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Each group of students can start their email-based social forums (such as Google and Yahoo groups) where they can stay in touch while not in class. These are pretty powerful with features such as real time message notifications, real time chat sessions and options to upload files. Tutorials available online on websites can be posted on the forum reference section. Any issues with a project currently assigned to a math group can be placed as a question on their online forum. Other members can do their research, try to solve the problem and post their results. Any mistakes can be pointed out and corrected immediately. This makes progress easy since students need not wait for their next class to discuss problems with group mates.
In conclusion we can say that groups are a viable approach to eliminate the stereotypical fear of math. Not only does it advance the social environment…
Power, M (2010, Jan 29) Developmental Grouping in Math. Retrieved from http://blogs.scholastic.com/classroom_solutions/2010/01/developmental-grouping-in-math.html
Gregory, M. (n.d.) Guided Math groups. Retrieved from http://www.mandygregory.com/guided_math_groups.htm
Dill, M. (n.d.) How to teach elementary school math with groups. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/how_2340145_teach-elementary-school-math-groups.html
n.a.(n.d.) Differentiating Math Lessons for Gifted Students. Retrieved from http://www.byrdseed.com/differentiating-math-lessons-for-gifted-students/
S.O.S. Mathematics (http://www.sosmath.com/)
For "high school, college students, and adult learners," SOS serves as both refresher course and introduction to new material. Although the information and exercises on the site are limited and the site does include annoying advertisements, S.O.S. is a worthy Web site.
Hacking Mathematics (http://www.math.fsu.edu/~wooland/hm/hm.html)
An online textbook for a liberal arts mathematics course, this site offers students the opportunity to gather information and complete corresponding exercises.
Project-Based Instruction in Mathematics for the Liberal Arts (http://faculty.uscupstate.edu/mulmer/PBI_Index.shtml)
his Web site is not easy to navigate or to look at, but the quality and range of content are admirable.
Mathematics History (http://library.thinkquest.org/22584/)
Unfortunately bogged down by poor Web site design, the hinkquest-sponsored site is filled with useful information about the history of mathematics for non-math majors at liberal arts institutions as well as for students in more math-centric academic programs.
This Web site is not easy to navigate or to look at, but the quality and range of content are admirable.
Mathematics History (http://library.thinkquest.org/22584/)
Unfortunately bogged down by poor Web site design, the Thinkquest-sponsored site is filled with useful information about the history of mathematics for non-math majors at liberal arts institutions as well as for students in more math-centric academic programs.
These mathematicians recognized that spatial situations which produce collinearity were invariably the result of deep underlying geometric truths. The incidence of a point on a line is invariant under the projective rules. If three or more points are collinear along a line, then incident with a straight line, the images will thus be collinear. Therefore, the characteristics of incidence, collinearity, and concurrence are principle requisites of my work." (Singer, 1999)
According to Singer the world has entering on many levels 'geometrical rules, axioms, methods and carefully thought-out plans…" (1999) However, the method that tends to be the most "imaginative and creative" is the geometrical method which is stated by Singer to have "provided a sustained interest and impetus" for him in his art. (Singer, 1999)
It is interesting to note the statement of Singer that "…many of the elements, straight lines, arcs, elliptical sections, parabolas, hyperbolas, epicycloids, and spirals, accelerate…
Pinney, Christopher and Thomas, Nicholas (2001) Beyond aesthetics: art and the technologies of enchantment. Berg Publishers, 2001.
Singer, Charles (1999) The Conceptual Mechanics Of Expression In Geometric Fields New York, N.Y. Online available at: http://www.mi.sanu.ac.yu/vismath/clif/index.html
Stakhov, Alesey (nd) Dirac's Principle of Mathematical Beauty, Mathematics of Harmony and 'Golden' Scientific Revolution'. The International Club of the Golden Section.
Math Concept Used in Law: The Spreadsheet
Lawyers are business people who must keep their own businesses running. In addition, lawyers necessarily deal with many other professions. Finally, lawyers must be able to collect, examine and present evidence in a clear and commonly understood manner. Consequently, lawyers use a math concept that is readily adaptable across all those areas: the "Spreadsheet."
Spreadsheet Use for a Lawyer's Own Business
Two of the most important resources in business are time and money. Both time and money are valuable, limited and need to be budgeted. A lawyer uses spreadsheets to budget, review and adjust his/her gross income and overhead costs. The spreadsheet allows a lawyer to review income, expenses and totals at a glance. Lawyers also use spreadsheets to budget their time and the time of their employees. Since lawyers tend to juggle many cases at once and need to meet with clients,…
Divorce Resolutions. (2012). Coloradodivorcemediation.com Web site. Retrieved oon January 16, 2012 from Free Colorado divorce forms, child support, custody & mediation tools: http://www.coloradodivorcemediation.com/tools/
National Legal Research Group, Inc. (2001). Discovery and admissibility of electronic evidence. Retrieved on January 16, 2012 from Divorce Source: Discovery and admissibility of electronic evidence: http://www.divorcesource.com/research/dl/discovery/01sep157.shtml
PriceGrabber. (2012). Financial & legal software. Retrieved on January 12, 2012 from Software.pricegrabber.com Web site: http://software.pricegrabber.com/financial-legal/p/168/
Weinman, P.J. (2010). Closing cost estimates. Retrieved on January 12, 2012 from Webcache.googleuser.content Web site: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:L1UqFjze4vcJ:www.statenislandlaw.com/documents/ClosingCostEstimates.xls+real+estate+attorney+closing+%22spreadsheet%22&cd=3&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
Ozark furniture has 3000 board feet of lumber to manufacture their rockers. The classic rocker (C) takes 15 board feet of lumber. The modern rocker (M) takes 12 board feet of lumber. The linear inequality that results when one combines these two variables with the amount of lumber available to Ozark furnitures is: 15C + 12M
Susan K. Peterson and associates (1988) conducted a study on the impact of the use of manipulatives on different kinds of students and concluded that the result of using manipulative was positive for both gifted and disabled students (Peterson, Mercer & O'Shea, 1988). Joseph Martinez (1987) also explained that the use of solid manipulatives made studying math more fun as well as less hectic and demanding for most of the students (Martinez, 1987).
In this modern era where technological advancements are dominating all other spheres of life, the phenomenon of manipulatives has highly benefited. David H. Uttal (1997) and his colleagues in their study focused on the implementation of manipulatives within the primary and secondary schools as well as the use of modern developments with solid manipulatives. The conclusions that were made revolved around the fact that the use of familiar objects was easier for the students to connect with…
Anghileri, J. (2001). Intuitive approaches, mental strategies and standard algorithms. In J. Anghileri (ed.), Principles and practices in arithmetic teaching: Innovative approaches in the primary classroom (pp. 79-94). Buckingham: Open University Press.
Beishuizen, M. (1999). The empty number line as a new model. In I. Thompson (ed.), Issues in teaching numeracy in primary schools (pp. 157-68). Buckingham: Open University Press.
Ball, D.L. (1992). Magical hopes: Manipulatives and the reform of math education. American Educator, 16, 14-I 8.
Brown, M., Askew, M., Baker, D., Denvir, H., and Millett, a. (1998). Is the national numeracy strategy research-based? British Journal of Educational Studies, 46(4), 362-85.
When the paramedics arrive, they must be able to determine if the individual is allergic to specific drugs and what amounts. This will help in establishing possible IVs that will be given to the patient on the way to the hospital and their possible reaction to specific medication. During this process, is when paramedics must be able to use Algebra in determining how much of a particular substance should be given to the patient. At the same time, they have to be able to rapidly convert between decimals and fractions. This is indicating how they have to make calculations between the English and Metric systems. These actions will have a dramatic impact on the ability of paramedics to be able to stabilize patients on the way to the hospital. This will determine if the person is able to survive the incident (based upon the calculations and observations of paramedics). (Monteclavo,…
911 Memorial for America's Heroes. (2007). 911 Heroes. Retrieved from: http://www.9-11heroes.us/911-heroes-song.php
Monteclavo, M. (2011). How Does Math Play a Role in Emergency Services. E How. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/facts_6714029_math-play-role-emergency-services_.html
Technology and art have been married in a number of ways, showing how the two may complement one another:
Mathematics provides a framework for artistic expression while art can awaken mathematical intuition, revealing aspects of mathematics that are otherwise hidden within abstract formulations (Cipra 748).
The marriage of technology and art has engendered considerable interest in academic circles, and among the recent developments have been a meeting of more than one hundred mathematicians, artists, and educators in 1992 to consider the trend among artists to visualize mathematical concepts. Artists have helped visualize difficult mathematical processes, and one that has been cited is the act of turning a sphere inside out without introducing a sharp crease at any point during the operation. This was demonstrated using computer graphics in 1989 after the procedure itself was described mathematically in 1959. The process is known as sphere eversion and has been pictured graphically…
Briggs, John. Fractals: The Patterns of Chaos. New York: Touchstone, 1992.
Chilvers, Ian, Harold Osborne, and Dennis Farr. The Oxford Dictionary of Art. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Cipra, Barry. "Cross-Disciplinary Artists Know Good Math When They See it... " Science (7 Aug 1992), 748-749.
De La Croix, Horst, Richard G. Tansey, and Diane Kirkpatrick. Gardner's Art Through the Ages. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1991.
In order to speak specifically to grade level, the process standards were broken down by grade spans. The middle school grades were represented by standards 5-8, as these are commonly the grades that represent middle school. This presentation of process standards specifically presented by grade levels were called content standards. These were updated in 2000 as well. The 1989 content standards included the following ten standards: number and number relationships, number systems and theory, computation and estimation, patterns and functions, algebra, statistics, probability, geometry, and measurement. In 2000, those ten standards continued to be fully represented, however they were pared down to five areas: number and operations, algebra, geometry, measurement, and data analysis (Krulic, 2003, p. 21). Major changes occurred in several areas. One major change was a shift in the attitude and expectations for computations. Though computations were still taught, they were no longer taught until mastery in…
NCTM's Agenda to Action was much needed at the time it was created. As years have passed, and society has gone from industry and farming to technology and information, so have the curriculum standards of the past. The updates presented in 2000 have provided students a way to think differently about mathematics, which will perhaps serve them better in the future.
Krulik, Stephen. (2003) Teaching mathematics, a practical guide. Pearson Education, Inc.
The origin is defined as the point (0, 0), or "X is zero and Y is zero."
If one plots two points on a graph and draws a line between them, then imagines an object following the line starting on the left and going to the right, one can see that the location of the object, which is also a point, is changing as it follows the line. Namely, the X values are increasing (because the object is going from the left to the right), and the Y values are doing whatever the line is doing. In the example shown, the Y values are increasing, because the numbers are getting higher and higher -- that is, according to the proper vocabulary, they are getting more and more positive.
In this case, a derivate is the answer to the question, "how fast are those values changing?" or, "for every time the…
In grade four white males performing "At or Above asic" math skills is stated at 90% while black males were performing at only 59% "At or Above asic" skill levels. White males in the "At or Above Proficient" skills level is stated at 49% with black males in this category stated at a mere 13%.
The following labeled Figure 2 shows the statistical report of NAEP (2005) in relation to achievement differences among African-American and White American males.
NAEP STATISTICAL REPORT: Minority Male Achievement Gaps Relative to White Males, Grade 4, 2005
Source: NAEP STATISTICAL REPORT (2005)
y the time these students reach 8th grade white males "At or Above asic Achievement Levels" totals 76% while only 43% of the African-American males are "At or Above asic Achievement Levels" the negative value in the Achievement Gap of African-American Males as relative to White Males indicates that a lower percentage of…
Henry, Ardail Rashad (2005) Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement in African-American Students with Learning Disabilities. July 2005 School or Education Curriculum and Instruction, Special Education, Williamsburg VA. Online available at http://www.wm.edu/education/599/05Projects/Henry_599.pdf
David, James Earl (2006) Early Schooling and Academic Achievement of African-American Males. Abstract. Sage Publications. Online available at http://uex.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/38/5/515
Babco, Eleanor (2004) Uphill Climb: the Status of African-Americans in Science and Engineering. Making Strides. Online available at http://ehrweb.aaas.org/mge/Reports/Report1/Uphill.html .
McMillian, Monique M. (2003-2004) Is No Child Left Behind 'Wise Schooling' for African-American Male Students?" published in the High School Journal - Volume 87, Number 2 in December 2003-January 2004, and on pages 25-33.
Young Children's Ideas about Math
This article presented many conclusions concerning children's perceptions of geometric shapes and related findings to activities that could be implemented within the elementary classroom. Many findings were drawn from various studies concerning different age groups and how each one related to different geometric shapes. The information presented then compared the results across the board to define and identify the various developmental levels where children understood the geometric concepts presented.
Testing occurred to determine when children could first correctly identify presented shapes such as circles, squares, and triangles. esearchers discovered that children at the pre-recognition level recognize shapes, but are unable to identify and distinguish among many shapes. The next stage is the visual stage. Children are able to identify shapes according to their appearance. The more advance stage is known as the descriptive stage and it is entered when a child can recognize…
Clements, D. & Sarama, J. (2000, April). Young children's ideas about math. Teaching Children Mathematics, 482-487.
Kindergarten Math Plan
Stage 1-Desired Results
Students will be able to count to 100 by recognizing, writing, and typing the numbers. Students will be able to count in multiples of 3, 5, and 10. Students will be able to understand how numbers represent groups of objects.
Students will be able to understand how objects, such as groups, interact with numbers and what each one means or represents.
Students will understand that numbers tell how much and how many is in a group. They will make inferences, such as how many students in the class.
Students will keep considering how many is in a group, and fewer, more, or equal to concepts.
Students will know how numbers interact with groups, fewer, more, or equal.
Students will be skilled at concepts of counting and fewer, more, or equal to.
First, math courses are required as part of college work in the pursuit of most degrees in the health care field. The level of required achievement is different, depending on the degree sought. For example, a student pursuing an LPN may take a semester or two of college algebra. A pre-med student is often required to take one or two semesters of calculus. A student pursuing a master's degree in health care administration will take courses in statistics, finance and accounting. The master's candidate can perhaps more easily see the relevance of the required math courses toward the future career. For the nursing student studying algebra or the pre-med student struggling through calculus, the correlation between academic study and actual practice may be unclear. They may wonder why they must undertake these courses, which seem to have little to do with the work in which they will eventually be engaged.…
Marketplace Money. (2011). The cost of the common cold. American Public Media.
Retrieved from http://marketplace.publicradio.org/display/web/2011/01/21/mm-why-its -
Paris, N. (2007). Hawking to experience zero gravity. London Telegraph 26 Apr 2007.
Math to Answer Everyday Imponderables by Clint Brookhart is a math book, which can be described as interesting, engaging and yet too simplistic. While it covers some truly amazing imponderables, there are some serious errors in the book which later editions are likely to address and rectify. But any first time reader is likely to try the formulas given in the book to see if they can actually predict how tall a child would grow, or to determine how far is the horizon. These are some of the areas covered with appropriate formulas, which might help readers figure out how does the universe operate.
The interesting thing is that most of us would find it light reading despite the fact that it is all about mathematics, the most boring and driest of subjects otherwise. The book discusses every imponderable imaginable right from the mundane ones such as lottery odds, predicting…
Clint Brookhart, GO FIGURE! - Using Math to Answer Everyday Imponderables: McGraw-Hill/Contemporary Books; August 1999
Math education, over the precedent years has been a contentious issue plaguing society at large. Many students, as they enter their preliminary schooling years, often have difficulty learning basic mathematical concepts. These difficulties compound as students proceed to upper levels of education. Throughout this process, math becomes more difficult for the student, often discouraging them from pursing math in a meaningful manner. Due to globalization, other nations are now becoming more competitive in regards to their overall workforce. They are now more educated, particularly in both math and science. Their respective countries are also very ambitious in teaching their children about the merits of math education. Competition now arises from all corners of the globe irrespective of geographic location. ealizing that global competition, market demands, and business needs necessitate the need for a mathematically oriented society, America has renewed its emphasis on math education. One such theory regarding…
1) Brousseau, G. (1997). The theory of didactical situations in mathematics: Didactique des mathematiques, 1970 -- 1990 (N. Balacheff, M. Cooper, R. Sutherland, & V. Warfield, Eds. And Trans.). Dordrecht: Kluwer.
2) Tiberghien, Andree. "Design Tools in Didactical Research: Instrumenting the Epistemological and Cognitive Aspects of the Design of Teaching Sequences." EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHER June 2009 vol. 38 no. 5 329-342
power-point presentation. Other tests, related to the assigned chapters may be approved, but require permission from course professor at least 24 hours before the due date. Tests not listed in the textbook or associated power-point presentation that are used without prior permission will result in a zero, with no opportunity for resubmission. Earlier editions for tests listed in your textbook may be used without permission if the current test has not yet been reviewed in the MMY.
equired: Look up a test in Mental Measurements Yearbook and Tests in Print Database (MMY) related to each of the following textbook chapters: Test eview 1 (ch. 16, Cognitive assessment); Test eview 2 (ch. 9, Behavioral assessment); Test eview 3 (chs. 10-11, General Achievement or eading assessment) Test eview 4 (chs. 12-13, Oral or Written Language assessment), Test eview 5 (ch. 14, Math assessment).
Use this template to complete each section, moving up…
References (provide APA formatted reference based on test review found in the MMY)
Here is a sample of a correct APA reference for a pretend test review in the MMY
Smith. J. & Jones, A. (20xx). Review of the Something Achievement Test. Mental Measurements Yearbook and Tests in Print. Yearbook: #.
Graham, T., Lane, S. (2007). Review of the KeyMath-3 Diagnostic Assessment. Mental Measurements Yearbook and Tests in Print. Yearbook: 18.
Personal Response: After reviewing this test and considering all that you have learned in this review, would you recommend that this test be used to assess the students that it is designed for? State why you believe that this test would or would not be useful in assessing this population.
Integrated Curriculum Analysis
A teacher's main objective usually centers in arousing the curiosity of the student enough to engage them in the process of learning. Engagement can often lead to enthusiasm, and enthusiasm leads to learning. One of the most effective methods of engagement is through the use of real-world tasks. Francom & Gardner (2014) determined that many of the recent models of learning provided instruction center learning that incorporated real-world tasks and problems that support the transfer and application of knowledge. The writer Howard Hendricks said "What is important is not what you do as a teacher, but what your students learn as a result of what you do." Students in today's educational environment follow the teacher's lead but collaborate much more with other students than in previous generations. A teacher must understand that collaboration and use it as well as the available technology to ensure that the students…
Francom, G. & Gardner, J.; (2014) What is task-centered learning? TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice Learning, 58(5) p. 27-35
Howard Hendricks Quotes." Quotes.net. STANDS4 LLC, 2014. Web. 26 Oct. 2014. Retrieved from http://www.quotes.net/authors/Howard%20Hendricks
Hutchison, A., & Reinking, D. (2011) Teachers' perceptions of integrating information and communication technologies into literacy instruction: A national survey in the U.S. Reading Research Quarterly, 46(4), 308 -- 329.
Nielsen, C.; DeFranco, J.F. & Malm, E.; (2015) Math, science and sustainability-enhanced career and technical education, Techniques: Connecting Education & Careers, 90(3) pp. 50-55
Math Vocabulary Literature Review
The nation's public and private school systems have demonstrated that there are far too many examples where large numbers of students do not positively excel. Unfortunately, math success has become one of the more obvious shortcomings of the educational system. "Mathematics education seems particularly prone to the belief in the single new idea: do this (whether using calculators, teaching mathematics through problem solving, working collaboratively, stressing the basics, employing manipulatives, and so on), and all your math problems will be solved." (Elliot, Portia C., 11) Obviously this is not the case.
This Literature Review focuses on the fact that modern day students consistently demonstrate that they are lacking in overall proficiency, especially in areas like mathematically-based vocabulary. But is it the student's fault? The study article in the 2006 Reading Psychology by Margaret-Mary Sulentic-Dowell, Gloria D. Beal and Robert M. Capraro called "How Do Literacy Experiences…
Considering this belief into account for the discussion of math and poetry, through the general observation and understanding, it is observed that math and poetry constitute the form of art also. The other instance of symmetry in math is proof. Math looks for an elegant proof above one which established the identical outcome through contradiction or examination of a lot of cases. The same thing is applicable in case of poetry. In case one is desirous of having a good poem, it is important that one must develop a style and follow the particular style across. Poetry as well as maths is two very distinct themes, nevertheless the same are found to be similar in formation and structure. Understanding math as a poem solves a lot of problem. When math is looked as a poem, it is observed that calculating is the same as a finding a pattern in the…
Cook, Raymond. (1987) "Velimir Khlebnikov"
Mancosu, Paolo; Jorgensen, Klaus Frovin; Andur, Stig. (2005) "Visualization,
Explanation and Reasoning Styles in Mathematics" Springer.
Math, G; Ly, Kim. (2002) "Mathematics and Poetry" Retrieved 28 April, 2009 from http://www.missioncollege.org/depts/Math/ly/kim.htm
It enlivens what many people see as the isolating abstractness of mathematics
Lipsey and Pasternack).
A study of the literature on this issue brings clearly to the fore the realization of the importance of the integration and intersection between various subjects that were in the past seen to be separate and even in opposition to one another. There are an increasing number of cogent and well researched books and articles which suggest ways and means of linking mathematics and literature to the benefit and advantage of both subjects.
Books by Marilyn Burns. etrieved February 8, 2009 from: (http://home.avvanta.com/~math/burnsbooks.htm)
Clement, . (1990) Counting on Frank. Sydney: Williams Collins.
Grossman, F.J., Smith, B, & Miller, C. (1993). Did you say write in mathematics class? Journal of Developmental Education, 17, pp. 2-4.
Hutchins, P. (1986). The doorbell rang. New York: Greenwillow Books. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000367948
Kolstad, ., Briggs, L., & Whalen, K. (1996). Incorporating…
Books by Marilyn Burns. Retrieved February 8, 2009 from: (http://home.avvanta.com/~math/burnsbooks.htm)
Clement, R. (1990) Counting on Frank. Sydney: Williams Collins.
Grossman, F.J., Smith, B, & Miller, C. (1993). Did you say write in mathematics class? Journal of Developmental Education, 17, pp. 2-4.
Hutchins, P. (1986). The doorbell rang. New York: Greenwillow Books. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000367948
Education: Teaching Math to Students ith Disabilities
orking with students with disabilities (SD) can be quite challenging, especially for teachers working on a full-time basis. Almost every classroom today has one or more students dealing with either an emotional, educational, or physical disability; and teachers are likely to find themselves looking for resources or information that would enable them teach all their students in the most effective way. There are numerous special-education websites from which teachers and instructors can obtain information or lessons on teaching their respective subjects. Five websites available to the math special education teacher have been discussed in the subsequent sections of this text.
Teachers Helping Teachers: http://www.pacificnet.net/~mandel/
This online resource provides teaching information for all teachers, with a 'Special Education' segment that provides a number of activities meant specifically for instilling basic conceptual skills in learners with special needs. The activities are submitted by…
Oldham County Schools. "Instructional Resources for Math." Oldham County Schools, n.d. Web. 17 August 2014 http://www.oldham.k12.ky.us/files/intervention_resources/Math/Instructional_Resources_for_Math.pdf
Starr, Linda. "Teaching Special Kids: Online Resources for Teachers." Education World, 2010. Web. 17 August 2014 from http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr139.shtml
decision to become a math major should not be taken lightly. ecent graduates are generally required to have a master's degree and the job market for mathematicians is competitive ("Mathematician: Summary" 2012). In 2010, there were only 3,100 positions for mathematicians in the U.S. And the need is expected to increase by only 16% between 2010 and 2020. Those who are able to secure a position as a mathematician generally work in federal agencies and in private science and engineering research companies. In 2010, the median salary for mathematicians was $47.78 per hour.
Given the competitive nature of the mathematician job market, math majors frequently augment their course of study with other course work or complete a double major ("Mathematicians: How to become a mathematician" 2012). For example, a math major who would like to secure a position in engineering research would benefit from engineering coursework or getting a second…
"Actuaries: Summary." Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Last modified April 5, 2012. http://www.bls.gov/ooh/math/actuaries.htm .
Kling, Jim. "The mathematical biology job market." Science Careers. Published 27 Feb. 2004. http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org/career_magazine/previous_issues/articles/2004_02_27/noDOI.6305720559640560046 .
"Mathematicians: How to become a mathematician." Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Last modified March 29, 2012.
Additionally, teachers provide information on upcoming math topics so tutors can come more fully prepared" (Baker, Riet & Clendaniel, 2006: 1).
The program demonstrates how an elementary school's mathematics education can be enhanced by a good tutoring program. The program helped inject fun into the discipline of mathematics, provided personalized attention to struggling students, featured 'previewing' critical material to be covered the next day in class, had less structured break/snack time so students had time to 'digest' new material (no pun intended), and the tutors worked closely with the student's regular teachers. The tutors also said that they learned a great deal that would serve them well in their own classrooms while working with the teachers, and also from their students. Supervising university observers of the tutors noted they had fewer absences in their classes than non-participants. Finally, the program made effective use of community outreach, as it merged the…
I never used to like math but now it is my favorite subject since I have been going to math tutoring. Now I understand it" (Baker, Riet & Clendaniel, 2006: 1). Few words could more delightful to the ears of an elementary math school teacher. But what prompted this student's enthusiasm? The student became excited about math because of a program created by a rural school district that was seeking to raise its students' standardized test scores. The district took proactive action and created a partnership with the local university to formulate an after-school tutoring program, staffed by university volunteers from the elementary education program at the university.
Elementary children in grades 3-6 were chosen to participate who had math scores below the 30th percentile on the standardized test used by the state of Pennsylvania, the results of their Stanford 9 Achievement Tests, and classroom teachers' recommendations. The ratio of elementary students to university tutors was two students to each tutor. Sessions included individual meetings with tutors, snack time during which tutors 'previewed' upcoming math lessons, homework assistance, and games. "Each child has a folder that contains an information sheet for classroom teachers to guide tutoring with assigned homework and skill areas to be practiced. Additionally, teachers provide information on upcoming math topics so tutors can come more fully prepared" (Baker, Riet & Clendaniel, 2006: 1).
The program demonstrates how an elementary school's mathematics education can be enhanced by a good tutoring program. The program helped inject fun into the discipline of mathematics, provided personalized attention to struggling students, featured 'previewing' critical material to be covered the next day in class, had less structured break/snack time so students had time to 'digest' new material (no pun intended), and the tutors worked closely with the student's regular teachers. The tutors also said that they learned a great deal that would serve them well in their own classrooms while working with the teachers, and also from their students. Supervising university observers of the tutors noted they had fewer absences in their classes than non-participants. Finally, the program made effective use of community outreach, as it merged the resources of the local university and solicited the input of school and district administrators to create an effective program. Despite the occasional logistical and emotional problems created by the difficulties of using the same tutor for individual students from grade to grade, the program was deemed a success.
Low math scores of American elementary students has been a major issue in education for some time. The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) conducted in 1995 showed the extent of the problem. The TIMMS study compared students in 42 countries, allowing American students to be compared with international students. The study rated the math ability of American students as adequate in fourth grade and poor in twelfth grade compared to other countries. This study was not the first time that concerns had been raised about American students achieving poorly in science and math. It was however, the largest and most comprehensive look at the real extent of the problem. The study made people realize the significance of the issue and resulted in the awareness of the public, the government and education and mathematics researchers. The major question that needs answering is why the low math scores occur, and…
Ma, L. Knowing and Teaching Elementary Mathematics: Teachers' Understanding of Fundamental Mathematics in China and the United States. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999.
Mokros, J., Russell, S.J., and Economopoulos, K. Beyond Arithmetic: Changing Mathematics in the Elementary Classroom. Palo Alto, CA: Dale Seymour Publications, 1995.
Examples of how-to skills include note-taking, memorization techniques and locating main ideas and supporting details in passages" (Flanagan 2001). The other educator takes responsibility for helping students apply those skills. This might be one way for a younger and an older teacher to collaborate. The older teacher could teach a conventional unit on a particular type of subject matter, such as the Civil War, while the more technologically fluent younger instructor could show students how to use the Internet and other multimedia sources to research primary sources, such as soldiers' accounts from the battlefield, which would complement but not replace the need for the lecture.
Using collaborative teaching often takes greater planning on the part of the teachers. For example, in team-teaching, the teachers must coordinate which teacher will teach what aspect of the lesson. This may be based upon content area, or the type of medium involved: one teacher…
Flanagan, Barbara. (2001, Spring). Collaborative teaching 101. VCLD. 15(2).
Retrieved March 11, 2010 at http://www.vcld.org/pages/newsletters/00_01_spring/coll_teach.htm
ability of a bipolar student to learn concepts in the subjects of Math and Science in the general classroom setting
According to sources retrieved from the American Medical Journal, bipolar disorder refers to the psychiatric diagnosis for a mood disorder. Individuals who suffer from bipolar disorder undergo various symptoms such as experiencing episodes of a frenzied state whose medical term is mania (or hypomania). This medical condition typically alternates with episodes of depression. Doctor Annabel Hathaway, a senior psychologist at the University of Stanford, children suffering from bipolar disorders have high intelligence quotient and commendable talents. However, they may have difficulties in coordinating their reflexes and reaction time. They also experience difficulties making transitions, and they may as well have co-morbid syndromes that that render them anxious, inattentive, distractible, moody, argumentative, and withdrawn. Likewise, bipolar disorders may render such children acute and perfectionist.
Psychologists explain that children with bipolar disorders…
Anglada, Tracy The Student with Bipolar Disorder: An Educator's Guide BP Children Organization < http://www.bpchildren.org/files/Download/Educator.pdf>
Child & Adolescent Bipolar Foundation Educating the Child with Bipolar Disorder State: Arizona Department of Education
Grier, Elizabeth Chesno, Wilkins, Megan L. And Carolyn Ann Stirling Pender Bipolar Disorder: Educational Implications for Secondary Students Michigan: University of Michigan Press
The Balanced Mind Foundation An Educator's Guide to Pediatric Bipolar Disorder < http://www.thebalancedmind.org/learn/library/an-educators-guide-to-pediatric-bipolar-disorder >
Decimals and Fractions
(What you want to achieve)
by the end of the session the learner will able to:
S.M.A.R.T (Specific -- Measurable -- Achievable -- Realistic -- Time-scaled)
Impart to students how to assess, identify, classify and label different number forms.
Should be able to label and classify the following types of numbers: Whole numbers, counting numbers, non-whole numbers, rational numbers, at least some basic irrational numbers, etc. Learning will occur over a four-week period. It shall start with the basics and there will be interim quizzes and tests to ensure that the knowledge is being absorbed. Poor performance on such quizzes and tests may require that some topics be re-covered or drilled down on.
All should be able to understand basic decimals and fractions.
Many will be able to do most but not all of the work
Some will master all of it.…
Fluency and Literacy in a Middle-School Math Classroom
Eyes roll at the sight of dreaded word problems. "I hate word problems," says the student. A familiar scenario for a middle school math teacher. Initially, such a math teacher might assume that the complaining student has difficulty translating words into mathematical concepts -- in other words, that the student does not understand the concept behind the math, but merely how to manipulate numbers, in imitation of the teacher, on sigh. hile this may be the case, Richard Allington also raises the provocative concept of reading fluency as an additional problem in the math classroom -- the student may understand the math, but feel so uncomfortable with the concepts he or she finds the additional manipulations required by the word problem to be tedious and time consuming. In other words, he or she has a low level of fluency, even though he…
Allington, Richard. What Really Matters for Struggling Readers. New York: Longman, 2001.
MATH Lesson Plan
Activity Name: Space and Math
Classroom, Internet, Field trips
Children should know history of the space program and its impact on science, math, history, politics and technology.
Education Standards Addressed
Combination of history, civics and math
(Specify skills/information that will be learned.)
Teach about math in terms of things like speed, rotation speed, circumference, and so forth.
(Specific skill / concept being taught in lesson)
Applying math to space-related concepts
Units of measurement, dimensions and speeds. Examples would include diameter, perimeter, speed, velocity and so forth. Nothing too complicated…just the basics.
(e.g. Web, books, etc.)
Procedure/s: (List of steps in lesson delivery) Include as applicable and in order of delivery:
Examine and Talk, Demonstrate, Model, Plan, Guide, ecord, Describe, Explore, Acquire, Practice, etc.
Explains terms and concepts in terms of numbers and measurement…
Denler, H. (2014, January 28). Social Cognitive Theory. Retrieved February 24, 2015, from http://www.education.com/reference/article/social-cognitive-theory/
Mitton, T., & Parker, A. (1997). Roaring rockets. New York: Kingfisher.
Rabe, T. (1999). There's a no place like space!: All about our solar system. New York: Random House.
Wilson, L., & Frye, P. (1993). What's out there?: A book about space. New York: Grosset & Dunlap.
At Cosmos, I would be able to propose my own hypothetical scientific questions and to use my abilities to explore and research new answers, rather than simply be a receptor of knowledge. I would also get a better understanding of what life is like for scientists, researchers, and engineers, by receiving the guidance of professionals in shaping my final project.
One of the most exciting aspects of Cosmos is that at the end of the session, I will be able to share my findings with my home community. I know that some people my age regard science as dull, but I hope that I will be able to take my enthusiasm and knowledge and show how science can be creative, practical, and empower individuals with greater knowledge of their physical environment, and improve the quality of human…
These exams would also tap teaching performance and other capabilities unlikely to be adequately assessed using conventional paper along with pencil instruments." (Shulman, 1986, pp. 4 -- 14)
These different elements are important, because they are providing a foundation for helping the schools to become more competitive in mathematics. As, they are working together to create a basic standard for: improving learning comprehension and provide the ability to solve more complex issues. Over the course of time, this will help to increase the student's ability to understand a wide variety of concepts. This is the point that they will be more prepared to deal with the various challenges that they are facing in the 21 century. Once this occurs, it will help them to establish a foundation for adapting to the changes that they will have to deal with from: shifts in technology and through these transformations because of globalization.…
Content Knowledge for Teaching. (2010). Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Diagnostic Mathematics Assessment. (2011). University of Louisville. Retrieved from: http://louisville.edu/education/research/centers/crmstd/diag_math_assess_middle_teachers.html
Elementary and Secondary Education. (2004). NSF. Retrieved from: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind04/c1/c1s1.htm#c1s1l3a
Frequently Asked Questions. (2011). Core Standards. Retrieved from: http://www.corestandards.org/frequently-asked-questions
Here, we can observe several of the greatest benefits of assistive technology in special education. Such is to say that many linguistic, mathematic or otherwise basic educational programs may be designed to help facilitate the special needs learner through audio assistance, special contextualization and personal customization.
Additionally, the learning disabled individual, by virtue of his interaction with the educational properties offered by an effective software program, will achieve a level of learning autonomy not otherwise afforded to him in the traditional inclusion classroom setting. This is something of an alleviation of learning obstacles for primary educational advocates as well as a boost to the student's potential for autonomy at any level, let alone in mathematics. Assistive technology software programs may also have the added benefit of helping to improve hand-eye coordination, with the use of a mixed-media approach combining physical interaction with knowledge retention and helping the learner make new…
Hatton, D. & Hatton, K. (2013). Apps for Students with LD: Organization & Study. National Center for Learning Disabilities.
Smith, M. (2009). Assistive Technology for Use With Mathematics. SlideShare.net.
Stanberry, K. & Raskind, M.H. (2012). Assistive Technology for Kids With Learning Disabilities: An Overview. Reading Rockets.
University of Texas at Austin. (2008). Classroom Assistive Technology Devices. Utexas.edu.
STEM does not refer to an abstract and vast area of study, but to the passions and interests of my ten-year-old son, who is so interested in STEM subjects that he finds the pace of learning aimed at most students his age to be tedious and uninteresting. The last thing I want, as a parent, is for him to lose the passion and interest he has in these topics. Instead, I want him in an environment that will nurture that passion, encourage him to satisfy his curiosity, and share his passion with other students.
STEM education is important to my child because he has a passion for innovation. From a very young age he took an interest in creating things. His hobbies have included Legos, building circuits, and computer programming. While traditional math and science courses provide the foundation that students need for success, they fail to offer students the…
Rubik's cube has been around for roughly two generations and it continues to fascinate. This report will focus on the different facets and historical facts surrounding the cube and what has happened with the Cube over the years. The depth and breadth to which mathematics is needed to solve the cube as well as the different overall methods that can be used to solve the cube will be summarized. The different uses of the cube and the different ways in which the puzzle has been solved through the years will be mentioned. hile it may seem like a pointless toy to many, the reach and magnitude of the Rubik's Cube over the years has been and remains palpable.
The Rubik's Cube was created in Budapest, Hungary by Erno Rubik. The year of its creation was 1974. Even Erno himself couldn't solve the cube until nearly a month had passed. The…
Boston.com. "Mass. teacher uses Rubik's Cube to teach math - Boston.com."
Boston.com. The New York Times, 30 Mar. 2014. Web. 20 July 2014.
Harris, Dan. Speedsolving the cube: easy-to-follow, step-by-step instructions for many popular 3-D puzzles. New York: Sterling Pub., 2008. Print.
LESSON PREPARATION [before the lesson]
Mathematics, Grades 5-6
Concept: Complex and Multi-fuctional word Problems
Whole class, small group, or individual? Class
State Standard [Virginia SOL or reading standard of your state]:
National Standard: Work flexibly with fractions, decimals, and percents to solve problems; Compare and order fractions; Use models, benchmarks and equivalent fors to judge fractions; develop understand of fractions as parts of unit wholes, and division of whole numbers.
Primary Objective: Students will use four basic mathematical functions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) to solve multiple step, real world, word problems that require several steps for the solution involving fractions and decimals.
Classroom Diversity and Differentiated Instruction Adapted to learning issues based on pre-test; lesson is designed as culmination of unit on fractions and decimals. Differentiated instruction involves smaller groups, individual tutoring, and breaking problem down into steps prior to assigning. Advanced cognitive…
Theory of Knowledge
Without the assumption of the existence of uniformities there can be no knowledge.
One of the presumptions of acquiring knowledge, particularly knowledge in a scientific or mathematical context, is that there must be causal relationships that can be observed or intuited between different phenomena. Human beings base their behaviors on this presumption on a regular basis. We wake up in the morning to the sound of an alarm clock and assume we can shut off that alarm using that particular button because we did so on previous occasions. We do not assume that every experience with an alarm clock is a new encounter. Similarly, we assume that the laws of gravity will secure ourselves in place to the earth and we will not go flying off into space. In science and math, the presumption that natural and mathematical laws have a…
Dan Meyer's Ted Talk And Teaching Mathematics
Math is many students' least favorite subject -- and yet, excelling in math is vitally important for individual student's success as well as for the success of America in the future. According to teacher Dan Meyer, in today's modern math curriculum there is too much of a focus on manipulating equations and not enough of an emphasis on problem-solving. "So 90% of what I do with my five hours of prep time per week is to take fairly compelling elements of problems like this from my textbook and rebuild them in a way that supports math reasoning and patient problem solving" (Meyer 2010). By focusing on problem solving Meyer is also better able to reach math-phobic students. When math is presented in a 'real world' format, then "every student is on a level playing field of intuition" (Meyer 2010). Meyer also begins his…
Hein, G. (1991). Constructivist learning theory. Exploratorium. Retrieved from:
Meyer, Dan. (2010). Ted Talk. Retrieved from:
English in Teaching and Learning Math in Hong Kong
With the intermingling of cultures, business, and globalization in general, it is difficult to imagine that English would not be spoken or at least understood in some form in any part of the world. If nothing else, Internet communication has opened up myriad opportunities for people to learn about any amount of cultures and languages they wish. In terms of business, as mentioned, the world has also become increasingly globalized. Businesses that can expand globally tend to be stronger financially and have greater longevity than those who cannot. Often, an ability to communicate internationally is at the heart of business success. For this reason, the medium of instruction in schools, and especially non-English speaking countries, have come to the forefront of educational attention. In Hong Kong, social and political changes have given a unique dynamic to whether or not English should…
Education Commission (2005, Dec.). Report on Review of Medium of Instruction for Secondary Schools and Secondary School Places Allocation. Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of The People's Republic of China. Retrieved from: http://www.e-c.edu.hk/tc/reform/resources/MOI&SSPA_report_Eng.pdf
Poon, A.Y.K., Lau, C.M.Y. And Chu, D.H.W. (2013, March). Impact of the Fine-Tuning Medium-of-Instruction Policy on Learning: Some Preliminary Findings. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal, Vol. 4, Iss.1. Retrieved from: http://infonomics-society.org/LICEJ/ImpactoftheFineTuningMediumofInstructionPolicyonLearningSomePreliminaryFindings.pdf
Tsui, A.B.M. (2008). Medium of Instruction in Hong Kong: One Country, Two Systems, Whose Language? Medium of Instruction Policies: Which Agenda? Whose Agenda? Edited by James. W. Ollofson and Amy B.M. Tsui. Taylor & Francis e-Library.
Zeng, W. (2007). Medium of Instruction in Secondary Education in Post-Colonial Hong Kong:
Problem Solving for Mathematics
It is essential to include families in the exploration of mathematics and science so that children are able to see a correlation between their learning at school and the real world, practical application found at their homes. esearch indicates that there are numerous adults who have difficulty managing their money (Wells, 2015), which indicates the need to teach the correlation between money and math. One of the most readily available ways to produce this effect is by having students understand the vitality of mathematics through the usage of money and the regular counting and exchanging of currency. One of the most viable means of doing so is to give children a 'piggy bank', and enable them to keep any variety of denominations of money. Certainly all of the different types of coinage should be involved in this process; it would also help to include paper money…
Beecroft, G.D., Duffy, G.L., Moran, J.W. (2003). The Executive Guide to Improvement and Change. New York: ASQ Quality Press.
Wells, C. (2015). The smart way to teach children about money. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/the-smart-way-to-teach-children-about-money-1422849602
This makes the issue a complex one without a clear answer; carbon dioxide is preferable to other potential byproducts of fossil fuel combustion due to the ease with which it can be trapped and its relative innocuousness in these sinks, but undesirable due to its volume and the lack of current capabilities to provide adequate sinks.
7) While it is understandable that the EPA would desire to increase public safety by revising standards for ground level ozone production and concentration, in reality this move is not entirely necessary. As business owners and operators, you know all too well the incessant environmental regulation can create significant operational difficulties and reduce if to eliminate profitability, often with no effect on environmental risks or damage. The EPA itself has found that ground-level ozone quickly dissipates and presents a minimal danger to health if properly vented and dispersed, yet they are revising regulations as…
Clegg, S. & Abbatt, J. (2001). Oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 on ice surfaces at 228 K: a sink for SO2 in ice clouds. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 1:77-92.
EPA. (2011). Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks. Washington, DC.
Garrison, T. (2004). Oceanography. New York: Thomson Brooks.
equation is to determine where to best put our marketing dollars. We are a B2B company. The purpose of marketing is lead gen. So there are a few variables at play -- we can focus on channels that deliver a higher volume of leads, those that deliver a higher level of contacts (qualified leads) and those that have proven to deliver a higher number of customers. The point here is to optimize conversion rates (Drell, 2013). The reason these are different is that the conversion ratio is different for each channel. To simplify, we can look at three channels. You need to choose between channels because marketing funds are limited. Furthermore, there is a business case for focusing on channels that deliver more qualified leads because those require fewer sales reps to process, so carry with them lower costs at other points in the funnel. Let x = dollars (in…
Drell, L. (2013) Marketing 101: The importance of conversion. Mashable. Retrieved November 20, 2016 from http://mashable.com/2013/11/21/conversions-metrics/
One of the top performers, Singapore, boasts a very different approach towards mathematics education: "hile a single lesson in a U.S. textbook might span two pages and take one class period to go through, a lesson in a Singapore textbook might use five to ten pages and take several days to complete. The Singapore texts contain no narrative explanation of how a procedure or concept works; instead, there are problems and questions accompanied by pictures that provide hints about what is going on" (Garelick 2006: 1). However, an attempt to adapt such an approach in one Montgomery, Alabama school suburban district was abandoned, as it was feared that introducing new methods of teaching math within districts might make it difficult for students to meet state standards on standardized tests at the end of the year.
True, many Asian nations such as Korea also have national science and math educations and…
Adams, Cecil. (1999). "What exactly was the 'new math'?" The Straight Dope. Retrieved 28 Jul 2007 at http://www.straightdope.com/mailbag/mnewmath.html
Blosser, Patricia E. (1989). "The Impact of Educational Reform on Science Education."
ERIC/SMEAC Science Education Digest. No. 4. Retrieved 28 Jul 2007 at http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9215/impact.htm
Garelick, Barry. (Fall2006). "Miracle math: a successful program from Singapore tests the limits of school reform in the suburbs." Education Next. Retrieved 28 Jul 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0MJG/is_4_6/ai_n16832469
Another important strategy is that of exploring spatial relations. In such activities, children gain a better visual and practical sense of the spatial relations within mathematics. Scholastic's article portrays two girls discussing the appropriate spatial placement of a couch in a dollhouse. Such thinking methods can be influenced utilizing activities asking the children to map their house, their school, or their neighborhood in proportions. This will help open the child's mind to a more organized way of approaching spatial relations.
Using such strategies help lay the foundations of mathematics essential for later higher levels of learning. It is important to introduce elementary topics and concepts as early as possible, without boring young children to loose their interest. Early math lessons should include engaging activities which help keep the child moving and the learning environment active.
Description of Learning:
Educational institutions are teaching subjects for a digital future but it is from a superficial manner however students need a deeper knowledge of it as a curriculum. When teaching students about math, it should be integrated in all subjects they are learning by being motivated by educators (Singhal, 1997). As shown in the examined scenario planning with an elementary school, it is apparent things became better for the students as far as the educational resources, and environment, which ultimately affects the learning process. Educational institutions must engage partnerships with other schools around the world. By providing student exchanges they will produce world class students, the internet is facilitating the process of globalization and providing virtual interaction with others. As it is shown in schools, technology is the key to change the educational environment and resources. The internet is encouraging students to engage in meaningful cross cultural dialogue…
Instructional Modifications for an English-As-Second-Language 10th Grade Student
Teaching for Exceptionalities
The student is a 15-year-old bilingual male in enrolled in 10th grade. He presents as having difficulties in his school work primarily due to his current inability to speak, read, and write English fluently. He is currently reading at approximately a 2nd-grade level, and all of his assignments are modified. Examples of the instructional modifications he experiences are as follows: Material is read aloud to him, writing assistance is provided to help him translate from his native language to English, and all story format math problems are converted to conventional number format to sidestep reading and translation difficulties. When a high level of academic support is provided, the student does not exhibit problem behaviors. However, he reports feeling overwhelmed and stressed, and these underlying emotions do contribute to occasional bouts of problem behavior.
Instructional example. I took a content-focused…
Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State-to-State for English Language Learners. World-Class Instructional Design and Assessment. Retrieved http://www.wida.us/assessment/ACCESS/index.aspx
Brisk, M., & Harrington, M. (2000). Literacy and bilingualism: A handbook for all teachers. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Manuel, J. (2003, December 23). Majoring In Moneyball. Baseball America. Retrieved http://www.baseballamerica.com/today/features/031223collegemoneyball.html
Statistics to Mislead
Statistics can be misleading. People can use misleading statistics to persuade others to buy a product or share their point-of-view. Britain's Sunday Times, for example, alerted readers more than a decade ago to this tactic, showing that insurance companies often use misleading figures to scare consumers into buying expensive coverage they may never need (Cooper, 2001). In Mathematics in Our World, Bluman (2011) provides numerous examples of the ways statistics are presented to lead the reader to a false conclusion. This paper answers two of the questions in Bluman's textbook about misleading statistics.
No mathematical calculations were required in answering these questions. One need only to give some thought to the information presented. Statistics, when read quickly and without consideration, may appear to tell a certain story, often one that is meant to alarm the reader and/or incite action. Closer examination, however, can reveal a completely different…
Adams, M. (2006). Lying with statistics: How conventional medicine confuses the public with Absolute risk vs. relative risk. Natural News. Retrieved from http://www.naturalnews.com/019368.html
Bluman, A.G. (2011). Mathematics in our world (1st ed. Ashford University Custom). United
Bogner, E. (2011). 11 ways to lie with statistics. Business Insider July 28, 2011. Retrieved
There are almost as many different varieties of issues that can impede a child learner from succeeding in a math class as there are particular remedies to ameliorate such a problem. One of the chief reasons that certain children find mathematics difficult is because they are overwhelmed by it. They find the concept of a never ending series of numbers (as well as similarly interminable operations which one can put them through and which are taught daily and tested weekly) beyond challenging to the point where it incites anxiety and fear.
Additionally, difficulties can arise from learning differences such as dyscalculia, or situations in which students may not be familiar with the language that the class is taught in (such as English Language Learners). These two factors can exacerbate the initial feeling of anxiety that math can produce in child learners. Moreover, it is important to realize that in…
Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). "Piaget's theory of cognitive development." Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/piaget.html
Elementary Student Achievement
Elementary School Achievement Study Selection
The creation and sustaining of achievement at the elementary school level is one of the most important and pivotal things that can be done to create and sustain lifelong success. As such, the factors and facets that make or break such achievement are sought out, analyzed and heavily focused on by scholars, teachers and parents alike. One way in which this paradigm is analyzed and looked at is the trajectory of lesser-achieving students and how they fare as they age and progress. Specifically, it is assessed how "holding back" a student in a grade for another year is damaging or helpful in the long run. While having a student repeat a grade can be damaging to self-esteem, pushing on a student that is not prepared for the next level just hurts that student as well as everyone else. The applicability…
APA. (2014, June 9). Journal of Educational Psychology®. http://www.apa.org.
Retrieved June 9, 2014, from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/edu/index.aspx?tab=4
Moser, S.E., West, S.G., & Hughes, J.N. (2012). Trajectories of Math and Reading
Achievement in Low-Achieving Children in Elementary School: Effects of Early
This work focuses on giving teachers concrete strategies for implementing the benchmarking and assessment techniques. It is important to develop lesson plans that include the major components of this program. Gunning gives a straightforward approach to implementing these concepts.
ithout getting into the individual strategies, let us suffice to say that these teaching methods may be the best developed over other similar experiments. Gunning's work was based on solid theory and best practices. The purpose of this research was to examine the connection between math and reading. In the first section of this study, we found that there is a high correlation between math and reading scores. Gunning's work on assessment-based teaching only discussed its use to improve reading skills. However, this same concept could also be applied to math. This is the key to improving both math and reading skills. Benchmarking will be a necessary component in the development…
AutoSkill Academy of MATH. The Reading and Math Connection. AutoSkill International
Inc. (2003). p. 9-18.
Borasi, R. And Siegel, M. Reading Counts: Expanding the Role of Reading in Mathematics
Classrooms. Raffaella Borasi & Marjorie Siegel, New York: Teachers College
Componens of a Qualiy Curriculum
An Annoaed Bibliography
The research indicaes ha a qualiy school curriculum is refleced by he curricula of is mahemaics and science componens, driven by is exbooks and eachers, and may improve if a variey of domains are included (e.g., music and he ars). Bu mah and science curricula appear useful predicors of he overall qualiy of a school curriculum. In addiion, sudens exposed o beer learning experiences a an early age will do beer laer on and a curriculum ha includes pracical and applicable maerial will also produce informed and skilled aduls.
Componens of a Qualiy Curriculum:
An Annoaed Bibliography
Developing a Qualiy Mah Curriculum
Hook, Bishop, and Hook (2007) invesigaed a new mah curriculum on he curriculums of he six leading counries in mah performance as deermined by The Inernaional Mah & Science Sudy (TIMSS) of 1995. These op six counries had…
the impact of structural standards. Early Years, 29(1), 19-31.
Zhu, Y., & Fan, L. (2006). Focus on the representation of problem types in intended curriculum:
A comparison of selected mathematics textbooks from Mainland China and the United States. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 4(4), 609-626
Environmental classes could chronicle their observations of the weather, for example, and post the results of their class observations online. Creating attractive, scientifically literate material online is an important skill that students should learn. New equipment is also needed in the laboratories to conduct more accurate measures of experiments. This is necessary to improve student performances at local science fairs.
Funding for field trips to science museums and other on-site locations to supplement education:
Interacting with science and technology in a hands-on fashion; visiting science laboratories that use technology; and meeting with individuals who use science and technology in their vocations are all ways to get students excited about technology and its applications.
Hiring a part-time or full time teacher of technology
This professional would be officially in charge of acting as a facilitator between the math and science departments; teach elective courses in technology; and conduct laboratories and educational…
McQuinland, Larry & Louise Kennelly. (2005, November 22). New study finds. American Institute for Research. Retrieved March 19, 2010 at http://www.air.org/news/documents/Release200511math.htm
Therefore, the most different variable in the study is the change in treatment, i.e. The doubling of class time.
The following definitions are provided to ensure uniformity and understanding throughout this study. All definitions, not otherwise noted, have been developed by the researcher:
AYP -- Adequate Yearly Progress refers to the state-stipulated percentage of students by subject (math/English) by demographic (race/socio-economic strata) that must pass the HSPA. Schools that do not meet or surpass AYP are subject to sanctions. These may differ by state.
Class time -- The prescribed time during which a single class is conducted, i.e. one period. In this case, one period prior to the doubling of class time is initially equal to 42 minutes and subsequently equal to 43 minutes.
Doubling of class time -- Increasing class time from 42 minutes to 84 minutes plus the consumed passing time of 4 minutes for a total of…
The quality of this lesson is consistent from the beginning to the end of the project.
Lesson Plan #3: Adding Fun Game
Aim of the Lesson:
In this lesson, the students learn to decode using a chart where certain letters have an assigned number value. The students must solve the mathematical problem by decoding the word.
Literacy Elements Incorporated:
This lesson incorporates the concept that letters have a certain value. This can be tied to phonics, as the students develop the concept that a letter has a certain sound. Students use literacy skills to decode math problems and create number sentences.
How, when why, where and for whom they were used:
This lesson is designed for 3rd graders. One of the key difficulties with this age group is that consistency with skills is varied. Some students are more proficient than others at this stage. This makes it difficult to integrate…
Bintz, W., Moore, S., Hayhurst, E., Rubin, J., & Sherry, T. (2006). Integrating Literacy, Math, and Science to Make Learning Come Alive. Middle School Journal. 37 (3), 30-37. ERIC ID EJ752859.
Literacy Matters (2007). Math. Retrieved December 16, 2007 at http://www.literacymatters.org/content/math.htm.
Exploring serves as a warm up, a review, and preparation to introduce a new concept. (Quine)
Next is the explanation. In this phase, the teacher explains the concept. As he/she explains the concept, he/she writes sample problems on the board and the students are writing and solving the problems on paper as the teacher explains and writes on the board. Once again, in this phase, the teacher is teaching towards all three different learning styles. (Quine)
Lastly, the teacher will expand the information. This is the phase where the students can work on the problem on their own. The teacher will want to include activities that involve all learning styles such as worksheets, games, and presentations.
Math teachers should always be consistent with the way they teach the materials. Math is hard for most students, so when they know what to expect from the teacher and the class, they can…
Cornerstone Curriculum. A Breakthrough in Math Understanding Website. Retrieved August 4, 2006 at http://www.cornerstonecurriculum.com/Curriculum/MMM/MMM.htm
Gardner, James. Learning Styles. (1995) London. P. 20.
Quine, David. Making Math Meaningful: A multi-sensory math experience. Retrieved: August 4, 2006 at
if, as Halmos suggests, math is a creative art then math must also be the handmaid of science.
Describing mathematics as a creative art helps students of math better understand the true roles of the mathematician. Numbers, while in many ways central to the art of math, do not comprise the whole lexicon of mathology. Mathematics does stem from "sheer pure intellectual curiosity," enabling students to perceive the world through new eyes (p. 379). Teaching mathematics can therefore be like teaching art. Some pupils will exhibit innate, almost supernatural talents and abilities and others struggle with the language and media unique to each subject.
Because mathematics integrates seamlessly with daily life, however, teachers can easily point out the ways mathematics underlies reality. Teaching mathematics from a multifaceted and creative perspective can enhance student learning, retention, and interest in one of the most…
Against Student Tracking
Student tracking involves categorizing students according to their learning ability and placing them in classes based on this. Advanced students are placed together and students of lower ability are placed together. While this is common practice in schools there are several education bodies calling for its abolition. There are several reasons given for the abolition of student tracking: that it widens the gap between advantages and disadvantaged students; that it separates students by race and class; and that an inclusive classroom where every student learns from each other is better for students, socially and academically.
Firstly, student tracking is said to widen the gap between advantaged and disadvantaged students. Ascher (1992) notes that there is evidence that high achievers do better in accelerated classes. While this is beneficial to the students in these accelerated classes, it actually widens the gap between them and the average student. This…
Ascher, C. (1992). Successful Detracking in Middle and Senior High Schools. New York: ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education New York NY.
Haury, D.L., & Milbourne, L.A. (1999). Should Students Be Tracked in Math or Science? Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science Mathematics and Environmental Education.
Time broken into hours, days, weeks, and months must also be mastered. This is the grade level where statistics are introduced. Students learn to "Collect data using observations, surveys, and experiments and record appropriately," and then turn those observations into appropriate visual representations of them which would allow them to make predictions (4.S.2).
The fifth grade set standards also aim to utilize previous points in order to get into more complex mathematical understandings of the world. Students must "Understand the basic language of logic in mathematical situations (and, or, not)," (5.PS.9). Within that language, fifth graders should be able to pick the best strategies and "Decode and comprehend mathematical visuals and symbols to construct meaning" (5.CM.11). This is the grade level where students must able to find the missing value which makes a particular equation true (_+3=5). Also understanding the nature of ratios and their different forms is an important…
An educational institution’s curriculum comprises every experience encountered by a pupil under the institution’s direction. All academic systems’ curricula are designed based on societal needs. Thus, owing to society’s dynamic nature, curricula are dynamic as well; educational institutions normally alter their curricula every once in a while. In this paper, the process of math and English as a Second Language (ESL) curriculum development will be addressed, with the following curricular development stages highlighted: determining scholastic aims and goals, determining desired pupil learning experiences, organizing and testing the designed curriculum, implementing it and curriculum evaluation. Further, it will deal with a few curriculum development models.
Within the context of modern education, a school curriculum comprises every experience encountered by a pupil under the institution’s direction. Moreover, this modern notion of a school curriculum covers course program, instructional techniques adopted for individual courses, the institution’s guidance program, and extra-curricular activities. Curricular…
These are not complex techniques that only high-school students and beyond should be dealing with. They are also not difficult for teachers to explain to their students, or for the students or parents to understand. In addition, they do not provide that much extra work for the teacher in the form of grading or for the student who has homework in other subjects, as well. Many students today are loaded down with homework, and the quality of what they are learning from this is often in question.
When writing is incorporated into the curriculum it can make the subjects more fun, make some of the homework and other assignments actually easier rather than more difficult, and awaken the interest of the students so that they will have a desire to learn more about the subjects they are studying. That interest in learning has been slipping away from the schools today,…
Braun, J.A. (2004). Technology in the classroom: Tools for building stronger communities and better citizens. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 40(2), 69-73.
Bursuck, W.D., & Munk, D.D. (2002). Research on the prevention of reading problems: Are kindergarten and first grade teachers listening? Preventing School Failure, 47(1), 4-9.
Norris, J., & Ortega, L. (2001). Does type of instruction make a difference? Substantive findings from a meta-analytic review. Language Learning, 51(1), 157-213.