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Why are books considered "mass" media when a popular hardcover book might sell only 100,000 or 200,000 copies? Include in your discussion a definition of mass media and give examples of books that have had a significant impact on a mass audience.
Books are considered mass media due to their widespread appeal rather than physical book sales. Books are unique in that the notions imbedded within them often transcend tradition sales figures. The concepts and ideas contained in books can quickly spread without the need for individuals to physically purchase the book. For example, aspects of Christianity are well-known even by those who have yet to purchase a physical copy of the Bible. The notions of giving, charity, honesty, integrity, and pursuit of knowledge are all concepts embedded within the Bible. Many individuals are therefore aware of these concepts and apply them daily without physically purchasing the Bible.…
1) Dominick, Joseph. The Dynamics of Mass Communication: Media in the Digital Age, 10/e. (2009) University of Georgia. ISBN: 0073378836
2) McQuail, D.: McQuail's Mass Communication Theory (fifth edition) (Sage, 2005). Thompson, John B.: The Media and Modernity
Explain how the invention of the telegraph revolutionized communication and set in motion the development of the mass media.
American capitalism is unique in the manner in which in continually increases the quality of life for society. A market economy, similar in concept to America and other industrialized nations, provides individuals to create unique services that benefit society. These goods and services are often quantified in nations GDP figures. GDP, in essence, are the goods and services bought sold and produced in a particular nation. As innovation occurs, efficiencies often materialize that benefit society at large. Through capitalism, that initial advantages, are further advances through innovation. The telegraph was no different in this regards. Through international ingenuity, the telegraph provided a better quality of life for society, while also revolutionizing the mass media industry.
To begin the telegraph revolutionized communication primarily through its rapid proliferation throughout America. The…
1) Dominick, Joseph. The Dynamics of Mass Communication: Media in the Digital Age, 10/e. (2009) University of Georgia. ISBN: 0073378836
Applying Mass Communication Theories
What traps should communicators avoid in using fear appeals in their messages?
Fear is an emotion and messages that appeal to emotions must tread not so much lightly, but rather, quite meticulously, especially when calling upon an emotion such as fear. Successful marketing campaigns of the 21st century often use the approach of marketing more than a brand; they brand a lifestyle choice and/or a personality. (Who's wearing the trousers?, 2001) Communicators should avoid marketing lifestyles or personalities that are intensely fearful. Therefore, when communicators use fear appeals in their messages, they should avoid a lack of specificity. Fear is an irrational emotion and has the potential to spread rapidly. If communicators utilize fear appeals in their messages, they should articulate the object of fear and the quality of the fear quite specifically. Use of the ego-defensive function and the value-expressive function proves effective.…
Brand-Building: Chapter 10 -- Public Relations, 224 -- 236.
The case for brands. 2001. Economist, 360(8238), 11. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, 2012 April 06.
Part Three -- Purchase and Acquisition: Chapter 13 -- Attitude Models and Consumer Decision Making, 456 -- 493.
Who's wearing the trousers? 2001. Economist, 360(8238), 26 -- 28. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, 2012 April 06.
The narrator before and after the piece used a light tone to introduce the piece, and added a note at the end, saying, "The First Lady said she had always wanted to do that."
It was interesting to see the First Lady "let her hair down" so to speak, and make fun of her husband. She called herself a "desperate housewife" because of her husband's legendary early bedtime, and also poked fun at his intellect when she said, "I was the librarian who spent 12 hours a day in the library and yet somehow I met George." The President chuckled at many of her remarks, and the piece cut from the First Lady to the President and his reaction several times. The banter seemed good natured, and the piece gave the idea that the First Lady enjoyed her speech. So did the crowd, the piece ended with their giving her…
Mrs. Bush Steals Show
An analysis of the ABC Nightly News - May 1, 2005. The story is "Mrs. Bush Steals Show at Reporter's Dinner." This was a humorous piece that showed Laura Bush speaking at the 91st annual White House Correspondents' Association dinner. The piece used several news packaging techniques to persuade the viewer that Bush's speech was unusual, funny, and out of character for her. The length of the story was about two minutes long, and it showed Mrs. Bush first interrupting the President as he began and "old joke," and then talking about him as if it were some kind of roast. The piece used several sound bites of jokes and quips that the First Lady said about the President, and then the camera would show reaction from the crown, including Condoleezza Rice and Vice-President Chaney. Laughter and applause from the audience were quite important to the overall effect of the story, and the editing was quite tight and used mostly close-up shots for the reactions, mixed with some general long shots that gave an overall picture of the size of the audience. Mrs. Bush's segments were shot from a bit below the podium where she spoke, giving her an aura of power and control. The narrator before and after the piece used a light tone to introduce the piece, and added a note at the end, saying, "The First Lady said she had always wanted to do that."
It was interesting to see the First Lady "let her hair down" so to speak, and make fun of her husband. She called herself a "desperate housewife" because of her husband's legendary early bedtime, and also poked fun at his intellect when she said, "I was the librarian who spent 12 hours a day in the library and yet somehow I met George." The President chuckled at many of her remarks, and the piece cut from the First Lady to the President and his reaction several times. The banter seemed good natured, and the piece gave the idea that the First Lady enjoyed her speech. So did the crowd, the piece ended with their giving her a standing ovation. This piece was presented so that the First Lady came off funny but not overbearing, and the reaction was very positive in the crowd. It was very well done, and enjoyable, even funny to watch, which made it seem more like entertainment than straight news.
Mass Communication: Nonverbal Listening Patterns Exercise
Nonverbal Listening Patterns Exercise
Nonverbal listening patterns play a key role in determining whether or not communication will be effective. They serve as an outward symbol of the listener's interest in what is being discussed. Positive nonverbal listening patterns such as maintaining meaningful eye contact, nodding in acknowledgement, and leaning towards the speaker signal the listener's active participation in the conversation. Negative patterns, on the other hand, which include glancing at the watch, playing with jewelry and hair, and biting the nails and lips, are an outright symbol that the listener is either bored or disinterested in the subject matter. This exercise assesses the effectiveness of nonverbal behavioral patterns that I displayed in two distinctly different conversations -- one with Linda, my elder sister who lived out of the country, and whom I had not seen for almost a decade, and another with Joe,…
Bryant, J. (2008). Media Effects. New York: Routledge Press.
This book is able to aptly examine some of the more pervasive impacts of mass media, while discussing the bulk of the effects arena, offering up more focused commentary on mobile media and other technologies. This means that it is able to present both theory and research in a compelling and meaningful manner, while presenting even the most complex concepts of media theory in an accessible way. One of the strengths of the book is that it offers up a social cognitive theory of mass communication along with a description of the mass media consumption and perceptions of social reality. The author is able to take into account the intensive influence that social media has had on traditional media and is able to offer up lucid predictions as to how this is likely to continue.
Campbell, R. (2011). Media…
In this short essay, Hardt essentially describes the process of how our perception has long been distorted via the media. Hardt explains how and why he does not believe that mass communication actually contributes to the promise of democracy or the meaning of self in society. To a certain extent, it appears as though Hardt is making the argument that the media depends on a certain amount of social distortion in order to thrive. This allows it to not just sell to a wider consumer base, but to be able to control that consumer base for the most part. Thus, Hardt makes a strong case for the fact that the media distorts as a means of transferring information to the public, because it is in the best interest of the media to do so. However, as the reader is able to aptly realize, this is not always the case.
Hirst, M. (2007). Communication and New Media. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
This book functions primarily to offer up a new method of examining both media and mass communication, by offering up an overview of the history, development and theories of mass communication and how new media has been able to debut. In this manner, the book offers up a strong and nuanced foundation for the overall evolution of the media and communication theories in general. The book also examines the questions of ethics and governance,
Sociology of Mass Communication
In the study of sociology, social institutions play a vital role in implementing and dictating the norms and rules within the society. These social institutions may be political (political organizations), economic (business corporations, companies, or entities), or related to the civic society (family and socially-oriented cause groups). However, the advancement in technology and the sudden influx of the people's demand for information and entertainment created the most powerful, prevalent, and influential institution in the society, which is the mass media institution.
The mass media as an institution has become an essential element in the society, for the mass media helped shape the culture of American society, especially those concerning the values, traditions, and norms of the society. The mass media also helped proliferate the need of the people to access and know everything and every issue that is of public interest and concern to the society.…
Bagdikian, B. (1992). The Media Monopoly. Boston: Beacon Press.
McKibben, B. (1993). The Age of Missing Information. New York: Plume.
Parenti, M. (1992). Make-Believe Media: The Politics of Entertainment. New York: St. Martin's Press.
public by the politician (negative or positive)?
An important part of getting the message across in political campaigns is an approach referred in as 'framing' (a psychology terminology). Individuals listen and hear the speech logic, but they do also respond, albeit subliminally, to the manner in which the issues are presented. The motif of one of America's top speechwriters, Frank Luntz's widely acclaimed book on public speaking, 'Words that Work', hits the nail on the head: it is not about what you say, it's about what the people hear. What are the key words that speaker wants the electorate to 'hear' from a speech and from his campaign in general? Saul Alinsky, a far left activist of United States, featured this idea in his infamous work: Rules for Radicals: in which he stated choose your target, freeze it, make it personal and then polarize it (Crawford).
A classic framing approach…
Alo, Moses. "A Rhetorical Analysis of Selected Political Speeches of Prominent African Leaders." British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences (2012): 2046-9578. Retrieved from: http://www.bjournal.co.uk/paper/BJASS_10_1/BJASS_10_01_08.pdf
Bernstein, Jonathan. Washington Monthly. Febuary 2012. 21 July 2015. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/magazine/january_february_2012/features/campaign_promises034471.php?page=all#
Burgos, David and Milward Brown. "Ethnic Target Marketing." n.d. Retrieved from: http://www.millwardbrown.com/docs/default-source/insight-documents/articles-and-reports/MB_Burgos_Ethnic_Target_Marketing.pdf
Denton, Robert (Jr.) E., and Dan F. Hahn. Presidential Communication: Description and Analysis. Praeger, 1986. Print.
Trace the history of the printed newspaper and various types of eras in reporting news
The newspaper has undergone a number of changes relating not only to content but also to its distribution. hile much of the material found in the newspapers of the present moment consists of nationally syndicated columns and a tendency toward objective analysis, newspapers were not always this way. This paper charts the history of the printed newspaper in the United States, from the early colonial newspapers of the pre-Revolutionary ar era through their current state.
In the colonial period, newspapers were far more provincial than they are today; different colonies had their own newspapers, and these were instrumental in shaping public opinion on topical issues. Benjamin Franklin realized that the best way to make money through newspapers was through advertisements. They also advertised books, which was influential in making popular thought more secular. In…
Regal, Brian. Radio: The Life Story of a Technology. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2001. Print.
Schudson, Michael. "The Objectivity Norm in American Journalism." Journalism 2.2 (Aug. 2001): 149-170. Print.
Mass Comm Final
One theme that is a constant throughout the study of contemporary mass communication is the function that mass communication holds in the democratic political process. Although the present-day concepts of "media" or "mass communication" would have been unknown at the time of the Bill of Rights, it is nonetheless clear that the First Amendment's guarantee of freedom of the press essentially enshrines in law the notion that an informed and intellectually engaged electorate is crucial for the health of the American political system. And certainly the drafters of the U.S. Constitution were familiar with the notion that clear reasoned argumentation that could reach a broad majority of citizens was necessary for the political system they envisioned: there would not be a U.S. Constitution if there had not been Thomas Paine's "Common Sense," a widely-reproduced pamphlet laying out the basic argument for American independence. However, in different ways,…
Baym, "The Daily Show and Political Journalism"
McChesney, "Policing the Unthinkable," "Response to Compaine"
Compaine, "Myths of Encroaching Global Media Ownership," "Response to McChesney"
Koch, "Cyber Citizen or Cyborg Citizen"
Wolf's book, based on a number of scholarly articles she wrote during the last several years, looks at the manner in which women have been portrayed in the Broadway musical, and the references and relevance of those portraits to society's expectations of the time.
Communication Studies. (2012). etrieved from: http://www.communicationstudies.com/
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). esearch Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ferguson, M. (2010). Choice Feminism and the Fear of Politics. Perspectives on Politics.
8 (1): 247-63.
Gehrke, P. (2009). The Ethics and Politics of Speech: Communications and hetoric in the 20th Century. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press
Hesse-Biber, S., ed. (2011). Handbook of Feminist esearch: Theory and Praxis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Leung, K., et.al. (2008). Global Trends in Communication Education and esearch. Boston, MA: Hampton Press.
Levinson, W., et.al. (2010). Developing Physician Communication Skills…
Communication Studies. (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.communicationstudies.com/
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). Research Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ferguson, M. (2010). Choice Feminism and the Fear of Politics. Perspectives on Politics.
As a result, consumers again have choices. y limiting media exposure, and being aware of media techniques used to brand and market pop stars, we can make educated choices. Rather than choosing what to listen to by turning on the radio and television, we now have the choice to investigate on our own, on the Internet. It will be interesting to see how pop music responds.
Daly, Steve. "ritney Spears inside the heart and mind (and bedroom) of America's new teen queen." Rolling Stone, 15 April 1999, 60-70.
Fox, Mark A., and Paul Kochanowski. "Models of Superstardom: An Application of the Lotka and Yule Distributions." Popular Music & Society 27, no. 4 (2004): 507-522.
Larson, Charles U. Persuasion: Perception and Responsibility, 9th ed. elmont, CA: Wadsworth / Thomson Learning, 2001.
Lelanc, Larry. "A Revival At Top 40 Radio rings Wave Of New Teen Acts In Canada." illboard, 17 June…
Daly, Steve. "Britney Spears inside the heart and mind (and bedroom) of America's new teen queen." Rolling Stone, 15 April 1999, 60-70.
Fox, Mark A., and Paul Kochanowski. "Models of Superstardom: An Application of the Lotka and Yule Distributions." Popular Music & Society 27, no. 4 (2004): 507-522.
Larson, Charles U. Persuasion: Perception and Responsibility, 9th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth / Thomson Learning, 2001.
LeBlanc, Larry. "A Revival At Top 40 Radio Brings Wave Of New Teen Acts In Canada." Billboard, 17 June 2000, 75.
He is concerned that as the social sciences increasingly becomes more quantified, they loffer less understanding into the concepts behind symbols. This is especially of concern, since symbols have played such an important role throughout history. Duncan gives examples of symbol misunderstandings such as: confusion of the symbolic and subjective, failure to study symbolic forms, and sociologists' inability to use non-mechanistic models. Even worse, there is no agreement between scholars on how to define the concept of symbol nor explain the ambiguity of symbols. Is this lack of definitive agreement the reason why people perceive reality differently? Does this lead to misunderstandings and a failure to communicate?
Berger and Luckmann. Social construction.
QUESTION: Berger and Luckman state that society is a human product. Can it also be the product of lower animals? Recently, it was shown that chimpanzees actually are capable of culture or the passing of knowledge from one…
Communication Systems Put Wheels on Projects
Facilitation participation. Development Support Communication (DSC) is a system that facilitates the sharing of information about development agenda and associated actions (Adesida, 2001). The purpose of development support communication is the effective linking of the stakeholders in a development process (Adesida, 2001). The range of stakeholders who benefit from a development support communication system is broad, including the planners, the implementers, the donor community, and the beneficiaries of the development (Adesida, 2001). Good communication is critical to effective development planning and implementation (Adesida, 2001). By adhering to development communication system, planners and implementers can greatly enhance the quality of their communication, providing explicit and interpretable data (Adesida, 2001). The objective is provide clarity about the goals and objectives, to articulate the development roles, including the opportunities afforded beneficiaries to help shape the eventual development outcomes (Adesida, 2001). Beyond its impact on the quality and…
Adesida, O. (2001). Health Futures, WHO Africa region, Harare. Retrieved http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4338e/y4338e07.htm
Communication Planning for Development: An Operational Framework. Paris, France: UNESCO.
Hancock, A. (1981). Retrieved http://cpj.org/2012/02/attacks-on-the-press-in-2011-in-africa-a-return-of.php
Hancock, A. (1992). Communication Planning Revisited, A. Hancock. Paris, France: UNESCO.
Influences on the Communication Process
Communication takes in many ways and for many reasons; the communication itself may also be impacted by many influences. To understand the process it is necessary to look at both the reasons for communication and the influences that may impact that communication.
There are three main purposes for communication; information, persuasion, and motivation. Although each of the different purposes will be examined separately, it should be remembered that in many cases a single message may include more than one purpose as the processes are not mutually exclusive (osengren, 1999).
Information may be seen as the most recognized communication purpose; it takes place on many ways, where information is communicated in many different types of scenarios'. For example, employers may communicate with employees to tell them of their job requirements, changes to the job requirements, or changes in goals. Information communication is also seen with…
Rosengren, Karl Erik, (1999), Communication: An Introduction, Sage Publications
Thompson, Neil, (2011), Effective Communication, Palgrave Macmillan
Minimal language communication between couples
More often than not, we assume that what we are trying to communicate to those close to us is easily comprehended. We believe this because we are familiar with the other person and feel there is a connection that allows us to communicate with minimal language.
In fact according to Psychology Professor Boaz Keyser at the University of Chicago, most believe that communication between people they know well, as opposed to communication with a stranger, is more clearly understood. In a study Keyser co-authored he calls this phenomena "closeness communication bias." (HealthDay 2011)
However a study of 24 married couples indicates that the bias doesn't hold up. An experiment was carried out with couples sitting with their backs to one another and stating phrases which weren't exactly clear. Instead of them comprehending what their spouses were trying to communicate, they often totally missed…
Baugh, Eboni J. And Humphries Deborah (2010) Can we Talk? Improving Couples' Communication, Florida Preparation Series, Department of Family, youth and Community Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Hamlett Shauntelle, (2010) Spouse Communication Techniques, Livestrong section 1.1
HealthDay News, (2011) Jan 24 Close Relationships Sometimes Mask Poor Communication
As a result, major changes have been introduced to the area of communication since it was difficult for junior personnel in aviation to present their opinions in the past. The junior personnel faced the difficulties in voicing their opinions because of fear of embarrassment and being reprimanded by the captain. Due to the change and the increase recognition of the significance of communication in aviation operations, the junior personnel and flight crew are incorporated to ensure that the best safety-related decisions are made.
Since communication between managers, maintainers, pilots, and other crew is essential in enhancing aviation safety, the development of an efficient safety program that addresses communication problems is crucial. Aircraft accidents can be lessened significantly through efficient and consistent communication between all the stakeholders in the aviation industry and the parties in aviation operations. The safety program should address the proper encoding and decoding of messages,…
Hill, a.C. (2011, November 5). An Approach to an Aviation Safety Program. Retrieved August
6, 2012, from http://www.scribd.com/doc/87126009/Aviation-Safety-Program
Krivonos, P.D. (2007, June 10). Communication in Aviation Safety: Lessons Learned and Lessons Required. Retrieved August 6, 2012, from http://www.asasi.org/papers/2007/Communication_in_Aviation_Safety_Paul_Krivonos.pdf
Madson, L. (n.d.). Human Factors in Aviation Communication. Retrieved August 4, 2012,
93 (Hispanicism), .89 (Americanism); test-retest (6weeks) .50 (H)/.79 (a). This Likert scale involves rating of 1-5, in which scale 1 represents not feeling comfortable and scale 5 indicates very comfortable at accepting the American music, TV programs and English printed media.
This relational study incorporates statistical devices of Multiple egression Analysis to test the hypothesis. Correlations between variables will be performed as well. Each predictor derived from individual analysis represents time spent on each of these three specific media, with the criterion variable being acculturation level. Hours per viewing per day and per week with moderators such as English proficiency level, are included in each of the analysis presented.
Fox, S., ainie, L., Larsen, E., Horrigan, J., Lenhart, a., Spooner, T., & Carter, C.
(2001). Wired Seniors. The Pew Internet and American Life Project. etrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Wired_Seniors_eport.pdf
Furlong, M.S. (1989). An electronic community for older adults: The SeniorNet…
Fox, S., Rainie, L., Larsen, E., Horrigan, J., Lenhart, a., Spooner, T., & Carter, C.
(2001). Wired Seniors. The Pew Internet and American Life Project. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Wired_Seniors_Report.pdf
Furlong, M.S. (1989). An electronic community for older adults: The SeniorNet network.
Journal of Communication, 39 (3), pp. 145-153.
Additional research showed that those who were frequently exposed to these movies were also inclined to develop risk-taking behavior (Greene and Kromar).
Vulnerable young women who had long-term exposure to sexually objectifying media could suffer from decreased self-esteem, according to another study (Aubrey 2006). A group of 149 female undergraduates in a big mid-Western university was surveyed for their responses after having been exposed to such media. The study revealed that the exposure could dent their global self-esteem if they already possessed the vulnerability to these media materials. An example is Seventeen Magazine, which is an example of a sexually objectifying medium (Aubrey).
The media are an effective instrument of war (Payne 2005). Recent conflicts clearly demonstrate that the transmission of information plays a significant part in warfare. Winning a war is considered as decisive as actually beating the enemy at the battlefield. Winning the medial war is, therefore, a…
Aubrey, J. S, (2006). Exposure to Sexually Objectifying Media and Body Self-Perceptions Among College Women.16 pages. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research: Springer
Greene, K.and Kromar, M. (2005). Predicting Exposure to, and Liking of, Media Violence. 17 pages. Communication Studies: Central States Speech Association
Holts, S. (2005). Establishing Connections. 2 pages. Communication World: International Association of Business Communicators
Kariithi, N. (2007). Connecting the Continent. 4 pages. Communication World: International Association of Business Communicators
Mass Media and Congressional Campaigns in U..
This is a study on the mass media principles and how they are used in congressional campaigns in the U.. It has 12 sources.
In view of the strong economic-based relationship that exists between the congressional elections and the mass media, more rigid laws need to be established in addition to a screening process for each candidate through which they all have to pass in order to represent the American people.
The media plays an important role in contemporary political activity, as it is a key communicator. This communication is supposed to serve the needs of the people as a whole and bring information to them that would serve their interests. However, such media may be the tool of politicians, as they may manipulate certain important information about themselves in order to gain popularity. Ideally, it is the media that is used to…
Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000.
Cohen S, Young J (eds) (1980). The Manufacture of News: Social Problems, Deviance and the Mass Media (revised). London: Constable.
Conflicting Theories of Congressional Elections. Accessed on 24-11-2003. http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:g4H8gEwwJjoJ:weber.ucsd.edu/~skernell/strategy/strategy2.pdf+theories+Congressional+campaigns+&hl=en&ie=UTF-8
Gregory Meeks on Principles & Values. 2001. http://www.issues2000.org/NY/Gregory_Meeks_Principles_+_Values.htm
Qualified privilege has the same result as absolute privilege, but does not protect statements that can be proven to have been made with malicious intent (Pember, & Calvert, 2005).
The church would argue that they had a qualified privilege to communicate Steve's personal indiscretions due to the fact that they have the right to practice their religion. They will say that the disclosing of personal indiscretions is somehow a religious practice in their church and that everyone must disclose their indiscretions to them so that they can then make these public so that other people can help the person with their problems. They would argue that the statements were important facts to be known in the public interest in the carrying out of their religious practices.
d. Is there a legal difference in disclosing personal indiscretions to other elders, to members of the church, or to members of the public?…
Pember, D., & Calvert, C. (2005). Mass Media Law. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Communication Management and Organizational Change
Communication management in the organization and most specifically in the organizational change environment is critically important. The work of Heathfield entitled "Communication in Change Management" state that it is impossible to "over-communicate when you are asking your organization to change." (2011, p.1) According to Heathfield, there are four critical components of effective communication as follows:
(1) The person sending the message must ensure that the message is presented clearly with great detail and that the message be perceived as containing integrity and that the message be authentic;
(2) The individual reading the message must make the decision to listen and to ask questions to ensure clarity and finally must trust the message's sender;
(3) The method of delivery must be chosen as appropriate for the context and for the needs of the sender and receiver of the message;
(4) The message content must resonate and…
Albrecht, Karl G. The Northbound Train. N.Y.: AMACON, 1994.
Blake, R. And Mouton J. Corporate Excellence Through Grid Organizational Development. Houston, 1968 Gulf Publishing Co.
Cohen, Eli and Tichy, Noel. "How Leaders Develop Leaders" in Training in Development. May 1997 pp. 58-73
DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (1998). A tale of two corporations: managing uncertainty during organizational change. Human Resources Management, 37, 295-303. Retrieved May 10, 2006, from the LIRN, ProQuest database.
Identify the designated spokesperson for Life Alive expansion program with the role of developing relationships with the target consumer population.
One page communication of the expansion plans, the progress and deliverables
Communication of meetings
Communication status reports, meetings for planning, implementing, evaluation, and monitoring
On a fort night basis
Communication of new products, food, and cafe locations daily
Television, social media, company website, bill boards, word of mouth external
Communication of progress of expansion plan
Email reports external
3.1.1 Project meetings
Communication of expansion progress and deliverables
Marketing Communication Initiatives April 2013-May 2018
China, India, and Nigeria have all had difficult relations with the est. But the examples of Bank of America and al-Mart show that a nation can put the past behind, if there are sufficient economic incentives to do so, and if the existing organization capitalizes on local strengths, such as a need for jobs, profitable wages for both the local population and the outside organization, and the desire for foreign capital. In the case of India, India has benefited from the influx of foreign money and technical knowledge, while the foreign company benefited from local technological know-how, a common language, and new technology to make outsourcing of it jobs profitable. China created cheaper goods for American consumers and generated a new base of consumers in China. But Halliburton failed to show respect for Nigerian environmental regulations, and paid the price in profits.
Agencies. (23 Nov 2004) "al-Mart concedes…
Agencies. (23 Nov 2004) "Wal-Mart concedes China can make unions. China Daily. Retrieved 19 May 2005. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-11/23/content_394129.htm
Bank of America earmarks $175M for operations in India." (10 May 2005) Sacramento Business Journal. Retrieved 19 May 2005 at http://sacramento.bizjournals.com/sacramento/stories/2005/05/09/daily12.html
Halliburton hit with Nigeria ban."(20 September 2004) BBC World News. Retrieved 19 May 2005 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/3674370.stm
Jingjing, Jian. (29 Nov 2004) "Wal-Mart's China inventory to hit U.S.$18b this year." China Daily. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-11/29/content_395728.htm
Integrated Corporate Communication (ICC) and Corporate Communication (CC)
The established limitations are severely customized by globalization: the size of the company (where there is not a major link with the area of the performance, delocalization and outsourcing and being dependent on the network), design of the product and sales (where the relation with the competitors may be competitive cooperative) somewhat similar to the frequency of motor industry), competitive relations of space-time, the consumer models (which is focused with a turn down in the analogical media. The increasing significance of digital media and internet is also included. The most important of them is the advertising of television and the television itself); the importance of communication in the competitive environment, less protectionist measures of the economic systems, open spaces of competition, complex differentiation (Walther, 2007).
The incorporation of the global markets struggle to remove the inert environment and change them with the…
Argenti, P. And Forman, J. (2002) The Power of Corporate Communication, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Argenti, P.A. (2009) Corporate Communication, New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Argenti, P.A. (2009). Corporate communication. Singapore: McGraw-Hill
Argenti, P.A., Barnes, C.M. (2009). Digital strategies for powerful corporate communications. New York: McGraw-Hill
The Definition of Ethics
In practically all areas of society ethical subjects are rapidly increasing. Professionals in the health field struggle with ethical questions in relation to abortion, transplants, birth control, informed consent, life-support systems, malpractice suits, patient privacy, human genetics, and high costs of insurance, as well as care on the whole. Ethical matters in relation to nuclear power accidents, oil spills, disposal of industrial waste, defense weaponry, lead and asbestos poisoning, acid rain, as well as ecological balance challenge those in technology, science, and industry. People in the political ground deal with ethical queries in relation to unemployment, homelessness, foreign policy decisions, Social Security, welfare reform, electioneering costs, law enforcement practices, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) activities, racial and gender discrimination, immigration control, drugs, crime, and lobbying actions. The legal profession is blamed of unethical customs like engaging in doubtful plea-bargaining practices, motivating a harmful litigious spirit,…
Arnett R.C. (1992). Dialogic education: Conversation about ideas and between persons. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Berlo D.K. (1960). Dimensions for evaluating the acceptability of message sources. Public Opinion Quarterly, 33, 563-576.
Bauer R.A. (1964). The obstinate audience: The influence process from the point-of-view of social communication. American Psychologist, 19, 319-328.
Converse E.J., Campbell D.T., Miller R.D. And Stokes L. (1960). Nonreactive measures in the social sciences. (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
In the mass national media our contemporary gossip culture creates a sense of intimacy and knowledge about the rich and famous through television, if not personal interaction.
New York thus had a paradoxical culture of mass communication and segmentation, even before these descriptions became apt for the mass media of the world. According to Campbell, Martin, and Fabos (2007), the history of media can be traced through five main eras that of oral, written, print, electronic, and digital. The last three phases are significant because they have featured the development of mass communication: or delivering cultural messages to large and diverse audiences through media channels. New York, because of its small size and diversity had a mass media and a culture of diverse communication styles long before it became common all over the nation and the world. And ironically, because of the media segmentation allowed by the mass communication of…
Campbell, R, C.R. Martin, & B. Fabos. (2007). Mass Media and Culture. Sixth Edition. Bedford/St. Martin's: Boston, New York.
Yellow Journalism." (2007). Think Quest. Retrieved 21 Oct 2007 at http://library.thinkquest.org/C0111500/spanamer/yellow.htm
Change is a continuing process that is unavoidable and organizations no longer have an alternative and for that reason they have to change so as to live on and avoid being archaic. Leaders have an important role to play as they have a great say as to the direction in which the organization is heading. Therefore, managers of organizations have to understand how to manage change. All organizations face several different forces for change that are internal, emanating from within the organization and external, which emanate outside the organization. However, such organizational change does face resistance, as majority of members within the organization prefer maintaining status quo. Organizational resistance is delineated as a manifestation of reservation that usually emanates as a reaction to change. Resistance to change has long been acknowledged as a disparagingly significant factor that can impact the achievement of any organizational change determination and endeavor (Toribiotoribio…
Media & Society
The author of this report has been asked to offer a brief summary and review of several topics pertaining to media, modern technology and the overall paradigm that has been formed by the combination of the two. The author of this report will touch in several topics. These topics will include the historical and contemporary roles of media in society, how the chemical and electronic technology of photography, recording and transmission has advanced from its initial discover to the present, how the mass media makes use of these technological innovations, how the development of this digital technology has affected the content, distribution and style of electronic media and how the role of mass media has changed with these overall developments. The author will make use of at least two peer-reviewed sources along the way. While there is much more to life than the media and technology, these…
Carpenter, S., Hoag, A., Grant, A.E., & Bowe, B.J. (2015). An Examination of How
Academic Advancement of U.S. Journalism Students Relates to Their Degree
Motivations, Values, and Technology Use. Journalism & Mass Communication
Educator, 70(1), 58-74. doi:10.1177/1077695814551834
Personal Professional Healthcare Communication Paper
What is Healthcare Communication?
Communication can be generally defined and the method of imparting information from a source to targets. The process of sharing thus has its own set of rules and for human communication the written and spoken words are used. There is also a series of communication called non-verbal which is also significant. There are behaviors that show what a person thinks or feels is also communication. (Berry, 2007)
These types of communication applies in the health care settings too. Health communication may be defined as the study of the means of communication and its strategies not only to communicate to individuals but to the community thus creating decisions on health questions. Thus for the health service the communication within itself and the society concerned with individual and public health, is a very important field that requires specialization and research in medical information…
Berry, Dianne. (2007) "Health Communication: Theory and Practice." Open University Press:
Diebold Institute for Public Policy Studies. (1995) "Healthcare Info structures: The
Development of Information-Based Infrastructures for the Healthcare Industry." Praeger: Westport, CT.
The police adapting to rapid changes in technology is felt in two ways -- primarily in using the technology that comes with new inventions for the police like better weapons, communication networks and so on for which they have to be thoroughly trained. The specialist has also to be trained in many issues like cyber crimes, and use of sophisticated computers and machines for crime. Police with an up-to-date mass communication system can be easily mobilized and can have faster response to events. The negative aspects of technology cannot be wished away and there must be research done to overcome these defects in communication with the public and also reliance must be placed on more robust methods of data access.
Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal
Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.
Couldry, Nick; Mccarthy, Anna. (2004) "Mediaspace: Place, Scale, and Culture in…
Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal
Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.
Couldry, Nick; Mccarthy, Anna. (2004) "Mediaspace: Place, Scale, and Culture in a Media
Age." Routledge: New York.
Cox Communications Strategic Management
based multiservice broad-band communications organization named Cox Communications is headquartered in New York with approximately 20000 employees and more than 6m consumers. It's a subsidiary of Cox Enterprises. The company has a very capable, reliable and high quality network of broadband delivery due to which the customer service of Cox is unmatchable in the whole industry. To maintain this reputation in cable industry, the administrative system of workforce was upgraded and automated while keeping in view the increased levels of productivity of sales team and decreasing trends of costs. This is the reason why Cox Communications was successful in maintaining the service delivery. (Wallack 2008)
Automation was the key function which helped Cox Communications to prevail in the U.S. market. In order to increase the competitive advantage and sales team productivity, the fortune 500 company decided to automate various systems and processes. Cox Communications…
Atkin C, Wallack L (Eds.), 2008. Mass Communication and Public Health: Complexities and Conflicts. Newbury Park, Cal.: Sage Publications.
Bandura A., 2006. Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Green LW, Kreuter MW, 2009. Health Promotion Planning: An Educational and Environmental Approach (Second Ed.). Mountain View, Cal.: Mayfield.
Kotler P, Andreasen A., 2007. Strategic Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations (Fourth Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Communications and Technology in Disaster Management
The Importance of Communication and Technology in Disaster Management
With the ever increasing chances of disasters occurring in different levels of our societies, the need for institution appropriate disaster management procedures go without saying. The strategic application of processes within organizations and regions, mainly with the aim of protecting the most critical of its assets is a prerequisite (Haddow & Bullock, 2003). With the increasing complexities, in terms of challenges to disaster management, the need for equally complex measures for managing these disasters has been echoed and this has been practically applied in the contemporary world. Generally, the use of communication and technology in facilitating functions like coordination, commanding and control and providing warnings in disaster management has become widespread. A case in point is Australia, a country which since history have implemented and continually developed its disaster management strategies (Healey, 2006).…
Fennel, Z, (2012) what are the Benefits of Communication Technology, Retrieved July 30, 2012, http://www.ehow.com/list_5772270_benefits-communication-technology_.html
GSM Association (2005) the Role of Mobiles in Disasters and Emergencies, Retrieved July 30, 2012, https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:4iJ5YMea5RsJ:www.enlightenmenteconomics.com/about-diane/assets/disasterreport
Haddow, G.D & Bullock, J.A (2003) Introduction to Emergency Management, Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Healey, J (2006) Natural Disasters, Sydney: The Spinney Press
Also, gay characters have slowly become more prominent both on TV and in the movies.
In the 1990s, producers gave up on feeling that they had to challenge gender representations as models of masculinity and femininity had become less offensive and clearly defined. We can, for instance, refer to the hit sit-com Friends which presented three male characters, Ross, Chandler and Joey whose masculinity was placed within conventional models of masculinity without excluding qualities such as gentleness and sensitivity. imilarly, the female characters were clearly feminine but sufficiently intelligent in order to escape the housewife cliche. Furthermore, the context of the show was relatively innovative as the six main characters were linked by friendship as opposed to the more traditional family circle which had dominated the previous two decades. The model of equal genders appears in many shows from the 1990s onwards (Gauntlett 61).
Race is depicted in the media…
Coover, Gail E. "Television and Social Identity: Race Representation as "White" Accommodation." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 45, no. 3 (2001): 413.
Gauntlett, David. Media, Gender, and Identity: An Introduction. Routledge, 2002.
Gurevitch, Michael, Tony Bennett, James Curran, and Janet Woollacott, eds. Culture, Society, and the Media. London: Routledge, 1990.
Mantios, Gregory. "Making Class Invisible"
Eight Steps of Effective Marketing Communication: The New Product Called Orange Clean
Recognizing the Target Audience
Determining the Communication Objectives
Planning the Message
Choosing Communication Channels
Launching the Marketing Communications Financial plan
Creating and Handling the Marketing Communications Mix
Determine the communications' results
Administer the integrated marketing Communication procedure.
Orange Clean. The company's major activity is to produce and sell inorganic household cleaners. The company functions in three different sections: Inorganic ingedients, and Others natural and organic chemicals. Orange clean is made up of the Inorganic Chemicals agents such as real peeled oranges and other natural flavors. The Fertilisers section comprises of natural and organic chemicals that have raw scent. The Others section are made up of speciality ingredients, which are all natural.
Today Orange Clean has a new assessment of communications as a communicating dialogue among the company and its clienteles that takes place all through the pre-selling, consuming,…
Andreasen, A., 2008. Marketing social change: Changing behavior to promote health, social development, and the environment.. San Francisco, CA:: Jossey-Bass.
Anon., 2016. Creating a Stakeholder. [Online]
Available at: http://www.ors.sa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/148497/Creating_a_Stakeholders_Communications_Plan.pdf
[Accessed 26 February 2016].
Skilss in Interpersonal, Group and Organizational Communications
The objective of this study is to examine interpersonal communication and spoken skills. This work will examine communication skills using the theories of Pragmatic Perspective, Psychological Perspective, Social Constructionist, and social responsibility theory. Trenholm (2008) states that communication "is very important to everyone. One form of communication that occurs among individuals is known as interpersonal communication. Interpersonal communication is a term "reserved for two-person, face-to-face interaction and is often used interchangeably with the term dyadic communication."
Interpersonal Communication: Speaking and Listening Skills
Interpersonal communication can be understood as the interaction that takes place between individuals and concerns the deliver and receipt of information or a message. Involved in interpersonal communication are listening as well as nonverbal forms of communication and speaking. Listening is the capacity to both understand and provide appropriate response to what others are saying. Listening requires the evaluation of what…
Pearce, WB (nd) Communication and Social Construction: Claiming our Birthright. pp. 33-56 in Wendy Leeds-Hurwitz and Gloria Galanes (Eds). Socially Constructing Communication. Cresskill, N.J.: Hampton Press. 2009.
Ramaraju, S. (nd) Psychological Perspective: Interpersonal Communication. Journal of Arts, Science and Commerce. Retrieved from: http://www.researchersworld.com/vol3/issue4/vol3_issue4_2/Paper_09.pdf
Suresh, K. (nd) Theories of Communication CHAPTER 2: Retrieved from: http://www.peoi.org/Courses/Coursesch/mass/mass2.html
Tips for Communication Skills with Groups. About Leaders. Retrieved from: http://www.aboutleaders.com/tips-for-communication-skills-with-groups/
Racism in Media
Television news casting has a long history of perpetuating negative stereotypes of the Black community through what the news broadcasts and how it creates images that are transformed into symbols that become associated with the African-American community. Through these images, certain signs and symbols are created that later become associated with the Black community. hile attempts to make media more inclusive have marginally succeeded, failure lies in its inability to create any sort of social change but instead continues to perpetuate stereotypes.
In "Racism and the Media," Yasmin Jiwanai describes the role the media has on people's everyday lives. Jiwani writes that the media provides "us with definitions about who we are as a nation; they reinforce our values and norms; they give us concrete examples of what happens to those who transgress these norms; and most importantly, they perpetuate certain ways of seeing the world and…
Balkaran, Stephen. "Mass Media and Racism." The Yale Political Quarterly Vol. 21 No. 1
(October 1999). Web. 3 December 2012.
Brown, Michael K. Whitewashing Race: The Myth of a Color-Blind Society. Los Angeles:
University of California Press, 2003. GoogleBooks. 3 December 2012.
2. Freedman, Jonathan. (2007). "No real evidence for TV violence causing real violence."
Retrieved July 7, 2010 from:
This source is an Internet editorial article published online on April 27, 2007 by Jonathan
Freedman, a Psychology professor and former department chairperson at the University
of Toronto. Professor Freedman has taught previously at Stanford University and Columbia University and has chaired the department at the University of Toronto.
Professor Freedman's central thesis is his fundamental opposition to the position taken in
2007 by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) that violence in media is a causal factor in actual aggression and violence in society. According to Professor
Freedman, the FCC relied on inaccurate information on the number of relevant studies, and also failed to distinguish between empirically valid information and anecdotal information in reaching their position on the issue. Professor Freedman also suggests the need to differentiate between depictions of…
In a democracy like American where freedom of speech is enshrined in the Constitution, this view takes on a certain reality in that the news and views disseminated by the media may not always be factual or true and the reader or viewer has to be very discerning in what they read or watch. A study on this subject entitled Mind control and the media states that while the invention of printing is historically linked to the rise of democracy in the worlds and in Media, yet, "...this does not mean that the mass media inherently serves democracy." (Gannaway)
This article goes on to articulate a view that has become reiterated in many other studies of the media with regard to the potential that the media has to present false and biased views to the general public. The study also repeats a view that is central to the criticism of…
Obviously, those situations include survivors of ditches and crashes, but equally important is the degree to which cell phones offer solutions to flight emergencies.
Salven acknowledges that cell phone use of this nature is specifically prohibited by FCC restrictions but relates the views of an FCC spokesman who relates that.".. The FCC isn't aware of any enforcement action having been taken against pilots using cell phones in emergency situations during the past 30 years." Salven describes situations such as cell phone communications between pilot and controllers necessitated by emergency conservation (i.e. shutdown) of electrical power caused by acute ammeter discharge in flight.
Equipment, Flight Hours, and ule Priority Ambiguity:
The other components of emergency communications relate to the relative capability of equipment to prevent emergencies (particularly on the ground), various factors capable of reducing the efficiency of pilot responses to emergencies, and the inherent ambiguity and even apparent contradictions in…
Berge, Paul. "Think ahead of ATC: sow your plan in the mind of ATC and watch it grow into a thing of beauty. it's just a matter of knowing what to ask for and when.(SYSTEM NOTES)(air traffic control).." IFR. 24.2 (Feb 2008): 17(2). Doane, Stephanie M., Young Woo Sohn, and Mark T. Jodlowski. "Pilot ability to anticipate the consequences of flight actions as a function of expertise." Human Factors. 46.1 (Spring 2004): 92(12). EASA. "AIR TRANSPORT: PILOTS' FLIGHT TIMES TOO LONG, SAYS STUDY. (European Aviation Safety Agency).." European Social Policy. (Feb 12, 2009): 243326.
Marks, Paul. "Urgent call to end frequent runway near-misses: collision warning systems that rely on a response from air traffic controllers don't give pilots enough time to act." New Scientist. 188.2519 (Oct 1, 2005): 22(2).
Miller, Bob. "Getting no WX from ATC: thunderstorms can catch you sleeping any time of year. Don't expect the controller to give you a heads-up, either. (SYSTEM NOTES)(weather report, air traffic control).." IFR. 24.1 (Jan 2008): 6(5). Rozendaal, Doug. "Approaches in a hurry: sometimes you've got to get set up for the approach at lightning speed. The secret is to pretend there's no hurry at all. (TRICKS O' the TRADE).." IFR. 23.3 (March 2007): 20(3).
Salven, Valerie. "Cell Phone to the Rescue: In the Air or on the Ground, it Could Save
media equation theory and its applications. The author of this paper uses the movie The Truman Show to develop an understanding for the reader of what the Media Equation Theory is and how it can be applied to media examples such as the movie. There were six sources used to complete this paper. The paper is in MLA format.
MEDIA THEORY IN PRACTICE
The technological explosion of the last three decades has taken us to places we never dreamed before were possible. ith each passing year, the technology becomes more linked to human thought and emotions than ever before. Today, there are studies being conducted worldwide to understand the phenomena of people treating their media tools in the same manner that their human interactions are treated. For several years, the habits and protocol of people who work with these questions have been narrowly defined by the rigid demands of research…
Reeves, Byron. Nass. Clifford. The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Television, and New Media Like Real People and Places (C SLI Publications 1997)
This source was a major source for the paper in that it explains the theory itself as well as applies it to several real life media scenarios. The highlights detail the belief of the authors tht we are becoming more ingrained with media tools than ever before and assigning them human like qualities.
Luskin, Bernard J., Toward an understanding of media psychology. (educational CDs) (Technology Information). Vol. 23, THE Journal (Technological Horizons In Education), 02-01-1996, pp 82(3).
This source was a solid source of information for the paper. Its highlights included the discussion of media psychology and the way humans today, interact and feel about their media tools. Many of the facts presented in the paper dovetail with the belief we are integrating more and more with media as if it has feelings, intellect and emotions. The source was viable for the foundational explanation of the theory itself.
Media on the U.S. Society
Some years ago, if someone asked us to name the sources of media present in our society, we would easily be able to do so. However, today media has extended and become much more widespread than it was before. ith the process of globalization that has encompassed the entire world, came the concept of media and the need to stay in touch as the infrastructure and mediums of communication grew. e can name a couple of media sources that have come to influence us the most which are firstly the internet and the social networking that has now become an integral part of our society and our lives. It is absolutely essential to be a part of the social media networking (Perse).
Another type of media has been the television which has existed for quite some while now but its implications and its fame is…
Bell, Steve. "Impact of Global Media Revolution." USA Today (1999).
Bennett, Tony. Culture, Society and the Media. Routledge Publications, 1990.
Burton, Graeme. Media and Society: Critical Perspectives. Open University Press, 2005.
Gonzenbach, William J. The media, the president and public opinion: a longitudinal study on drug issue. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996.
The "Halloween" films that continue to be so popular are prime examples, but just about any horror film made within the past three decades follows basically the same formula, they have just gotten increasingly sexual and violent, as society has continued to embrace the genre. There are literally hundreds of other graphic examples, such as "Saw," an extremely violent film that has spawned six other films, and the examples of so many films being released in 2009. These films do not celebrate the woman, they demean her, and the fact that they are celebrated by society is troubling and agonizing at the same time.
Some of the films that empower women into the hero roles include "Terminator 2," the "Alien" series, "Misery," and other films glorify or at least acknowledge the female predator or warrior, offering up a different view of women as successful anti-heroes. However, most of these films…
England, Marcia. "Breached Bodies and Home Invasions: Horrific Representations of the Feminized Body and Home." Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography; Apr2006, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p353-363.
Graser, Marc. "Production Houses Pump Out the Horror." Variety. 2008. 10 March 2009. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117994266.html?categoryid=1019&cs=1&query=horror+films .
Iaccino, James F. Psychological Reflections on Cinematic Terror: Jungian Archetypes in Horror Films. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994.
Lally, Kevin. "For the Love of the Movies." Film Journal International. 1999. 10 March 2009. http://www.filmjournal.com/filmjournal/esearch/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1000692252 .
Popular culture differs from what was once referred to as "high" culture ("Popular Culture" 2000). High culture distinguished and continues to distinguish itself from popular culture by subordinating the latter. However, a tremendous shift in academia has led to the critique of both "high" and "low" culture and a subsequent merging of the two ("Popular Culture" 2000).
Also known as "mass" culture, popular culture can be considered crude even as it shapes politics and policy ("Popular Culture" 2000). According to Chito Childs & Laudone (2004), popular culture is uniquely responsible for the shaping of values, beliefs and norms surrounding interracial friendships, interracial relationships, and race relations in general. Films that depict interracial couples "tend to reinforce the existing racial hierarchy, rendering interracial relationships problematic," (Chito Childs & Laudone 2004, p. 1). Popular culture is part mirror for social realities and part shaper of those realities.
One exception to the generally…
Chito Childs, E. (2009). Fade to Black and White: Interracial Images in Popular Culture. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Chito Childs, E. & Laudone, S. 2004-08-14 "Interracial Images: Popular Cuture Depictions of Black-White Couples" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Hilton San Francisco & Renaissance Parc 55 Hotel, San Francisco, CA, Online . 2009-05-26 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p108369_index.html
Dolby, N. (2001). Constructing Race: Youth, Identity, and Popular Culture in South Africa. Albany: SUNY Press.
English in Teaching and Learning Math in Hong Kong
With the intermingling of cultures, business, and globalization in general, it is difficult to imagine that English would not be spoken or at least understood in some form in any part of the world. If nothing else, Internet communication has opened up myriad opportunities for people to learn about any amount of cultures and languages they wish. In terms of business, as mentioned, the world has also become increasingly globalized. Businesses that can expand globally tend to be stronger financially and have greater longevity than those who cannot. Often, an ability to communicate internationally is at the heart of business success. For this reason, the medium of instruction in schools, and especially non-English speaking countries, have come to the forefront of educational attention. In Hong Kong, social and political changes have given a unique dynamic to whether or not English should…
Education Commission (2005, Dec.). Report on Review of Medium of Instruction for Secondary Schools and Secondary School Places Allocation. Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of The People's Republic of China. Retrieved from: http://www.e-c.edu.hk/tc/reform/resources/MOI&SSPA_report_Eng.pdf
Poon, A.Y.K., Lau, C.M.Y. And Chu, D.H.W. (2013, March). Impact of the Fine-Tuning Medium-of-Instruction Policy on Learning: Some Preliminary Findings. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal, Vol. 4, Iss.1. Retrieved from: http://infonomics-society.org/LICEJ/ImpactoftheFineTuningMediumofInstructionPolicyonLearningSomePreliminaryFindings.pdf
Tsui, A.B.M. (2008). Medium of Instruction in Hong Kong: One Country, Two Systems, Whose Language? Medium of Instruction Policies: Which Agenda? Whose Agenda? Edited by James. W. Ollofson and Amy B.M. Tsui. Taylor & Francis e-Library.
Zeng, W. (2007). Medium of Instruction in Secondary Education in Post-Colonial Hong Kong:
A Deconstruct of the movie "Paris is Burning" as it relates to 6 Chapters in our textbook
Paris Is Burning is a provocative and controversial documentary film released in the year 1990. The direction was done by Jennie Livingston who focused on filming the drag ball culture and society that existed in the city of New York during the 1980s. The film focuses on three primary topics: race, homosexuality and prejudice towards a social stereotype. Hence the movie focuses on not just the culture of the whites in the American urban society but also the lifestyles of the African-Americans, Latinos and gays within the communities while also shedding light on the lives of the transsexual and sex workers in the city.
The significance of the movie is not only on the thought-provoking topics it covers, but also in its style of filming and the fact that it perhaps…
Clarkson, J. (2008). The limitations of the discourse of norms: Gay visibility and degrees of transgression. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 32(4), 368-382. Published by Sage Publications, Inc.
Green, J. (1993). "Paris Has Burned." The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE0DF143DF93BA25757C0A965958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all . Retrieved August 9th, 2011
Merskin, D. (2007). Three faces of Eva: Perpetuation of the hot-Latina stereotype in Desperate Housewives. Howard Journal of Communications, 18, 133-151. Reprinted by permission of Taylor & Francis Ltd.
Moore, C. (2008). Resisting, reiterating and dancing through: the swinging closet doors of Ellen DeGeneres's televised personalities. In R. Beirne (Ed.), Televising queer women: A reader (pp. 17-31). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Communications -- Personal Statement
Say the word 'communications,' and immediately people think of the written or the spoken word. They think of a page of newspaper, a conversation with a friend. But corporate communications encompasses so much more than merely the verbal exchange of ideas.
Corporate communications is kinesthetic. Through my work at my current place of business, Alcoa I communicate by email to all Alcoans worldwide, regarding the Earthwatch program, including its guidelines and the application process. Earthwatch expeditions are hands-on efforts designed to add to the knowledge of Alocan personnel to give them personal knowledge of the different needs that must be met to build a sustainable future. My communication efforts for this program are personal as well as technical, and facilitate the communications process between employees on a personal level, and for the fifteen individuals ultimately chosen to become a part of the program, on a physical…
The website looked at herein is the West Virginia Website and of particular interest is the section "About WVU" that is seen to have significantly sufficient information and details about the University and the activities therein. Being that the website is comprehensive and has several sections, this "about WVU" section is managed and coordinated by the public relations manager within the university. This is reflected from the concentration on the information formatted for public consumption and the language therein is reflective of the public information. The perceived receivers of the information herein are the high school graduates who might want to join university for further studies. The section looks at attracting this group into the university and increases the number of enrollments progressively. It also seeks to have the potential students understand all the major and significant activities that are carried out within the university and how they…
Emerson University, (2014). Integrated marketing Communication. Retrieved July 16, 2014 from http://www.emerson.edu/academics/departments/marketing-communication/graduate-degrees/integrated-marketing-communication
University of Twente, (2014). Media Richness Theory. Retrieved July 16, 2014 from http://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Mass%20Media/Media_Richness_Theory/
West Virginia University, (2013). About WVU. Retrieved July 16, 2014 from http://about.wvu.edu/pioneering
" (Chennameni, 2006) it is reported that this "incessant interaction and conversion in turn results in joint creation of knowledge by individuals and organizations." (Chennameni, 2006) Organizations are reported to play a key role in activating the "explicit and tacit dimensions of knowledge and in providing a forum for the knowledge spiral through four modes of knowledge creation" (Chennameni, 2006) Those four modes are stated to include: (1) socialization; (2) externalization; (3) combination; and (4) internalization. (Chennameni, 2006)
Socialization speaks of the exchanging of "tacit knowledge among members through the social interactions and shared experiences." (Chennameni, 2006) Externalization refers to the translation of tacit knowledge into from explicit knowledge." (Chennameni, 2006) it is reported that each of the modes of conversion are both "interdependent and tangled." (Chennameni, 2006)
B. Diffusion of Innovation
ogers Diffusion of Innovations explains change via Social Networks. The Diffusion of innovations theory explains the process of…
Chennamaneni, a. (2006) Determinants of Knowledge Sharing Behaviors: Developing and Testing an Integrated Theoretical Model. The University of Texas at Arlington. Dec 2006. Retrieved from: http://dspace.uta.edu/bitstream/handle/10106/305/uta-etd-1428.pdf?sequence=1
Darnton, a. (2008) Reference Report: An overview of behavior change models and their uses. GSR Behavior Change Knowledge Review. Jul 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.civilservice.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Behaviour_change_reference_report_tcm6-9697.pdf
O'Malley, P. (2006) Strategic Communications Planning. A Presentation to IABC Ottawa. Retrieved from: http://www.omalco.com/iabc.htm
Planned Behaviour: A Meta-Analysis," (22:3),2003.
Globalization, Fractionalization and Convergence
The objective of this work is to first, define the concept of fractionalization, to describe how it relates to the television, magazine, and radio industries and provide examples and then to give an opinion regarding the effect of fractionalization both on the media on society.
Secondly, this work will define the concept of globalization, describe how it relates to the television, recording and film industries and provide examples. The questions will be answered of "hat is the effect of globalization on the cultures of the world? hat is the political effect of globalization? ho does it benefit? ho does it harm?" And answers will be backed up with opinions on the subjects. Lastly, this work will define the concept of convergence, describe how it relates to the television, Internet and recording industries and then answer the questions of, "How would convergence affect our daily…
Lind, Thori Jo (2005) Fractionalization and Inter-Group Differences 2005 February 28 Online available at: http://www.dur.ac.uk/john.ashworth/EPCS/Papers/Lind.pdf
Bollier, David (2003 )The Rise of NetPolitik: How the Internet is Changing International Politics and Diplomacy Report of the Eleventh Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology Communication and Society Program
Jainschigg, John (2001) A Casualty of Convergence: Convergence eliminates redundancy. Sometimes, that hurts.
08/03/2001, 9:37 AM ET Online available at: https://www.cmpevents.com/CC5/a.asp?option=B& V=2& SC=CCM
Race in Today's Mass Media
Channel surfing during primetime these days, will often times create a personal dilemma on what show to watch and usually, it is one we will stick with from season to season - if the 'powers that be' allow it a renewed contract. These days, we have a variety of broadcast channels to choose from and our ethnic background, sadly, often determines whether we choose the W over NC. The reality is, that "mass media actually work to reinforce assumptions that black folks should always be cast in supporting roles in relation to white characters" (Hook, 1995).
Let's take for example, some currently popular shows: Friends, Frasier and, yes, even The Simpsons portray minorities either in 'guest' roles, as supporting roles in stereotypical fashion, or not at all. In the case of The Simpsons, it could be justifiably argued that the show portrays views of race…
Hooks, B. Teaching Resistance: The Racial Politics of Mass Media
New York: Holt 1995
Innovation at L3 Communications
Planning for Innovation
Management Systems and Innovation Metrics
Rewards and Incentives
Leadership's Commitment to Innovation
Leadership's Innovation Strategy Involvement
Ethics in Innovation
L-3 is a prime contractor in Command, Control, Communications, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C3ISR) systems, platform and logistics solutions, and national security solutions; L-3 is also a leading provider of a broad range of electronic systems used on military and commercial platforms (L-3, N.d.). The company's client base includes an array of different organizations such as the U.S. Department of Defense and its prime contractors, U.S. government intelligence agencies, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of Justice, allied foreign governments, domestic and foreign commercial customers and select other U.S. federal, state and local government agencies.
The L-3 concept was developed along three different central components that constitute the organization's…
Alipour, F., K., I., & Karimi, R. (2011). Knowledge Creation and Transfer: Role of Learning Organization. International Journal of Business Administration, 2(3), 61-67.
Halliday, S., & Beddie, F. (2009). Informal Learning. At a Glance. National Centre for Vocational Education Research, 12(1), 1-12.
Hooley, G., Greenley, G., Fahy, J., & Cadogan, J. (2010). Market-focused Resources, Competitive Positioning and Firm Performance. Journal of Marketing Management, 17(5-6), 503-520.
IMT. (N.d.). Innovative Micro Technology Receives Equity Investment From L-3 Communications to Partner on MEMS-based Strategic Technologies for Defense Applications. Retrieved from IMT: http://www.imtmems.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=89:innovative-micro-technology-receives-equity-investment-from-l-3-communications-to-partner-on-mems-based-strategic-technologies-for-defense-applications&catid=13:press-releases&Itemid=7
Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack
Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…
Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New
Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).
Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).
Embedded Communication in Advertising
"There is no evidence that advertising can get people to do things contrary to their self-interest." -- JI Fowles, in Advertising's Fifteen asic Appeals
"Good advertising does not just circulate information. It penetrates the public mind with desires and belief." -- Leo urnett, Advertising Executive and Creator of the Marlboro Man
"The ability to attract new smokers and develop them into a young adult franchise is key to brand development." 1999 Philip Morris report
When the preceding collection of opinions regarding the influence of modern advertising are considered in conjunction with the iconic advertising image shown above, it becomes quite clear that, much like advertising itself, forming an informed position on this ubiquitous aspect of modern marketing is simply a matter of perception and perspective (elch 120). Corporate conglomerates and other private enterprises ascribe tremendous value to the persuasive power of advertising, bombarding the general public…
Altman, David G., Michael D. Slater, Cheryl L. Albright, and Nathan Maccoby. "How an unhealthy product is sold: Cigarette advertising in magazines, 1960 -- 1985." Journal of Communication 37, no. 4 (1987): 95-106.
Belch, George E., Michael A. Belch, and Angelina Villarreal. "Effects of advertising communications: Review of research." Research in marketing (1987).
Bovee, Courtland L., and William F. Arens. "The Indictments Against Advertising." Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York, NY: Pearson Higher Education, 2008. 685-691. Print.
De Gregorio, Federico, and Yongjun Sung. "Understanding attitudes toward and behaviors in response to product placement." Journal of Advertising 39, no. 1 (2010): 83-96.
Function or Task):
O = Current level
X = Desired level
Critical Mass Grid
Make it Happen
Help it Happen
Let it Happen
VP GVMT SV
There are many different potential routes to evaluate someone's perspective towards any particular organizational objective. In any given project, it is important to evaluate the key stakeholders in order to have a sense of their level of support for a project. In most cases, interviews are particularly useful for getting the story behind a participant's experiences and the interviewer can pursue in-depth information around a topic (McNamara, N.d.). In this scenario, our team will conduct interviews with the key stakeholders at Luke and Associates to determine their level of commitment towards the new project.
Interviews represent a form of information collection that can be effective in regards to being able to identify…
Lagace, M. (2000, May 23). The Emerging Art of Negotiation. Retrieved from Harvard Business School: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/1517.html
Manktelow, J., & Carlson, A. (N.d.). Active Listening. Retrieved from Mind Tools: http://www.mindtools.com/CommSkll/ActiveListening.htm
McNamara, C. (N.d.). General Guidelines for Conducting Research Interviews. Retrieved from Free Management Library: http://managementhelp.org/businessresearch/interviews.htm
Computer mediated Communication (CMC)
Throughout the years, people used different means of communication to pass information from one source to another. The type of communication involved face-to-face, writing letters then sending to people, using telegrams which was the quickest means of communication, and use of telephones, although telephones were invented some years back. Today, the world has become computerized and there are new technologies that most firms have acquired to ease communication as well as replace labor. The computer mediated communications (CMC) that emerged involved the use of e-mail, chat rooms, and Usenet groups. In summary, this paper gives a narrative regarding the issue of Computer Mediated Communication as well as, analyzing the linguistic and visual features of my topic while explaining how they affect communication.
Issue of Privacy and social networking and effect on communication
The use of modern technology has contributed to a strong impact on the lives…
Eecke, P., & Truyens, M. (2002). Privacy and social networks. Computer law and securities.
Levy, M., & Stockwell, G. (2006). Computer-mediated communication.. options and issues in computer-assisted language learning.
Werry, C. (1996). Linguistic and interactional features of internet relay chat.. Computer-mediated communication: linguistic, social, and crosscultural perspectives; pp. 47 -- 63..
Buyer Behavior and Communication Strategies
The Toyota Motor Corporation
The Toyota Corporation, a Japanese organization of automotives, is popular for the successful innovations and manufacture of the Toyota vehicles and other products. The Toyota vehicles have many profound advantages and benefits. The Toyota users, who are beneficiaries, have agreed that the Toyota product has always observed the sustainability issues, of economical use, society and the care of the environment. Toyotas vehicles are designed in favorable state that is to ensure they are not privy to encouraging of the rapid depletion of the scarce resources of nature. The most recognized benefit of the automotive is, therefore, its ability in preventing any degradation of the environment, including pollution. The production of the suitable vehicles has made Toyota a company is reputable, for its endless effort of stabilizing Japan's economy, as a result of reducing environmental costs. Environmental costs have always…
Amason, C.A. (2010) Strategic Management: From Theory to Practice: New York, Taylor and Francis Publishers.
Bhasin, H. (2011).Service Marketing Mix.Retrieved May 11, 2012, from www.marketing91.com/tag/marketing-mix/
Cheetham, S.B. & Nicla, P. (2007) European Autos: Segmentation and Margins- Bigger IS (Mostly) Better: Preceding P. 1-90, 88
Cortez, A.A. & Cudia, P.C. (2010) The Impact Of Environmental Innovations On Financial Performance: The Case Of Japanese Automotive and Electronic Companies: Journal of International Business Research: Vol. 9, Special Issue 1.
Indeed, according to later reports, this is indeed what the company has done. Whether this will have the desired effect or will simply drive Blockbuster further away from their competitive edge, remains to be seen. Indeed, Netflix has the advantage of diversity in terms of its rental titles. The Johnson piece reports that Blockbuster was planning to gain customers by offering better Internet deals than Netflix. In retrospect, the problem is however that the deals are so excellent that they badly affect Blockbuster's revenues (Cruise, 2007). Indeed, the company's current strength - its in-store customers - is being undermined by its efforts to increase its online customers to compete with Netflix.
B) Blockbuster believes that it can gain competitive advantage over Netflix by offering better deals to their in store customers, which could also entice online customers away from Netflix (Cruise, 2007). uch deals include in store coupons and free…
Archer, Brent (2007, Nov. 21). Ford (F) tumbles on economic worries. BloggingStocks. http://f.bloggingstocks.com/
Cruise, Patrick (2007, April 17). Blockbuster's online focus is killing its competitive advantage. Seeking Alpha. http://seekingalpha.com/article/32374-blockbuster-s-online-focus-is-killing-its-competitive-advantage
McIntyre, Douglas (2007, Nov 14). Ford ready to shelve some autos if sales fall further. BloggingStocks.
Media in America [...] How does mass media affect American values? American media is pervasive in nearly every aspect of society today. Newspapers, magazines, online Web sources, television, radio, and film all create a sense of commonality, and often a sense of how to behave, think, and react to social and societal situations.
Today, Americans rely on a variety of media for most of their news, information, and values, whether they know it or not. While this may seem like a recent occurrence, experts and researchers have been seeing this trend in media influence for decades. Two experts note, "Over a half century ago, Lippmann (1922) also noted this role of the news media in defining our world, not just the world of politics during and between elections, but almost all of our world beyond immediate personal and family concerns" (Bryant and Zillmann, 1994, p. 2). Thus, the media has…
Arant, M.D., & Meyer, P. (1998). Public journalism and traditional journalism: A shift in values? Journal of mass media ethics, 13(4), 205-218.
Brown, A. (1996). Economics, public service broadcasting, and social values. Journal of media economics, 9(1), 3-15.
Coleman, A.W. (2000). "Calvin and Hobbes": A critique of society's values. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 15(1), 17-42.
Gomez, D.S. (2001, April). Sex, peers, media -- and family values: The NEA health information network's 'can we talk?' program helps thousands of parents talk with their kids, in English or Spanish. NEA today, 19, 29.
Of these three approaches ad-hoc is considered the most adaptable to roaming users and therefore shows the greatest opportunity to support contextual-based use of wireless networks. The concept of the cellular network on the other hand is much more stationary and focused on a set of base stations that require base controllers and network infrastructure to effectively function. This fixed platform nature of the cellular network approach is juxtaposed with the approach increasingly being relied of using ad hoc networks for enable peer-to-peer communications throughout wireless networks. This aspect of ad hoc wireless network architectures is gaining high levels of interest due to wireless due to WiFi-enabled devices being able to access Facebook, MySpace and other social networking applications. As the ad-hoc architecture inherently supports peer-based communications and is rapidly becoming the foundation of social networking, this type of network architecture is considered highly distributed in nature. Often wireless network…
Cisco Tutorial. Basics of the OSI Model and associated documents. Accessed from the Internet on February 12, 2009 from location:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/introint.htm (Chek, Kwok, 2007)
Michael Cho-Hoi Chek, Yu-Kwong Kwok. (2007). Design and evaluation of practical coexistence management schemes for Bluetooth and IEEE 802.11b systems*. Computer Networks, 51(8), 2086. Retrieved February 17, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1244657901). (Diegel, Bright, Potgieter, 2004)
Olaf Diegel, Glen Bright, Johan Potgieter. (2004). Bluetooth ubiquitous networks: seamlessly integrating humans and machines. Assembly Automation, 24(2), 168-176. Retrieved February 4, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 636242101). (Fantacci, Vannuccini, Vestri, 2008)