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Telecommuting and Motivation: What Works, What Doesn’t
Telecommuting means working remotely, allowing telecommunications tools and digital technologies to ensure the employee is connected with the office and able to collaborate and communicate with coworkers. There are many models of telecommuting, from full-time telecommuting arrangements to allowing workers to telecommute one or two days a week. Some of the most successful firms have telecommuting policies that allow employees to work remotely. Even companies like Yahoo, which backpedaled somewhat on the issue, have recently returned to telecommuting if for no other reason than working from home does seem to improve productivity and hours spent on the job (Peck, 2015). While being in the office does enhance team-building and collaboration opportunities, working from home means fewer distractions and longer hours. Workers can divert the time spent commuting to the office towards working on projects, and also feel better equipped to balance work with…
“Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation,” (n.d.). Management Study Guide. Retrieved online: http://www.managementstudyguide.com/herzbergs-theory-motivation.htm
Peck, E. (2015). Proof that working from home is here to stay. Business. Retrieved online: https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/03/18/the-future-is-happening-now-ok_n_6887998.html
Tanner, R. (2017). Motivation: Applying Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. Retrieved online: https://managementisajourney.com/motivation-applying-maslows-hierarchy-of-needs-theory/
Finally, there is also evidence of physiological processes, such as some of the characteristic hormonal changes in both genders that are functions of aging. Males approaching retirement age or becoming grandfathers gain perspective by virtue of their age and experiences, but they also produce much less testosterone which also contributes to their psychological evolution into the self-actualized level of psychological development (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).
elevance to Employment Motivation, Performance, and Vocational Satisfaction
Generally, most people work in contemporary society because they need to earn a monetary living to support their needs. On Maslow's hierarchical scale, anything that threatens the ability of the individual to maintain gainful employment and a safe place to sleep and live automatically reverts his or her psychological focus back to the second level of his Hierarchy of Needs (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008). Therefore, there is a fundamental transactional nature to the relationship between vocational employment…
George J. And Jones G. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Schmalleger F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Maslow's Hiercarhy Needs
Describe Hierarcy Needs developed Abraham Maslow (350-400 words) -Critically Evaluate Maslow's Model terms Contribution development a balanced lifestyle individuals comparing Freud's Perspective 2) - This paragraph considers effective / ineffective Model helping individual develop a balanced lifestyle -Also perspectives thought ( 350-400) - Referencing text applicable, Havard Referencing end.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow devised the Hierarchy of Needs with the purpose of providing the general public with a more thorough understanding of concepts like motivation and development. The hierarchy basically claims that human beings are instinctively motivated to have access to basic needs before expressing interest in other needs. One of the most frequent representations of the Hierarchy of Needs is a pyramid. The lowest levels of the pyramid are the basic needs and the higher levels contain the more intricate needs. Through basic needs one can understand physical necessities, such as food, water, sleep,…
Ewen, Robert B. An Introduction to Theories of Personality, 5th ed. (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998)
Gambrel, Patrick A. And Cianci, Rebecca "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Does It Apply in a Collectivist Culture," Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship 8.2 (2003)
Maslow, Abraham H. The Maslow Business Reader, ed. Deborah C. Stephens (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2000)
Vitz, Paul C. "Psychology in Recovery," First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public LifeMar. 2005
Both observation and experiment provided the underpinning for Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation. Maslow (1943) posits, “man is a perpetually wanting animal,” leading to the constant striving to fulfill goals (p. 370). If and when anything prevents the fulfillment of a goal—whether the obstacle is internal or external—discomfort or psychopathy can occur (Maslow, 1943). Although Maslow’s original research was conducted decades ago, recent research on motivation and human behavior continues to substantiate Maslow’s core claims. Researchers continue to operationalize Maslow’s definitions of needs and motivation, leading to a strengthening of the original theory and expanded applications in the social sciences. Maslow himself wrote extensively to develop and mature a comprehensive theory of human motivation based on the hierarchy of needs model. The original needs hierarchy consists of five fundamental needs: for physiological comfort and fulfillment, for safety and security, for belongingness, for esteem, and for self-actualization. Although definitions of…
The Extent to Which Motivation Theory Underpins Performance Management Systems
Performance Management Systems attempt to answer questions about employee work objectives and their overall role within an organization. The performance manager system is designed to assist the manager in developing, assessing and monitoring a plan by which an employee’s contributions to the organizational strategy and strategic objective are identified, measured and reviewed. The questions that the Performance Management System will are: What is the role of the employee? What is the objective of the employee? How well is the employee meeting the objective? What could be done to help the employee meet the objective more effectively? In encouraging employees to reach their goals, motivation theory can be seen as underpinning performance management systems to a high extent.
Motivation theory is based on the concept developed by Abraham Maslow (1943) in “A Theory of Human Motivation.” Maslow (1943) constructed a Hierarchy…
They need to belong to a secure community and they need to be loved following the terror of Syrian attacks on them.
here esteem needs would be met before belonging and love: a young man becomes a professional baseball player and is placed by the Dodgers in a "Rookie League." He is alone, has no family near and knows very few team members; but if he is good enough to be promoted to "Class a" in Dodger baseball his sense of esteem (approval of his talent) will be greatly enhanced. Later he can worry about being loved, but now he needs to get to "AA" ball.
ho will you consider a self-actualized individual? A young woman who dreamed in high school of getting into an Ivy League school and majoring in drama will be self-actualized if indeed she gets into Cornell, tries out for the Shakespearean play, "As You Like…
Datta, Y. (2010). Maslow's Hierarchy of Basic Needs: An Ecological View. Oxford Journal,
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Chapter 11 / Motivation and Emotion, p. 288.
Sadri, Golnaz, and Bowen, Clarke R. (2011). Meeting Employee Requirements: Maslow's
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is based on the pyramid structure, with the most basic needs at the bottom of the structure, working upward to the most critical needs in terms of a person being motivated in the workplace or elsewhere in a productive setting.
The Hierarchy of Needs
Humans are in fact beings who want things and need things, Maslow explains. A "need" is a very personal requirement, but when it transcends into a component that is part of a productive process (such as a workplace environment), it falls into Maslow's strategy.
At the most basic level, according to Maslow, a person has physiological needs. These are the things "…we require to survive," including water, food, shelter, clothing and rest (Pride, et al., 2011). Humans are motivated to obtain physiological needs in order to survive and thrive.
The next step on Maslow's hierarchy scale is safety needs. These are human…
Koontz, Harold, and Weihrich, Heinz. (2006). Essentials of Management. New Delhi: Tata
Max-Neef, Manfred A. (2010). Human Scale Development. Retrieved January 27, 2013, from http://www.max-neef.cl/download/Max-neef_human_scale_development.pdf .
Pride, William M., Hughes, Robert J., and Kapoor, Jack R. (2011). Business. Independence, KY:
Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs
In determining the most appropriate and effective means of motivating people within an organization, especially when its members are mostly salespersons, it is essential to turn to Abraham Maslow's discussion of an individual's hierarchy of needs. His model and theory of needs illustrates that an individual has the "innate tendency towards growth; s/he is basically trustworthy, self-protecting, and self-governing" (Griffin, 1994:125). In his hierarchy, Maslow identifies physiological needs as the most basic need, categorized as 'deficiency needs.' On the topmost part of the hierarchy is self-actualization, considered by the theorist as 'being needs.' Maslow grants both kinds of needs as essential to the individual. However, he emphasizes that people's primary goal is to achieve being needs, which necessitates going through the bottom part of the hierarchy, which is satisfying one's physiological needs. In an organization of salespeople, satisfying the basic needs of the members such as…
Griffin, E. (1994). A first look at communication theory. NY: McGraw-Hill Inc.
Southwest Airlines Analysis Using the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs
Are Southwest Airlines Inc. leadership and policies fulfilling Maslow's needs ' theory stages? Please apply Maslow's hierarchy of needs to work motivation at Southwest Airlines, showing how various levels are or are not being met by Southwest Airlines Leadership and Human esources Management. (for example, are there employees at Southwest Airlines ever fired? How does that relate with lower level needs, such as safety needs?)
The leadership strategies and initiatives at Southwest Airlines are deliberately designed to support each level of the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs. Beginning with the initial physiological needs, Southwest is known for being an airline that pays better than comparable national carriers, while also having excellent medical benefits compared to its competitors (DAurizio, 2008). This ensure the physiological needs of the employees are met. As Southwest is an airline, the safety concerns are a critical success factor…
DAurizio, P. (2008). Southwest Airlines: Lessons in loyalty. Nursing Economics, 26(6), 389-92.
Laszlo, G.P. (1999). Southwest airlines - living total quality in a service organization. Managing Service Quality, 9(2), 90-95.
Lee, W.G. (1995). Southwest airlines Herb Kelleher: Unorthodoxy at work. Management Review, 84(1), 9-9. 14944
Miles, S.J., & W, G.M. (2005). Positioning southwest airlines through employee branding. Business Horizons, 48(6), 535-545.
The third level up the pyramid is the need for affection, belonging and love. This is the need state area were people are who want to alleviate feelings of loneliness, isolation or alienation (Hoffman, 1988). This level is also critically important for the development of trust in the workplace and within workplace teams and the sense of identity that comes from being part of a group (Harris, Kleiner, 1993). Fourth there is the need for esteem and while it often connotes the esteem from others as a layer of the model, it encompasses self-esteem as well. This is the level where the critical aspects of self-worth, self-confidence and self-discipline come into how a person approaches their life and their goals (Bazigos, Burke, 1997). The top layer of the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Model is self-actualization. This is the level of where people are who have found their innate strengths and…
Michael N. Bazigos, & W. Warner Burke. (1997). Theory orientations of organization development (OD) practitioners. Group & Organization Management, 22(3), 384-408.
Cangemi, J. (2009). Analysis of an Adversarial Labor/Management Situation in a Latin American Industrial Setting: A Case Study using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Organization Development Journal, 27(1), 37-47.
Harris, Chris, & Kleiner, Brian H. (1993). Motivational practices at America's best managed companies. Management Research News, 16(9,10), 1.
Hoffman, Edward. (1988, September). Abraham Maslow: Father of Enlightened Management. Training, 25(9), 79.
In addition, Maslow's theoy allows manages to undestand the significant needs active fo specific employee ensuing motivation.
In summay, Maslow's hieachy of needs theoy has geate motivation to employees compaed to the expectancy theoy. Although they compae in some aspects, the significantly diffe in othes. These two theoies compae in Maslow theoy ceating a base fom which expectancy theoy develops fom, both enabling a peson to modify his/he input depending on the impotance they have on the expected esult afte pefoming a task, as well as allowing an individual to establish which esults ae most likely to motivate them o othes. Contay to the similaities, expectancy theoy concentates on the needs athe than the esults on a paticula task whee else Maslow's theoy focuses on how the diffeent needs associate with themselves and what it calls fo to satisfy them and allows manages to undestand the significant needs active…
references in German and the U.S.A. New York: Springer
Hassard, J. And M. Parker, 1993. Post modernization and organization. London, UK: SAGE
Yeatts, D. And C. Hyten, 1998. High-performing self-managed work teams: a comparison of theory to practice. London, UK: SAGE
American Beauty and Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs
Abraham Maslow established the theory of a hierarchy of needs, believing that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and that certain lower needs must be satisfied before higher needs can be satisfied (Maslow's pp).
Rather than studying the neurotic or mentally ill, Maslow studied exemplary people such as Albert Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglas to determine how they came to be successful (Maslow's pp). Unlike Skinner and Freud, he believed that people are "basically trustworthy, self-protecting, and self-governing...and that humans tend toward growth and love" (Maslow's pp).
Maslow felt that although there is a continuous cycle of negativity, such as wars, murder, and deceit, he believed that violence is not what human nature is meant to be like, and occurs only because of and when human needs are thwarted (Maslow's pp). In other words, people defend themselves by violent means, only…
American Beauty." Director: Sam Mendes. Dreamworks. 1999.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. http://web.utk.edu/~gwynne/maslow.HTM
A key element to Maslow's hierarchy of needs is that it is a hierarchy, namely that the baser needs must be satisfied before the higher needs can be met. A salesperson scrabbling to make a living might be willing, to satisfy his or her physiological needs, to sell anything to anyone, even encourage someone to go into dangerous debt with a mortgage he or she can ill-afford to buy an overpriced or unsuitable house. A person who lives in an unsafe community might enter into such an agreement, to earn enough money for his or her own immediate self-interest to move out of that community. The foolishness of buying a home on such a basis in the long-term is difficult to appreciate when short-term needs are not met on a physical level. Only when the salesperson's bestial instincts of food and shelter and safety are satisfied can he or she…
Gwynne, Robert. (1997) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. http://web.utk.edu/~gwynne/maslow.HTM
This need can also be defined as a "need to know," and in fact showing individuals in elder care facilities the respect they deserve by explaining the structure, policies, schedules, and other aspects of care so that individuals know how their world is organized is a surprisingly rare occurrence in many elder care facilities (Huitt 2007; ECO 2010). Providing these simple explanations can fill cognitive needs, as can allowing freedom to pursue ongoing learning through reading and discussion and classes as mentioned above. Some freedom in decorative aspects of private rooms and engagement in art projects, music events, and even simply ensuring that every individual in the care facility has access to music and other entertainment sources that they particularly enjoy will help to fulfill the aesthetic needs of individuals, and this can also have tremendous impacts on some of the lower-level needs of individuals in elder care facilities (ECO…
ECO. (2010). Elder Care Options. Accessed 9 November 2010. http://www.eldercareoptions.org/
Huitt, W. (2007). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Accessed 9 November 2010. http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/regsys/maslow.html
As a catering manager a transplant hospital, describe factors influence people work place behave-based explain apply recognized theory motivation (Abraham Maslow) team improve performance.
Maslow: The hierarchy of needs
The theorist Abraham Maslow created a hierarchy of needs to describe what individuals sought out of life. The first level of the Maslow hierarchy is made up of basic needs, like food, shelter and clothing. The second level consists of the need for security, including fear of bodily harm. After that need is satisfied there a third need for belonging and social acceptance, followed by a fourth need for esteem (approval from other people). Only after these needs are met is a person capable of satisfying the highest-level need of self-actualization, or achieving a higher purpose in life (Maslow's hierarchy of needs, 2010, Honolulu College).
This is important to remember when managing a workplace because a critical aspect of Maslow's…
Maslow's hierarchy of needs. (2010). Honolulu College. Teacher's Guidebook.
Retrieved March 15, 2011 at http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm
Maslow & Marketing
Consider which stage of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs you are most likely in that drives a lot of your purchase decisions.
The stage of Maslow that could or would be most applicable really would depend. Indeed, it would boil down to something physiological, or at least be related to that, given that there are products that one could buy that are related to breathing, food, water, sex, sleep and excretion. Obviously, no product is technically needed to engage in those acts directly, but if one is hungry they are probably going to buy the product from a store rather than stealing it from someone else or said store. However, a product could relate to safety such as security of the body, employment of resources, or morality. For example, someone buying condoms or birth control does not need those materials to engage in sexual activity but they are…
Giving to charity is a way for many to help those that cannot or will not function with the social constructs and norms that currently exist. For example, someone may need food but may not have the money and this is something a lot of charities address and seek to fix. People that give to charity could also be seeking to address other parts of the hierarchy including the respect of others (esteem), friendship (Love/Belonging) and/or because they want others to experience the safety aspects of the hierarchy that the others are missing out on.
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One of the peak experiences I have recently had, according to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, was teaching a young friend of mine to ride a bicycle. I remember my own first, formative experience of this kinesthetic learning event quite well. By remembering this event while teaching another, I was able to truly ascend to the top of the pyramid of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
On a very basic level, my functional needs, when I learned to ride a bicycle, were satisfied by my bicycle-riding experience, given the fact that my immediate physiological needs were completely satisfied -- on the day I first rode a two-wheeler I was not hungry or tired, and the sun was shining. I loved my new bicycle, now shorn of its training wheels, and even just getting on its seat, standing there, I felt I had made a tremendous improvement, given that the bicycle until…
Maslow gave them that self-meaning and appreciation and became one of the pioneers of a movement that brought the focus of individual feeling, yearning and wholeness into psychology. He sort of read them out and spoke their thoughts, feelings and aspirations for them. He devoted much energy to humanistic psychology and the human potential and inaugurated the "fourth force" in psychology towards the end of his life. The first force consisted of Freud and other depth psychologists; the second force, the behaviorists; his own humanism and European existentialism, the third. This fourth force was made up of transpersonal psychologies that derived from European philosophies, which examined meditation, higher consciousness levels and para-psychological phenomena and which reacted against the then dominant psychoanalysis and behaviorism schools of the 20th century. Among the most prominent European philosophers were Kierkegaard, Husserl and Heidegger and the most prominent in the humanist/existential group were Carl Rogers,…
Beneckson, Robert E Personality Theory. Florida International University. http://vorlon1.com/PersonalityTheory2b.htm
Boeree, George C. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow. Understanding Human Motivation. Personality Theory, 1970
Dickinson, Dee. Revisiting Maslow. Transforming Education: New Horizons for Learning, 2002. http://www.newhorizons.org/trans/dickinsonmaslow.htm
In the pantheon of nursing theories, borrowed theories are those that derive from other disciplines and have been adapted to the nursing context. Many such borrowed theories come from the different social sciences, such as psychology or sociology, because they directly reflect critical issues in care such as human nature and the role of human interactions in well-being. One could apply religious theories to care for religious people, and it is possible even to consider things like motivational theories as well, if the nurse is trying to motivate the patient (for example, to change behavior as a means of changing health outcomes). Borrowed theories have perhaps received less study than either grand theories or mid-level theories, but they are nevertheless an important source of insight for the nursing educator, and it is important to understand the theory, where it comes from, and how it has been adapted to apply…
Villarruel, A., Bishop, T., Simpson, E., Jemmott, L. & Fawcett, J. (2001). Borrowed theories, shared theories and the advancement of nursing knowledge. Nursing Science Quarterly. Vol. 14 (2) 158-163.
Zalenski, R. & Raspa, R. (2006). Maslow's hierarchy of needs: A framework for achieving human potential in hospice. Journal of Palliative Medicine. Vol. 9 (5) 1120-1127.
Zhan, L. (2000). Cognitive adaptation and self-consistency in hearing-impaired older persons: Testing Roy's adaptation model. Nursing Science Quarterly. Vol. 13 (2) 158-165.
Common sense suggests that pay is a good motivator. The logic is: "You get what you pay for."
Provide examples of three different career tracks where people clearly are not focused on earning high pay.
For each of your examples. Describe what the key motivators are.
Cesar Chavez once said that, (Farm workers) are responsible for the planting, cultivating as well as harvesting huge amounts of food for the whole society. They are responsible for the production of such large amounts of food that it can feed the whole country and can be exported as well. The tragic and ironic thing here is that at the end of the day these farmers don't have enough food left to keep for themselves. They don't even have sufficient amounts of money after all this hard work.
Sadly, this is the kind of paradox that has always been there…
(2013). Retrieved from managementstudyguide.com: http://www.managementstudyguide.com/maslows-hierarchy-needs-theory.htm
Baldwin, S. (2007). Motivating Staff. U.S.: Exchange. Retrieved from: http://www.center-school.org/ocdel/online/documents/movitatingstaff.pdf
Birch, L.L., D.W. Marlin, and J. Rotter. (1984). Eating as the 'Means' Activity in a Contingency: Effects on Young Children's Food Preference. Child Development 55(2, Apr): 431-439. EJ 303-231.
Deci, E.L., and R.M. Ryan.(1985). Intrinsic Motivation And Self-Determination In Human Behavior. New York: Plenum.
In that manner, 'self' actualization would entail perfecting the chemistry that makes up the mind and one would then go into philosophical meanderings regarding how to achieve that. A spiritualist, on the other hand, might associate the 'self' with the soul, concluding that 'self' actualization refers to eradicating grittiness of the soul via prayer, godly deeds, and other spiritual activities such as charity and repentance. In a colloquial sense, 'self' refers to the person him or herself that the individual has in mind when referring to the 'I', namely the personal being. In that colloquial sense, I perceive 'self'-actualization as referring to the endeavor to make the utmost of all the gifts granted me, whilst, simultaneously, smoothing away my negative (i.e. self-destructive) habits, so that I can become a better instrument for fulfilling my life's objectives to the optimum that I can.
D. How will you know if you are…
Maslow, a.H. (1970). Motivation and personality. New York, Harper & Row
Nietzsche, F. (1986). Human, all too human: a book for free spirits. New York: Cambridge University Press.
According to the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE), "accreditation is a nongovernmental process conducted by representatives of postsecondary institutions and professional groups. As conducted in the United States, accreditation focuses on the quality of institutions of higher and professional education and on the quality of educational programs within institutions" (Standards of accreditation for post-baccalaureate nurse residency programs, 2008, CCNE). Accreditation is a source of objective evidence from an outside entity that a program meets certain quality and content standards. This is essential for both students and patients. Students make a considerable financial and time investment in their education and need to expect that they can emerge with real skills as well as a diploma upon graduation. They do not have to tools to vet a program before they are accepted. Patients have a right to expect that the nurses who oversee them graduated from high-quality programs. Accreditation serves…
Maslow's hierarchy of needs. (2014). R.N. Retrieved from:
Q4. "The strongest predictor of nurse job dissatisfaction and intent to leave a job is stress in the practice environment" (Paris & Tehaar 2011). Not only is Maslow's hierarchy of needs extremely useful for nurses to better understand their patients: it is also useful for nurses to better understand themselves. Burnout is very common in the nursing profession because nurses do not attend to their own, personal needs. The nurse must recognize that she has physiological and safety needs that must be addressed before accessing the higher needs of social and personal fulfillment on the hierarchy. It is vital that nurses engage in appropriate self-care, ensuring that they get adequate enough healthy food and sleep to be able to treat their patients in a compassionate manner. It is also important that healthcare organizations address the human needs of nurses and do not ignore the need for nurses to take care of their mental and physical health.
The below triangle and framework has been in place since the 1940's. It was first put forth in 1943 and was later updated, also by Maslow, a little over a decade later in 1954. The triangle or pyramid is constructed in such a way that the more "basic" and major needs are lower down the chain and the lesser but yet still worthy of mention needs are higher up. Indeed, basic needs, like the first two levels mentioned, are going to go get the most attention from any given person. However, the needs that are higher up the pyramid will get attention as well. The idea is that, to one degree or another, all of the needs on the pyramid influence our motivation or actions to one degree or another.
There are five different needs when it comes to the Maslow hierarchy. They are depicted in picture…
BBC. (2017). Abraham Maslow and the pyramid that beguiled business - BBC News. BBC News. Retrieved 2 April 2017, from http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-23902918
CM. (2017). Maslow's Hierarchy. Changingminds.org. Retrieved 2 April 2017, from http://changingminds.org/explanations/needs/maslow.htm
EPI. (2017). Educational Psychology Interactive: Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Edpsycinteractive.org. Retrieved 2 April 2017, from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/conation/maslow.html
LT. (2017). MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS. Learning-theories.com. Retrieved 2 April 2017, from https://www.learning-theories.com/maslows-hierarchy-of-needs.html
MASLOW'S THOEY VS. HULL'S THEOY
Integrating Two Theories of Motivational Psychology
Maslow Hierarchy of needs vs. Hull's Drive eduction Theory
Motivation is common term, but it is not easily defined. This is due to the many studies, which provide different definitions for the term. While some define it as a set of beliefs, values, interests, others define it as a cognitive decision making process. For this paper, motivation is central to a set of processes, which induce, direct, and maintain actions towards an objective. It is not similar to job performance, but it is a contributor to job performance (Linder, 1980). Motivation is a crucial component in the workplace, which explains why organizations are borrowing concepts from the motivation theories. There are many motivational theories, but they either fall under the content or process categories. Content theories assume that individuals have similar needs, and process theories emphasize the importance of…
Brewer, E.W., & McMahan-Landers, J. (2003). Job satisfaction among industrial and technical teacher educators. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 40(2), 65.
Benson, S.G., & Dundis, S.P. (2003). Understanding and motivating health care employees:
integrating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, training and technology. Journal of nursing management, 11(5), 315-320.
Jensen, R. (2006). Behaviorism, latent learning, and cognitive maps: Needed revisions in introductory psychology textbooks. Behavior analysis fall, 29(2), 187-209.
Needs that are lower in the hierarchy must be fulfilled before each higher level is (Korman, 1974). According to Maslow, the first level consists of the physiological needs, such as hunger and thirst. This must be fulfilled before any other level. The next level consists of security needs, which can become determinants of behavior. Examples of security needs include physical, financial, and even political or social stability. The third level consists of social needs, such as the need for love and social affiliation (DeCatanzaro, 1999). The forth level consists of self-esteem needs, which come from productive and useful work or success in many endeavors. Finally, the last level consists of the drive for self-actualization, which is our highest need, such as fulfilling personal potentials and talents. The meaning of the term self-actualization is very abstract and vague; however, it has been said that in the drive for self-actualization, we seek…
DeCatanzaro, D. (1999). Motivation and emotion. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Korman, A. (1974). The psychology of motivation. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Maslow, A. (1970). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
consumer behavior models: decision making model, Maslow's hierarchy, Freudian Theory, Non- Freudian theory, Trait theory, learning process.
eflect individually on how your understanding and interpretation of the consumer decision-making process might influence your thinking when applying marketing principles in future business roles.
According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, all human beings are driven to fulfill certain needs and desires, but some needs are perceived as having priority over other needs. Until basic needs such as food and shelter are met, the individual cannot think about higher-level needs like social approval and self-actualization (Simmons et al. 1997). When consumers are making choices about what to buy and what not to buy, Maslow's hierarchy often seems to be operating in a clear and logical fashion. During a recession, most consumers cut back on luxury items designed to impress others, like restaurant meals and name-brand clothing. Consumers who are struggling with their budget…
Oxoby, Robert J. (2004, October). Cognitive dissonance, status and growth of the underclass
The Economic Journal, 114: 727 -- 749. Retrieved March 24, 2011 at http://people.ucalgary.ca/~oxoby/Oxoby%20EJ.pdf
Simons, Janet A., Donald B. Irwin and Beverly A. Drinnien. (1987). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Psychology: The search for understanding. West Publishing Company, New York, 1987. Excerpt retrieved March 24, 2011 at http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm
Consumer Behavior Models:
Decision making model, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Freudian Theory, Non- Freudian theory, trait theory, learning process models
Do consumers mainly use logical or emotional thinking when making decisions? This is the essential problem with which all marketers must grapple. Some models of consumer behavior, such as the seven-step decision model, suggest that consumers make decisions very logically, carefully weighing the pros and cons. Others suggest that when consumers make decisions about purchases, they do so in an instinctual fashion, based upon emotions.
The seven-step decision model suggests that people make decisions by first identifying the exact nature of the decision (like buying a new pair of sneakers); assessing personal priorities (such as fashion vs. functionality); identifying their options (Nike vs. New Balance); gathering information and data (talking to someone at a running store or simply talking to their friends); evaluating their options; selecting the best option; and…
How to use the 7 step decision-making model. (2011). Decision making confidence. Retrieved March 26, 2011 at http://www.decision-making-confidence.com/7-step-decision-making-model.html
Jean, E. (1999). Cognitive dissonance theory. Meta-Discourses. Retrieved March 26, 2011 at http://www.colorado.edu/communication/meta-discourses/Papers/App_Papers/Jean.htm
Maslow's hierarchy of needs. (2010). Honolulu College. Teacher's Guidebook.
Retrieved March 26, 2011 at http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm
Wants vs. Needs
A need is defined as "a state of felt deprivation in a person" (Kotler, Chandler, Gibbs, & McColl 1989, p. 4). This refers to a general feeling of needing something. This can include needing physical items such as food, clothing, a place to live, or a mode of transport. It can also refer to a more psychological need such as a need to fit in and feel accepted, a need to express oneself, or a need to feel loved and valued.
A want is defined as "the form human needs take as shaped by culture and individual personality" (Kotler, Chandler, Gibbs, & McColl 1989, p. 5). This refers to the specific item that a person wants to fill a certain general need. For example, a general need for clothing may result in an individual wanting a certain pair of jeans and a certain jumper. As another…
Bass, B.M. (1981). Stogdill's handbook of leadership. New York: Free Press.
Daft, R.L. (1997). Management. Fort Worth, TX: The Dryden Press.
Hawkins, K. (1994). Taking action on harassment. Personnel Management, March 1994, 26-29.
Kotler, P., Chandler, P., Gibbs, R., & McColl, R. (1989). Marketing. New York: Prentice Hall.
iPod (Apple's MP3 player) relates to Maslow's hierarchy of human needs.
Abraham Maslow created his theory of a hierarchy of human needs in the late 1960's and early 1970's. The psychologist wrote that human beings are primarily motivated by unsatisfied needs. Certain lower needs must be satisfied before higher needs are satisfied. (Maslow, 1970) Advertising new products often depends upon generating a sense of need, and promising that the new product can fulfill this need.
Take for example the Apple's new MP3 player, the iPod. True, on a Maslow-like physiological level, the first level of need, one cannot eat an iPod, and a less mechanical form of 'apple' is necessary for sustenance, iPods do satisfy the consumer's immediate physical needs for lighter equipment. iPods are portable and more amenable to working out, and for musical use on crowded subway, and the crush and strain of modern urban life. The iPod…
Mahr, Jackson. (2004) "HP & iPod." Branding.com. Retrieved 24 Mar 2005 at http://www.brandchannel.com/features_profile.asp?pr_id=205
Nixon, Paul. (2005) "Apple's Tipping Point: Macs for Masses." Retrieved 24 Mar 2005 at http://www.nixlog.com/archives/2005/01/12_apples_tipping_point_macs_for_the_masses_infographic.php
Marketing / Business
Grade11 Marketing / Business Activity
Activity 1: Braun Pocket Radio
Entertainment has always been the most integral and essential part of lives of people regardless of the demographics, socio economical backgrounds, or age groups. The form of entertainment has evolved over a period of time with the evolution in technology. One of the most common and popular form of entertainment is music. Music lovers exist around the world and in every age group. hile the music listening equipment dates back to the huge gramophone and radio, with the evolution in technology and industrial revolution, smaller and more portable equipments were invented. There came a time when the bigger equipments were replaced by the small portable radios.
Talking about the 1960s, it was known as one of the first most hip fashion eras. The fashion scene was influenced by major fashion hubs around the world. Besides clothing and…
Abraham Maslow -- Maslow Hierarchy of Needs. Ict-learning now. 11 November 2010. Web. 10 January 2011.
1960's Braun Products Holds Secret to Apple's Products. Gizmodo. 14 January 2008. Web. 10 January 2011.
Rewind the Fifties. Loti.com. Web.10 January 2011.
Apple Classics and their 1960s ancestors. Guardian. 16 January 2008. Web. 10 January 2011
consumption a cultural context. instructions: project requires analyze describe consumption behaviors sources influence widely recognized cultural occurrence. cultural occurrence choose. Howecer, assignment easier conduct choose a context occurring time (e.
hile people are generally accustomed to considering that consumer behavior is an active element in the contemporary society and that it is not necessarily responsible for negative experiences, the truth is that it also has a 'dark side'. The Super Bowl has an audience nearing 100 million and it is thus essential for individuals in charge of advertising to be especially proficient in exploiting these numbers as effective as possible. ith the internet currently making it possible for an international public to join a domestic one in watching the event things are escalating rapidly as hundreds of millions of foreigners watch the Super Bowl. Millions of dollars are invested in the event and in advertising with the purpose of keeping…
Kahle, Lynn R., and Close, Angeline, "Consumer Behavior Knowledge for Effective Sports and Event Marketing," (Taylor & Francis, 24.09.2010)
Walsh, John, "Consumer Behaviour Basics: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs," Retrieved September 20, 2012, from: http://socyberty.com/social-sciences/consumer-behaviour-basics-maslows-hierarchy-of-needs/
Wood, Natalie T. And Solomon, Michael R. "Virtual Social Identity and Consumer Behavior," (M.E. Sharpe, 30.07.2009)
Kardes, Frank, Cronley, Maria, and Thomas, Cline, "Consumer Behavior," (Cengage Learning, 01.01.2010 )
It also shows that the brand's values are for promoting connectedness and kindness between others. This is what the Happiness Machine is often written about and included in many different courses on successful messaging.
The second ad is for Coke Zero, with specific focus on the United Kingdom including a James Bond theme can he found here http://www.coca-colacompany.com/videos/unlock-the-007-in-you-new-coke-zero-commercial. This commercial is more oriented towards esteem and self-actualization and a reliance on self-actualization through ingenious strategies and action. It is inclusionary yet with the twist of intellectual and ingenious action, which is perfect for British society. The last video is all-inclusive and shows how the world can be a cold place without a friend. Turkey is a very family-driven culture yet also one with very strict guidelines for behavior. That is why this video is so soft; it shows people being supportive of each other as their culture can at times…
Dalgic, T. (1994). International marketing and market orientation: An early conceptual attempt at integration. Advances in International Marketing, 6, 69-69.
Kleiner, B.H. (1983). Integrating major motivational theories. Journal of Systems Management, 34(2), 26-26.
Sheth, J.N., & Sharma, a. (2005). International e-marketing: Opportunities and issues. International Marketing Review, 22(6), 611-622.
theories on motivation that relate to an employee switching from salary to commission. The Maslow "Hierarchy of Needs" theory is applicable and appropriate; Maslow believed that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs first, then they move on to other needs. He presents five levels in his hierarchy of needs and the first is "physiological needs": these are survival needs -- food, water, air to breathe and sleep. The motivation to earn more money covers the ability to buy food and to have fresh water. The second level of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is the most applicable to the switch from salary to commission; that second on the hierarchy are "security needs" -- steady employment, access to healthcare, a safe place to live and shelter from the environment. The other needs (social, esteem, and "self-actualizing") fit into the change from salary to commission, but of those "self-actualizing" is particularly germane…
Cherry, K. (2014). Hierarchy of Needs. About.com Psychology. Retrieved April 18, 2014, from http://psychology.about.com .
University of Cambridge. (2009). Vroom's Expectancy Theory. Retrieved April 18, 2014, from http://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk .
Mortality and Life eview
For most of us, a sense of impending mortality prompts a need to find closure, conduct a full life review and reconciliation (Clarke, 2007). The reality that death is a natural process -- leading towards an inescapable final destination -- seems implausible at first glance. For a variety of reasons, death has become a taboo subject that no longer represents an accepted progression of life, but something unnatural to be wrestled against. Coming to terms with impending mortality is challenging and calls forth a range of deep emotions that need to be expressed. Expressing these intense feelings and reviewing one's life is essential to finding peace and allowing true healing on an emotional and spiritual level (Sand et al., 2009).
The definition of the life review process is described as a "naturally occurring, universal mental process" (Butler, 1963). In other words, it is a normal developmental…
Breitbart, W., Gibson, C., Poppito, S., & Berg, A. (2004). Psychotherapeutic Interventions at the end of life: A focus on meaning and spirituality. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49(6), 336-372.
Butler, R.N. (1963). The life review: An interpretation of reminiscence in the aged. Psychiatry, 26, 65-75.
Carlander, I., Ternestedt, B., Sahlberg-Blom, E., Hellstrom, I., & Sandberg, J. (2011). Being Me and Being Us in a Family Living Close to Death at Home. Qualitative Health Research, 21(5), 683-695. doi:10.1177/1049732310396102.
Clarke, D. (2007). Growing old and getting sick: Maintaining a positive spirit at the end of life. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 15, 148-154.
Nursing and the E
The Emergency oom is often one of the most visible parts of healthcare for political debate. It is also one of the most difficult environments for a modern nurse. It is interesting that one of the founders of modern nursing had emergency experience prior to developing her overall theories. Nightingale also looked at negatives and positives that are the conditions, which could help make people recover and reach their actual potential, as also noted by Maslow hierarchy of needs. She did not look or speak directly of the disease per se, but rather, looked at air, clean water, environment, and sanitation. She published her book in1860 with the title a "Notes on Nursing: What it Is and What it Is Not," connecting human beings and quality of human life, and comparing the stagnant sewage she saw in Scutari, as well as in London. She…
Americans at Risk. (March 2009). Families USA. Retrieved from:
Patient Perceptions in the Emergency Department: Physicians, Physician Assistants,
Nurse Practitioners. (30 August 2010). Retrieved from: http://idiopathicmedicine.wordpress.com/2010/08/30/patient-perceptions-in-the-emergency-department-physicians-physician-assistants-nurse-practitioners/
Management Structures Case of Walmart
The City and State where it is located
Firms today are facing fierce and strong competition and this has brought with it many challenges. To ensure their survival, companies must continually improve in both efficiency and effectiveness (Buble, Juras and Matic, 2014). Because of this, every organization must seek to exploit its workforce's potential, and the place of leadership in this can't be understated. Everyone knows that leadership is central in helping an organization achieve its goals and in aiding information sharing in the organization (Buble, Juras and Matic, 2014). Wal-Mart Stores Inc. is U.S.'s largest retail company and has been placed first by Fortune Magazine on Fortune 500 Index (Hayden et al., n.d.). The corporate strategy at Wal-Mart is constituted of dominating retail market, expanding in the United States as well as international markets, creating a positive brand and Company ecognition as well as…
ACCA, (2013). Reward Schemes. Relevant To ACCA Qualification Paper P5, pp.3-12.
Buble, M., Juras, A. And Mati?, I. (2014). The Relationship between Managers' Leadership Styles And Motivation. Management, 19(1), pp.161-193.
College of the Redwoods, (2010).Maslow's Hierarchy.pp.1-4.
Fauziah, W., Shen, T. And Talha, M. (2013).Herzberg's Two Factors Theory on Work Motivation: Does Its Work for Today's Environment?.Global Journal of Commerce & Management Perspective, 2(5), pp.18-22.
Suppot fo global phones
Medium to High. Social events ae pevasive duing skiing season
Medium to High; on Tous thee is much planned out and taken cae of; a chance to enjoy the sites and visit histoic places
High fo shopaholics; boing fo anyone who doesn't enjoy this type of activity
Fom $2,000 to ove $10,000 pe peson
Less than $100 fo camping out in a tent to ove $2,000 fo a cabin ental
Fom $3,000 to ove $10,000 each depending on the package selected
$2,000 to $4,000 depending on the package selected
$650 to $1,000 fo high taffic aeas including London o Pais;
Fom $2,000 to ove $10,000 pe peson
A full week including flights up and back
Fom a weekend to ove a week
A minimum of a week o moe due to tavel
Fom one week to a month
Fom one week to a month…
references. The need for self-actualization, consistent with applicability of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs to the travel industry as studies previously have successfully done (Huang, Hsu, 2009) illustrate how powerful the need for self-actualization and peak experiences are in differentiating one travel experience form another. Segmentation of travel alternatives by the layer of the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Model is critical for travel providers to be effective marketers and speak in terms their clients can understand and act on. The provider of Alaskan cruises would be wise to discuss how the cruise is a "trip of a lifetime to reward the decades of service to others" as the Asian women has most likely given huge blocks of her time and effort to her family and the family business. The self-actualization and "grand experience" of the Alaskan cruise is exceptionally successful as a marketing and messaging strategy that aligns to the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Model, hence the very high participation rates on these events from senior citizens who are empty nesters.
Likewise the Maslow Model when applied to the university student and successful businessman has comparable analysis and results. For the university student the need is less on self-actualization, more on safety and psychological needs to challenging one's self against foreign countries and getting a glimpse into what traveling globally in freedom are. The university student may aspire for a self-actualized and exceptional experience, yet their focus the majority of the time will be on the development of their own self-confidence in tackling challenges of getting around and potentially staying in a foreign nation for a period of time. In studies that have applied the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs to travel programs and initiatives, insights have been gained into which demographic and psychographic groups have the greatest need for self-actualization, self-esteem, love & belonging & safety (Huang, Hsu, 2009).
While the Asian woman is clearly most interested in self-actualization and the sense of accomplishment and reward that comes from the cruise to Alaska, the students are looking for the esteem and confidence of being able to navigate through foreign nations. For the business man and the exotic diving trip to Thailand the need for esteem of conquering or mastering the specific region or waters of interest, combined with self-actualization of confronting uncertainty and risk underwater and still being able to see incredible sights, the businessman is unique in his mix of Maslow Needs Assessments. Yet for travel marketers to excel in their selection and marketing of travel destinations and experiences, these factors all must be taken into account and communicated with clarity and focus. This is in effect best practices in travel marketing today; the integrating of needs assessment of behavioral models including the Maslow Hierarchy of needs and the relative market positioning of travel experiences relative to potential clients.
The Herzberg Two Factor Theory that integrates Hygiene Factors and Motivators into the same model has also successfully been integrated into the travel industry's knowledge base of research (Chan, Baum, 2007). Specifically concentrating on how to most effectively satiate or satisfy travelers with the Hygiene Factors to meet minimum expectations of travelers has proven to be critically important in the development and fine-tuning of marketing messages. The aspirational values of the Motivators of the Herzberg Model are what the Asian woman and the businessman are looking for. Herzberg primarily completed research on
Greyston Bakery Case Study
Organization of the report
Description of the case
We don't hire people to bake brownies; we bake brownies to hire people. -- Greyston Bakery's Benefit Corporation eport (2013)
There has been a growing recognition among businesses of all sizes and types that investments in their communities can pay major dividends in terms of corporate good will and increased profitability. As the epigraph above indicates, one company that has been in the vanguard of this movement is Greyston Bakery, based out of Yonkers, New York. To date, Greyston Bakery has leveraged an enlightened approach to human resource management and corporate social responsibility into a thriving business that supports a wide range of community-based support services for those in need. The purpose of this report was to provide a case study of Greyston Bakery based on the company's publicly available information, a case study of the company by…
Creech, R. (1999, Summer). Employee motivation. Management Quarterly, 36(2), 33-39.
Langton, N., Robbins, S.P., & Judge, T.A (2016). Organizational behaviour (7th Canadian ed.). Toronto: Pearson Canada.
Leifziger, D. (2013, December 18). Greyston Bakery: Combatting poverty by making a profit. The Aspen Institute case no. LWW-03.
Mission and history. (2016). Greyston Bakery. Retrieved from http://greyston.com/about-greyston/mission-history/ .
In other words, he expects for his efforts to be accordingly remunerated or rewarded with a promotion, a full time job offer for a trainee and so on (Stuart-Kotze, 2008).
In implementing these individual needs, organizational managers have developed numerous incentive plans, such as the offering of increased wages, premiums, bonuses or promotions.
The four above presented theories are relevant in the context of driving the individual, which is then capable to influence the organizational behavior of his employing company. The responses generated by the economic entities relative to the motivational factors vary in terms of intensity, ability to implement or resources possessed, but fact remains that all organizations have attempted to integrate stimuli that increase the performances of the workers. The ultimate goal of each organization offering incentive plans to its staff members is that of best benefiting from their intense efforts.
Aside the offering of a pleasant, yet…
Fabozzi, F.J., Peterson, P.P., 2003, Financial Management and Analysis, 2nd Edition, John Willey and Sons Inc.
Hariss, J.O., Hartman, S.J., 2001, Organizational Behavior, 1st Edition, Taylor & Francis Inc.
Stuart-Kotze, R., 2008, Motivation Theory, http://www.goal-setting-guide.com/motivation-theory.htmllast accessed on September 15, 2008
2008, Official Website of the Microsoft Corporation, http://www.microsoft.com/en/us/default.aspxlast accessed on September 15, 2008
Erik Erikson postulated that personality is a progress through a number of stages and facing conflicts in the course of progression and the in order to pass through a process, the individual has to overcome these conflicts. These internal conflicts therefore aroused defense mechanisms that thereafter dictated the personality of an individual (Kendra, 2010).
Humanistic approach emphasizes the individual worth and the centrality of the value of a person. It is pegged on the philosophy of existentialism and emphasized on creativity, spontaneity and activeness of human beings. The approach focuses on the development and possibility of humans to defeat hardship and misery as opposed to defeat and pessimis.
Under this approach, there is emphasis on free will and the experience of an individual to be fundamental in the shaping of the personality. It looks at the concept of self-actualization, which is an internal natural need for personal growth…
Kendra Cherry, (2010). Theories of Personality. Personality Psychology Study Guide. Retrieved June 10, 2010 from http://psychology.about.com /od/psychologystudyguides/a/personalitysg_3.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Applying Open Systems Theory to Google
Open systems theory may be used as one approach to examining an organization. An interesting organization, which was also forth on Fortunes 2011 list of the 100 best companies to work for is Google (Fortune, 2011). Google is a firm where there is a great deal of influence between the internal and the external environments due to the porous boundaries of the firm.
One of the most important and influential components of Google are the employees, they are also one of the most porous elements as the employees may be members of multiple systems and their performance in the workplace may be influenced by many external forces. Motivation theory, such as Maslow Hierarchy of Needs, indicates that employees will have different needs; these may depend on many external influences, based on their personal psychological well being and attitudes, and other factors, such as…
Cowley, MC, (2012), Not A Happy Accident: How Google Deliberately Designs Workplace Satisfaction, ACCESSED AT http://www.fastcompany.com/3007268/where-are-they-now/not-happy-accident-how-google-deliberately-designs-workplace-satisfaction
Fortune, (2011), 100 Best Companies to Work For, accessed at http://archive.fortune.com/magazines/fortune/bestcompanies/2011/snapshots/4.html
Google, (2014), 10k, accessed at http://investor.google.com/pdf/2013_google_annual_report.pdf
Scott, W.R. (2002). Organizations: Rational, natural, and open systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Nightingale met a friend Richard Monckton Miles in 1842. Then in 1844, Nightingale asked Dr. Howe if she could do a charitable job in a hospital like the catholic nuns, and refused her marriage to her cousin, Henry Nicholson. By 1845, Nightingale started training herself in the nearby Salisbury Hospital, but her parents were not happy about it, seeing nursing as an inappropriate job for a well to do woman like their daughter. In the next year, Nightingale began teaching herself from the government blue books. In the meantime, Monckton Miles wanted to marry her, but soon she travelled to Rome, Italy with friends to avoid him. Britain unlimited, 2009). Finally, after she attended the Herbert's Charmouth convalescent home, her knowledge was recognized. In 1849, after refusing finally to Miles proposal, she decided to go to Egypt while accompanying her friends, the Bracebridges. They then travelled through Europe, and ended…
(Source: Cody, 2006, p. 259).
Differences Between Nightingale's Theory and Emancipatory Knowing -- When Nightingale thought about the benefits of a well-ventilated room, she was not basing her view on previous knowledge. Emancipatory progress is now evident in the way world healthcare approaches a patient's room -- typically well-ventilated and clean (Beck, 2005, pg. 140). Nightingale was born in an era were by women has very little voice most of the work done by women were in-house work so most of Nightingale's major innovation was providing place for women to work with and for women (Selanders, 2005, pg., 83). Today with Emancipatory knowledge we see a more educated workforce of both men and women in nursing. Although in the late 19th century there were still arguments regarding Nightingale's visions, today's theorists use her broad-based knowledge as a best -- practice template for modern conceptions (Attewell, 2005).
The Legacy of Nightingale Part 1 -- Nursing Ethics -- Most modern ethical theorist are based on traditions dating back as far as Ancient Greece. However, medical, and in particular nursing, ethics are clearly a post-Nightingale logical evolution (never a conclusion). The philosophical combination of advocacy and ethics, while still remaining true to the realities of budgets and the need for a medical institution to
Aesthetic needs are met by creating a wholly bicycle-centric environment. It is aesthetically important for cycling geeks to be immersed in such as environment. Lastly, self-actualization needs are met in that the employees are encouraged to set their own course in their employment. The environment is such that the other needs of the employees are met to such a degree that they have the freedom to pursue the path of self-actualization within the context of the bicycle store.
2) Herzberg's Two Factor Theory suggests that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are independent of one another. He explains that job satisfaction arises from motivators, such as recognition and personal growth. Job dissatisfaction arises from a different set of factors, such as company policy, interpersonal relationships, and money.
At Wheelworks, several motivators are at work. The floor staff are motivated by the learning they experience at the educational seminars; the satisfaction they…
4) Wheelworks offers a few different forms of financial compensation. They pay wages that they describe as "the highest possible." This meets the safety needs of their employees, which is key in the retail business. It was stated that many of the employees have good educations, so if they could not meet their safety needs at Wheelworks, they would be forced to do so elsewhere.
Wheelworks does not offer commission. This is good practice, since their staff are more motivated by higher-level needs such as achievement and competition. Commission is insufficient and does not support Wheelworks' attempt to differentiate themselves with their high level of customer service. There are also profit sharing plans, which motivate the employees but also foster teamwork. This is also true of the seasonal bonuses. These also reinforce the belonging needs. In this way, these types of incentives reinforce the higher order needs, while de-emphasizing the…
I expect to find a pattern where as Lee (1992) might suggest, a hierarchical ethical theory exists, where the concept of "serving the needs of others" in need correlates directly to one's status, race, ethnicity and other factors.
This suggests some level of discrimination may exist especially amongst young children and adolescents who grow up in communities where they lack encouragement, support and family to shower them with love and affection. Indeed my initial responses included a feeling that I was obliged to provide each neglected child something to help fill the emotional void that must exist in the absence of proper parenting or family support.
A also feel it urgent that educators and community members consider their ethical and moral obligations to service those who might not otherwise be able to help themselves. In the face of such tragedy, such young children are more likely to grow into adults…
Lee, Donald C. Toward a sound world order: A multidimensional hierarchical ethical theory. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1992.
He is still deeply in love with his wife, as though he just met her . He expresses his love on a daily bases with his wife, with hugs, kisses, and showers her with lavish gifts . They cuddle in the evenings in the family room for an evening of relaxation watching television or reading . Although the sexual physical part of their life as slowed down, they still do have a very high sexual relationship which is shown in different ways or expressions .
Fears / Concerns
Mr. P expressed his biggest concern related to aging is being without his wife one day . He also expressed that he doesn't want to die the same way this mother did with Alzheimer's disease, as it was a horrible experience for anyone to live with and watch a loved die . This has played on his mind as he has aged,…
Buchman, a., Boyle, P., Wilson, P., Fleischman, D., Leurgans, and Bennett, D. ( 2009). Association between late -- life social activity and motor decline in older adults. Achieves of Internal Medicine, 169 (12), 139-1146.
Donni, L., Savina, C., & Cannella, C. ( 2009). Nutrition in the elderly: Role of fiber. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 49, 61-69
Hassanein, S. & Narsavage, G. ( 2009). The does effect of pulmonary rehabilitation of physical activity, perceived exertion, and quality of life. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention. 29 (4), 255-260.
Training Needs Analysis Practices for Managers: A Study of Saudi Arabia Private Firms
Training needs analysis (TNA) is defined by Mabey and Salman (1995:158) as a "process of collecting data which allows an organization to identify and compare its actual level with its desired level of performance." The authors also indicate that this performance could be interpreted as meaning the competencies and attitude necessary for the staff to do the job effectively. Moreover, Armstrong (1996:536) states that "training needs assessment is partly concerned with finding the gap between what is happening and what should happen.. This is what has to be filled by training ." Figure (1.1) depicts this gap.
The training Gap
WHAT SHOULD BE
CORPORATE OR FUNCTIONAL ATANDARDS
KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL REQUIRED
TARGETS OR STANDARDS OF
CORPORATE FOR FUNCTIONAL RESULTS
KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL POSSESSED
ACTUAL PERFORMANCE OF INDIVIDUALS
Source: Armstrong (1996)
Feeling Extremely Motivated
This paper will describe an experience in which I felt extremely motivated. The paper will first provide a description of the experience. This will be followed by a reflection involving multiple perspectives. The experience will then be discussed on a deeper level using motivation concepts and theories. Finally, the paper will discuss how what I learned here can be applied in future experiences. At the end, the main points of the paper are summarized.
I was tasked with developing a report and presenting it to upper management. The report was to explain a project that I had advocated for and that had been greenlighted by upper management six months prior. Now management wanted an update to see how well the project was coming along, where it had succeeded and what it had run up against challenges. To help me develop the report, I needed…
Locate a copy of an organizational chart of your company, division, or department. If you do not have access to an organization chart, you can find examples of organizational charts on the Internet searching on Alta Vista, http://www.altavista.com/, for the term "company organizational charts." What type of organizational structure does the organization currently have? Is the structure functional, geographic, product, network, or a hybrid? Is it mechanistic or organic? How effective is the current structure? Could or should it be more organic? What changes would you make if you were a top executive? Explain why.
Organizing and Leading
The organizational chart example provided here illustrates a formal structure based on job function. The structure of the chart suggests a mechanistic way of conducting business as the lines of reporting are clearly demarcated and indicate functional relations between the positions. A dotted line drawn between the Construction Group…
govern the extent to which we thrive as human beings. Our survival has been contingent on the fulfillment of needs since the moment we were born. Abraham Maslow saw great importance and significance in the fulfillment of human needs and created an entire theoretical perspective based in these needs. Everyone, including myself, is a product of the fulfillment, or lack of fulfillment, of certain needs. Essentially, our physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual health and well-being depend upon certain needs being met.
Maslow's theory rests in the concept that certain needs must be tended to and fulfilled prior to other needs. Furthermore, physiological needs must be established before safety needs, safety needs before belongingness needs, and belongingness needs before esteem needs, and finally all of these needs prior to self-actualization (Poston, 2009). These needs were arranged by Maslow in a pyramid, with physiological needs at the bottom and self-actualization at the…
Poston, B. (2009). An exercise in personal exploration: Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The Surgical Technologist, August, 347-53.
Managing People -- Wal-Mart
Summary of the Company and Facts
Wal-Mart is among many multi-national retail businesses that are well-known. It runs chains of large discount department stores and warehouses all over the world though it's an American multinational retailer corporation. It is also the biggest private employer in the world, to employ such a big number of workers can be very challenging and hence the employee relationship with the management requires thorough evaluation. With corporations such as Wal-Mart always chasing to grow higher and getting better returns come with the temptations to go really wrong in many ways. Wal-Mart does a lot right; it has expanded its productivity by being more efficient and leaner when compared to many companies. Shoppers accrue a lot of benefits from the expansion of Wal-Mart. Like all this retail businesses the employees in Wal-Mart are given low wages, they work on part-time conditions…
Ludensky, A. (2008).Wal-mart's Labor problem. Retrieved November 23, 2012 from http://campusprogress.org/articles/wal-marts_labor_problem
Cherry, K. (2009).Hierarchy of needs. Retrieved November 23, 2012 from http://psychology.about.com /od/theoriesofpersonality/a/hierarchyneeds.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
An elaborate rehearsal requires multiple activities to be coordinated and completed in order to give the rehearser a comprehensive run-through of the activity.
A mnemonic is a memory aid, often verbal (like a poem or word list, that assist a learner in learning through the use of both repetition and by utilizing easy to remember lines, words, riddles and poems. For example, an acronym mnemonic is often used to memorize a list. It contains an easily remembered word, phrase or rhyme where all the first letters are associated with an item on the list being memorized.
Elaborative rehearsal and mnemonics are similar in that mnemonics is a form of rehearsal and rehearsals use mnemonics as part of the rehearsal process. When one rehearses something, they are essentially practicing the activity. Thus, one method of rehearsing a speech is to practice memorizing the content. A method used to assist with memorizing…
Boeree, George C. (2000): Erik Erikson. Shippensburg: Shippensburg University Press.
Coon, Dennis. (2006): A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior.
Marketing Channels and Methods -- the New Svelte Shape of McDonald's
Objectives & Mission Statement
Although McDonald's latest advertising slogan, as proclaimed on its 2005 website, is "I'm lovin' it," (McDonald's Official ebsite, 2005), shareholders in the fast food company have not be equally enamored of its current stock performance and plummeting sales. (The Rogue Investor, 2005) Thus, the objectives of the new McDonald's marketing campaign must be to undo some of the economic and public relations damage done to the company by the negative press generated by the success of Morgan Spurlock's film 'Supersize Me.' Over the course of the year, McDonald's wishes to gain a greater percentage of the revenue of the current fast food market than its most prominent burger-oriented competitors endy's and Burger King. McDonald's also wishes to gain some of the type of positive media as generated by the sandwich chain Subway. The Subway Diet…
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Drawing from Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Shank's old boss failed to fulfill the needs of both esteem and belonging. Belonging is related to making sure employees are comfortable and feel that they are part of the team or group. Although esteem is making employees feel a sense of accomplishment. Shank has described the former boss as being non-motivating, having no relationship with employees and having told employees that they are just a number in the organization. During the tenure of the former boss, motivating employees was not a prime factor. The former boss ran the company on the bottom line of getting things done, making profit, efficiently and effectively. If things were not done in the right manner, the boss would replace the employees. Since the boss is operating at a twofold level of the Maslow's hierarchy of needs (security and physiology), its top priority must be to motivate…
There are six approaches for studying the personality development of a person. Two of the most popular ones are the biological and humanistic approaches. The other four of these approaches include the trait, cognitive, behavioral and psychoanalytic. Each of these approaches are used to describe the system through we acquire our personality and factors that influence this personality development. The use of the approach is determined by the psychotherapist as well as the client, as they can differ from one person to another with respect to their effectiveness. However, it is the responsibility of the therapist to make sure that the approach used by him would be appropriate for the particular client he is dealing with. Even though it is not expected of the therapist to specialize in all the approaches, he should at least have an idea about each one of them. In this paper, we will…
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Motivational Theories for Various Employee Groups
The force that initiates certain behavior in a person is also called motivation. Motivational theories have been developed by researchers using various mechanisms like state of mind, basic needs, desires and goals of a person.
Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg)
The two-factor theory was published in 1959 by Herzberg after doing a research on the job attitudes for five years. Two different factors affect job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction, as the theory states. Thus, dissatisfaction and satisfaction should not be measured using the same continuum. The two motivating factors of the theory are motivation and hygiene factors. Motivation factors produce positive satisfaction to an employee, they are mainly intrinsic conditions e.g. responsibility, recognition, challenging work and achievement. Hygiene factors are extrinsic job conditions and absence of these results in job dissatisfaction e.g. working conditions, company policies, pay, supervision, job security, status and fringe benefits Sutaria, 1980()…
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From the aspects and factors that have been mentioned, there is still one element that can play a great role in the success of a team. This is the personality of every individual in the team. Member personality has great impact in the success of team. This is similar to the level of strength of every individual in a human pyramid. A person in the pyramid who has a weak physical strength can cause the fall of the other persons who are on top of him and standing on his shoulders. In the same way, a team member who has unlikeable personality, such as selfishness, incooperation, or irresponsibility, can negatively affect the other team members either in terms of their performance or even influencing the personality of the other members. According to Abraham and Morrison, teams with higher levels of Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness among team members performed better than…
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Personality and Personalistic Leadership: An Assessment of Team Management for the 21st Century usiness Team Environment
Contemporary studies on emerging new principles on the nature of the culture of the business environment and team management within organizations led to the development of what is termed as "personalistic leadership." This new term and concept refers to the prevailing use of personal relations and strategies that aim to build stronger social bonds between leader and members, as well as among members of an organization. Personalistic leadership arises from the development of diversity among members of an organization; it is in this change in the business environment that made personal and social relationships important within business organizations (uhler, 2004). In this kind of leadership, it is also vital that leaders/managers must be able to adapt strategies and methods which reflect the flexibility or adaptability of the leader to changes within the business environment…
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Productivity-Education/Craft/Trade -- a key to being able to stop the return to the penal system is to provide training necessary to allow the individual to find work after leaving prison. Not only is it extremely tough to get a job as a convicted felon, but the skills necessary to get a job that will afford a decent living are tough to get in prison. Earning a degree either online or through continuing education; earning a trade certificate (automotive, plumbing, wood working, etc.) will provide an occupation for the felon after leaving prison, and a focus for their energy and attention while in prison.
Consequences -- Many rehabilitation programs fail because the consequences are unrealistic. Allow people to be human, while still requiring that in order to receive the gift from society of living in society, there are consequences if the rules are broken (Clear, et.al., 2011).
How then, can Maslow's…
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Organizational Behavior and Teamwork
Southwest Airlines, Inc. has become an example of notable success. One reason for its significant achievement is its application of Reinforcement Theory to its employees. These applications have resulted in a highly motivated workforce, which is intimately tied to Southwest's success among business leaders. Even so, not even Southwest can satisfy its employees' needs according to Maslow's Hierarchy; rather, Southwest can only give some raw materials for satisfying those needs.
Are Southwest Airlines Inc. leadership and policies fulfilling Maslow's Needs Theory stages?
Abraham Maslow's 5-stage needs theory, developed in the United States during the 1940's and 1950's (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010), includes the following stages: biological and physiological needs; safety needs; belongingness and love needs; esteem needs; and self-actualization (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010). The most basic needs that are basic to survival and are at the bottom…
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