic/appendix1.htm
Austin, James. 2005. "Rethinking the Consequences of Decriminalizing Marijuana." Washington, DC: The JFA Institute.
Brazaitis, Tom. 2002. "U.S. Should Concede Defeat in the War on Drugs." Media Awareness Project. Retrieved at http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v02/n1827/a09.html?397
Clements, Kenneth, et al. 2005. "Two Short Papers on Marijuana, Legalisation and Drinking: (1) Exogeneous Shocks and Related Goods: Drinking and the Legalisation of Marijuana; and (2) Notes on Projections of Alcohol Consumption Following Marijuana Legalisation." Perth, Australia: The University of Western Australia Working Paper no. 05-14. Perth, Australia: The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
In the shifting views about the health effects of marijuana, there is a general trend for states to relax the rules around this substance across the nation. Some states have already lifted the ban against marijuana for recreational purposes. The state of California set the pace in this discussion and shifting perceptions when it passed a proposal now popularly known as proposal 215 to allow possession of small amounts of the substance for medical uses (Murphy and Carnevale 2016). Other states have followed suit. The most notable among these states are the District of Columbia and six other states. They represent about 6% of the population of the nation. They have all allowed possession of marijuana; not for medical use only, but for recreational purposes.
There are several contributing factors to this phenomenon. One of the most outstanding reasons is that the much-touted war on drugs across the nation has…
Recent ballot initiatives in states like California and Oregon asking for the decriminalization of marijuana use reveals a growing public acceptance of marijuana. The perception that marijuana is not dangerous has made drug enforcement even more difficult. Indeed, the debate over marijuana goes beyond health concerns, and touches issues such as crime and privacy as well.
This paper examines the debate to legalize marijuana. The first part of the paper examines the arguments of the pro-marijuana side, focusing on those who argue that the drug can have medicinal purposes. The next part then examines the potential dangers of legalized marijuana use, both to the individual and to public health in general. In the conclusion, the paper argues that marijuana use is not a "victimless" crime. The potential dangers that marijuana present to individual and public health are best upheld by keeping marijuana illegal.
Prohibitions against the…
Glasser, Ira. "Spotlight: Why Marijuana Law Should Matter to You." Marijuana. Louise I. Gerdes, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.
Gottfried, Ted Should Drug Use Be Legalized? Connecticut: Twenty-First Century Books, 2000.
"Marijuana as Medicine: A Subtle Syllogism." The Economist. August 16, 1997. ProQuest Database.
Marshall, Donnie. "Drug Prohibition is Effective." Drug Legalization. Scott Barbour, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
Decriminalize Marijuana in Canada
The question as to whether Canada should decriminalize the use, sale, and cultivation of marijuana has been debated over the past few years, and the debate has taken a sharper turn now that it is being decriminalized in Colorado and soon in ashington State.
hat are the economic and social benefits of making marijuana legal in Canada -- and what is the residual impact on human health? Given that today there are glaring inconsistencies in Canadian law regarding marijuana -- as opposed to the legal sale of alcohol and tobacco -- how does the Canadian government propose to adjust its current laws if indeed marijuana becomes legal? These are the pertinent questions to be answered in this paper.
Thesis: The position of this writer is that Canada should proceed to decriminalize marijuana and remove the label of "controlled substance" -- because marijuana does less harm to…
Danovitch, Itai. "Sorting Through the Science on Marijuana: Facts, Fallacies, and Implications for Legalization." McGeorge Law Review, 43.1 (2013): 91-108.
Flister, Larissa Ducatti. "The Economic Case for Marijuana Legalization in Canada."
Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 5.1 (2012): 96-100.
Riley, Diane. "Drugs and Drug Policy in Canada: A brief review and commentary." Canadian
Canada boasts one of the highest cannabis usage rates in the world in spite of prohibition (Fischer, Kuganesan, & oom, 2015). Cannabis is also the most widely used illegal drug in the country by a wide margin (Hajidazeh, 2016). The complete decriminalization of cannabis in Canada would be unlikely to have any appreciable effect on raising rates of usage except potentially an initial spark of interest subsequent to the lifting of prohibition. Unfortunately, a dearth of literature exists on the actual effects of decriminalization given that the phenomenon has yet to occur, and given the fact that there are few case studies from other countries. The only country in the world to have outright legalized marijuana has been Uruguay; several other countries have relatively relaxed policies toward the drug but Canada's proposal to fully legalize would be revolutionary. This research can potentially contribute to the growing understanding of what consequences…
Fischer, B., Kuganesen, S. & Room, R. (2015). Medical Marijuana programs: Implications for cannabis control policy -- Observations from Canada. International Journal of Drug Policy 26(1): 15-19.
Government of Canada (n.d.). "Toward the Legalization, Regulation, and Restriction of Access to Marijuana," Discussion Paper. Retrieved online: http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/health-system-systeme-sante/consultations/legalization-marijuana-legalisation/alt/legalization-marijuana-legalisation-eng.pdf
Hajizadeh, M. (2016). Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts. International Journal of Health Policy Management 5(8): 453-456.
Hall, W. & Lynskey, M. (2016). Why it is probably too soon to assess the public health effects of legalisation of recreational cannabis use in the USA. The Lancet Psychiatry 3(3): 900-906.
Marijuana Be Legalized Nationally According to the Terms of California Prop. 64?
People have been using Cannabis Sativa, also known as marijuana, for a number of centuries now. The plant from which marijuana is made grows in several locations around the world. Cannabis Sativa plant's flowering top is the source of marijuana as it has Tetrahydrocannnabinol (THC), a chemical that induces the state changes among users of marijuana. Studies show that using marijuana has both long-term and short-term health effects. Marijuana's short-term effects include distorting the senses including the sense of time and a reduced ability to concentrate. Long-term effects can be more damaging health wise and include a drop in testosterone and sperm levels among men, respiratory problems similar to those suffered by those who smoke tobacco, fatigue, lower libido, reduced fertility and alterations of body composition where the body records a drop in muscle mass as fat mass…
Bates, B. (2010, Feb). Teen cannabis use predicts depression. Clinical Psychiatry News, 38(2).
Bender, S. W. (2017). The Colors of Cannabis: Reflections on the Racial Justice Implications of California's Proposition 64.
Blake, D., & Finlaw, J. (2014). Marijuana legalization in Colorado: Learned lessons. Harv. L. & Pol'y Rev., 8, 359.
Caulkins, J. P., Kilmer, B., & Kleiman, M. A. (2016). Marijuana Legalization: What Everyone Needs to Know? Oxford University Press.
Most of the arguments for legalization of drugs are based on the pragmatic realities that it is difficult or impossible to legislate morality. Drug use has always been part of society and even though it may not be socially desirable there are many benefits that can be gained through legalization. One primary benefit is definitely financial. In a study by the Cato Institute, the report estimates that drug legalization would reduce government expenditure about $41.3 billion annually; roughly $25.7 billion of this savings would accrue to state and local governments, and roughly $15.6 billion to the federal government; about $8.7 billion of the savings would result from legalization of marijuana, $20 billion from legalization of cocaine and heroin, and $12.6 billion from legalization of all other drugs (Miron & aldock, 2010).
There are many other benefits beyond money as well. The United States has an expensive and…
Ghosh, P. (2010, October 19). The pros and cons of drug legalization in the U.S. . Retrieved from International Business Times: http://www.ibtimes.com/pros-cons-drug-legalization-us-246712
Lowy, J. (2014, September 1). Driving stoned? States prep for marijuana DUI. Retrieved from The Christian Science Monitor: http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Latest-News-Wires/2014/0901/Driving-stoned-States-prep-for-marijuana-DUI
Miron, J., & Waldock, K. (2010, October 3). Making an Economic Case for Legalizing Drugs. Retrieved from CATO Institute: http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/making-economic-case-legalizing-drugs
The Arguments for and against the Legalization of Marijuana
• Issue Identification
Today, more than half of the states have already legalized marijuana in some form for various purposes and several more are slated to follow suit this year (see Figure 1 below). The reasons for this trend are multiple, but include fundamental changes in social attitudes about marijuana, the recognition that the federal government’s so-called “war on drugs” has been an abject failure, and the realization on the part of state lawmakers that marijuana sales can provide an enormous boon to state coffers in the form of additional excise taxes and a reduction in the costs that are associated with more serious substance abuse practices.
Figure 1. Status of marijuana laws by state: as of January 2020
• Position Statement
At first blush, the push for the nationwide legalization of marijuana at the federal level would appear…
Domestic cannabis suppression, 2020). U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved from https://www.dea.gov/domestic-cannabis-suppression-eradication-program .
Janda, K., Berry, J. M. & Goldman, J. (2017). The challenge of democracy: American government in global politics, 14th ed. New York: Wadsworth/Cengage.
McAllister, W. B. (2019, Spring). Harry Aslinger saves the world: National security imperatives and the 1937 Marihuana Tax Act. The Social History of Alcohol and Drugs, 33(1), 37-41.
Overdose death rates. (2020). National Institutes on Drug Abuse. Retrieved from https://www. drugabuse.gov/drug-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates.
Paluszek, E. (2020, January 2). Side effects of smoking marijuana every day according to science. Yahoo! Life. Retrieved from https://www.yahoo.com/lifestyle/side-effects-smoking-marijuana-every-205845314.html .
Reduced fatalities for third consecutive year. (2020, May 5). Reduced fatalities for third consecutive year. U. S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved from https://www.nhtsa.gov/press-releases/early-estimates-traffic-fatalities-2019 .
St. John, V. J. & Lewis, V. (2019, January 1). \\\\"Vilify them night after night\\\\": Anti-Black drug policies, mass incarceration, and pathways forward. Harvard Journal of African American Public Policy, 20, 18.
The history of prohibition of marijuana in the United States. (2020). Leafly. Retrieved from https://www.leafly.com/learn/legalization/marijuana-illegal-history .
For example, in the state of Montana, initiative organizers and supporters "face much opposition from local law enforcement and youth substance abuse prevention groups" that claim legalizing marijuana will lead to a great increase in the number of users. However, as the organizers of the low police priority initiative point out, the evidence to support this assertion does not exist; in fact, "We know that liberalizing drug laws in other places has not led to an increase in drug use. This assertion has also been equated with the "eefer Madness mentality," a reference to the film "eefer Madness" of the 1930's which depicted marijuana smokers as deranged criminals ("Lowest Law Enforcement Priority," 2006, Internet).
According to statistics provided by the National Organization for the eform of Marijuana Laws, voters in the city of Oakland, just north of San Francisco, "overwhelmingly approved the nation's first-ever business tax on retail marijuana sales,"…
"Ban with the Bull, Chill with the Bear: The Coming Collapse of Marijuana
Prohibition." (2009). NORML. Internet. Accessed July 22, 2009 from http://norml.org .
"California: Oakland Voters Approve Nation's First Marijuana Business Tax." (2009).
NORML. Internet. Accessed July 22, 2009 from
Medical Marijuana Legislation and Civil Liberties
When the historic passage of legislation permitting medical marijuana use in states like Arizona (2010), Delaware (2011) and Massachusetts (2012) is considered in conjunction with the fact that 13 other states have similar legislation or ballot measures pending, the traditional conception of marijuana ingestion as a criminal act is being reexamined on a societal level. Further bolstering this assertion is the legal situation in California, Colorado and Washington, where marijuana has been decriminalized entirely and permitted for recreational sale by licensed dispensaries, providing the platform for a restoration of basic rights in these jurisdictions. With approximately half of the states in the union already affording citizens with medical needs the liberty to seek relief in the form of marijuana, while the federal government's ostensible ban on the substance remains in effect, the stage has been set for a national debate over the merits of…
Mill, J.S., Smith, J.M., & Sosa, E. (1969). Mill's Utilitarianism: Text and criticism. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Pub. Co.
That compared with 19% for alcohol and a secondary drug; 12% for alcohol alone; 3% for smoked cocaine; 2.4% for methamphetamines; and 2.3% for heroin (Abrams).
It is estimated that by 2010 there will be 35 million teens in America (Levinson). This is a significant demographic to be concerned about. There would also be an increased chance of illicit drugs falling into the hands of children, just like cigarettes and alcohol now that are prohibited from being sold to kids. A greater availability, in general, would increase the likelihood of children being able to obtain them (Messerli).
Harm reduction is one of the primary benefits of legalizing illicit drugs; however, opponents feel that this theory is fatally flawed. Although the suffering of drug users should be reduced, their destructive habits shouldn't be tolerated. "Harm eduction advocates forget the thousands of impressionable teenagers for whom the law is a reminder that…
Abrams, J. "Report: Teen Use of Pot Will Jump with Legalization - Move to Harder Drugs Follows, Group Says." Seattle Times 13 Jul, 1999: A5. ProQuest. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006 http://proquest.umi.com .
An Unethical Reason for Legalizing Drugs." Business Week (3678) 24 Apr. 2000: 6. Academic OneFile. Thomson Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006 http://find.galegroup.com .
Burden, K. "What's the Fuss About Legalizing Drugs? Many People Advocating a "Harm Reduction" Approach to Illegal Drugs are Well-Meaning but Misguided." Presbyterian Record 70(10) Nov. 1996: 10-11. Academic OneFile. Thomson Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006
marijuana should be legalized only for medicinal purposes.
The debate over medicinal marijuana usage and legality is a controversial one. Many experts argue the drug costs society too much money in terms of law enforcement and incarceration costs when the monies could be better spent in other law enforcement areas. A large majority of the American people does believe marijuana should be decriminalized for medical usage. In 2001, 34% of adult Americans believed marijuana should be legal, at least in small amounts, the largest percentage since 1969, and up to 70% of adults approved of using medicinal marijuana for certain ailments (Cauchon 01A). However, several questions regarding medicinal marijuana usage that must be addressed.
First, is marijuana a safe and effective medicine? Proponents maintain marijuana has been used medicinally for thousands of years and for a variety of uses. They claim that it is safe, no one has ever "died…
Author not Available. "Medical Marijuana Briefing Paper." Marijuana Policy Project. 2003. 22 March 2004. http://www.mpp.org/medicine.html
Cauchon, Dennis. "Marijuana Attains Record Support." USA Today, 24 Aug. 2001, pp 01A.
Fackelmann, Kathleen. "Marijuana on Trial." ScienceNews.org. 22 March 1997. 22 March 2004. http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc97/3_22_97/bob1.htm
Frood, Arran. "Dope at the Wheel." NewScientist.com. 23 March 2002. 22 March 2004. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/marijuana/dopeatthewheel.jsp
Any drug that alters the brain chemistry, impairs cognitive functions, and creates an addictive personality cannot be recommended as safe. While there is no suppressing the fact that controlling illegal marijuana use continues to be a financial and administrative bottleneck, they are overridden by the potential harmful health consequences of legalizing marijuana.
Marijuana has been in use for thousands of years for its medicinal properties. With the development of new synthetic drugs there was a gradual decline in its use from the early part of the 20th century. Today however, though illegal, it continues to be a widely used drug in the United States for both recreational and medicinal purposes. In the year 2000 alone there were more than 2.4 million new users of marijuana and the drug is supposedly consumed by more than 76% of all drug users. [NCADI] The comparatively safer and proven remedial properties of…
1) Edward A. Jacobs, "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth,"
PEDIATRICS Vol. 113 No. 6 June 2004, pp. 1825-1826
2) Wayne Hall, Louisa Degenhardt and Michael Lynskey, "The Health and Psychological Effects of Cannabis Use," Chapter 5, Monograph Series No 44, 2nd Edition,
Accessed on March 24th 2005,
Legalization of marijuana has been a controversial topic in the media as of lately. Completely legalizing marijuana would mean allowing just about anyone to have access to it -- of course with some government regulation. However, opponents of this process argue that the health detriments are enough to merit harsher punishments and the complete ban of this substance. Despite opposition to marijuana's legalization, there are many more benefits that need to be taken into consideration before rushing to any particular judgment. Marijuana should be legalized because it will bring a much needed boost to the economy, it has documented health benefits, and it is a safer drug than alcohol and cigarettes, which are already considered to be legal substances (ABC 20/20). In order for the welfare of all of the aforementioned entities to be established, marijuana needs to be legalized.
As of 2012, the states of Colorado and Washington have…
ABC 20/20. "Should Marijuana Be Legalized?" ABC News. ABC News Network, 27 Aug. 0000. Web. 01 May 2013. .
Astaiza, Randy. "All The Reasons Pot Is Good For You." Business Insider: Science. Business Insider, 08 Nov. 2012. Web. 01 May 2013. .
Ferner, Matt. "Why Marijuana Should Be Legalized: 'Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol' Campaign Discusses Why Pot Prohibition Has Been A Failure." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 28 Aug. 2012. Web. 01 May 2013. .
Robesonian.com. "Legalization of Marijuana Paying off." The Robesonian - Legalization of Marijuana Paying off. The Robesonian, 30 Apr. 2013. Web. 01 May 2013. .
Legalization of Marijuana
SHOULD MARIUANA BE LEGALIZED IN THE UNITED STATES?
For over 40 years the United States has struggled with how the use of marijuana should be governed. On one side, proponents argue that it should be legal in the same way alcohol and cigarettes are, or legal in small amounts. They do not feel that people who have small amounts for personal use should be prosecuted in any way. Recently, the prestigious medical journal The Lancet has suggested that keeping marijuana illegal may do more harm to society than its actual use does. They point out that the negative effects from use of alcohol are far greater than any negative effects from the use of marijuana (offee & Yancey, et. al., 2004).
However, those in favor of maintaining marijuana's status as an illegal substance argue that marijuana is not harmless and that in some ways it is very…
Joffee, Alain, MD, MPH, and Yancey, Samuel, MD., with the Committee on Substance Abuse and the Committe on Adolescence. 2004. "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth. American Academy of Pediatrics Technical Report." Pediatrics 113:6, June.
Portillo, Ely. 2005. "Web sites selling marijuana, paraphernalia proliferate." Knight-Ridder/Tribune News Serice, July 7.
Staff writers. 2005. "Safety - how alcohol affects the brain." New Straits Times (Science section), December 5.
Why Marijuana Should Be Legalized in United States
Marijuana is a plant with extreme strong fragrance, and its dry leaves are an active ingredient of a number of hallucinogenic drugs. The liberty endorsing and preaching societies of the world are still in a fit to either legalize the usage of marijuana or not. The argument that forms the mainstream of the authorization of the usage and legal selling of marijuana in the United States has long been a subject of contention. Health hazards pertaining to the usage of marijuana are a common stance used to justify the illegalization of this drug in United States. The following paper tends to highlight the various aspects that will justify that marijuana should be legalized in the United States.
The most important reason that forms the mainstream of the stance that marijuana should be legalized in the United States is the rational choice…
Bowman, K. (2001, July). Attitudes toward Marijuana. The American Enterprise, 12, 62. Retrieved August 20, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000083032
Conservative Forum. (2002, February 4). Human Events, 58, 16. Retrieved August 20, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035784226
Marandino, C. (1998, March). Fired Up. Vegetarian Times 18. Retrieved August 20, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5036612328
Notes & Comments: September 2002. (2002, September). New Criterion, 21, 1+. Retrieved August 20, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000823678
Research into the legalization of marijuana will seek to determine what people's views on the issue are. The population is going to be the entire United States, as we are seeking to determine national views about the issue. The sampling will be done at random, using databases of phone numbers and computer-generated dialing. The operators will only know of and gather non-personal information such as age bracket, gender and state of residence. The major downside to this form of sampling is that many younger people will not be sampled because they often do not have landlines.
Random sampling is the "purest form" of probability sampling in that it is free from researcher bias and is more likely to accurately reflect the total population as a result (StatPac, 2012). Landline ownership is a reasonable proxy for the total population, with the caveat noted above. However, other sampling methods are…
StatPac. (2012). Survey sampling methods. StatPac. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://www.statpac.com/surveys/sampling.htm
Statistics.com. (2012). Glossary of statistical terms: sampling frame. Institute for Statistics Education. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://www.statistics.com/index.php?page=glossary&term_id=851
CRS. (2012). Sample size calculator. Creative Research Systems. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://www.surveysystem.com/sscalc.htm
Paternalistic legislation, even when warranted, must be logically consistent both in theory and in practical application, in the case of marijuana, prohibitions against its medicinal use, even if still unproven in clinical trials, is logically and ethically inconsistent with the legal status of substances like tobacco which are devoid of any possible beneficial use and which, unlike marijuana, have actually been proven to cause disease and premature death.
Governmental paternalism is appropriate in many instances, including ensuring the safety and efficacy of substances used for medicinal purposes. However, the application of paternalistic legislation must, if nothing else, be logically consistent.
Federal prohibition criminalizing marijuana, even for medicinal purposes, is completely unjustified, particularly in light of the legal status of tobacco, which has absolutely no beneficial medical use and whose recreational use accounts for tremendous human harm.
The American Medical Marijuana Association website, (2007)
Retrieved November 21, 2007, at http://americanmarijuana.org/…
Critical literary work on constitutional law, civil rights, and the moral justification for paternalistic legislation authored by attorney and Harvard University law professor, Arthur Miller.
Taylor, R. (1982) Freedom, Anarchy, and the Law: An Introduction to Political Philosphy. Buffalo: Prometheus
Critical literary work on the logical basis for social norms, laws, civil rights, and the morality of ethical principles in human life authored by renowned ethicist, and Cornell philosophy professor Richard Taylor.
Legalization of Marijuana
Pro-Side: There are many good reasons for the legalization of marijuana. While there are few jurisdictions from which to pull evidence on the positive benefits of legalization, we do have extensive experience with the negative impacts of marijuana prohibition. Marijuana prohibition has resulted in high arrest rates, in particular for minorities, which has created social chaos in those communities as young men are incarcerated long-term for what is a victimless crime. Marijuana prohibition also denies governments a potentially important source of tax revenue, as there is a fairly high consumption rate of the plant already. Marijuana prohibition costs law enforcement millions, has created a massive and bloody gang war in Mexico, and has done nothing to stem the use of the plant. These financial and law enforcement resources would be put to better use elsewhere. It is the interests of law enforcement, many politicians and the…
ProCon.org. (2014) Medical marijuana. ProCon.org. Retrieved January 8, 2014 from http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=000141
LegalizationOfMarijuana.com (2014). Pros for legalizing marijuana. LegalizatoinOfmarijuana.com. Retrieved January 8, 2014 from http://legalizationofmarijuana.com/ pros-and-cons-of-marijuana.html
Economists are concerned with the impact that the sale of drugs has on both individual and economic freedoms and frame their argument from this perspective. Others argue that reliance on the criminal justice system has not produced significant results and that it is time to reframe the argument to focus on the education, prevention, and treatment of drugs.
From the economic perspective, there are apparent differences between government prohibition and legalization of drugs. It has been estimated that total government expenditures devoted to the enforcement of drug laws is well in excess of $26 billion. These figures are also significant in state and local law enforcement agencies with drug related incidents making up one fifth of the total investigative resources and drug enforcement activities. Approximately 25% of the total prison population, municipal, state and federal, is made up of drug law violators. In fact, ten percent of all arrests are…
Millhorn, M., Monoghan, M., Montero, D., Reyes, M., Roman, T., Tollasken, R., & Walls, B. (2009). North Americans' attitudes toward illegal drugs. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(2), 125-141.
Miron, J.A. (2001). The economics of drug prohibition and drug legalization. Social Research, 68(3), 835-855.
National Institute on Drug Abuse (1998). The economic cost of alcohol and drug abuse in the United States. National Institute of Health Publication, 98-4327.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2009, April). National household survey on drug abuse main findings, 1998.
President Richard Nixon chose to ignore and through the whole report into the garbage. Instead, he had the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) created and were given authority enter homes without knocking and to use wiretaps and gather intelligence virtually on anyone Milestones. In the 1980's President Ronald Reagan continued the war by advocated his own war and it was estimated that due to these wars, someone was arrested on a violation of a marijuana law every 38 seconds.
Thankfully, these wars have become more focused on the real drug problems that are primarily synthetic or man made or used in ways never imagined. But heroin and methamphitamines are clearly not health regimens. They kill people every day, cause real crimes and ruin families, lives and destroys entire groups.
The first step in changing the view of marijuana began with the legalization for medical usage. The compassions for the ill allowed…
"42.0 Milestones in the History of Marijuana." N.p., 9 May 2010. Web. .
Buchanan, Wyatt. "State's Voters to Decide on Legalizing Pot." San Fransisco Chronicle, n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
"Campaigns That Matter - Legalizing Marijuana in California." Campaigns That Matter - California Politics, California Political News, California Legislative News, Public Policy Information, California State Elections, California Political Campaigns, California Propositions. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
Gray, Jim. Judgejimgray.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
Like alcohol and tobacco, marijuana has been consumed in human societies for thousands of years, and likely since before recorded history. Also like alcohol and tobacco products, marijuana is associated with certain dangers that warrant appropriate government paternalism in the form of legislation prohibiting its use by minors, regulating its manufacture and sale to ensure its relative safety and quality, and preventing the use of any substances capable of altering human perception in connection with the operation of motor vehicles. However, there is no logical basis whatsoever for distinguishing between alcohol and marijuana in terms of criminal legislation, and both substances are considerably less harmful to human health in the manner of their typical consumption than tobacco products.
Instead of subjecting marijuana users to criminal prosecution, government authorities should simply apply the same approach to marijuana as has been traditionally applied to alcohol and tobacco. The Prohibition era…
Brecher, E.M. (1972). Licit and Illicit Drugs: The Consumers Union Report. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Bantam Books.
Drug Policy Alliance. (2008). Medicinal Marijuana. Retrieved February 17, 2009 from the Drug Policy Alliance website, at http://www.drugpolicy.org/marijuana/medical/
Friedman, a. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
When the Affordable Care Act was upheld by the Supreme Court, several people commended the Court for refusing to remove the only social protection they had which was established and improved by the New Deal as well as the Great Society. The House of Congress agreed to allow certain states have a significant level of command on the way federal programs such as Medicaid were implemented on the condition that it would be free to set up and enlarge its planned national entitlement schemes (Brown-Nagin, 2013). A huge disagreement in the beliefs of federalism has been bared for all via the suits contesting the Obamacare mandate. A school of thought believes that the government should get involved even constitutionally in situations when certain states do not have individual capabilities to settle a particular dispute. This school also believes that the main reason why the Constitution clearly specifies national bodies is…
Medical marijuana has increasingly been in the news as a growing number of states throughout the U.S. have passed measures or at least put on the ballot an initiative to legalize either medicinal or recreational marijuana usage. The history of marijuana in the U.S. is one that goes back as far as the country itself: hemp (a type of marijuana plant) was used for rope, paper and a number of other purposes because of its strong fibrous tissue.1 It was not until the Prohibition Era of the 1920s that marijuana began to be prohibited by law in the U.S.—and within a decade, it was regulated among most states under the Uniform State Narcotic Act.2 Thus, from its very first days as a crop grown by the Virginia Company for exporting to England by decree of James I—and in fact from the days of the first President of the U.S.…
Legalize Marijuana Now!
Today, the United States enjoys the dubious distinction of incarcerating more of its citizens than any other industrialized nation on earth. Perhaps even more troubling still, the majority of these citizens have been imprisoned for nonviolent crimes involving drugs, with marijuana being one of the most prominently drugs. Furthermore, these issues have assumed new importance and relevance in recent years. As the country continues to struggle to recover from the Great Recession of 2008, dwindling federal and state budgets have forced lawmakers to scramble to identify ways to save money in order to turn the tide for economic recovery. One initiative that has been advanced time and again is the legalization of marijuana because it would reduce the number of people being incarcerated and help generate new tax revenues. To determine if this is the legalization of marijuana is a truly viable option, this paper provides a…
Cameron, Kenzie A., Campo, Shelly and Brossard, Dominique. (2003). "Advocating for Controversial Issues: The Effect of Activism on Compliance-Gaining Strategy
Likelihood of Use." Communication Studies 54(3): 265-266.
Dripps, Donald A. (1998). "The Liberal Critique of the Harm Principle." Criminal Justice Ethics
Considering the Legalization of Marijuana
The federal government outlawed marijuana in 1937, a decision that remains controversial to this day. Proponents argue that growers have profited for decades and should be taxed accordingly. In the health care arena, medical marijuana is legal in a number of states, a decision with which seventy percent of Americans agree (Vlahos 18). Those against legalization cite potential health hazards, similar to those faced by smokers of tobacco. Although only mildly physically addictive, marijuana can be psychologically addictive. It is often called the "gateway" drug since users sometimes progress to more powerful illegal substances. Members of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) are against legalization for reasons that some may find surprising.
Marijuana is called a "soft" drug and seems more socially acceptable than other drugs; after all "smoking and eating are more naturally associated with pleasure than is…
"15 Legal Medical Marijuana States and DC." ProCon.org. (n.d.) Web. Retrieved from http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=000881 2 May
"Medical Marijuana and the Mind." Harvard Mental Health Letter. 26.10 (2010): 1-3. Academic
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