Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Media Ownership Concentration
The author of this report is asked to do a Marxist analysis of a media conglomerate and what does or tends to happen when a single corporate structure owns multiple publications and how the forcing out or limiting of other publications can lead to a stunted and incomplete view of reality due to an artificially limited marketplace. The company used as an example in this report is Time Incorporated, a subsidiary of Time Warner, that owns a number of publications numbering nearly twelve dozen including magazines in the fashion, television, entertainment and sports spheres. The three magazines that will be used for analysis will be People, InStyle and Marie Claire, as these magazines are owned by the same conglomerate and are used to push an image and a lifestyle in the name of making money. However, this is done at great expense to society and the media…
Lee, S. (2013, August 15). 'Duck Dynasty' premiere recap: Wait, did I just cry? | PopWatch | EW.com. Entertainment Weekly's PopWatch Blog | PopWatch | EW.com. Retrieved October 5, 2013, from http://popwatch.ew.com/2013/08/15/duck-dynasty-season-4-premiere-phil-kay-wedding/
Mongretta, E. (2013, September 25). Miley Cyrus Disses Taylor Swift In 'Rolling Stone' -- " Calls Her Vanna White - Hollywood Life. Hollywood Life - Latest Hollywood Gossip, News & Celeb Pics. Retrieved October 5, 2013, from http://hollywoodlife.com/2013/09/25/miley-cyrus-disses-taylor-swift-rolling-stone-interview/
Pearson, C. (2013, October 5). Fashion And Eating Disorders: How Much Responsibility Does Industry Have?. Breaking News and Opinion on The Huffington Post. Retrieved October 5, 2013, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com /2011/09/13/fashion-eating-disorders-industry-responsibility_n_955497.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Marxist media theorists discuss the media in terms of their role as 'ideological apparatuses'. Explain the key notions behind this research, paying particular attention to the concept of hegemony and the media's role within it. What is 'hegemony', and why is it important to audience studies?
Marxist theorists emphasizes on the role of mass media in reproduction of status quo, however there is no school of thought regarding his theories. He viewed the society where he lives as being a domination class; therefore it was seen as an ideological arena where many class views are fought out, although it happened within the dominance context of certain classes. Marxist argues that mass media is a means of production in the capitalist society since it disseminate the views of the classes which are ruling and defusing the alternative ideas. He concluded by pointing out that the role of the mass…
Shaun Moores, (2005). Media/Thery: Thinking About Media and Communications. Pg 35.
Retrieved July 17, 2012 from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=4jHnl8C5g-cC&pg=PA197&lpg=PA197&dq=Williams,+K.+%282003%29.+Understanding+media+theory&source=bl&ots=BWE_LcXXAF&sig=opuUoqiVYOSCYvdU9vKJufkOIcA&hl=sw&sa=X&ei=WX8GUOngN-7R4QS77On9CA&ved=0CFYQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=Williams%2C%20K.%20%282003%29.%20Understanding%20media%20theory&f=false
Daniel Chandler, (2012). Marxist Media Theory. Retrieved July 18, 2012, from http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/marxism/marxism03.html
Artz, L., Macek, S., & Cloud, D.L. (2006). Marxism and communication studies: the point is to change it. New York: P. Lang.
Representation of characters and role models in different media outlets is based on perceptions and preconceived notions held by the producer, co-producers, and audiences at large. Only those representations are drawn that largely resonate with current meanings given to people, characters, places, and objects.The paper presents two theoretical approaches to study media and its impact at large. Theory of social constructivism provides framework to assess the meanings given to gender roles, objects, and places. Social construction of ideals, role models, and images keep changing as their meanings constantly transform from one generation to another and from one society to another. Theory of agenda setting is another framework that explains media and its influence. Though widely criticized as well, agenda setting theory has been used by researchers to highlight media role in political as well as entertainment, news, and infotainment segments. Media has played vital role in promoting culture…
Brooks, DE & Hebert, LP 2006. 'Gender, race and media representation'. Handbook of gender and communication, Vol. 16, pp. 297-317.
Ewen, S 2001. 'Captains of Consciousness Advertising andthe Social Roots ofthe Consumer Culture'. Basic Books.
Featherstone, M 2007. 'Consumer culture and postmodernism'. Sage Publications Limited.
Littlejohn, SW & Foss, KA2009. 'Encyclopedia of Communication Theory' (Vol. 1). Cal: SAGE.
News story - Union Serves 72-Hour Strike Notice at Viking Air
The CAW (Canadian Auto Workers Union) has announced a 72 hours strike while making a bargain with the Viking Air management. As per the notice, the Union will go on strike by 12 noon on Thursday, 19th January (CAW, 2012).
The union's national spokesperson Gavin McGarrigle said that it had been over a year since skilful workers had been waiting for renewal of job contracts, benefits, and other on the job issues. However, Viking Air had been reluctant to go for the new contract on the patterns of Cascade Aerospace which went into a contract with union previous year at Abbotsford (CAW, 2012).
The voting conducted on 28th October, 2011 showed that over 94% of the Viking Air staffers are in favor of strike. According to McGarrigle, this start of the year, they were going to try…
Bloomberg. (2012). Canadian Auto Workers Union Serves 72-Hour Strike Notice at Viking Air Limited. Accessed March 5th, 2012 from: http://investing.businessweek.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=22239929
Bloomberg. (2011). Viking Air Limited Workers Vote 94% in Favor of Strike Action. Accessed March 5th, 2012 from:
If 911 had not happened do you think the Summer of the Shark would have become the Year of the Shark? If not, what do you think the next big story would have been? (search news sites and other online references to find other news stories that could have been big, but were overshadowed by 9/11)
The term "summer of the shark" has become a joke to refer to the way the media flailed about in order to find its next big story to lure and hook viewers. The University of Florida News reports that the summer of the shark was the summer that never was; the numbers were already exaggerated and it would not have been a viable lead for news agencies (Keen, 2002). In fact, Keen (2002) points out that actual numbers of shark attacks were down that year, not up.
In spite of this, sharks still…
Keen, C. (2002). 'Summer of the shark; In 2001 more hype than fact, new numbers show. University of Florida News. Feb 18, 2002. Retrieved online: http://news.ufl.edu/2002/02/18/sharks02/
"To Ten News Stories of 2004." CNN.com. Retrieved online: http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2004/yir/
"Top Ten World News Events of 2001." Retrieved online: http://english.people.com.cn/200112/28/eng20011228_87645.shtml
"Words in the News -- Archives, 2001," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/newsenglish/witn/archive_2001.shtml
One can be certain that many millions of dollars will flow through the hands of right wing fundraisers like Karl Rove into attack ads against Obama's reform legislation, called "Obamacare" by many who oppose it and even by some who have embraced it.
On the subject of public health, in the National Public Radio blog on campaign spending (Kramer, 2010), the reporter interviewed Peter Stone with the Center for Public Integrity. Stone noted the three best-known independent groups that are raising millions for attack ads against Democrats in general, Obama in particular, and against those supporting healthcare reform.
Stone noted that Crossroads GPS (Karl Rove's fundraising organization), the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, and Americans for Prosperity were running "…these so-called issue ads which tell the viewer that so-and-so is not very good on healthcare issues and (ask viewers) to please call or write ashington with your concerns" (Kramer, p. 1).…
Badash, David. (2012). Gun Pointed at Obama's Head in Sen. Rand Paul's Fraudulent
Fundraiser. The New Civil Rights Movement. Retrieved June 1, 2012, from http://thenewcivilrightsmovement.com .
Boehlert, Eric. (2012). Birthers, Billionaires and FOX: The GOP Freak Show in Full Effect.
Media Matters for America. Retrieved June 2, 2012, from http://mediamatters.org .
Media devices are particularly influential when considering the way that they can manipulate the masses in developing thinking that they would not otherwise put across. The International Crisis Group online article "Deja Vu All Over Again? Iraq's Escalating Political Crisis" relates to one of the hottest topics currently under discussion in international circles. Similarly, Bradley Burston's article "Romney, a subdued pilgrim, walks a wary line in Jerusalem" induces intense feelings in the general public as the U.S. presidential elections are closing. hen analyzing both of these articles, one is likely to observe that they have a tendency to induce particular sentiments into their readers.
Conditions are critical in Iraq and there are very little people around the world who are not acquainted with this subject. It is difficult for an outsider to assess the problem accurately and to come up with an effective solution because both Prime Minister Maliki and…
Burston, Bradley, "Romney, a subdued pilgrim, walks a wary line in Jerusalem," Retrieved July 31, 2012, from the CNN Website: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/07/30/opinion/jerusalem-postcard/index.html
"Deja Vu All Over Again? Iraq's Escalating Political Crisis," Retrieved July 31, 2012, from the International Crisis Group Website: http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/publication-type/media-releases/2012/mena/iraq-deja-vu-all-over-again-iraq-s-escalating-political-crisis.aspx
The name of the town also changed from Bytown to Ottawa about fifty years later. The future of the town permanently changed when Queen Victoria decided to change the capital to the city in 1857 for the entire United Province of Canada. Then came the fires and "The Great Fire of 1900 started in Hull, turned into an inferno at the lumber mills and crossed the river into Ottawa." (History of Canada's Capital egion) This fire cut down half of the town and destroyed the main source of occupation for the town - lumber mills. It also destroyed over 2000 houses. Again the fire struck in 1916 and this time the attack was at Parliament Hill. Everything was destroyed and the only item left was the library of the Parliament. Yet the town was destined to be the capital and in 1958, the full area of 4,600 square kilometers was…
Communications in Canada. Retrieved at http://www.answers.com/main/ntquery;jsessionid=241j7biggxb81?method=4&dsid=2222&dekey=Communications+in+Canada&gwp=8&curtab=2222_1&sbid=lc04aAccessed on 24 June, 2005
Ethnic Media in Canada. Retrieved at http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/issues/stereotyping/ethnics_and_minorities/minorities_ethnicmedia.cfm?RenderForPrint=1Accessed on 23 June, 2005
French Canadian Emigration to the United States, 1840-1930. Retrieved at http://www2.marianopolis.edu/quebechistory/readings/leaving.htm. Accessed on 23 June, 2005
History of Canada's Capital Region. Retrieved at http://www.canadascapital.gc.ca/about_canadas/ncr/history/history2_e.html. Accessed on 23 June, 2005
ACCOUNTS OF INVOLVEMENT
International Media played vital role when the United States was in search of enough evidence for launching military attacks against Iraq. The government was provided with accounts of significant importance and relevance related to the Sadam Hussein and his government. The media secretly photographed different installations that were alleged by the Security Council and United States as sites for nuclear weaponry and plants. The United States submitted all those references quoted by the media, and tried to convince the international community for conducting military operations against Iraqi regime. After the military attack was launched by the United States with the support of United Kingdom, Australia and other European States, it was media that provided the foreign military troops with sufficient geographical, social and political knowledge of the region. The media acted as an interface between the Iraqi people and the foreign troops.
However it was…
United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs., Impact of Television on U.S. Foreign Policy: Hearing Before the Committee on Foreign Affairs.
W. Lance Bennett, David L. Paletz., Taken by Storm: The Media, Public Opinion, and U.S. Foreign Policy in the Gulf War.
William Yandell Elliott., United States Foreign Policy: Its Organization and Control.
R.C. Nelson, E. Donald Briggs, Walter C. Soderlund., Mass Media and Foreign Policy: Post-Cold War Crises in the Caribbean.
It is very telling that mass media today is often referred to as a "media industry." This term implies that mass media is no longer concerned with merely relaying information to the general public. Instead, media is engaged in producing a product, akin to industries such as manufacturing.
This paper examines the media industry from the production perspective. It looks at how news coverage is itself a manufactured product, a result of specific corporate interests. hile "mass media" itself is a broad term, this paper focuses specifically on broadcast and print news coverage, a part of media that is supposed to be tailored to the public interests.
The first part of this paper looks at the concentration of media interests. In a democracy, the competing individual news outfits are supposed to act as independent checks and balances. However, the concentration of media ownership into a few corporate giants…
"FCC Loosens Restrictions on Big Media Ownership." 6 June 2003. Articles. Changing the Channel. 17 Oct 2004 .
Hertman, Craig,, and . "Corporate Ownership and News Bias." Journal of Politics May 2000. ProQuest. Earthlink. Los Angeles Public Library. 17 Oct 2004
Jackman, John. "What are the effects on democracy." 2004. Changing the Channels. Changing the Channels. 17 Oct 2004 .
Schmelzer, Paul. "The Death of Local News." Alternet 23 April 2004. 17 Oct 2004 .
Thus, they set off a great deal of protest. Americans did not appreciate the fact that a small group of powerful corporations are given more control of the most important element of our democracy: our access to information. They are right to feel this way. The media monopoly allows a small amount of companies power over media outlets (independent and corporate alike, including on the Web). This is far too much power for them to possess, but this is the future face of media consolidation.
Unfortunately, as most monopolies do, the media conglomerates operate mainly for their stockholders-major media in the United States can be very profitable (McChesney and Nichols, 2002). To ensure their profitability, they serve the major corporate interests that fund much of the media with large advertising checks.
However, new initiatives, such as the Democratic Media Legal Project (DMLP), are preparing to present legal challenges to the…
Gutierrez, M. (M McChesney, Robert. Nichols, John. (2002).Our Media, Not Theirs. Seven Stories Press.arch, 2004). Fewer Player, Less Freedom, Inter-Press Service.
McChesney, R. (November, 1999). The New Global Media; it's a Small World of Big Conglomerates. The Nation Magazine.
Bagdikian, Ben. (2000). The Media Monopoly, Sixth Edition. Beacon Press. pp. xx.
Free Press. (2005). Media Monopoly Made Simple. Retrieved from the Internet at http://subsol.c3.hu/subsol_2/contributors3/freepresstext.html .
Another way that media literacy messages are suppressed is by having them changed. When this happens, the message is not received as intended. The recipient of the message does not learn as much about media literacy as he or she should. This disrupts the ability of the recipient to understand and be critical of the media to which he or she is exposed.
Beyond the cognitive dispositions, there is emotional disruption when framing guides us to have an emotional response to media literacy messages. This is challenging, because the recipient must overcome the temptation to be guided by emotion when evaluating the messages that are in the media. Understanding the role of emotional manipulation in media messages is an essential skill to develop to improve one's media literacy.
3. A media stereotype that embodies all three reasons is the budget crisis concept. While there is a long-term budget issue, it…
Media and Conflict
The existence of a pro-business, pro-government bias led to ineffectual journalistic coverage of U.S. unemployment during the period leading up to the 2008-2009 recession. In what has come to be known as the Great Recession because of its comparability to the Great Depression, the U.S. unemployment rate reached historic highs. The magnitude of the recession was such that economists and policy-makers should have been better prepared to manage the looming crisis, but instead were caught unawares because they relied on self-serving forecasts that minimized unemployment forecasts. The news media was complicit in its minimalist coverage of the unrealistic projections that the Bush hite House and administration served up.
In that context, and given the far-reaching effects on U.S. economy, the abbreviated reports of unemployment forecasts deserve closer scrutiny. This paper explores reasons the news media rarely challenged the consistently inaccurate unemployment forecasting, projections that should have informed…
Bandyk, Matthew. "Is Unemployment the Worst Since the Great Depression? Hidden behind the unemployment rate are some startling numbers." U.S. News and World Report. 27 Aug 2009. Web. 19 Jan. 19, 2012. < http://money.usnews.com/money/business-economy/articles/2009/08/27/is-unemployment-the-worst-since-the-great-depression>.
Isidore, Chris. "Fed Sees Economy Getting Worse." CNNMoney. 21 May 2008. Web. 19 Jan. 19, 2012. < http://money.cnn.com/2008/05/21/news/economy/fed_minutes/ >.
McChesney, Robert W. "September 11 and the structural limitations of U.S. journalism." Communication and terrorism: Public and media responses to 9/11. Ed. Bradley S. Greenberg. Hampton Press, 2002. Print.
Motley Fool. "Kiplinger.com -- They called it right (Plus predictions for 2009)." 23 Dec. 2008. Web. 19 Jan. 19, 2012. < http://caps.fool.com/Blogs/kiplingercom-they-called-it/122769 >.
In the absence of alternative media outlets, independent journalists have no means of getting their ideas out to the public.
If media corporations are not limited in how many outlets they can own in a particular market or medium, then consumers suffer from a homogenous media. Moreover, American citizens do not enjoy their full First Amendment rights. Alternative media sources are not only hard to find and expensive to acquire, but many consumers don't have time to search for alternative media websites or magazines. With television news one of the only options for current event information, consumers deserve a plethora of sources, not just a handful, owned by the same few corporations. Similarly, corporate-owned media conglomerates usually neglect the voices of minorities and of women because the heads of the corporations are too far distanced from minority issues and points-of-view.
Mistrust of the government to regulate the media is understandable.…
The advertiser (Toyota) is reinforcing dominant ideology in one promotion and attempting to forge a new one in the other promotion.
There are no real stereotypes in these promotions, as there are no real characters, other than the fake bug. It is worth considering, however, that the audience in both cases is viewed as a stereotype. Those concerned about mileage are taken as very concerned, and enamored almost solely with this aspect of the car. The Internet community at large is taken as having little moral qualm with the co-opting of user-generated content to create an ad campaign -- the complicity of the audience is assumed and that may too be a stereotype of the typical Internet user.
e. hat a Girl ants illustrates the power of the media in terms of defining image for consumers. It reflects dominant ideology -- what those with the media power want is projected…
Toyota Yaris YouTube ad: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=skhaeXwfh3s
Yaris viral campaign: http://yar.is/
Shah, A. (2009). Media conglomerates, mergers and concentrations of ownership. Global Issues. Retrieved November 2, 2011 from http://www.globalissues.org/article/159/media-conglomerates-mergers-concentration-of-ownership
As Stuart Hall shows, media representations are powerful. The problem is that the often present stereotypical images and characters that perpetuate and propagate biased beliefs. Because so much media is directed at and consumed by young people, youth culture itself becomes inundated with prefabricated ideas that are developed by the Culture Industry for their consumption. The Frankfurt School argued that the reason people in America never rose up against the owners of the means of production was because the Culture Industry had pacified them by way of the media—films, TV shows, musicals, music albums and so on—all of it had depleted the working class people of whatever impulse they might have had to rise up and take control of their own destiny, like Marx said they would. One of the most powerful companies within the Culture Industry is Disney, and as Giroux points out, it is all about hooking…
After reading “The Reality of the Gaze” by Giannino and Campbell (2012), I feel compelled to dispute the authors’ opening description of Flavor Flav and the rise of Public Enemy. Flavor Flav then as he would later with the “reality” show Flavor of Love was exploiting a social issue and doing it in a provocative manner that would ensure sales for his corporate bosses. Public Enemy exploited the oppression of African Americans in society by fueling their rap with angst and angry lyrics, which kicked off a whole new subgenre in rap. This allowed the more media savvy members of the group—like Ice-T—to leverage their popularity and pursue a career in Hollywood. Flavor Flav finally got his chance to bring back his persona with his VH1 reality show, which exploits the harem notion of women from reality dating shows.
The intersection of race, gender and society in a study like…
Since the Victorian era, science and scientists have been portrayed in dichotomous ways. Scientists are above all powerful, able to manipulate the natural world. Through their manipulations and machinations, scientists ironically disrupt the natural order of things, leading to ungodly inventions, abominations, or actual threats to human survival itself. The most notable examples of nefarious scientists in nineteenth century literature include Dr. Frankenstein and Dr. Jekyll. As the genre of science fiction evolved from these gothic tales, the scientist became even more of a potent symbol, albeit one far more morally ambiguous. By the end of the twentieth century, scientists had taken on a whole new identity: one perched precariously between the role of the nerdy but ironically cute intellectual and that of the genuinely “mad” scientist. The infotainment industry then provided the world with a new generation of scientist celebrities, the likes of Neil DeGrasse Tyson, Stephen Kawking, and…
Binder, A.R., Hillback, E.D. & Brossard, D. (2015). Conflicts or caveats? Risk Analysis 36(4): 831-846.
Cole, S.A. (2013). A surfeit of science. Public Understanding of Science 24(2): 130-146.
Hmielowski, J.D., Feldman, L., Myers, T.A., et al. (2013). An attack on science? Public Understanding of Science 23(7): 866-883.
Nisbet, M.C. & Dudo, A. (2013). Entertainment media portrayals and their effects on the public understanding of science. In ACS Symposium Series, Vol. 1139, American Chemical Society.
As glamorous as the media professions can seem, there are a host of ethical, legal, and practical considerations that temper unbridled enthusiasm for working in the newsroom. Barnas and White do a superb job of demystifying and clarifying what it means to actually work behind the scenes and at every position necessary for making an effective news organization work. Broadcast News: Writing, Reporting, and Producing offers a remarkably thorough overview of the broadcast news industry, from an editorial and content creation perspective as well as a marketing, public relations, and technical perspective. Just when Broadcast News seems overly ambitious, the authors deliver on depth and clarity of content.
Broadcast News is divided into four parts, for a total of seventeen chapters. The first part is called “Acquiring the News.” Barnas and White dive straight into the ethical and legal conundrums reporters and editors face when trying to be the first…
Barnas, Frank and White, Ted. Broadcast News: Writing, Reporting, and Producing. Burlington, MA: Focal Press.
Media plays a powerful role in politics in a variety of ways. Social media allows individuals to communicate ideas to followers. President Trump used social media—particularly Twitter—to great effect on the campaign trail, often firing off tweets to attack his political opponents. Supporters and critics alike have used social media to alter the way people view politics. One group in particular that has received a lot of focus from the media is the African American population. The African American vote is a very important vote in politics because this population has the potential to swing an election, to turn a blue state red or a red state blue. The media, however, is only as powerful as those who wield it. That is why whether it is CNN, Fox News or Twitter users, the aim is always the same—to alter the views of the target audience and sway them to…
Bandura, A. (2018). Toward a psychology of human agency: Pathways and reflections. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 130-136.
Brewer, J. (2016). Why Hillary Clinton couldn’t rally the black vote. Retrieved from https://www.cnbc.com/2016/11/11/why-hillary-clinton-couldnt-rally-the-black-vote-commentary.html
Cummings, W. (2018). Trump at 36 percent approval among African-Americans, new poll finds. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/onpolitics/2018/08/16/trump-approval-rating-african-americans-rasmussen-poll/1013212002/
DellaVigna, S., & Kaplan, E. (2007). The Fox News effect: Media bias and voting. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 122(3), 1187-1234.
Dreier, P. (1982). The position of the press in the US power structure. Social Problems, 29(3), 298-310.
Dyson, M. E. (2016). The Black presidency: Barack Obama and the politics of race in America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Erlich, J. (2018). Maxine Waters encourages supporters to harass Trump administration officials. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/2018/06/25/politics/maxine-waters-trump-officials/index.html
Flood, B. (2018). Maxine Waters wins media award, uses speech to bad-mouth Trump to newspaper publishers: \\\\'I don\\\\'t like him\\\\'. Retrieved from https://www.foxnews.com/entertainment/maxine-waters-wins-media-award-uses-speech-to-bad-mouth-trump-to-newspaper-publishers-i-dont-like-him
My personal communication style is passionate but becoming more balanced. Presenting arguments in a calm and logical manner is one of the great challenges of human communication. The ancient Greeks articulated rhetorical strategies that used pathos, ethos, and logos to show how an effective argument is not just emotional but also logical and credible. In the past, I have reverted to emotional appeals too much when making a case. Academic writing has taught me the value of taking a step back from my emotions and considering other points of view.
I have learned that an academic argument can take on many different forms, but generally includes four main components. Those four components include the claim, the evidence, the counterargument, and the rebuttal (“English 122: Composition II An Introduction to Argument,” n.d.). The claim is my position, or my thesis statement. The evidence comprises the factual foundation for my…
“English 122: Composition II An Introduction to Argument,” (n.d.). Ashford University.
This memorandum is in response to the Board of Directors’ request to investigate recent negative coverage of our corporation and the resulting comments from local pressure groups in two of our main markets. This memorandum provides a comprehensive review of which media, pressure groups and political groups are most influential in each of the company’s main markets, the United Kingdom (UK), India and Africa, followed by recommendations concerning how the organisation can better manage its relationships with those groups in the future by developing innovative ways of using the media. The memorandum is organized into two tasks. Task 1 identifies the relevant domestic, national and international media in the UK, Africa and India followed by an evaluation concerning the respective importance of the media in influencing partners, opinion formers, stakeholders, customers and the public at large in these markets and the influence of pressure and political groups, and media owners,…
Bernal, AL (2015, June). ‘From Phone Hacking to the Splitting of Businesses in Times of Corporate Crisis: The Case of News Corporation.’ Global Media Journal, Vol. 13, No. 24, pp. 1-4.
Bromley, M (2016). ‘Media landscapes: UK.’ Media Landscapes. Online http://ejc.net/ media_landscapes/united-kingdom.
Ericsson, SW (2016, August 11). ‘TV and Media in Nigeria - How changing consumer needs are creating a new media landscape.’ African Business Central. Online http://www. africanbusinesscentral.com/2016/08/11/tv-and-media-in-nigeria-how-changing-consumer-needs-are-creating-a-new-media-landscape-ericsson-report/.
‘India communications’ (2018). CIA World Factbook. Online https://www.cia.gov/ library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/.
Kaul, V (2011, December 21). ‘Globalisation and media.’ Journal of Mass Communication & Journalism, Vol. 1, No 105, pp. 37-41.
‘Nigeria communications’ (2018). CIA World Factbook. Online https://www.cia.gov/ library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/.
‘Political parties in Parliament’ (2018). UK Parliament. Online http://www.parliament.uk/ about/mps-and-lords/members/parties/.
‘Political parties in India’ (2018). Elections India. Online http://www.elections.in/political-parties-in-india/.
Schultz v. Wheaton Glass Co.
Leading up to the Schultz v. Wheaton Glass Co. case of 1970, women had been primarily viewed as being part of the domestic sphere. Their traditional role in society was to take care of the house and kids while the man went to work and supported the family by earning the paycheck. Following WWII, when the women were pushed out of the home by the necessity of the war effort needed at the home front to keep the soldiers supplied abroad, a change in society was effected. Woman began to feel less and less restricted to the domestic sphere. Betty Friedan let slip the bugle cry to women in 1963 with her book The Feminine Mystique, which argued that women were being treated like slaves of their husbands and of the patriarchal order—that their place was not to be confined to the kitchen as they…
Bazelon, E. “The Place of Women on the Court.” The NY Times, 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/12/magazine/12ginsburg-t.html?_r=2&pagewanted=all&
CBS 19. “Report: Gender pay gap wider than discussed.” CBS19, 2018. https://www.cbs19.tv/video/news/local/report-gender-pay-gap-wider-than-discussed/501-8347398
CBS Evening News. “Four killed in Kent State shooting.” YouTube, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lmd6CHah7Wg
Friedan, Betty. The Feminine Mystique. NY: Norton, 2001.
Robinson, Willis. “From growing breasts, surgery in Denmark and cross dressing in public to marrying Kris and building a reality empire as a man: How Bruce backed out of 1980s sex change plan to transform himself into \\\\'Heather\\\\'.” Daily Mail, 2016. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3055315/From-female-hormones-thoughts-Denmark-sex-exchange-cross-dressing-public-marrying-Kris-Bruce-Jenner-nearly-transitioned-1980s-planned-return-Aunt-Heather-children.html
Rosen, J. The Book of Ruth. New Republic, 1993. http://www.newrepublic.com/article/politics/the-book-ruth
Steinhem, Gloria. Outrageous Acts and Everyday Rebellions. NY: Henry Holt, 1984.
Woody, Robert Henley. The Law and the Practice of Human Services. Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1984.
Over the past few years, the phrase “fake news” has become a household word in the United States. Like the term “propaganda” during the Cold War era, “fake news” has come to connote the manipulation of the public through misleading or frankly false information. Fake news can be spread by anyone with a Twitter account or Facebook page, making it far too easy for fake news to proliferate. In fact, the mainstream media can even spread fake news, knowingly or not. As beneficial as social media might be to the democratic sharing of information, social media also facilitates fake news. One of the reasons why fake news has an allure is prior exposure. When a person reads a story that resonates with them, they tend to believe that story to be true without going through the process of fact checking or verification. The phenomenon of confirmation bias ensures that individuals…
Becker, B.W. (2016). The librarian’s information war. Behavioral and Social Sciences Librarian 35(4):188-191. DOI: 10.1080/01639269.2016.1284525
Borchers, C. (2017). How to squash fake news without trampling free speech. The Washington Post. Oct 12, 2017. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2017/10/12/how-to-squash-fake-news-without-trampling-free-speech/?utm_term=.5d1ece384b9d
“Facebook Has a New Plan to Curb \\'Fake News\\'” (2017). Fortune. http://fortune.com/2017/08/03/facebook-fake-news-algorithm/
Heshmat, S. (2015). What is confirmation bias? Psychology Today. 23 April, 2015. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/science-choice/201504/what-is-confirmation-bias?
Kiely, E. (2018). Trump’s phony ‘fake news’ claims. FaceCheck.org. https://www.factcheck.org/2018/01/trumps-phony-fake-news-claims/
Nossel, S. (2017). The pro-free speech way to fight fake news. Foreign Policy. 12 Oct, 2017. http://foreignpolicy.com/2017/10/12/the-pro-free-speech-way-to-fight-fake-news/
Papanastasiou, Y. (2017). Fake news propagation and detection. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3028354
Pennycook, G., Cannon, T.G. & Rand, D.G. (2017). Implausibility and illusory truth. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2958246
The impact celebrities have on youth mentality, behaviors, and thus culture is undeniable. The youth look up to their favorite celebrities as role models – routinely imitating their modes of dressing and lifestyles. However, one thing is certain: the impact that celebrities have on our youth today is both positive and negative. While there are good-natured celebrities out there who influence the youth positively, there are others whose behaviors are largely uncouth and could thus be considered bad influencers. This text concerns itself with popular celebrity icons and the influence they have on teens. In so doing, it will mostly focus on Justin Bieber - one of the youthful modern celebrities who happen to have massive following among the youth.
It is important to note that for a certain celebrity to be deemed influential, he ought to have a powerful impact on his or her follower’s perspective of…
Granatino, Rachel, and Daniela L. Haytko. “Body Image, Confidence, and Media Influence: A Study of Middle School Adolescents.” The Journal of Applied Business Research, vol. 29 no. 1, 2013, pp. 45-50.
Hou, Mingyi. “Social Media Celebrity and the Institutionalization of YouTube.” Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, vol. 20 no. 10, 2018, pp. 11-20.
McCool, Judith, Becky Freeman, and Helen Tanielu. “Perceived Social and Media Influences on Tobacco Use Among Samoan Youth” BMC Public Health, vol. 14, 2014, pp. 67-72.
North, Adrian, Lorraine Sheridan, John Maltby, and Raphael Gillett. “Attributional Style, Self-Esteem, and Celebrity Worship.” Media Psychology, vol. 9, 2007, pp. 291-308.
Media and Gender Stereotypes
Most adults are aware of how influential the media is on children, a notion that is intimidating in today’s world, as currently children have access to numerous types of media. With this massive availability of media, school-aged children are still predominantly impacted by television, watching it around three hours a day (Hentges & Case, 2013). This represents a massive power of the almighty television and puts increased pressure on parents to regulate what is and is not appropriate for them to be exposed to. This is more than just things like sex or violence, but also refers to subtler forces within media that can influence their minds and development—such as representations of gender. How characters on television act, the things they say, and how they dress can be tremendously influential to children regarding what is and is not acceptable behavior for boys versus girls. This paper…
Coyne, S. M., Linder, J. R., Rasmussen, E. E., Nelson, D. A., & Birkbeck, V. (2016). Pretty as a princess: Longitudinal effects of engagement with Disney princesses on gender stereotypes, body esteem, and prosocial behavior in children. Child development, 87(6), 1909-1925.
Hentges, B., & Case, K. (2013). Gender representations on Disney Channel, Cartoon Network, and Nickelodeon broadcasts in the United States. Journal of Children and Media, 7(3), 319-333.
Fake News: John Oliver and Sinclair Broadcast Group
Comedian John Oliver did a segment on Sinclair Broadcast Group, essentially asserting that the television behemoth had a conservative bias, which slanted news towards falsehoods and non-facts. Oliver’s criticisms of Sinclair arose during a time when the broadcast group was close to sealing the deal on a merger with Tribune Media, a deal which was worth just under $4 billion and which would have a significant impact in the consolidation of local television networks. This is the event that caused so much of the controversy, as some political commentators seemed to think this would cause alt-right messaging in local news profiles, whereas others dismissed it as a business as usual.
Oliver used his platform on his weekly HBO show to assert that the predominantly right-wing prejudice that Sinclair demonstrated, which he said rivaled that Fox News and Breitbart, was often riddled with…
Breland, A. \\"John Oliver Hits Sinclair Broadcast Group for Conservative Bias.\\" TheHill, 3 July 2017, thehill.com/policy/technology/340542-john-oliver-roasts-sinclair- medias-conservative-slant.
Fessler, L. \\"John Oliver\\'s Last Week Tonight Exposes the Conservative Media Takeover of Local News — Quartz.\\" Quartz, 3 July 2017, qz.com/1020401/john-olivers- last-week-tonight-exposes-the-conservative-media-takeover-of-local-news/. Accessed 28 Sept. 2017.
Locker, M. \\"John Oliver: Dangers of Corporations Taking Over Local News | Time.com.\\" TIME | Current & Breaking News | National & World Updates, 2 July 2017, time.com/4843463/john-oliver-local-news-last-week-tonight/. Accessed 28 Sept. 2017.
National Memo. \\"#EndorseThis: John Oliver Reveals Invasive Idiocy Of Sinclair Broadcast Group.\\" The National Memo, 5 July 2017, www.nationalmemo.com/john-oliver-reveals-invasive-idiocy-sinclair-broadcast/. Accessed 28 Sept. 2017.
Smith, K. \\"John Oliver & Sinclair Broadcast Group: Calm Down, John.\\" National Review, 6 July 2017, www.nationalreview.com/article/449260/john-oliver- sinclair-broadcast-group. Accessed 28 Sept. 2017.
One of Donald Trump’s common terms or catch phrases when he rants and raves on social media would happen to be “fake news”. This pejorative is commonly aimed at news outlets like CNN and other media outlets that cover him, fairly or not. CNN et al commonly recoils and reacts to that term in very negative and reflexive ways. There is some truth to what Trump says about the media, at least in some instances. However, to suggest that lies and deceit are the only problem in the news media and/or that it is only limited to CNN or the anti-GOP side of the argument is simply not true. While the media has some issues and propaganda is indeed a problem on the social media sphere, “fake news” is far from being the only one and politicians have their own faults and flaws.
The author of this…
Ha, Jae Sik, et al. "Selective Exposure to Partisan Media: Moderating Factors in Evaluations of the President." The Social Science Journal, 17 May 2017. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.soscij.2017.05.003.
Klein, David O. and Joshua R. Wueller. "Fake News: A Legal Perspective." Journal of Internet Law, vol. 20, no. 10, Apr. 2017, pp. 1-13. EBSCOhost.
Miller, Emily. "Opinion | In Defense of Sarah Huckabee Sanders." Washington Post. N.p., 2017. Web. 1 Dec. 2017.
Phillips, Amber. "Analysis | 5 Very Real Scenarios That Could Lead to A Government Shutdown." Washington Post. N.p., 2017. Web. 1 Dec. 2017.
Scarry, Eddie. "Sexual Harassment Scandals Are Blowing Up the Media." Washington Examiner. N.p., 2017. Web. 1 Dec. 2017.
The History of Colorism/Skin Color, Gender and the Media
The history of colorism in the U.S. and its prevalence in the media is basically the history of the U.S. and its approach to legitimate representation of race in the media. As Hunter notes, “Colorism, or skin color stratification, is a process that privileges light?skinned people of color over dark in areas such as income, education, housing, and the marriage market” (237). At the same time, media representations of darker skinned people have been viewed as being more authentic and legitimate (Hunter). This can be seen in the film The Negro Soldier, directed by famed Hollywood producer Frank Capra during WWII. In that film, the African American community was depicted for the first time as being equal to whites: the representation was authentic and legitimated by the dark skinned tone of the community. As German points out, the film was meant…
Cripps, Thomas and David Culbert. “The Negro Soldier (1944): Film Propaganda in Black and White.” American Quarterly Vol. 31, No. 5, Special Issue: Film and American Studies (Winter, 1979), pp. 616-640: The Josh Hopkins University Press.
German, Kathleen M. Promises of Citizenship: Film Recruitment of African Americans in World War 2. University Press of Mississippi, 2017.
Hunter, M. “The persistent problem of colorism: Skin tone, status, and inequality.” Sociology Compass, 1.1. (2007), 237-254.
Analysis of Reporting of the Removal of the Robert E. Lee Statue by the Breibart News Newtwork and Salon.com
With the proliferation of the internet, social media, and mobile technology, access to information today is far much easier than it has ever been in human history. From any corner of the globe, information can now be received and disseminated on a real time basis. Nonetheless, identifying the truth from lies has increasingly become difficult in the wake of the digital revolution. With a plethora of online platforms offering news as events happen, propagating falsehoods has become as simple as retweeting a tweet or sharing a Facebook post. The removal of the Robert E. Lee statue in Charlottesville, Virginia is one of the events that have been the subject of reporting in online news platforms. Based on three articles from the Breibart News Network and three articles from Salon.com relating to…
Frampton, Ben. “Clickbait: The Changing Face of Online Journalism.” BBC News. BBC News, 14 Sep. 2015. Web. 8 Nov. 2017.
Ransohoff, David F. and Richard M. Ransohoff. “Sensationalism in the Media: When Scientists and Journalists May Be Complicit Collaborators.” Effective Clinical Practice 4.4 (2001): 185-188.
Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing, 2016.
Vognar, David. “How Important is Culture in Shaping Our Behavior?” Huffington Post. Huffington Post, 1 Aug. 2012. Web. 8 Nov. 2017.
Yu, Qiufen. “Understanding the Impact of Culture on Interpretation: A Relevance Theoretic Perspective. Intercultural Communication Studies 33.3 (2014): 83-102.
Media as the Linguistic Discourse Analysis Object
esearch in Discourse Analysis - Linguistics
Discourse analysis' focus is noteworthy semiotic events. Discourse analysis aims to understand not only the nature of the semiotic event, but also the socio-psychological traits of the participants of the event. The proposed subject of research is media discourse analysis or media as the linguistic discourse analysis object. Media is highly relevant and almost fundamental to life in the 21st century. There is no doubt that there are social, perceptual, psychological, linguistic, and behavioral affects of technology and media upon users and communities. Objects of discourse analysis vary in their definition of articulated sequences of communication events, speech acts, etc. Media is nothing but a series of coordinated sequences of various communications events operating semiotically. Therefore, media discourse analysis is a worthwhile linguistic research endeavor. The hypothesis of the research contends that media discourse analysis, as part…
Chen, L. (2004) Evaluation in Media Texts: A Cross-Cultural Linguistic Investigation. Language in Society, 33(5), 673 -- 702.
Chigana, A., & Chigana, W. (2008) Mxit It Up in the Media: Media Discourse Analysis on a Mobile Instant Messaging System. The South African Journal of Information and Communication, 9, 42 -- 57.
Constantinou, O. (2005) Multimodal Discourse Analysis: Media, modes and technologies. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 9(4), 602 -- 618.
Gamson, W.A., Croteau, D., Hoynes, W., & Sasson, T. (1992) Media Images and the Social Construction of Reality. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, 373 -- 393.
In a one day diary of media consumption, it becomes evident that many of my interactions with the world are via media. I receive most of my information through media forms as well. Even when relaxing, media is something that drives the process. There is also a lot of passive consumption of media in my daily life. My media consumption will be analyzed through the lens of different media theories.
Turow argues that media and advertisers have become exceptionally adept since the 1970s at understanding audiences, their consumption patterns, and how to exploit these. For our part as audience, we have much less understanding of our own consumption patterns. This exercise was the first time that I had really given thought to my daily media exposure, only to realize that my use of media is constant, throughout the day, and sometimes very passive. I used media forms as…
Turow, J. (1997). Breaking up America University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
Fenton, N. (no date). The internet and social networking. In possession of the author.
Vietnam films have rewritten the winners and the losers of that saga and action-adventure films reinforce cultural norms of violence and power (175). Despite the increased real presence of women in positions of power, often media representations of women and other formerly disenfranchised groups remain stereotyped or relegated to marginal or token roles, although this is changing. Still, certain outlets like women's magazines often function as advertisements that perpetuate corporate images that make women feel worse, rather than better about themselves (188). Furthermore, a hegemonic ideology is implied by supposedly mainstream news organizations. Consider the construct of 'economic news.' This implies that the 'economy' is in a neat little box, and that social issues of race and political disenfranchisement, limits on wealth and access to education and power, have no role in who possess wealth and who lacks wealth in society. Economics as separate from other issues is essentially an…
Injustice and the Media
There was a point in the not-too-distant past when it was reasonable to perceive the media as a force collectively aimed at informing the public, exposing corruption, surfacing scandal and general performing the responsibility of protecting the people's right to know. However, several forces have permeated the so-called 'fourth estate,' diluting the media's acceptance of this responsibility. At one end of the spectrum, the growth in value of cable news such as CNN or MSNBC has created a highly monetized and commercially-motivated form of news. At the opposite end of the spectrum, the increasing visibility of social media such as Facebook and Twitter in spreading news stories has removed much of the accountability or professionalism from our media outlets.
The result is that our media outlets rarely have the motivation to ensure that a well-informed public is made aware of injustice in all its forms.…
Boettger, B. (2012). The Social Responsibility of Social Media. Media Post.
Chiyamwaka, B. (2008). Media Ethics: A Call To Responsible Journalism. Hippo Lodge Liwonde.
Christians, C.G. (2007). Utilitarianism in Media Ethics and Its Discontents. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 22(2-3), 113-131.
Daily Graphic. (2009). Ethical, Responsible Journalism Essential for Media's Success. Modern Ghana.
Arguably, the raw data at ikiLeaks is far more powerful than anything that can be found in traditional media or satire news. The audience here must also acquire the tools necessary to properly digest the information, as an audience accustomed to uncritical digestion of mainstream media will be challenged by the raw information presented devoid of spin and context.
Feldman, L. (2007). The news about comedy. Journalism. Vol 8 (4) 406-427.
Ludlow, P. (2010). ikiLeaks and hacktivist culture. The Nation. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/7669895/771113000/name/ikileaks.pdf
McCue, D. (2009). hen news breaks, "the Daily Show" fixes it: Exposing social values through satire. University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl%3furl_ver=Z39.88-2004%26res_dat=xri:pqdiss%26rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation%26rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:1456354
Postman, N. & Power, S. (2008) How to watch TV news. Penguin Books.
Reilly, I. (2011). Satirical fake news and the politics of the fifth estate. University of Guelph. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl%3furl_ver=Z39.88-2004%26res_dat=xri:pqdiss%26rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation%26rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:NR71829
Feldman, L. (2007). The news about comedy. Journalism. Vol 8 (4) 406-427.
Ludlow, P. (2010). WikiLeaks and hacktivist culture. The Nation. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/7669895/771113000/name/Wikileaks.pdf
McCue, D. (2009). When news breaks, "the Daily Show" fixes it: Exposing social values through satire. University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl%3furl_ver=Z39.88-2004%26res_dat=xri:pqdiss%26rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation%26rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:1456354
Postman, N. & Power, S. (2008) How to watch TV news. Penguin Books.
Media Presentation Analyzation: Design & Ethical Relationships
The war in the Middle East is an example of an on-going media presentation that is covered in the radio, television and on the Internet. More recently covered are the accounts of the beheadings of those kidnapped and in yesterday's news, of numerous people killed or wounded in the Iraqi car blasts in Najaf, Iraq. This paper will examine the design and ethical relationships of the media's presentation of the war in Iraq using the attached article downloaded off the Internet for the analysis. It will examine television and the new media environment of the Web, for both have become central in determining both the design and ethical dimensions of the media's coverage of the war in the Middle East.
Turning on the television means establishing a connection with the place of broadcasting and being literally and continually present at the birth of…
Bruce, B.C. (2000), "Credibility of the Web: Why we need dialectical reading," Journal of Philosophy of Education, vol. 34, no. 1, pp.97-109.
Design -- Media Presentation Analysis
A college student talking to an old high school friend through Instant Messaging may send that friend a copy of an interesting article that flashed across the screen. News may not be prime reason for using the Internet but still the Internet is vital for transmitting news and opinion, even of dispatches from war torn areas, or disaster afflicted zones where the conventional media cannot penetrate. In ages past, sitting around the television watching the news may have had other purposes than information -- family togetherness, relaxation, as well, but that did not discount the information received.
Furthermore, the Internet provides a plurality of viewpoints that the three networks and the major city newspapers did not and often still do not provide. One could even make a parallel to the plethora of newspapers of the turn of the century, all biased and slanted and somewhat dubious in fact-checking perhaps (but…
Mindich, David. Tuned Out: Why Americans under 40 don't follow the news. New York: Oxford Press, 2004
Media epresentation of Issues in Immigration
Immigration is a fundamental element of American history. Centuries ago, immigration was not the issue that it is in the 21st century. There is a very small percentage of Americans that can trace their heritage back to the beginning of the country without at least one family member or even generation of family that are not immigrants. Around the turn of the 20th century, with the advent of industrialization and the mass exodus from numerous countries into the United States, immigration has been a white, hot point of contention in American culture and American media. The focus of this paper is a very recent article in The New York Times about President Obama's decision to allow a specific demographic of illegal immigrants to remain the country legally providing them opportunities to obtain legal documentation, attend institutions of higher education, and work without fear of…
Cohen, T. (2012) Obama administration to stop deporting some young illegal immigrants. CNN, Available from http://www.cnn.com/2012/06/15/politics/immigration/index.html . 2012 June 25.
Preston, J., & Cushman, Jr., J.H. (2012) Obama to Permit Young Migrants to Remain in U.S. The New York Times, Available from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/16/us/us-to-stop-deporting-some-illegal-immigrants.html?pagewanted=all . 2012 June 25.
Glasser's, Awad's, and Kim's study analyzes how four newspapers have written from different points-of-view relating to the same event. Two of the newspapers have written professionally, without attempting to influence the readers in any way. In contrast, the other two newspapers have written so that the public would get a wrong idea of the incident. Just as in the present case, it is normal for media services from within a local community to write differently than bigger, more specialized, media services. The journalists from the two newspapers which have distorted reality and have written the articles from their own points-of-view belong to the community involved in the incident discussed. The respective journalists have turned an ordinary conflict (between the officials and their community over the building of a mall) into a cry for help from a community presumably discriminated for years.
It is of no relevance whether or not the…
Glasser, T.L. & Awad I. & Kim J.W. (2009). The Claims of Multiculturalism and Journalism's Promise of Diversity. Journal of Communication, 59: 57-58.
Media in the Courtroom
High profile court cases, especially murder trials and celebrity cases are more likely to attract the national media than ordinary cases that usually of no interest beyond the local level. These are also the kinds of cases when the issue of TV cameras in the courtroom is most significant, and when judges have to give serious thought to handing down gag orders that block all public discussion of the case for the duration of the trial. In this era of Internet, Facebook, 24-hour cable news and YouTube, any events or statements in the court can easily become 'viral' and be seen instantly by millions of people around the world. For most of the 20th Century, recording devices and movie and TV cameras were not allowed in the courts, but only reports from the print media and drawings by sketch artists. This technology existed for many decades…
Ferguson, R. 2011. "Cameras in the Courtroom." The American Spectator.
Mesereau, T.A. 2011. "Effectively Handling High-Profile and Celebrity Cases." Los Angeles Lawyer, Survival Guide for New Attorneys in California, Fall 2011 Issue
In the novel, Howad is foced to seve as an U.S. secet Agent by the Blue Faiy, a caee that eventually led to his own death.
Mothe Night epesents the fictional memois of Howad W. Campbell J., an Ameican who seved as a secet agent fo the Ameican Amy duing the Second Wold Wa. Giving that the actual autho of the novel seved himself as a soldie duing the same wa, the question of whethe o not the autho esembles the potagonist in the novel is undestandable. Pehaps one of the visions they shae is the eality of facts, Mothe Night being Vonnegut's only novel that does not featue fantastic elements. Vonnegut wote "We ae what we petend to be, so we must be caeful about what we petend to be," as the final moal fo his novel and one thing Campbell and Vonnegut shae afte all is thei vocation…
references to such stories like "Jack the Giant Killer" and uses the image of some demons and serpents to create the background. The tone of the play is quite humourous and ironic, thus explained by the existence of the Fool. However, the King himself is quite intelligent, even though Shakespeare uses his insanity to address nonhuman objects. Like in many of his other writings, Shakespeare's style of writing is poetic, using iambic rhythms and free verse.
Therefore, it is quite interesting to observe that such aspects of human nature depicted in King Lear resemble other works like that of Vonnegut's and his Mother Night. The technique used by the later is ultimately different from that of Shakespeare's, less dramatic, but tragic nonetheless, written in a first-person journal style. This confessional style is bound to credit the protagonist-narrator because we only get his version of the events. Interesting enough though, it seems as though Campbell discovers more things about himself as the story unfolds than does the reader.
A in millions)
Current in millions)
Provided by Federal ureau of Investigation as of September 18, 2006. www.whitehouse.gov/goodbye/3ae6b1ac94aa97e6650780f280890a7c81100e47.html"
CHART: National Correctional Populations
National Correctional Populations
The number of adults in correctional population has been increasing.
A in millions)
Current million in millions)
Provided by ureau of Justice Statistics as of November 30, 2006. (Social Statistics riefing Room, 2006)
Violence in the Media
Huston and colleagues have estimated that the average 18-year-old will have viewed 200,000 acts of violence on television (Huston, a.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H. et al. ig World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.)
41% percent of American households have three or more televisions (Nielsen Media Research, 2000).
56% of children ages 8-16 have a television in their rooms (Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000)
Percentage of television-time children ages 2-7 spend…
Alter, Jonathan. "Moving Beyond the Blame Game. (Panel Discussion)," Newsweek, May 17, 1999.
Beyer, John. "PERSPECTIVE: How movie and TV violence hits children; Is there too much violence on television and is it time to curb it? John Beyer, director of the organization mediawatch-uk argues that media viol," Birmingham Post, March 21, 2007.
Chatfield, Joanne E.. "Influence of Media Violence on Children." American Family Physician, February 15, 2002.
Children's Hospital Boston. "Teen-Rated Video Games Loaded With Violence;
Media eview Project
The 1993 film "What's Love Got To Do With It" presents many of the classic symptoms and effects of domestic violence. As such, it provides a great deal of insight into this phenomenon, both on the part of the abuser and on the one who is receiving the abuse. The film is a musical biography of Tina Turner, who was one of the late 20th century's most popular singers. The movie opens up with Tin Turner as a young girl singing in a church choir. Even at this early age her prowess as a singer, the power of her voice and the zeal she expresses through her musical performance, become readily apparent. It is crucial to note that despite such an enthusiastic performance, Tina Turner (who is going by her true name at this point, Anna Mae Bullock), is enduring a tumultuous home life. Her mother eventually…
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (1997. Substance Abuse Treatment and Domestic Violence. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64430/
Ebert, R. (1993). "What's love got to do with it." www.rogerebert.com. Retrieved from http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/whats-love-got-to-do-with-it-1993
Maslin, J. (1993). "What's love got to do with it film review." The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9F0CE4D71539F93AA35755C0A965958260
MEDIA LA: Argue Against: Discuss 1st amendment implications Family Prevention Tobacco Act 2009. Are tobacco
The Family Prevention Tobacco Act of 2009 was one of the more controversial pieces of legislature passed in recent times, for the simple fact that it gave a great deal of authority to the Food and Drug Administration to limit the effectiveness of the tobacco industry and its various companies to sell its products. There are multiple components of this legislation, which encompass various aspects of sales, advertising, inspections and registration of new products on the part of manufacturers. Among the many points of dissension that individual and collective entities within this industry claim regarding this legislation is that it limits their First Amendment right of freedom of speech. A thorough examination of the spirit and the lettering of this act, however, reveals that of its many different components, only one (that pertaining to advertising)…
No author. "Tobacco Controls Have Public Health Impact." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. Web. http://www.cdc.gov/Features/TobaccoControls/
Sifferland, Alexandria. "Colorful Ways Tobacco Industry May Be Skirting Labeling Rules." Time. 2013. Web. http://healthland.time.com/2013/03/15/colorful-way-tobacco-industry-may-be-skirting-labeling-rules/
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "Overview of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act: Consumer fact Sheet." U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2013. Web. http://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/ucm246129.htm
This, to the advantage of the politician though it may be, is a disservice to the public. As we can see by the media's expanded agenda of campaign issues, the old issues have never been resolved in the sixty plus years since World War , and new ones have been piled on, and one very important one, healthcare, which is indicative of a serious problem in America. However, what we do not have to benefit the public is fact-based news reporting, and we do not have politicians who are plain-speak. This is because of the quid-pro-quo relationship that exists between the media and politics that facilitates one or the other over the public need and interest.
To be a member of an informed public today, means that one must rely on one's own ability and interest in assessing facts, and performing research independent of the "we make you,…
If you are a typical journalist, like those with whom I come in contact on a daily basis... you never have had an economics course that explains how a local business can affect the outcome of a bidding procedure, influence the growth patterns of a city, or even cheat its stockholders or consumers (Koch, Tom, 1990, p. 37)."
Ullman elaborates further the shortcomings of the academic nature of today's journalist, but the point is, that a journalist need not be schooled in these specialties to report the facts; the point further being that today journalists have begun analyzing speech patterns and words of politicians in ways such that it skews for the listener the meaning of what was originally said, and causes the listener to question his or her own interpretation of the politician's words. This, to the advantage of the politician though it may be, is a disservice to the public. As we can see by the media's expanded agenda of campaign issues, the old issues have never been resolved in the sixty plus years since World War II, and new ones have been piled on, and one very important one, healthcare, which is indicative of a serious problem in America. However, what we do not have to benefit the public is fact-based news reporting, and we do not have politicians who are plain-speak. This is because of the quid-pro-quo relationship that exists between the media and politics that facilitates one or the other over the public need and interest.
To be a member of an informed public today, means that one must rely on one's own ability and interest in assessing facts, and performing research independent of the "we make you, we'll break you," media and political machines that exist today.
Thirdly, the growing up-to-the-minute exposure of the journalists to the physicality of the war detracted from the big picture and instead exaggerated the importance of singular happenings and specific events.
It is in the loss of the big picture that the Bush regime is most able to capitalize on its military's control of the press. While in the 1990s, the President's father struggled with "pooled" journalists and the lack of coherent and stable eye witness accounts, the current President instead embedded an army of over 700 journalists inside the United tate's military campaign as they waged war on the unsuspecting Iraqis.
There is a pretty fine line between being embedded and being entombed," observed Dan Rather in response to the Gulf War of the 1990s.
With the American journalists and those internationally desiring the protection of the winning force fully embedded with the American soldiers at war, the military operation…
Sides, Hampton. "Unembedded." The New Yorker. March 24, 2003.
Jamail, Dahr. "Fallujah: How not to Handle Insurgency." The Arab-American News, April 27th.
Morford, p. 2.
Unlike other wars, this was not against the armies of a nation, but a cohort of individuals who were driven by an ideology (Islamism). This army knew no boundaries and did not use conventional tactics of war fare. Even when the Taliban were imprisoned, the media first reasoned and then insisted that the Geneva Convention on the treatment of prisoners of war applied to these prisoners. Bill Maher, comedian, political commentator and host of the program "Politically Incorrect" called the terrorists "freedom fighters." (Landau, 2009) Many editorials were written excoriating Americans for ill-treatment of these prisoners. Some in the media even averred that these prisoners deserved the same rights guaranteed to those in correctional facilities in the United States. This meant that those imprisoned in the war on Terror could be given specific rights as afforded by the Constitution of the United States of America. The media in its insistence…
Acheson, Dean, and Dean Acheson. The Korean War. New York,: Norton, 1971.
Hersh, Seymour. "Torture at Abu Ghraib: American Soldiers Brutalized Iraqis. How Far up Does the Responsibility Go?" The New Yorker May 10, 2004.
Landau, Saul. Freedom Fighters, Terrorists or Schlemiels? . 2009. Available: http://www.counterpunch.org/landau01302009.html . April 14, 2009.
MediaResearch. How the Media Vote. 2009. Mediaresearch.com. Available: http://www.mediaresearch.org/biasbasics/biasbasics3.asp. April 14, 2009.
Providing a strong cultural and personal role model may be more important than attempting to socially engineer the messages teens and all citizens receive. The lesser susceptibility of certain ethnic groups to media pressures to live up to an ideal of thinness or physical perfection highlights the complex interplay between cultural, social, and psychological factors that produce self-esteem and what might be called body image. The interplay of these factors is more important in creating a 'body image' than what constitutes an individual's media exposure.
This is an important topic of research because it highlights the fact that censorship of media has limited value in engineering positive social results. hile it would be tempting and easy to suggest that developing minds and bodies should be shielded from toxic media influence as though it were the plague, this type of isolation would have a limited effect. It would not screen out…
Girls get anorexia 'because their brains are wired differently' (17 Dec 2007). The Daily Mail. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at ttp:/ / www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-502705/Girls-anorexia-brains-wired-differently.html
Holmstrom, Amanda J. (2004). The effects of the media on body image: A meta-analysis.
Entrepreneur. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/118953907_5.html
Media's effect on girls: Body image and gender identity. (2008). National Institute on Media and the Family. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_mediaeffect.shtml
Since Facebook has a lage numbe of uses, eachability of taget maket can be ensued in a moe cost effective way. A fee Facebook page can be used fo a moe inteactive maketing with consumes.
Justification of Rationale
The buying bief is of immense impotance to the plan. The economic cisis has inceased maketing costs of businesses significantly. Most bands that exist in competitive makets look fo cost effective but pime media slots. The maket foces that detemine the advetising costs in vaious media ae vey active. Moeove, the allocated budget fo Geat Smell is limited and the sales have gone down by 2% in the past yea.
The impotance of the buying bief is that it addesses the two most citical aspects of the poduct that is the declining sales along with the competition that exists and the limited budget. Keeping the citical aspects in view, the buying bief…
Jan Feb March Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Total
Prime Time 40/wk 40/wk 1250000
Four of his movies are still amongst the top 20 earners of all time. Making of Schindler's list and setting up Shoah foundation; which filmed disturbing tales from Holocaust survivors portrayed Spielberg as an ultra Zionist by most. The view after Munich has somewhat changed and most American and Israeli Jews criticized the movie and labeled it as portraying Israeli's as murderers while popular belief amongst Jews is that of retaliation. There is the hit squad, Bombs used in beds, in cars and even in phones with gruesome gun fights and cold blood executions by Mossad operatives representing Jews as killers.
A neutral viewer may argue that the movie lacked details on Palestinian terrorists portrayed only as targets rather than human beings with feelings.
Spielberg managed to deliver what the news media missed. No spice but reality, mistakes and regrets by both sides. He managed to explain what impact this…
"The Art of the Kill." Manila Bulletin, 4 March 2006, NA. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014088880 . Internet. Accessed 21 March 2012.
FAIR, "In U.S. Media, Palestinians Attack, Israel Retaliates,"
http://www.fair.org/activism/network-retaliation.html (Accssed on 22 March 2012)
"Predators and Prey: The Mind Games of Terrorism." The Daily Mail (London, England), 27 January 2006, 58. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5013505260 . Internet. Accessed 21 March 2012.
MEDIA WORLD & CULTURE
The Media World in Today's Culture
The Media World and Today's Culture
The Media World and Today's Culture
The media is the most indispensable medium that most urbanized and developing countries have adapted to accessing first hand and vital information. It is also in the branch category of the most growing industries in today's global economy. However, the industry is faced with controversies from other sectors such as culture and politics. Implications of the social media and media personalties have always been at the limelight, especially with how the youth and children perceive what they see and hear from the media. It is therefore, necessitated to review how the current global culture allows for the continuity of the world of media.
According to Kaya and Cakmur, media has been a centre-stage in Turkey die to the linkage it has to politics. Turkish media is…
Television remains the single most influential medium in the lives of young people. However, a three-year National Television Violence Study found: "two-thirds of all programming contains violence; children's programs contain the most violence; the majority of all entertainment programming contains violence; violence is often glamorized; and the majority of perpetrators go unsanctioned" (Muscari 2002).
Television violence is graphic, realistic and involving, shows inequity and domination, and portrays most victims as women, children and the elderly (Muscari 2002). Children tend to focus on the more intense scenes, such as violent moments, rather than story components, and these "aggressive acts lead to a heightened arousal of the viewer's aggressive tendencies, bringing feelings, thoughts and memories to consciousness and can cause outwardly aggressive behavior" (Muscari 2002).
hen video games were introduced in the 1970's, they quickly became a favorite pastime for children, and now make up a $10+ billion industry. Today, children average…
Chory-Assad, Rebecca M. (2005 December 01). Effects of affective orientation and video game play on aggressive thoughts and behaviors. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
Kirn, Timothy F. (2006 September 01). Nature and media's nurture spawn girl violence.
Family Practice News. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
Muscari, Mary. (2002 November 01). Media violence: advice for parents.
MEDIA & GLOBAL POLITICS
Shirky's piece is about the potential for media to change the course of government and politics across the world. He writes of ways that specifically the technology of social media has the power and/or potential for political activism and social change. The 21st century has seen an increase in the frequency and the efficiency of grassroots activism and social movements around the world, due in great part because of the Internet and social media. In fact, the drastic increase in this kind of activity began in the late 20th century:
Since the rise of the Internet in the early 1990s, the world's networked population has grown from the low millions to the low billions. Over the same period, social media have become a fact of life for civil society worldwide, involving many actors -- regular citizens, activists, nongovernmental organizations, telecommunications firms, software providers, governments…As the…
Castells, M. (2009). Communication Power. Oxford University Press. Pp. 299-432.
Morozov, E. (2011). Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom. Public Affairs: New York. Pp. 1- 32, 179-204.
Shirky, C. (2011). The Political Power of Social Media. Foreign Affairs, Jan/Feb2011, 90(1), 28-41.
Media Institutions and Regulations:
A Discussion on the Twitter Phenomenon
Words change meaning all the time. Take, for example, awful. Today, it means something terrible, but it used to mean filled with awe (aweful). In this case, a different spelling has led to a different interpretation. Yet sometimes, the same word may mean the same exact thing, only in a completely different context. This refers to the example of Twitter. Traditionally, twitter as a verb meant to utter a succession of small, tremulous sounds, as a bird or to talk lightly and rapidly, especially of trivial matters. In this day and age, however, a mention of twitter will conjure up images of the phenomenon that the technological age has brought about. Yes, twitter can still mean trivial talk, even in this technological context, but most likely, it will refer to the information network that connects friends to coworkers and even…
"Beyond the dippy lingo, the idea that something intelligent, something worthy of mindshare, might occur in the space of 140 characters -- Twitter's parameters were set by what would fit in a text message on a phone -- seems unlikely. But it was clear […] the primary news platform was Twitter, with real-time annotation of the panels on stage and critical updates about what was happening elsewhere at a very hectic convention." [9: Carr, David. "Why Twitter Will Endure." New York Times, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/03/weekinreview/03carr.html ]
A further perusal of this particular article reflects further opinions, though similar ones, including the fact that the history of the internet suggests "cool" website that go in and out of style, and Twitter is one of those rare ones that are more likely to stay in style than go in and out.
Traditional media outlets are changing all over the world. From Facebook, to Twitter, to Flick, to Linkedin and many others, the new generation is putting its stamp on the vast landscape of information, its retrieval and dissemination. This is important to note, because this change comes with positives and negatives, some of which can harm humanity. However, it is also important to note the progress and the continuation of it, and promote such media outlets for the benefit of advancement.
28, No. 4, 603-625 (2006) Sage Publications.
Aeron avis states that the work in writing "Media Effects and the Question of the Rational Audience: "... offers evidence for an alternative perspective on the media effects debate. Early work on media influence, be it conservative or critical, assumed a causal link between mass media and mass behavior. In contrast, decades of effects and audience research has established the inadequacy of this 'strong effects' paradigm. The main thrust of this counter-research is the realization that audiences actively consume and use the media for self-serving purposes. The alternative perspective offered here comes from a study of elite fund managers, their communications and decision-making in the London Stock Exchange. The research findings suggest that such individuals do respond actively to media, but, collectively, the results can be both self-defeating and on a mass scale. That is, individuals do not have to be ignorant nor…
Davis, Aeron (2006) Media Effects and the Question of the Rational Audience: Lessons from the Financial Markets. Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 28, No. 4, 603-625 (2006) Sage Publications.
Aeron Davis states that the work in writing "Media Effects and the Question of the Rational Audience: "... offers evidence for an alternative perspective on the media effects debate. Early work on media influence, be it conservative or critical, assumed a causal link between mass media and mass behavior. In contrast, decades of effects and audience research has established the inadequacy of this 'strong effects' paradigm. The main thrust of this counter-research is the realization that audiences actively consume and use the media for self-serving purposes. The alternative perspective offered here comes from a study of elite fund managers, their communications and decision-making in the London Stock Exchange. The research findings suggest that such individuals do respond actively to media, but, collectively, the results can be both self-defeating and on a mass scale. That is, individuals do not have to be ignorant nor act irrationally to contribute to media-instigated, collective irrationality."
Media Effects on Culture
17). He is disgusted that news executives that direct what should be covered are less interested in "what's happening in Afghanistan" but more interested in "Michael Jackson and Laci Peterson" (Fenton, p. 20).
hat are the excuses TV executives, editors and producers give for focusing on scandal, sexual trysts, and embarrassing situations for celebrities? Fenton claims that those "gatekeepers of the news" will tell anyone listening that "the average [viewer] simply cannot absorb that much hard news, especially about events abroad" (p. 20). The CBS veteran insists that the media power brokers believe that "Americans are too broadly under-informed to digest nuggets of information that seem to contradict what they know of the world" (p. 20). That would seem to be a very condescending, elitist attitude on the part of the TV industry in particular.
Fenton (p. 22) asserts that because of the very real threats of terrorism on the…
Dorfman, Lori, Woodruff, Katie, Chavez, Vivian, and Wallack, Lawrence. "Youth and Violence
On Local Television News in California." American Journal of Public Health 87.8 (1997):
Downie, Leonard, and Schudson, Michael. "The Reconstruction of American Journalism."
Compae and contast the media theoies pesented in the chapte. Using you expeience with media, discuss the degee to which each explains you elationship with media.
Theoists such as Walte Ong focus on the impotance of the medium though which pesuasive and othe types of communications ae conveyed. The electonic media conveys a sense of intimacy. It is possible to follow a politician on Twitte, as well as listen to his o he moe caefully-cafted fomal speeches. The Intenet allows people to gain access to eveyday people though eading blogs, as well as media souces fom aound the wold. But the Web can be deceptively intimate, and also only tansmit a faily shallow and supeficial pesentation of issues because the infomation must be conveyed quickly. The Intenet has undoubtedly contibuted to the polaization of the cuent political envionment in Ameica. If desied, people can simply ead websites and…
references make the audience more open to hear what is said, and moved to agree with the persuader. These referents also encourage identification with the speaker.
Media Advertising: Posting an Ad on Facebook
Social media advertising provides a great platform for enhancing a brand message's reach and influencing prospects at the buying cycle's middle-of-the-funnel or evaluation stage. Facebook presents a unique marketing plan for advertisers; one that entirely focuses on middle-of-the-funnel offers as a way of influencing buyer decisions. This is quite logical since it is at the evaluation stage that a buyer i) clarifies exactly what they need, and then embarks on the search for a satisfying provider, and ii) is most likely to share information through their established network though a 'like' (Social Media Today, 2013).
In order to take advantage of this aspect, Sushi Fashions, a dealer in ladies wear, handbags and accessories intends to put up an ad regarding its Super Bowl sale, in which buyers could get up to 50% off on the conventional prices - over the entire product range.…
Catholic Democrats. (2008). Step-by-Step Instruction to Place a Facebook Ad. Catholic Democrats. Retrieved from http://catholicdemocrats.org/contribute/Facebook%20Instructions.pdf
Social Media Today. (2013). Enhance your MOFU: 10 Ways to Advertise on Social Media. Social Media Today Community. Retrieved from http://socialmediatoday.com/seanroyer/1444696/enhance-your-mofu-10-ways-advertise-social-media >
VanHoose, D. (2011). E-Commerce Economics (2nd ed.). New York: Taylor & Francis.
But Martin Lawrence bugs out his eyes a little and he's a coon. It makes no sense.'7
The defense seems somewhat warranted. After all, if all characters in the sitcom Martin were white, and acted the same way, such behavior would be attributed to the standard stupidity showcased on television. Much like the quote earlier about sitcoms and stereotypes leveling things, television in general fails to showcase the brightest and most sublime of human endeavors.
Lawrence is not alone in criticisms aimed at contemporary black actors. In her essay, "Stereotypes of History: Reconstructing Truth and the Black Mammy," Jennifer Kowalski claims, "actors such as Martin Lawrence, Eddie Murphy, and Tyler Perry, have once again recycled the first existence of the Mammy/Aunt Jemima character." The "mammy" stereotype is "represented as full-figured women with strong and defensive attitudes, especially toward men who may bring harm to their loved ones." Lawrence recently starred…
Aristotle. "Poetics." The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. Ed. Vincent B.
Leitch. New York. W.W. Norton and Company, 2001, 90-117.
"Blackboard Jungle Fever." Martin. By John Bowman. Martin Lawrence, Tisha
Campbell-Martin, Carl Anthony Payne II, Thomas Mikal Ford. The WB. January
This time, it was a television commercial for a community college targeted toward adults who want to go back to school. The purpose of the college, Cortiva Insitute, was to train adults returning to school in practical job related fields such as massage therapy.
The target market of this advertisement is most likely adults who are either unsatisfied with their jobs, have recently lost their jobs, or who have never been employed. The MTV audience, however, is traditionally made up of young people who are not yet ready to consider a professional career. Though an advertisement for a four-year college seeking high school students or students who had recently graduated might be appropriate for this audience, a commercial targeting adults who want to move on with their careers is not. By advertising on MTV, the marketing planner choose to advertise to an audience too young and too inexperienced with the…
Honda Fit, Honda. The Fit Is Go! Advertisement. Game Informer. June 2008: 81
Unknown. (2008). Ad Board. Facebook. Retrieved May 30, 2008, from: http://www.facebook.com/ads/adboard/ .
Cortiva Institute. Advertisement. MTV. May 30, 2008.