Media Effects Essays (Examples)

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Media and Violence Contradicting Causes

Words: 4155 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68376205



A in millions)

Current in millions)

Provided by Federal ureau of Investigation as of September 18, 2006. www.whitehouse.gov/goodbye/3ae6b1ac94aa97e6650780f280890a7c81100e47.html"

CHART: National Correctional Populations

National Correctional Populations

The number of adults in correctional population has been increasing.

A in millions)

Current million in millions)

Provided by ureau of Justice Statistics as of November 30, 2006. (Social Statistics riefing Room, 2006)

More Statistics

Violence in the Media

Huston and colleagues have estimated that the average 18-year-old will have viewed 200,000 acts of violence on television (Huston, a.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H. et al. ig World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.)

41% percent of American households have three or more televisions (Nielsen Media Research, 2000).

56% of children ages 8-16 have a television in their rooms (Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000)

Percentage of television-time children ages 2-7 spend…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alter, Jonathan. "Moving Beyond the Blame Game. (Panel Discussion)," Newsweek, May 17, 1999.

Beyer, John. "PERSPECTIVE: How movie and TV violence hits children; Is there too much violence on television and is it time to curb it? John Beyer, director of the organization mediawatch-uk argues that media viol," Birmingham Post, March 21, 2007.

Chatfield, Joanne E.. "Influence of Media Violence on Children." American Family Physician, February 15, 2002.

Children's Hospital Boston. "Teen-Rated Video Games Loaded With Violence;
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Media's Effect on Culture Annotated

Words: 335 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81648004

28, No. 4, 603-625 (2006) Sage Publications.

Aeron avis states that the work in writing "Media Effects and the Question of the Rational Audience: "... offers evidence for an alternative perspective on the media effects debate. Early work on media influence, be it conservative or critical, assumed a causal link between mass media and mass behavior. In contrast, decades of effects and audience research has established the inadequacy of this 'strong effects' paradigm. The main thrust of this counter-research is the realization that audiences actively consume and use the media for self-serving purposes. The alternative perspective offered here comes from a study of elite fund managers, their communications and decision-making in the London Stock Exchange. The research findings suggest that such individuals do respond actively to media, but, collectively, the results can be both self-defeating and on a mass scale. That is, individuals do not have to be ignorant nor…… [Read More]

Davis, Aeron (2006) Media Effects and the Question of the Rational Audience: Lessons from the Financial Markets. Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 28, No. 4, 603-625 (2006) Sage Publications.

Aeron Davis states that the work in writing "Media Effects and the Question of the Rational Audience: "... offers evidence for an alternative perspective on the media effects debate. Early work on media influence, be it conservative or critical, assumed a causal link between mass media and mass behavior. In contrast, decades of effects and audience research has established the inadequacy of this 'strong effects' paradigm. The main thrust of this counter-research is the realization that audiences actively consume and use the media for self-serving purposes. The alternative perspective offered here comes from a study of elite fund managers, their communications and decision-making in the London Stock Exchange. The research findings suggest that such individuals do respond actively to media, but, collectively, the results can be both self-defeating and on a mass scale. That is, individuals do not have to be ignorant nor act irrationally to contribute to media-instigated, collective irrationality."

Media Effects on Culture
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Media and Society

Words: 857 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19630056

Media & Society

Media can have a strong influence on society. Media has the ability to shape how people view the world, how they perceive different issues and media can also have a direct influence on behavior in society as well. With political ads, the objective is direct behavioral influence, the behavior being voting, so the media role with these ads is a content-dependent relationship. The ads are intended to bring about a specific behavior, but the ads are also intended to change perspectives and dialogue, both about candidates and about the issues for which those candidates stand. This paper will examine two advertisements from the 2012 Presidential election campaign, one from each side, in order to illustrate this concept.

Cognitive/Affective/Behavioral

The Romney ad "Stand up to China" works primarily on the affective level. The copy of the ad is hilariously childish to anybody who understands anything about foreign policy…… [Read More]

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Media Consumption

Words: 4745 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73159402

media consumption and subsequent behaviour?

Profiling the criminal behavior of rampage perpetrators is one of the main areas of focus in the social science research community. Gender, mental health issues, social exclusion, genetic susceptibility or predisposition, and ultimately, violent media, are most of the factors that guide researchers in the field, seeking to develop broader frameworks of understanding rampage violence. Over the past three decades, 78 cases of public mass shootings have been registered by the Congressional Research Service (2013). An FI report indicated a rise in typical mass shootings, from 6.4 incidents occurring between 2000 and 2007 to an average of 16.4 incidents between 2007 and 2013 (2013). Most of these public mass shootings have been found to occur either at workplaces or at schools across the United States.

The proliferation of mass shootings over these past few decades has further brought into the public and academic's attention the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anderson, C.A., Berkowitz, L., Donnerstein, E., Huesmann, L.R., Johnson, J.D., Linz, D., Malamuth, N.M. And Wartella, A., 2003. The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in the Public interest, 4(3), pp. 81-110.

Berkowitz, L. And Geen R.G., 1966. Film violence and the cue properties of available targets. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3(5), pp. 525-530. [pdf]

Bjorkqvist, K., 1985. Violent films, anxiety, and aggression. Helsinki: Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters.

Bushmann, B.J. And Huesmann, L.R., 2001. Effects of televised violence on aggression. In D. Singer and J. Singer, eds. Handbook of children and the media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. pp. 223-254.
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Media Framing in Relation to

Words: 3388 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62570744

The argument being advanced is that since, the Muslim extremists were responsible for the 9/11 disaster, the construction of the Muslim religious center would inculcate the jihad teachings and dishonor to the memory of the 9/11 victims. The question one would ask is this, what about the strip clubs, bars and other activities that are zero blocks away from the hallowed ground, do they honor the victims of the attacks. Consequently, it can be argued that Politicians and anti-Muslim groups found an easier way to agitate the crowds by exploitation of their Islamophobic instincts with the aid of the media framing of the issue. In same the interview, what comes out clearly is that Pamela fights against what she perceives as Islamization of America as opposed to Americanization of Islam. he later describes the center, which she refers to as ground zero mosque as a war memorial against the Americans…… [Read More]

Stone, D.A. (2002). Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. New York: Norton.

Payser, a (May 13, 2010).Mosque madness at Ground Zero.

http://www.nypost.com/p/news/national/mosque_madness_at_ground_zero_OQ34EB0MWS0lXuAnQau5uL
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Media's Influence Sexual Behaviors Values 20 Years

Words: 1995 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70665306

media's influence sexual behaviors values 20 years. Examine sexual behaviors values changed time frame. Investigate types media print, film, music. Consider questions: •How laws changed? •How affected acceptable today vs. acceptable time periods? •How cultures differ media influence? •How cultures differ sexual behaviors values? •How cultures portray sexuality media? Include a minimum 10 scholarly references.

That the media exerts a rather dominant influence in the modern world is not debatable. That it has been influencing decision making, patterned thinking, behavioral responses, is also unquestionable. Much has been studied and speculated on the reasons why this has happened and why is it that our societies seem to rely extensively on the media for certain answers, guidance, etc. In this paper however, it is not the why's that interest us but rather to trace the how of what the media has brought about in terms of change in relation to behaviors and…… [Read More]

Park, Eunice. (1998). Physician-assisted suicide: State legislation teetering at the pinnacle of a slippery slope. William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal 7(1): 277 -- 304. Retrieved from http://scholarship.law.wm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1432&context=wmborj

Smith, M. (1993). The Rodriguez case: A review of the Supreme Court of Canada decision on assisted suicide. Library of Parliament Background Paper No. BP -- 349E. Retrieved from  http://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection-R/LoPBdP/BP-e/bp349-e.pdf 

Tiedemann, M., Nicol, J., & Valiquet, D. (2011). Euthanasia and assisted suicide: International experiences. Library of Parliament Background Paper No. 2011-67-E. Retrieved from http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/lop/researchpublications/2011-67-e.pdf
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Media on Culture the Objective

Words: 1068 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56228153

Also stated in their findings was that exposure in the laboratory of video games that were 'graphically violent...increased aggressive thoughts and behavior (2000:1) Also stated in this report is that other studies conducted by Anderson and Gentile give indication that videogames "have a strong effect on aggression..." particularly in children.

3. Coleman, Loren (2004) The Copycat Effect Paraview Publishing. Online available at http://www.paraview.com/coleman/index4.htm.

According to Coleman, the copycat effect has been a result of media coverage of events such as school shootings. Coleman brings to light how media affects culture within a society.

4. The Culture of Commercialism (2006) Media Awareness Network Online available at http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/resources/educational/handouts/ethics/rr_culture_commercialism.cfm.

This work states that "advertising projects false images commercialism distorts our culture by turning every event into a reason to consume.... [and that]...advertising perpetuates stereotypes..."

5. Digital Beginnings: Young Children's Use of Popular Culture, Media and New Technologies Popular Culture and Media Literacy: Research…… [Read More]

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Effect of Grocery Store by Entrance of Hypermarket in Bangkok Thailand

Words: 10094 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18191303

Grocery Store by Entrance of Hypermarkets in Bangkok Thailand

Small grocery store owners in Thailand are faced with the ever growing threat of foreign -- owned hypermarkets. Hypermarkets are part of a global trend that threatens to destroy the small grocery store. If this trend continues the traditional market structure of Thailand might become obsolete in the future. This research explores strategies that small grocery store owners can employ to remain profitable and to survive into the future.

The Tesco Effect

Are There Any Advantages to Being a Small etailer?

Benefits and Pitfalls of Tesco to the Economy

Thai Government and Economic Theory

ecommendations for Survival

Conclusions

eferences

If

Introduction

Commodities are one of the most stable opportunities for retailers. They are considered to be a profitable opportunity and can be started with a relatively low investment. In areas where people have high purchasing power, the local grocery or convenient…… [Read More]

References

Carter, W. 2011. Supply Chain Value and Small Business. The Charleston Post.8 September 2011. Available at: http://www.thecharlottepost.com/index.php?src=news&srctype=detail&category=Business&refno=3954[Accessed 12 October 2011].

CNN Money. 2009. 20 Best Countries for Startups. [online] Available at:  http://money.cnn.com/galleries/2008/smallbusiness/0809/gallery.best_countries_for_business.smb/13.html  [Accessed 12 October 2011].

Corporate Watch. 2004. Tesco. September 2004. [onine] Available at: http://www.corporatewatch.org/?lid=252#thai[Accessed 12 October 2011].

Crispin, S. 2008. What's eating Thai Tesco. Asia Times. May 3.
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Media Representation of Issues in Immigration Is

Words: 1345 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8590622

Media epresentation of Issues in Immigration

Immigration is a fundamental element of American history. Centuries ago, immigration was not the issue that it is in the 21st century. There is a very small percentage of Americans that can trace their heritage back to the beginning of the country without at least one family member or even generation of family that are not immigrants. Around the turn of the 20th century, with the advent of industrialization and the mass exodus from numerous countries into the United States, immigration has been a white, hot point of contention in American culture and American media. The focus of this paper is a very recent article in The New York Times about President Obama's decision to allow a specific demographic of illegal immigrants to remain the country legally providing them opportunities to obtain legal documentation, attend institutions of higher education, and work without fear of…… [Read More]

References:

Cohen, T. (2012) Obama administration to stop deporting some young illegal immigrants. CNN, Available from  http://www.cnn.com/2012/06/15/politics/immigration/index.html . 2012 June 25.

Preston, J., & Cushman, Jr., J.H. (2012) Obama to Permit Young Migrants to Remain in U.S. The New York Times, Available from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/16/us/us-to-stop-deporting-some-illegal-immigrants.html?pagewanted=all. 2012 June 25.
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Media Review Project the 1993 Film What's

Words: 1660 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31395513

Media eview Project

The 1993 film "What's Love Got To Do With It" presents many of the classic symptoms and effects of domestic violence. As such, it provides a great deal of insight into this phenomenon, both on the part of the abuser and on the one who is receiving the abuse. The film is a musical biography of Tina Turner, who was one of the late 20th century's most popular singers. The movie opens up with Tin Turner as a young girl singing in a church choir. Even at this early age her prowess as a singer, the power of her voice and the zeal she expresses through her musical performance, become readily apparent. It is crucial to note that despite such an enthusiastic performance, Tina Turner (who is going by her true name at this point, Anna Mae Bullock), is enduring a tumultuous home life. Her mother eventually…… [Read More]

References

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (1997. Substance Abuse Treatment and Domestic Violence. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64430/ 

Ebert, R. (1993). "What's love got to do with it." www.rogerebert.com. Retrieved from  http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/whats-love-got-to-do-with-it-1993 

Maslin, J. (1993). "What's love got to do with it film review." The New York Times. Retrieved from  http://www.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9F0CE4D71539F93AA35755C0A965958260
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Media Presentation Analyzation Design & Ethical Relationships

Words: 2028 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54660876

Media Presentation Analyzation: Design & Ethical Relationships

The war in the Middle East is an example of an on-going media presentation that is covered in the radio, television and on the Internet. More recently covered are the accounts of the beheadings of those kidnapped and in yesterday's news, of numerous people killed or wounded in the Iraqi car blasts in Najaf, Iraq. This paper will examine the design and ethical relationships of the media's presentation of the war in Iraq using the attached article downloaded off the Internet for the analysis. It will examine television and the new media environment of the Web, for both have become central in determining both the design and ethical dimensions of the media's coverage of the war in the Middle East.

Turning on the television means establishing a connection with the place of broadcasting and being literally and continually present at the birth of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bruce, B.C. (2000), "Credibility of the Web: Why we need dialectical reading," Journal of Philosophy of Education, vol. 34, no. 1, pp.97-109.

Design -- Media Presentation Analysis
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Media Book Critique Tuned Out

Words: 1401 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 363883

A college student talking to an old high school friend through Instant Messaging may send that friend a copy of an interesting article that flashed across the screen. News may not be prime reason for using the Internet but still the Internet is vital for transmitting news and opinion, even of dispatches from war torn areas, or disaster afflicted zones where the conventional media cannot penetrate. In ages past, sitting around the television watching the news may have had other purposes than information -- family togetherness, relaxation, as well, but that did not discount the information received.

Furthermore, the Internet provides a plurality of viewpoints that the three networks and the major city newspapers did not and often still do not provide. One could even make a parallel to the plethora of newspapers of the turn of the century, all biased and slanted and somewhat dubious in fact-checking perhaps (but…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mindich, David. Tuned Out: Why Americans under 40 don't follow the news. New York: Oxford Press, 2004
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Media in the Courtroom High Profile Court

Words: 1050 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70992378

Media in the Courtroom

High profile court cases, especially murder trials and celebrity cases are more likely to attract the national media than ordinary cases that usually of no interest beyond the local level. These are also the kinds of cases when the issue of TV cameras in the courtroom is most significant, and when judges have to give serious thought to handing down gag orders that block all public discussion of the case for the duration of the trial. In this era of Internet, Facebook, 24-hour cable news and YouTube, any events or statements in the court can easily become 'viral' and be seen instantly by millions of people around the world. For most of the 20th Century, recording devices and movie and TV cameras were not allowed in the courts, but only reports from the print media and drawings by sketch artists. This technology existed for many decades…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ferguson, R. 2011. "Cameras in the Courtroom." The American Spectator.

http://spectator.org/archives/2011/07/19/cameras-in-the-courtroom

Mesereau, T.A. 2011. "Effectively Handling High-Profile and Celebrity Cases." Los Angeles Lawyer, Survival Guide for New Attorneys in California, Fall 2011 Issue

http://www.mesereauyu.com/los-angeles-lawyer-effectively-handling-high-profile-and-celebrity-cases
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Media Review the Black Swan

Words: 1689 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56412145

Her day's routine and life merely revolved around these characters that cause her to think or act differently. All of these characters have quite an influential pressure on her that the Nina eventually becomes an amalgamation of thoughts. Pretty soon she gives into the evil desires that she cannot distinguish reality from illusions.

Stone and Church (1989) have called adolescence a very vulnerable period. According to them, adolescence is full of continuous feeling of emotional volatility, rebelliousness and intense idealism. It is seen that adolescence needs to develop a tough inside full of security and confidence. Only if they are sure about themselves and their abilities, these adolescents will go on to take the different problems in life. ebellion and intense idealism is quite prominent during this stage. The adolescent wants to do things and hopes to aspire activities that will make him or her better than everybody else. If…… [Read More]

References

Black Swan (2010). [DVD] Darren Aronofsky.

Hall, G. (1904). Adolescence. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall..

Stangor, C. (2011). Introduction to psychology. Flat World Knowledge.

Stone, L., and Church, J. (1989). Childhood and Adolescence. McGraw-Hill.
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Media Law Argue Against Discuss 1st Amendment

Words: 2137 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40736189

MEDIA LA: Argue Against: Discuss 1st amendment implications Family Prevention Tobacco Act 2009. Are tobacco

The Family Prevention Tobacco Act of 2009 was one of the more controversial pieces of legislature passed in recent times, for the simple fact that it gave a great deal of authority to the Food and Drug Administration to limit the effectiveness of the tobacco industry and its various companies to sell its products. There are multiple components of this legislation, which encompass various aspects of sales, advertising, inspections and registration of new products on the part of manufacturers. Among the many points of dissension that individual and collective entities within this industry claim regarding this legislation is that it limits their First Amendment right of freedom of speech. A thorough examination of the spirit and the lettering of this act, however, reveals that of its many different components, only one (that pertaining to advertising)…… [Read More]

Works Cited

No author. "Tobacco Controls Have Public Health Impact." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. Web. http://www.cdc.gov/Features/TobaccoControls/

Sifferland, Alexandria. "Colorful Ways Tobacco Industry May Be Skirting Labeling Rules." Time. 2013. Web.  http://healthland.time.com/2013/03/15/colorful-way-tobacco-industry-may-be-skirting-labeling-rules/ 

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "Overview of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act: Consumer fact Sheet." U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2013. Web.  http://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/ucm246129.htm
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Media Images Are Not Harmful

Words: 1696 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29893817

Providing a strong cultural and personal role model may be more important than attempting to socially engineer the messages teens and all citizens receive. The lesser susceptibility of certain ethnic groups to media pressures to live up to an ideal of thinness or physical perfection highlights the complex interplay between cultural, social, and psychological factors that produce self-esteem and what might be called body image. The interplay of these factors is more important in creating a 'body image' than what constitutes an individual's media exposure.

This is an important topic of research because it highlights the fact that censorship of media has limited value in engineering positive social results. hile it would be tempting and easy to suggest that developing minds and bodies should be shielded from toxic media influence as though it were the plague, this type of isolation would have a limited effect. It would not screen out…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Girls get anorexia 'because their brains are wired differently' (17 Dec 2007). The Daily Mail. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at ttp:/ / www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-502705/Girls-anorexia-brains-wired-differently.html

Holmstrom, Amanda J. (2004). The effects of the media on body image: A meta-analysis.

Entrepreneur. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/118953907_5.html

Media's effect on girls: Body image and gender identity. (2008). National Institute on Media and the Family. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_mediaeffect.shtml
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Media and Violence Does Media

Words: 1423 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25976172

Television remains the single most influential medium in the lives of young people. However, a three-year National Television Violence Study found: "two-thirds of all programming contains violence; children's programs contain the most violence; the majority of all entertainment programming contains violence; violence is often glamorized; and the majority of perpetrators go unsanctioned" (Muscari 2002).

Television violence is graphic, realistic and involving, shows inequity and domination, and portrays most victims as women, children and the elderly (Muscari 2002). Children tend to focus on the more intense scenes, such as violent moments, rather than story components, and these "aggressive acts lead to a heightened arousal of the viewer's aggressive tendencies, bringing feelings, thoughts and memories to consciousness and can cause outwardly aggressive behavior" (Muscari 2002).

hen video games were introduced in the 1970's, they quickly became a favorite pastime for children, and now make up a $10+ billion industry. Today, children average…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Chory-Assad, Rebecca M. (2005 December 01). Effects of affective orientation and video game play on aggressive thoughts and behaviors. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.

Kirn, Timothy F. (2006 September 01). Nature and media's nurture spawn girl violence.

Family Practice News. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.

Muscari, Mary. (2002 November 01). Media violence: advice for parents.
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Media Negatively Effects the Body Image Concerns of Adolescent Girls

Words: 1518 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68105579

Media Negatively Affects the Body Image Concerns of Adolescent Girls

Among adolescent girls, body image concerns are not uncommon. The hypothesis of this paper believes that media negatively affects the body image concerns of adolescent girls. The independent variable is the adolescent girls and the dependent variable is the media. This is because adolescent girls can be affected by a lot of other things when it concerns body image, this can come in the form of their peers, society and even history. These variables can affect the concerns on body image of adolescent girls in both a positive and a negative way. However, this paper will only discuss the negative affects which body images are supplied by media to adolescent girls with.

The theoretical approach which best suits this study is the Psychodynamic Approach. This is because the concerns regarding body images are implanted in the minds of these adolescent…… [Read More]

References

Anschutz, D.J., Van Strien, T., & Engels, R.C. (2008). Exposure to Slim Images in Mass Media: Television Commercials as Reminders of Restriction in Restrained Eaters. Health Psychology. 27(4); 401-408.

Cheng, H.L. & Mallinckrodt (2009). Parental Bonds, Anxious Attachment, Media Internalization, and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Exploring a Mediation Model. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 56(5); 365-375.

Clark, L., & Tiggemann, M. (2008). Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 44(4); 1124-1134.

Dohnt, H. & Tiggemann, M. (2006). The Contribution of Peer and Media Influences to the Development of Body Satisfaction and Self-Esteem in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 42(5); 929-936.
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Media During Wartime the Media

Words: 2326 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27270034

Unlike other wars, this was not against the armies of a nation, but a cohort of individuals who were driven by an ideology (Islamism). This army knew no boundaries and did not use conventional tactics of war fare. Even when the Taliban were imprisoned, the media first reasoned and then insisted that the Geneva Convention on the treatment of prisoners of war applied to these prisoners. Bill Maher, comedian, political commentator and host of the program "Politically Incorrect" called the terrorists "freedom fighters." (Landau, 2009) Many editorials were written excoriating Americans for ill-treatment of these prisoners. Some in the media even averred that these prisoners deserved the same rights guaranteed to those in correctional facilities in the United States. This meant that those imprisoned in the war on Terror could be given specific rights as afforded by the Constitution of the United States of America. The media in its insistence…… [Read More]

References

Acheson, Dean, and Dean Acheson. The Korean War. New York,: Norton, 1971.

Hersh, Seymour. "Torture at Abu Ghraib: American Soldiers Brutalized Iraqis. How Far up Does the Responsibility Go?" The New Yorker May 10, 2004.

Landau, Saul. Freedom Fighters, Terrorists or Schlemiels? . 2009. Available: http://www.counterpunch.org/landau01302009.html. April 14, 2009.

MediaResearch. How the Media Vote. 2009. Mediaresearch.com. Available: http://www.mediaresearch.org/biasbasics/biasbasics3.asp. April 14, 2009.
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Media the Content Dominance of Reality TV

Words: 788 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66153536

Media

The Content Dominance of Reality TV

Few forces have emerged with greater dominance or less artistic appeal than that of reality television, which has largely defined primetime content for the last decade. hat at one time appeared to be a fad, or a phenomenon at worst, ultimately reached a crescendo as the best path to high ratings, bid advertising dollars and household names. This is the pattern of media content which perhaps best reflects certain cultural qualities distinct to our time and place. Indeed, our collective embrace of this form of television, which allegedly depicts real individuals living real lives or facing real problems in front of national viewing audiences, suggests both a desire to see ourselves on the screen and, simultaneously, a desire to feel better about ourselves by observing the lurid, embarrassing and pathetic moments experienced by the 'stars' of reality television.

Selected Image:

This idea is…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Elite Daily. (2012). The Detrimental Effect Of Reality TV On Our Society. Elitedaily.com

Fahner, M. (2012). The real effects of reality TV. USA Today College.

Miller, A. (2013). Hook, Line and Sinker: Reality TV and Its Impact In Our Culture. In the Mix.
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Media Representations of the Israeli-Palestinian

Words: 2299 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76101907

Four of his movies are still amongst the top 20 earners of all time. Making of Schindler's list and setting up Shoah foundation; which filmed disturbing tales from Holocaust survivors portrayed Spielberg as an ultra Zionist by most. The view after Munich has somewhat changed and most American and Israeli Jews criticized the movie and labeled it as portraying Israeli's as murderers while popular belief amongst Jews is that of retaliation. There is the hit squad, Bombs used in beds, in cars and even in phones with gruesome gun fights and cold blood executions by Mossad operatives representing Jews as killers.

A neutral viewer may argue that the movie lacked details on Palestinian terrorists portrayed only as targets rather than human beings with feelings.

Spielberg managed to deliver what the news media missed. No spice but reality, mistakes and regrets by both sides. He managed to explain what impact this…… [Read More]

Work Cited

"The Art of the Kill." Manila Bulletin, 4 March 2006, NA. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014088880. Internet. Accessed 21 March 2012.

FAIR, "In U.S. Media, Palestinians Attack, Israel Retaliates,"

http://www.fair.org/activism/network-retaliation.html (Accssed on 22 March 2012)

"Predators and Prey: The Mind Games of Terrorism." The Daily Mail (London, England), 27 January 2006, 58. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5013505260. Internet. Accessed 21 March 2012.
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Media and Politics - The

Words: 4148 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15504717

Thirdly, the growing up-to-the-minute exposure of the journalists to the physicality of the war detracted from the big picture and instead exaggerated the importance of singular happenings and specific events.

It is in the loss of the big picture that the Bush regime is most able to capitalize on its military's control of the press. While in the 1990s, the President's father struggled with "pooled" journalists and the lack of coherent and stable eye witness accounts, the current President instead embedded an army of over 700 journalists inside the United tate's military campaign as they waged war on the unsuspecting Iraqis.

There is a pretty fine line between being embedded and being entombed," observed Dan Rather in response to the Gulf War of the 1990s.

With the American journalists and those internationally desiring the protection of the winning force fully embedded with the American soldiers at war, the military operation…… [Read More]

Sides, Hampton. "Unembedded." The New Yorker. March 24, 2003.

Jamail, Dahr. "Fallujah: How not to Handle Insurgency." The Arab-American News, April 27th.

Morford, p. 2.
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Media Worlds

Words: 780 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73618705

MEDIA WORLD & CULTURE

The Media World in Today's Culture

The Media World and Today's Culture

The Media World and Today's Culture

The media is the most indispensable medium that most urbanized and developing countries have adapted to accessing first hand and vital information. It is also in the branch category of the most growing industries in today's global economy. However, the industry is faced with controversies from other sectors such as culture and politics. Implications of the social media and media personalties have always been at the limelight, especially with how the youth and children perceive what they see and hear from the media. It is therefore, necessitated to review how the current global culture allows for the continuity of the world of media.

Reading Discussions

According to Kaya and Cakmur, media has been a centre-stage in Turkey die to the linkage it has to politics. Turkish media is…… [Read More]

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Media in The Work of Being Watched

Words: 835 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18481307

Media

In "The Work of Being Watched: Interactive Media and the Exploitation of Self-Disclosure," Andrejevic (2002) critically analyzes interactive media in terms of labor economics. Being watched is a form of work, Andrejevic (2002) claims. Because consumers are not typically paid for their services, the relationship between consumer and enterprise is a parasitic one. Enterprise is exploiting consumers by watching their online behavior, tracking that behavior, and tallying that behavior as marketing data. That marketing data has inherent value, which is why large investments are made into online and other forms of high-tech surveillance. If Andrejevic (2002) had his way, each and every consumer would be paid for surfing the Web and even for watching television. Andrejevic's (2002) claim is of course absurd and completely unfeasible. Moreover, Andrejevic (2002) is completely ignoring the potentially positive effects of consumer surveillance. Contrary to what Andrejevic (2002) has to say, consumer surveillance has…… [Read More]

References

Andrejevic, M. (2002). The Work of Being Watched: Interactive Media and the Exploitation of Self-Disclosure.

Joseph, P. (2007). Zeitgist: The Movie.
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Media Worlds

Words: 753 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59385442

MEDIA & GLOBAL POLITICS

Culture

Shirky's piece is about the potential for media to change the course of government and politics across the world. He writes of ways that specifically the technology of social media has the power and/or potential for political activism and social change. The 21st century has seen an increase in the frequency and the efficiency of grassroots activism and social movements around the world, due in great part because of the Internet and social media. In fact, the drastic increase in this kind of activity began in the late 20th century:

Since the rise of the Internet in the early 1990s, the world's networked population has grown from the low millions to the low billions. Over the same period, social media have become a fact of life for civil society worldwide, involving many actors -- regular citizens, activists, nongovernmental organizations, telecommunications firms, software providers, governments…As the…… [Read More]

References:

Castells, M. (2009). Communication Power. Oxford University Press. Pp. 299-432.

Morozov, E. (2011). Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom. Public Affairs: New York. Pp. 1- 32, 179-204.

Shirky, C. (2011). The Political Power of Social Media. Foreign Affairs, Jan/Feb2011, 90(1), 28-41.
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Media Worlds

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18559874

Media Worlds

These four readings were written between 1944 and 1955, and to a certain extent represent an outmoded era of media criticism. This does not mean these studies are obsolete, but it does mean that they must be considered in light of the current sea-change that is taking place in media overall -- most notably with the Internet, but also with the effect that the Internet is having upon other forms of media (such as the decline and instability of newspaper journalism). But we must acknowledge the limitations of these studies.

The most basic study is presented by Lasswell (1948), who is interested in defining the terminology, as scientifically as possible, as to what constitutes "communication." Lasswell draws parallels between various biological processes (of how organisms gather information through sensory apparatus, and how they attempt to control the amount of information they give out) to come up with a…… [Read More]

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Media How Technology Shapes Society a Society

Words: 1689 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12162383

Media

How Technology Shapes Society

A society is a conglomerate of people who, for some reason, are throw together in a particular bounded region. The group has to make laws that will govern their actions and they also determine how they will live together in the most productive manner. But, there are events and devices that some say can change the way this group of people behaves and what laws they will make for one another. For example, an early hunter-gatherer society subsisted on what they could kill and find. Then someone invented the hoe, and they became cultivating societies (Keel, 2011). This meant that the people did not have to roam so far afield to find they needed to exist. Thus they could stay closer together and build up societies. Small events sometimes shape great changes in society without the people within the society realizing that the invention will…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, P., & Tushman, M.R., (1990). Technological discontinuities and dominant designs: A cyclical model of technological change. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(4), 604-619.

Beals, G., (1997). The biography of Thomas Edison. Retrieved from  http://www.thomasedison.com/biography.html 

Carlson, W.B., (1992). "Artifacts and frames of meaning: Thomas A. Edison, his managers, and the cultural construction of motion pictures," in W.E. Bijker and J. Law Shaping technology/building society: Studies in sociotechnical change. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, pp. 175-198.

Chandler, D., (2002). Technological or media determinism. Retrieved from http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/tecdet/tdet01.html
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Media the Age of Typography Began With

Words: 1456 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80560545

Media

The age of typography began with the Enlightenment and flourished in the New World, and coincided with significant social, political, and economic changes. As Postman (2005) points out in Amusing Ourselves to Death, Protestants with a predilection toward intellectualism made books and reading integral to American life. "The influence of the printed word in every arena of public discourse was insistent and powerful not merely because of the quantity of printed matter but because of its monopoly," (Postman, 2005, p. 41). In other words, print had a monopoly on information, communication, and the exchange of ideas. Print became endowed with a level of political and social significance that it does not have in the digital age, as there are now multiple modes of information exchange. When printed matter was all there was, the very ideals of democracy depended on it.

During the typographic age, content was meaningful as well…… [Read More]

References

Dewey, C. (2014). What makes some internet memes immortal. The Washington Post. 10 Nov, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-intersect/wp/2014/11/10/what-makes-some-internet-memes-immortal/

Postman, N. (2005). Amusing Ourselves to Death. New York: Penguin.

Sternberg, J. (2013). Technology today: What would Neil Postman think? Retrieved online: http://www.spinedu.com/technology-today-neil-postman-think/#.VGGC9_Q49oA
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Media Focus Will the Televising

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26127822

However, once there is a law in place, which may impose a cost, the individuals who may consider breaking the law will also have to consider the personal cost which may be extracted; creating the deterrent (Devlin, 1965). However, for that law to be a deterrent the individual must perceive the cost to be one that they will have to pay (Devlin, 1965).

It may be argued that the death sentence; which is the ultimate price that any criminal may pay for their crime, should be a deterrent. However, it is unlikely that any law will act as a deterrent unless it is seen to operate effectively. If a law is not seen to be enforced, or those who may be subject to the punishment laid down by a law, do not believe they will be caught or it will be enforced, the potential for deterrent may be reduced. By…… [Read More]

When looking at the role of the law and punishment there is a duel purpose; it is to punish those who transgress social expectations and to prevent reoffending, but it is also to act as a deterrent. In a recent movie; 'The Purge', there is speculation over the way sociality would act if there were no laws, and no punishment. The result was a night of anarchy. While the speciation takes place in a fictional setting, it highlights the fact that there are some members of society which will not comply simply because it is right or expected; they may break the social conventions, which are used as the basis of law, if they believe it is in their personal interests. However, once there is a law in place, which may impose a cost, the individuals who may consider breaking the law will also have to consider the personal cost which may be extracted; creating the deterrent (Devlin, 1965). However, for that law to be a deterrent the individual must perceive the cost to be one that they will have to pay (Devlin, 1965).

It may be argued that the death sentence; which is the ultimate price that any criminal may pay for their crime, should be a deterrent. However, it is unlikely that any law will act as a deterrent unless it is seen to operate effectively. If a law is not seen to be enforced, or those who may be subject to the punishment laid down by a law, do not believe they will be caught or it will be enforced, the potential for deterrent may be reduced. By televising the executions there is the potential to increase transparency and create a society in which there is a full understanding of the cost for the most serous of crimes. The problem which may be faced when assessing whether or not this would be a deterrent is the lack of supporting evidence that the death stance itself is a deterrent.

One of the first studies which examined the role of the death sentence as a deterrent for the crime of homicide was by Sellin (1959), who examined the homicide rates in states which imposed the death penalty against states where it had been abolished. The result of the research indicated that there was no difference and the conclusion was the presence of the death sentence was not a deterrent (Sellin, 1959). In a different study
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Media Portrayal of Sexes Babies When Born

Words: 1054 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40828073

Media Portrayal of Sexes

abies, when born, have no inherent knowledge about how girls and boys, men and women, are "supposed to act." They learn their cultural roles from the culture around them -- their adult and older-child role models, and more and more, through the media. As one writer quoted lum, "Nothing in biology labels behaviors as right or wrong, normal or abnormal. Any stereotypes we impose on children -- and by extension, adults -- are purely cultural, not biological" (Abels, 2002). Depiction of males and females in popular media is in a constant change of flux, partly based on inaccurate stereotype but partly reflecting the very real diversity seen in both sexes.

Experts in the field believe that children begin to learn what gender role is expected of them early in childhood, and that these expectations are communicated to them both purposefully and in unintended lessons. Part of…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abels, Lori. 2002. "Sex-role stereotypes in TV Programs aimed at the preschool audience: an analysis of Teletubbies and Barney & Friends." Women and Language, Sept. 22.

Giuliano, Traci A. 2003. "Blood, sweat, and jeers: the impact of the media's heterosexist portrayals on perceptions of male and female athletes." Journal of Sport Behavior, Sept. 1.

MacKenzie, Nancy R. 1998. "Effects of television viewing on children's development." Pediatric Nursing, Sept.

Shugart, Helene A. 2003. "She shoots, she scores: mediated constructions of contemporary female athletes in coverage of the 1999 U.S. women's soccer team." Western Journal of Communication, Jan.
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Media Tares Test in the

Words: 1066 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95665506

The ad also says that it is America's #1 weight loss patch. Says who? Just them. There does not appear to be any proof that backs up any of the claims that they make in regards to this product.

Advertising is an essential part of marketing. The intention of an ad campaign is to reach a lot in order to increase the demand for the products being endorsed. In this campaign the advertisers used Highlighting Features. The features of the product should be clearly stated. An advertisement campaign that talks on and on about a product without affirming its features will fail to do any good. A high-quality weight loss product campaign should start by discussing about that the weight loss product has been designed to help people lose weight fast, or lose weight safely or lose weight without regaining the lost weight. People who are troubled about losing weight…… [Read More]

References

Advertisement Techniques: Creative Advertising Techniques and Tricks. (2010). Retrieved May

1, 2010, from Buzzle Web site: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/advertisement-techniques-creative-advertising-techniques-and-tricks.html

Baker, Sherry and. Martinson, David L. (2001). The TARES Test: Five Principles for Ethical

Persuasion. Journal of Mass Media Ethics.16 (2&3), p, 148 -- 175.
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Media Images and Eating Disorders

Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54435767



These results are important, however, in understanding if and how media images may be related to eating disorders in women. Polivy and Herman (2004) ask the commonsense question: "Why do women and girls continue to buy fashion magazines featuring thin models that make them feel anxious, depressed, and generally miserable about their bodies?" Some women find them to be a relaxing way to spend time. This shows that it is much too simple-minded for people to say that media images make women feel bad about themselves. Wouldn't it be smart to consider that maybe these small populations of women who do develop eating disorders are already dissatisfied and the media images may reinforce their inherent paranoia about their bodies? Or, perhaps it is people who are critical of every aspect of media who feel like they need to criticize the media because they themselves are made to feel insecure about…… [Read More]

References:

Groesz, L.M., Levine, M.P., & Murnen, S.K. (2002). The effect of experimental presentation of thin media images on body satisfaction: A meta-analytic review.

International Journal of Eating Disorders, 31, 1-16.

Polivy, J. & Herman, P.C. (2004). Sociocultural idealization of thin female body shapes:

an introduction to the special issue on body image and eating disorders. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(1), 1-6.
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Effecting Change the Use of

Words: 4091 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19489453

According to a 2002 survey conducted under the auspices of NIH, ecstasy abuse among college and university students in general is a widespread trend that impedes academic performance (Bar-on, 2002). The NIH survey targeted 66 4-year American universities and colleges alike. The projected findings indicated a diminishing trend in undergraduate academic performance amongst students who indulge in binge drinking and abuse ecstasy in the process. Elsewhere, a Harvard College drug study indicated persistent drug users were more likely to miss lectures and delay in their coursework than the average student (Montgomery & Fisk, 2008).

A parallel IP esearch dubbed "Predictors of academic achievement and retention among college freshmen" projected that while certain students manage to cope with the new life role upon entering college, a good number of students flunk out of college before completing their freshman year. According to this research, 75% of the freshman drop out is related…… [Read More]

References

Bar-on, R. (2002). Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I): Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems

Erikson, E (1956) "The problem of ego identity" (pdf) Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 4: 56 -- 121

Kotter, J & Cohen, D (2002) the Heart of Change: Real-Life Stories of How People Change Their Organizations Harvard Business Review Press

Montgomery C. & Fisk J.E. (2008) "Ecstasy-related deficits in the updating component of executive processes" Human Psychopharmacology 23 (6): 495 -- 511
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Mass Medias Impact on Our Society in the United States

Words: 3305 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70366227

Media on the U.S. Society

Some years ago, if someone asked us to name the sources of media present in our society, we would easily be able to do so. However, today media has extended and become much more widespread than it was before. ith the process of globalization that has encompassed the entire world, came the concept of media and the need to stay in touch as the infrastructure and mediums of communication grew. e can name a couple of media sources that have come to influence us the most which are firstly the internet and the social networking that has now become an integral part of our society and our lives. It is absolutely essential to be a part of the social media networking (Perse).

Another type of media has been the television which has existed for quite some while now but its implications and its fame is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bell, Steve. "Impact of Global Media Revolution." USA Today (1999).

Bennett, Tony. Culture, Society and the Media. Routledge Publications, 1990.

Burton, Graeme. Media and Society: Critical Perspectives. Open University Press, 2005.

Gonzenbach, William J. The media, the president and public opinion: a longitudinal study on drug issue. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996.
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How Does Mass Media Affect American Values

Words: 1607 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23317422

Media in America [...] How does mass media affect American values? American media is pervasive in nearly every aspect of society today. Newspapers, magazines, online Web sources, television, radio, and film all create a sense of commonality, and often a sense of how to behave, think, and react to social and societal situations.

Today, Americans rely on a variety of media for most of their news, information, and values, whether they know it or not. While this may seem like a recent occurrence, experts and researchers have been seeing this trend in media influence for decades. Two experts note, "Over a half century ago, Lippmann (1922) also noted this role of the news media in defining our world, not just the world of politics during and between elections, but almost all of our world beyond immediate personal and family concerns" (Bryant and Zillmann, 1994, p. 2). Thus, the media has…… [Read More]

References

Arant, M.D., & Meyer, P. (1998). Public journalism and traditional journalism: A shift in values? Journal of mass media ethics, 13(4), 205-218.

Brown, A. (1996). Economics, public service broadcasting, and social values. Journal of media economics, 9(1), 3-15.

Coleman, A.W. (2000). "Calvin and Hobbes": A critique of society's values. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 15(1), 17-42.

Gomez, D.S. (2001, April). Sex, peers, media -- and family values: The NEA health information network's 'can we talk?' program helps thousands of parents talk with their kids, in English or Spanish. NEA today, 19, 29.
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New Media and Politics With the Passage

Words: 1314 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60966192

New Media and Politics

With the passage of time, the world has become a global village. Media has played a significant role in reducing communication gaps and barriers between people all across the globe. The emergence of new media technologies has not only affected people all across the globe but also the conventional medium being used for communication thus further diversifying its role. The increasing span of media and its role in today's world is not only being witnessed by the developing countries but also by the developed countries. This has also affected and revolutionize outline for political communication. The increasing role of internet and mobile phones in politics for the purpose of election campaigns in both developed and everyone knows developing country. The emergence of new media has strengthened not only the conventional media but also affected lives of common people living across the world. With the emergence of…… [Read More]

References

Axford, B., & Huggins, R. (2000). New Media and Politics. London: SAGE.

Howard, P.N. (2006). New Media Campaigns And The Managed Citizen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lister, M. (2009). New Media: A Critical Introduction. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon; New York, N.Y.: Routledge.

Trent, J.S., Friedenberg, R.V., Denton, R.E., & Jr. (2011). Political Campaign Communication: Principles and Practices. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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Status and Power Mass Media

Words: 2561 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25075

Also, gay characters have slowly become more prominent both on TV and in the movies.

In the 1990s, producers gave up on feeling that they had to challenge gender representations as models of masculinity and femininity had become less offensive and clearly defined. We can, for instance, refer to the hit sit-com Friends which presented three male characters, Ross, Chandler and Joey whose masculinity was placed within conventional models of masculinity without excluding qualities such as gentleness and sensitivity. imilarly, the female characters were clearly feminine but sufficiently intelligent in order to escape the housewife cliche. Furthermore, the context of the show was relatively innovative as the six main characters were linked by friendship as opposed to the more traditional family circle which had dominated the previous two decades. The model of equal genders appears in many shows from the 1990s onwards (Gauntlett 61).

Race is depicted in the media…… [Read More]

Sources

Coover, Gail E. "Television and Social Identity: Race Representation as "White" Accommodation." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 45, no. 3 (2001): 413.

Gauntlett, David. Media, Gender, and Identity: An Introduction. Routledge, 2002.

Gurevitch, Michael, Tony Bennett, James Curran, and Janet Woollacott, eds. Culture, Society, and the Media. London: Routledge, 1990.

Mantios, Gregory. "Making Class Invisible"
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Social Media on the Advertising

Words: 6661 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95314298



Safeguarding the privacy of the respondents is vital. Setting a certain criteria to guarantee the security and privacy of the respondents will be useful like informing the respondents that their names will be kept confidential, their location and company will be mentioned only if they give their consent, participation is completely voluntary, and it cannot be imposed. In any way, no such information will be publicized that can help to identify or recognize the respondent unless the respondent himself ask for publicizing his personal info.

Interview Questions

1. How would you describe the current balance of social media vs. traditional advertising and marketing?

2. Are the types of consumers targeted with online vs. traditional advertising different and if so in what way?

3. Have you considered using social media for advertised your business and if so what do you see as some of the benefits?

4. Do you think social…… [Read More]

References

Bryant, J., & Zillmann, D. (2002). Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research. Mahwah: Lawerence Erlbaum Associate.

Curran, J. (2002). Media and Power. London: Routledge.

Bryant, J., & Zillmann, D. (1994). Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research. Hillsdale: Lawerence Erlbaum Associates.

Franklin, B. (1999). Social Policy, the Media, and Misrepresentation. London: Routledge.
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American Media Representation of Islam

Words: 3949 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4285978

" (Iyengar, 2001) Lastly, the manner of presentation of a news story "significantly affects its ability to set the public agenda." (Behr and Iyengark 1985; Dearing and Rogers, 1996) Concluded is that: "In the current regime, American politics is almost exclusively a mediated experience. The role of the citizen ahs evolved from occasional foot soldier and activist to spectators. Those who seek public office invest heavily in efforts to shape news coverage of their candidacy. The returns from this investment provide them with leverage over public opinion, by setting the public agenda or by projecting a general impression of competent leadership..." (Iyengar, 2001)

The report published by the "ediaatters for America' website entitled: "According to aher, CBS's "Free Speech" is a isnomer" states that Bill aher, HBO's Real Time with Bill aher show host states that "CBS rejected his request to comment on religion for his planned "Free Speech" segment…… [Read More]

Miles, M.B., & Huberman, a.M. (1984). Qualitative data analysis, a sourcebook of new methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Miller, W.L., & Crabtree, B.F. (1992). Primary care research: A multimethod typology and qualitative road map. In B.F. Crabtree & W.L. Miller (Eds.), Doing qualitative research. Research methods for primary care (Vol. 3). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

The American Media Representation of Islam & Terrorism Post 9-11
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Violence in the Media Can Create Violent

Words: 680 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62335334

violence in the media can create violent behavior in children and teens. Many studies show that watching violent media, such as video games, films, and even the television news can cause violent behavior in children and teens, and that behavior can continue into adulthood.

Several different studies have indicated that violence in the media can produce violent and aggressive behavior in children and teens. Two researchers note, "In the past decade, media-effects researchers have progressively reached consensus that exposure to television violence can result in aggressive behavior" (Greene & Krcmar, 2005). In addition, a fifteen-year study by the American Psychological Association (APA) also showed that both men and women are affected by media violence, and that adults who watched this media as children tended to be more violent, and convicted of more violent crimes (Partenheimer, 2003). In the past decade, violence has become much more common in the media, as…… [Read More]

References

Editors. (2009). Children and media violence. Retrieved 4 Dec. 2009 from the MediaFamily.org Web site: http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_vlent.shtml.

Greene, K., & Krcmar, M. (2005). Predicting exposure to and liking of media violence: A uses and gratifications approach. Communication Studies, 56(1), 71+.

Partenheimer, D. (2009). Childhood exposure to media violence predicts young adult aggressive behavior, according to a new 15-year study. Retrieved 4 Dec. 2009, from the American Psychological Association Web site: http://www.apa.org/releases/media_violence.html.
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How the Media Presents Images That Impact Society

Words: 2048 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41512396

Mass Media Influences

Media Influences

It has long been known that the media has a strong influence on the public, and when television and other media presents strong messages on any particular topic, like smoking for example, society is impacted. This paper presents quality references in order to cover important aspects of the media, the issues it promotes, its history, it tactics, and its impacts.

Technological Transitions and Digital Technologies Influence Society

Author Paul Boyer explains that through "mediated communicative processes" individuals help to shape society. In those communicative processes there are to be found "complex interactions of human agency, social institutions," along with the various media-driven communicative processes that are the foundations of society (Boyer, 2012). The media that people use -- including today's Internet, television, print media, and radio -- shape both "national political conversations" and a number of aspects of social relationships (Boyer, 213).

And since the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Estimates of Current Tobacco Use

Among Youth. Retrieved July 27, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov.

Digital Preservation Management. (2014). Timeline: Digital Technology and Preservation.

Retrieved July 27, 2015, from http://www.dpworkshop.org.
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The Role Media Plays in Relation to Gender Stereotypes

Words: 4863 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20538188

Introduction

By being born a man or a woman signals to bearing certain clear sexual characteristics. Socialization takes individuals through a path that inculcates certain norms and codes of conduct depending on whether one is born a male or a female. In other words, the rules that one adopts and follows are guided by whether they are biologically male or female. Therefore, one’s communication, expression and behavior is shaped by the preexisting cultural and social norms including non-verbal language. Consequently, people’s behavior may differ because they are shaped by cultural and social norms from varying socio-ethnic and cultural setups. All these forces define gender; which is effectively a social construction of one’s biological sex. It allows for the recognition and distinction between men and women. According to Lippman (1922), stereotypes were important because they were an offshoot of a people’s ideas and heritage and, thus, served important purposes. Stereotypes helped…… [Read More]

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Violence in the Media Tricking the Viewers

Words: 2256 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22611108

Attraction to Violence in the Media

Violence on Films and in Television

Filmmakers Technique to Grab the Audience

Violence Made to Swindle the Viewers

Making Violence Funny

Health Concerns

It is clear that one of the worthy changes in the social environment today is the advent and fullness of television. In this new setting, television, radio, videos, movies, computer networks and video games, have presumed central roles in people's day-to-day lives. Rather it be good or bad, it seems that the mass media are having some kind of a huge impact on people's standards, beliefs, and behavior. Regrettably, the consequences of one specific element of the mass media exposure has for the most part damaging effects on those that are watching' and others' health. There is much Research evidence that has been accumulating over a lot of ears that being exposed to violence on television and in video games does…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bishop, R. A P.J., 2006. Violence. Theory, Culture & Society. Theory, Culture and Society, 23(3), pp. pp.377-385..

BJ., B., 2007. Moderating role of. Journal . Pers. Soc.Psychol, 23(4), p. 950 -- 60.

Bushman BJ, H.L., 2008. Effects of televised violence on aggression.In Handbook of Children and the Media. In: Thousand Oaks: Sage, p. 223 -- 54.

Bushman, B. A A.C., 2001. Media violence and the American public: Scientific facts vs. media misinformation. American Psychologist, 56(7), pp. pp.477-489..
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Looking at Latino S In the Media

Words: 3261 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34997710

Latino's In The Media

Latinos make up a large portion of the population of the United States. According to odriguez (1997) the rapidly increasing population of Latinos accounts not only for 17% of the people in the U.S., but also 20% of the 18-34 demographics that are the focus of marketing. Thus, it is a key target group in marketing. This ethnic group's dedication to movies and radio has surpassed that of any other group in America, whether racial or ethnic (Meehan and iordan, 2002). In terms of economic contribution, this group's buying power is expected to reach 1.6 trillion dollars by 2016, ranking it at number fourteen in the economies of the nations of the world, if it was a country on its own. Thus, they make up a large part of the economy. Nevertheless, as Disch (2009) and obb (2014) state the rate of their participation in the…… [Read More]

References

Deggans, E. (September 2005). The Story behind Television's Latin Star Surge. Hispanic., Vol. 18 Issue 9, p22-24, 3p

Disch, E. (2009). Reconstructing gender: a multicultural anthology, 5th Ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education

Harwood, J., & Roy, A. (2005). "Social identity theory and mass communication research." In J. Harwood & H. Giles (Eds.), Intergroup Communication (pp. 189-211). New York, NY: Peter Lang.

Hollar, J. (Sep. 2012). Missing Latino Voices. Extra!; Vol. 25 Issue 9, p7-8, 2p
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Proposition Statement Even if the Media Might

Words: 1271 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3406344

Proposition Statement: Even if the media might be racist or sexist in its content, there should not be censorship of the media because of the first amendment.

Freedom of speech means freedom to disagree

Attention getting statement:

Fire!

Everyone knows that shouting fire in a crowded theater is not only morally wrong, it's also against the law. It's the classic argument against full freedom of speech. According to Chief Justice Holmes, as discussed in the history of the Supreme Court, The Brethren, the justice said that freedom of speech cannot be absolute, because for instance you can't shout fire in a crowded theater and call that free speech. But although most people might agree with him about that, still that doesn't mean that you can make that analogy with every restriction of free speech.

Preview

The problem:

hy restrict freedom of speech at all? The problem today, some might say,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Orenstein, Peggy. Schoolgirls. New York: Bantam Book, 1994.

Strossen, Nadine. "MacKinnon-Pornoraphy is Oppression." The Ethical Spectacle. 1995. Website Accessed June 18, 2002.  http://www.spectacle.org/1195/mack.html 

Woodward, Bob, and Armstrong, Scott. The Brethren. New York: Avon Books, 1979.
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Analyzing the Media and Society

Words: 1291 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75311540

Media and Society

Media can be described as any channel of communication. Its influence could be seen on our daily lives. People have different opinions, but actually no one can ignore its influence on our lives. Today, radio, television, advertisements, books, magazines, newspaper etc., we are surrounded by it everywhere. Every minute, we get some information directly or indirectly (Uni Assignment Centre, 2016)

The most important question is the medium. Since media can both construct or destruct the facts (by selectively manipulation), it is necessary to understand that how properly they are using the medium. Media has its own importance in representing social issues since ancient times till modern era. Hence, to define its role, it is necessary to understand how it is turned and twisted by historians and practitioners. (Uni Assignment Centre, 2016)

Media has mostly been recognised as the medium of creating social and moral panic. Though it…… [Read More]

References

Ali, A. (2015). Media and Society. The Teenager Today. Retrieved from  http://theteenagertoday.com/media-society/ 

Article 19. (2012). Getting the Facts Right: Reporting Ethnicity and Religion. Retrieved from https://www.article19.org/resources.php/resource/3093/en/getting-the-facts-right:-reporting-ethnicity-and-religion

Bonn, S. A. (2015). Moral Panic: Who Benefits from Public Fear? Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/wicked-deeds/201507/moral-panic-who-benefits-public-fear

Critcher, C. (2008). Moral Panic Analysis: Past, Present and Future. Sociology Compass, 2(4), 1129. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Retrieved from  http://www.penelopeironstone.com/Critcher.pdf
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Social Media Essay

Words: 4044 Length: Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

Social media is a big boom when it comes to business, entertainment, and media. It has crossed over from something the youth use to something everyone uses. Many people do not understand how much of an impact social media has on people from their employability to how the public views them. This example essay will show social media’s influence and how it has come to be what it is today.
Titles
Social Media: Then and Now Social Media and it’s Impact on Business Social Media as a Social Movement Social Media and it’s influence on our Lives Social Media: Changing the Way People Communicate

Topics
Social Media Platforms The Impact of Twitter and Facebook on Business The Rise of YouTube Difference Between Social Media Platforms How Social Media is used to Communicate Social Media Effects on Society

Outline
I.  Introduction

a.  Social media has transformed the ways people communicate and…… [Read More]

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Adolescents & Advertising Media Messages Examination of

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53278691

Adolescents & Advertising Media Messages

Examination of a Commercial

The advertisement chosen for examination in this brief study is Britney Spears Pepsi commercial in 2010, which was part of the advertising during the World Cup. The intended audience for the advertisement is the general audience and specifically male and female young people. The ad features Brittney Spears singing, drinking Pepsi, and volley a ball. Brittney appears beautiful and sexy in this commercial and gives the appearance that drinking Pepsi will make everyone athletic and sexy. This ad would be interpreted of course by each gender differently as the male gender would interpret the commercial to mean that drinking Pepsi would ensure that they attract sexy girls and females would view the commercial as appealing to them to drink Pepsi to ensure that they are hot and sexy like Brittney Spears. This ad is not accurate in its portrayal of body…… [Read More]

(13) Kaiser Family Foundation (2005). Generation M: Media in the lives of eight to eighteen-year-olds. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.kff.org/entmedia/entmedia030905pkg.cfm.

(14) How to Magazines Effect Body Image (2008) Center on Media and Child Health. Education.com. Retrieved from:  http://www.education.com/reference/article/how-magazines-affect-body-image/ 

(15) Ransohoff, J. (2010) Teens and the Media. Palo Alto Medical Foundation. Retrieved from:  http://www.pamf.org/teen/life/bodyimage/media.html
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Positive and Negative Effects Video Games Have in Relation to Addiction Human Interaction and Violence

Words: 5997 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31230091

Computer Games esearch

When considering the short history of computers, video and PC gaming are very recent on the timeline of technology. This is one of the reasons why there have not been many conclusive studies on the negative and/or positive effects of electronic games on children and young adults -- the most formative years. With the ever-increasing interest and involvement of children in this activity, much concern has been expressed about the impact of these games, especially ones of a more violent nature, on physical and psychological development. At the crux of the debate is the question of whether they are detrimental to a young person's health. There are specific concerns about such factors as aggression, addiction, criminal activity, obesity and reduced academic achievement.

Studies thus far show both positive and negative results from playing video and PC games. Some research finds that the playing or observing of violent…… [Read More]

References Cited

Anderson, C.A., and K.E. Dill "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 78, 772-790.

Ask, A., Autoustinos, M., and A.H. Winefield, "To kill or not to kill: Competitive aggression in Australian adolescent males during videogame play." Children in the New Media Landscape. C. van Feilitzen and U. Carlsson (Eds.). Goteborg, Sweden: UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 2000.

Bowman, R.P. And J.C. Rotter. "Computer games: Friend or foe?" Elementary School Guidance and Counselling, 1983, 18, 25 -- 34

Calvert, S.L., and S. Tan, (1994). "Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1994, 15, 125-139.
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Media Is Playing a Major Influence in

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15764271

media is playing a major influence in determining how the general public will look at what is occurring. In the case of the Arizona immigration law, (a.k.a. Arizona S 1070) it is giving the authorities the power to arrest, detain and deport illegal immigrants. To fully understand the media coverage of this issue requires: examining the message they are portraying, the way it is affecting public perceptions, how it is impacting the U.S. economy and what inclusion strategies could be utilized to moderate the effects of the media. Once this occurs, it will provide the greatest insights as to how this law could be redefining the overall scope of the debate on this issue based upon the coverage that it is receiving. (Archibald, 2010)

What message does the media piece try to portray? Is it biased? Was it sensationalized or objective?

The message that media is trying to portray is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Archibald, R. (2010). Arizona Enacts Stringent Law. New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/24/us/politics/24immig.html

What does Arizona's Immigration Law Do? CNN. com. Retrieved from: http://articles.cnn.com/2010-04-23/politics/immigration.faq_1_arizona-immigration-law-reform-sb1070?_s=PM:POLITICS
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Media Favorite Form Media You Choose

Words: 1332 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27116073

media / favorite form media. You choose . Analysis

In my opinion, the most preferable form of mass media is the fairly conventional compact disc. CDs are an excellent sociological tool in learning about one's environment and the relevant issues that affect society today. Additionally, CD's allow for a highly limited form of intervention between the message that the music artist is attempting to convey and its reception by the listener. Conversely, I believe that one of the least preferable forms of media is the internet. Despite the fact that there are vast amounts of information accessible to users on it, there are a number of ways in which using the internet inherently impinges on the privacy of a particular user. Cookies and other sorts of intelligence metrics track the particular activity of people. Moreover, this capability of the internet, when combined with aspects of data governance, data stewardship, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Godwin, Allotey. "Libertarian V. Social Responsibility." Allotey Godwin.  http://alloteygodwin.blogspot.com/2009/05/libertarian-v-social-responsibility.html 

No Author. "Introduction to Mass Communication." Zeepedia.com. No date. Web. http://www.zeepedia.com/read.php?media_theories_libertarian_theory_social_responsibility_theory_introduction_to_mass_communication&b=78&c=39

No author. "Theories of Communication." www.peoi.org. 2012. Web.  http://www.peoi.org/Courses/Coursesar/mass/mass2.html 

Naveed, Fakhar. "Normative Theories of Mass Communication." Ask For Mass. 2012. Web.  http://mastermasscommunication.blogspot.com/2012/02/normative-theories-of-mass.html
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Media Is an Extremely Powerful Tool Which

Words: 1443 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65527355

media is an extremely powerful tool which can be used to change people's opinions regarding issues. However the effectiveness of media generally depends on how people use it. The two stories given to the news director are on completely diverse subjects. oth of the stories hold relevance to the society. The one about the celebrity death holds people's interest while enlightening the public about the park story is crucial to creating awareness in people's minds. In today's world, media ratings have become the most important part to media producers (Croteau & Honyes, 2001). Channels don't show news items for public welfare rather they concentrate on stories that make higher profits for them (Daily Source Org, 2005-2012). Keeping in mind the current media landscape, the news director should choose to air the park story as the lead story.

The role of media in the contemporary society has been restricted to the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Croteau, D., & Hoynes, W. (2001). The Business of Media. California: Pine Forge Press.

Tompkins, A. (2003, December 14). The physcological effects of media violence on children.
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Effects Mainstream Social Media Today's Children

Words: 1902 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10387507

Children and Media

Technology surrounds everything that children participate in nowadays. From using computers to watching television, the media influences children in just about every activity that they are a part of. The mainstream and social media have had a great impact on the behavior of children, as they are consistently exposed to numerous forms of the media at all times. As technology advances and children are more and more prone to watching television and participating in activities over the Internet, children will always be affected by how the media is presented to them. It can be difficult to shelter children from the growing media influence, however, the effects of this phenomenon on both the psychological and cognitive development of children need to be analyzed and considered (Christakis & Zimmerman, 2009).

Social life has been completely revolutionized due to the existence of the Internet and the development of social media.…… [Read More]

References:

Anderson, D.R. & Hanson, K.G. (2009). Children, media, and methodology. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1204-1219.

Bargh, J.A. & McKenna, K.Y.A. (2003). The internet and social life. Annual Review of Psychology. 55, 573-590.

Chau, C. (2010). YouTube as a participatory culture. New Directions for Youth Development. 2010(128), 65-74.

Christakis, D.A. & Zimmerman, F.J. (2009). Young Children and media: Limitations of current knowledge and future directions for research. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1177-1185.
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Media Audiences

Words: 3186 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41413857

New Media Implications

The improvement of internet and other technology and its ready availability to more and more people has revolutionized the structure and population of the media around the world. People that would normally be members of the audience have become the creators of news and vice versa. The lines that separate news makers and people that normally would be making news or expected to make news have blurred significantly and in several different ways. There are many examples of countries that could be focused on for this subject but one of the best is the United States.

Media Structure

There are multiple ways in which the structure of news creators has changed and evolved over recent months and years. One way in which the idea regarding audience and news sources has been altered significantly is the corporate structure of the people that are providing the news. The companies…… [Read More]

References

Babad, E. (2005). The Psychological Price of Media Bias. Journal of Experimental

Psychology. 11 (4), 245-255.

Barkow, J., O'Gorman, R. & Rendell, L. (2012). Are The New Mass Media Subverting

Cultural Transmission. Review of General Psychology. 16 (2), 121-133.
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Media Exposure on Adolescent Body

Words: 1032 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63164060



Moreover, adolescence and young adulthood are periods of both increased anxiety about appearance and social acceptance as well as of greater dependence on the opinions and perceptions of others (Jones, Vigfusdottir, & Lee, 2004). That would seem to suggest that exposure to media images associated with beauty would have the greatest influence on the individual. This proposal is designed to test the relationship between exposure to images and other visual representations associated with physical beauty and the development of self-perception in the individual.

Hypothesis

It is hypothesized that self-perception among adolescents and young adults with respect to relative physical attractiveness will vary directly in proportion to their degree of interest in and exposure to media images of beauty. The independent variable will be the exposure of subjects to various forms of media associated with a high degree of emphasis on physical attractiveness. The dependent variable will be the measure of…… [Read More]

References

Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Pearson.

Henslin JM. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach.

Boston: Allyn
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Media a Day Without the Media the

Words: 699 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52344683

Media

A Day Without the Media

The different mass media channels have become an important factor of influence on society. In order to determine how a day without the media would look like, it is important to analyze the roles that the media play. The most important roles of media refer to information, education, and communication (Foulger, 2003). Therefore, an important effect of lack of media is represented by lack of information. As a consequence, people would have no information about subjects of interest to them. They would not benefit from the latest news on political, social, and economic issues. This could affect their professional life, but also their daily activities. Some of this news is of public interest, while others concern certain groups of the population.

The educational role of the media is also important. The lack of media in this direction could lead to the lack of principles…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Foulger, D. (2003). Roles in Media. Retrieved February 19, 2012 from  http://evolutionarymedia.com/papers/rolesInMedia.htm .

2. The Role of Media in Democracy: A Strategic Approach (1999). Center for Democracy and Governance. Retrieved February 19, 2012.

3. Coronel, S. (2010). The Role of the Media in Deepening Democracy. Retrieved February 19, 2012.

4. Ragone, N. (2010). The Role of Media in Government. Retrieved February 19, 2012 from http://www.netplaces.com/american-government/the-media/the-role-of-media-in-government.htm.
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Media Has Been Continually Evolving

Words: 2052 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66951574

Where, the images of: various icons, symbols and ideas are going beyond national borders. This is significant, because it shows how improvements in technology, are playing a role in determining the way various forms of content is presented in the media. Where, globalized awareness within the different organizations has an impact, on shaping how individuals will view these various cultural icons. (Grossberg 421 -- 432)

What the different chapters show, is that the overall role of the media is continuing to change. The reason why this is occurring is because of: improvements in technology (which are helping to make the world smaller). This is causing the total number of media outlets to become: larger, more focused on specific demographics and aware of what content they should be providing for audiences. This is significant, because over the course of time, this is changing the way various forms of content are presented.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Grossberg, Lawrence. Media Making. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2006. Web. http://books.google.ca/books?id=IfCiG4fh_-YC&dq=MediaMaking:+Mass+media+in+popular+culture&printsec=frontcover&source=bn&hl=en&ei=BLzsS7vfAYSdlgeeq-y1CA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false

Kanadah, Karen. Media Making. AC Journal, 1998. Web. 23 Jun. 2010.