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Kalathil states that the state has been both "empowered and weakened..." y the recent information and communication advances and as well these have created great difficulty for the effective hoarding of control information resources by the government. (2001) As the government in China has lost its monopoly on information, Internet-based media in the country "have capitalized on the opportunities made possible by new technology. y making available a wide range of news stories from geographically diverse locations, for instance, Chinese web portals have been encouraging competition between news organizations. This competition means that small, local news organizations are increasingly pushing the boundaries of acceptable reportage, pressuring larger national organizations to follow. News often appears on the Internet either exclusively or before traditional media outlets can publish it. Even stodgy, official media organs such as the People's Daily view their web sites not merely as an extension of the…
Croteau, David and Hoynes, William (2003) Media Society: Industries, Images and Audiences. Pine Force Press 2003.
Kalathil, Shanthi (2002) Chinese Media and the Information Revolution. Harvard Asia Quarterly, Winter 2002. Online available at: http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=view&id=924&zoom_highlight=media+and+politics
Smith, Vive (2004) Influence of Media In Presidential Politics The University of Texas at Austin. Think Democracy. Election 2004. Online available at: http://www.utexas.edu/features/archive/2004/election_media.html
Hardcastle, Jonathon (2009) Do Mass Media Influence the Political Behavior of Citizens. Retrieved November 11, 2009, from http://ezinearticles.com/?Do-?Mass-?Media-?Influence-?the-?Political-?Behavior-?of-?Citizens&id=308174
Today, the modern media are so thoroughly integrated into our lives that the ubiquitous and instantaneous availability of information means that the media now influence, rather than merely report the news. By the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the modern media have contributed to the outcome of national elections and they have been substantially responsible for the success of political coupes that toppled dictatorships and failed economic and political systems.
Carr, Caleb; Choi, Scott; DeAndrea, David; Van Der Heide, Brandon; Kim, Jinsuk;
Tong, Stephanie Tom; and alther, Joseph B. (2008) Interaction of Interpersonal, Peer, and Media Influence Sources Online: A Research Agenda for Technology Convergence. Accessed 12 December 2011 from:
Chang, Susan; Newell, Jay; and Salmon, Charles T. "Product placement in entertainment media." International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 28, No. 5 (2009): 783-806.
Entwistle, Joanne and Rocamora, Agnes. "The Field of Fashion Materialized:…
Carr, Caleb; Choi, Scott; DeAndrea, David; Van Der Heide, Brandon; Kim, Jinsuk;
Tong, Stephanie Tom; and Walther, Joseph B. (2008) Interaction of Interpersonal, Peer, and Media Influence Sources Online: A Research Agenda for Technology Convergence. Accessed 12 December 2011 from:
Chang, Susan; Newell, Jay; and Salmon, Charles T. "Product placement in entertainment media." International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 28, No. 5 (2009): 783-806.
Media Influence in the BU Controversy
Terrorist attacks using biological weapons, and also the threat of widespread viruses and illnesses have prompted the creation of research labs as preventive measures to deal with these types of possible future problems. These research labs which study some of the most harmful pathogens and viruses known to mankind are now present all over the world in places like Australia, Russia, South Africa, The U.K., and also The United States. These research labs are classified in four categories according to the level of danger posed by the pathogens being studied within these labs. The highest or most dangerous classification is known as Bio-safety Level Four (BSL-4), these are "also known as maximum containment laboratories (MCLs), to perform work essential for promoting public health and to ensure bioterrorism preparedness."(LeDuc 1685). In Recent years The United States government has decided to take a proactive approach, as…
"Angles: A Biosafety Leven 4 Facility in Boston: A Threat of Epidemic or a Defense Against Bioterrosism? By Janice O'Brien." MIT. Web. 03 Mar. 2011. .
Hernandez, Gabrielle. "BU Biosafety Lab Ignites Critiques." Tufts Daily. Web. 03 Mar. 2011. .
Le Duc, James W. "Framework for Leadership and Training of Biosafety Level 4 Laboratory Workers." Emerging Infectious Diseases 14.11 (2008): 1685-688. Print.
Media Influence and Crime Myths
People who watch the News on television believe there is a lot more crime than there really is, according to researchers. This apparent effect of watching televised Newscasts is in addition to the effect of crime programs, movies, and made-for-television dramas which also perpetuate crime myths. Most people are unaware that they believe in a myth. The myth of crime has been rhetorically constructed through discourse and has sunk into the collective consciousness. People talk about it until they believe it. Once a myth is embedded in consciousness, it is difficult to dislodge. This essay will focus on the role the media plays in the maintenance and perpetuation of crime myths and some ideas for dislodging them.
Television (radio, too) exists and profits by the sale of advertising. The more viewers expected to watch a program, the more money TV executives can get for the…
But Johnson's overall ensemble embraces an ethos of 'geek chic,' not a narrow media image. He wears a pair of thick glasses, suspenders, expensive-looking leather shoes, and carries a heavy leather bag. Some of his clothes, particularly his shoes, sweater, and bag, look expensive and ruggedly masculine, while his vest, suspenders, and of course his Forever 21 Necklace do not. Johnson is an African-American, but his style is not necessarily identifiable as African-American -- his image tells the viewer to embrace one's own, unique identity, whatever that may be, rather than conform to a media stereotype, even though he embraces brand names.
Johnson's identity is clearly masculine, as emphasized in his shoes and bag. He dresses the part of a young, urban professional yet injects this persona with youthful irony through his necklace and over-the-top suspenders. There was a popular African-American young man named 'Urkel' who sported a similar style…
Coleman, David. "Gay or straight: Hard to tell." The New York Times. June 19, 2009.
December 6, 2009 http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/19/fashion/sundaystyles/19GAYDAR.html
Dossi, Joel. "The Rise and Fall of Queer Eye for the Straight Guy." After Elton.
January 3, 2005. December 6, 2009.
Media Influence on Values
DEEPER FACTORS DO
The media does not influence our values
Majority Views on Media's Influence on Values and Morals
According to the 2007 Culture and Media Institute report, a high 74% of Americans attributed the decline of the nation's moral values to the influence of the media in the past two decades (Fitzpatrick, 2007). Of this number 64% considered the media an important force and factor in shaping moral values. Only 7% disagreed. A large 68% pointed to the negative impact of the media on values and only 9% commented on its positive impact. Furthermore, 73% blamed the media for the negative impact of the entertainment industry on moral values and only 7% saw its positive effects. The news media was also blamed for its negative impact by 54% of Americans. Only 11% recognized its positive impact (Fitzpatrick).
Furthermore, the media undermined Americans' sense of personal…
Clark, L.B. (2011). Influence on children media -- history of media for children, general considerations, studies of media influence, domains of influence, recommendations. State University: Net Industries and Its Licensors. Retrieved on September 26, 2011 from http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2212/Media-Influence-on-Children.html
Fitzpatrick, B. (2007). The media assault on American values. A Special Report. Culture and Media Institute: Media Research Center. Retrieved on September 28, 2011 from http://www.sel.eesc.usp.br/informatica/graduacao/materia/etica/private/the_media_assault_on_american_values_report-2007.pdf
Richards, M.B. (2010). Mass media's relationship with adolescent values and behaviors:
a theory of mediated valueflection. Department of Sociology: George State
Media Coverage and the Vietnam War: A Literature Review
Few events in U.S. history had the dramatic and lasting impact on American culture as did the Vietnam War. Many historians and commentators attribute the war's outcome and legacy to the treatment it received by the mainstream media. A review of a sampling of the literature on this subject reveals a very diverse, sometimes acrimonious, view of the media's influence on the Vietnam War.
In Michael Mandelbaum's Vietnam, The Television War, he discusses the convergence of television news coverage and the Vietnam war in the early 1960s. As of 1963, for the first time, most Americans were looking to national network news on television for information on current world events (Mendalbaum 159). As the conflict in Vietnam escalated, the networks devoted more coverage to the fighting. The American public, at the time by and large supporting the war effort, tuned in…
Braestrup, Peter. The Big Story: How the American Press and Television Reported and Interpreted the Crisis of Tet 1968 in Vietnam and Washington. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1977
Hallin, Daniel. Presentation given at the "American Media and Wartime Challenges"
Conference. Chapel Hill, North Carolina, (March 21-March 22, 2003).
Herring, George C. Reviewed work(s):Vietnam: A Television History by Richard Ellison and Television's Vietnam. Part I; Part II by Peter Rollins. The Journal of American History, Vol. 74, No. 3, (Dec., 1987), pp. 1123-1125
. invasion of Iraq under what we now know were false pretenses.
ubsequently, I considered the coverage of FOX News of the scheduled 2011 expiration of the Bush tax cuts with the facts and I realized that their coverage was tremendously biased as well. While the President made every effort to support preserving the tax cuts for the middle class and allowing only those benefiting the wealthy to expire, the GOP leadership shamelessly accused the Obama administration of wanting to "raise taxes during a recession." Likewise, FOX made absolutely no editorial comment criticizing the expressed goal of GOP leaders to use their 2010 assumption of control in the House of Representatives primarily to ensure the failure of the Obama presidency over all else, including the most important needs of this country.
However, nothing was more disappointing to me in terms of its significance for the bias of FOX News than…
Subsequently, I considered the coverage of FOX News of the scheduled 2011 expiration of the Bush tax cuts with the facts and I realized that their coverage was tremendously biased as well. While the President made every effort to support preserving the tax cuts for the middle class and allowing only those benefiting the wealthy to expire, the GOP leadership shamelessly accused the Obama administration of wanting to "raise taxes during a recession." Likewise, FOX made absolutely no editorial comment criticizing the expressed goal of GOP leaders to use their 2010 assumption of control in the House of Representatives primarily to ensure the failure of the Obama presidency over all else, including the most important needs of this country.
However, nothing was more disappointing to me in terms of its significance for the bias of FOX News than its recent coverage of the debt ceiling fiasco engineered by Republican leaders. Instead of explaining that this entire problem was expressly created by the GOP and that they were literally holding the nation and much of the world hostage to a threat of a global depression, the FOX News reports focused on the GOP talking points accusing the Obama administration of "bringing the country to the edge of financial ruin."
Finally, the revelations about illegal FOX News practices in England sealed my position that the entire network is suspect. Ultimately, the entire process of discovering the extent of the bias of the organization changed my confidence in the news media in general. As a result, I no longer merely absorb news and I make an effort to obtain information from as many different sources as possible to avoid having my beliefs shaped by the financial interests of news organizations and their parent companies.
Advertising and Media Influence on Children
It shouldn't come as a shock that commercials during children's programming include ads for toys, junk food, snacks and confectionary, after all, most advertisers are fully aware that most of their target market consists of young children, and "young children are cognitively and psychologically defenseless against television advertising" (Strasburger, 2001).
Children, especially pre-schoolers and pre-adolescents are the highest susceptible to the influences of advertising. Toy merchandise is thrown in between programs and during hours that children are most likely to be watching television, but parents have a reasonable amount of sway when it comes to the selection of toys.
There are birthdays, seasonal holidays like Hannukah and Christmas, and most parents can rely on the fact that after a few months, there will be something better, and more exciting that will capture their child's interest and start the onslaught of nagging all over again.…
Saying No to Marketer's Madness
Mothering, Nov-Dec, 2000.
Article available at website, or: (www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0838/2000_Nov-Dec/76614533/print.jhtml)
Borzekowski, D.L.G. The 30-second effect: An experiment revealing the impact of television commercials on food preferences of preschooler.
Every industry that exists out there serves a specific purpose for its customers. Organizations in the mass media industry offer their own content. Producing and offering content is the basic mandate of the mass media. The media deals with producing content for the electronic channels, print, and the internet. One of the main functions that the media does in its delivery of services is the selection of the content to be delivered. This is because time and space are limited resources to the media. It is a difficult decision-making process to decide what they will include and exclude from content coverage. Therefore, it means that there are some stories that never make it to the audience through mass media. Both internal and external factors influence what is to be included in the content to be covered by mass media houses. The first and most conspicuous one is the…
Vietnam films have rewritten the winners and the losers of that saga and action-adventure films reinforce cultural norms of violence and power (175). Despite the increased real presence of women in positions of power, often media representations of women and other formerly disenfranchised groups remain stereotyped or relegated to marginal or token roles, although this is changing. Still, certain outlets like women's magazines often function as advertisements that perpetuate corporate images that make women feel worse, rather than better about themselves (188). Furthermore, a hegemonic ideology is implied by supposedly mainstream news organizations. Consider the construct of 'economic news.' This implies that the 'economy' is in a neat little box, and that social issues of race and political disenfranchisement, limits on wealth and access to education and power, have no role in who possess wealth and who lacks wealth in society. Economics as separate from other issues is essentially an…
Providing a strong cultural and personal role model may be more important than attempting to socially engineer the messages teens and all citizens receive. The lesser susceptibility of certain ethnic groups to media pressures to live up to an ideal of thinness or physical perfection highlights the complex interplay between cultural, social, and psychological factors that produce self-esteem and what might be called body image. The interplay of these factors is more important in creating a 'body image' than what constitutes an individual's media exposure.
This is an important topic of research because it highlights the fact that censorship of media has limited value in engineering positive social results. hile it would be tempting and easy to suggest that developing minds and bodies should be shielded from toxic media influence as though it were the plague, this type of isolation would have a limited effect. It would not screen out…
Girls get anorexia 'because their brains are wired differently' (17 Dec 2007). The Daily Mail. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at ttp:/ / www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-502705/Girls-anorexia-brains-wired-differently.html
Holmstrom, Amanda J. (2004). The effects of the media on body image: A meta-analysis.
Entrepreneur. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/118953907_5.html
Media's effect on girls: Body image and gender identity. (2008). National Institute on Media and the Family. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_mediaeffect.shtml
28, No. 4, 603-625 (2006) Sage Publications.
Aeron avis states that the work in writing "Media Effects and the Question of the Rational Audience: "... offers evidence for an alternative perspective on the media effects debate. Early work on media influence, be it conservative or critical, assumed a causal link between mass media and mass behavior. In contrast, decades of effects and audience research has established the inadequacy of this 'strong effects' paradigm. The main thrust of this counter-research is the realization that audiences actively consume and use the media for self-serving purposes. The alternative perspective offered here comes from a study of elite fund managers, their communications and decision-making in the London Stock Exchange. The research findings suggest that such individuals do respond actively to media, but, collectively, the results can be both self-defeating and on a mass scale. That is, individuals do not have to be ignorant nor…
Davis, Aeron (2006) Media Effects and the Question of the Rational Audience: Lessons from the Financial Markets. Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 28, No. 4, 603-625 (2006) Sage Publications.
Aeron Davis states that the work in writing "Media Effects and the Question of the Rational Audience: "... offers evidence for an alternative perspective on the media effects debate. Early work on media influence, be it conservative or critical, assumed a causal link between mass media and mass behavior. In contrast, decades of effects and audience research has established the inadequacy of this 'strong effects' paradigm. The main thrust of this counter-research is the realization that audiences actively consume and use the media for self-serving purposes. The alternative perspective offered here comes from a study of elite fund managers, their communications and decision-making in the London Stock Exchange. The research findings suggest that such individuals do respond actively to media, but, collectively, the results can be both self-defeating and on a mass scale. That is, individuals do not have to be ignorant nor act irrationally to contribute to media-instigated, collective irrationality."
Media Effects on Culture
Media Negatively Affects the Body Image Concerns of Adolescent Girls
Among adolescent girls, body image concerns are not uncommon. The hypothesis of this paper believes that media negatively affects the body image concerns of adolescent girls. The independent variable is the adolescent girls and the dependent variable is the media. This is because adolescent girls can be affected by a lot of other things when it concerns body image, this can come in the form of their peers, society and even history. These variables can affect the concerns on body image of adolescent girls in both a positive and a negative way. However, this paper will only discuss the negative affects which body images are supplied by media to adolescent girls with.
The theoretical approach which best suits this study is the Psychodynamic Approach. This is because the concerns regarding body images are implanted in the minds of these adolescent…
Anschutz, D.J., Van Strien, T., & Engels, R.C. (2008). Exposure to Slim Images in Mass Media: Television Commercials as Reminders of Restriction in Restrained Eaters. Health Psychology. 27(4); 401-408.
Cheng, H.L. & Mallinckrodt (2009). Parental Bonds, Anxious Attachment, Media Internalization, and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Exploring a Mediation Model. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 56(5); 365-375.
Clark, L., & Tiggemann, M. (2008). Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 44(4); 1124-1134.
Dohnt, H. & Tiggemann, M. (2006). The Contribution of Peer and Media Influences to the Development of Body Satisfaction and Self-Esteem in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 42(5); 929-936.
media consumption and subsequent behaviour?
Profiling the criminal behavior of rampage perpetrators is one of the main areas of focus in the social science research community. Gender, mental health issues, social exclusion, genetic susceptibility or predisposition, and ultimately, violent media, are most of the factors that guide researchers in the field, seeking to develop broader frameworks of understanding rampage violence. Over the past three decades, 78 cases of public mass shootings have been registered by the Congressional Research Service (2013). An FI report indicated a rise in typical mass shootings, from 6.4 incidents occurring between 2000 and 2007 to an average of 16.4 incidents between 2007 and 2013 (2013). Most of these public mass shootings have been found to occur either at workplaces or at schools across the United States.
The proliferation of mass shootings over these past few decades has further brought into the public and academic's attention the…
Anderson, C.A., Berkowitz, L., Donnerstein, E., Huesmann, L.R., Johnson, J.D., Linz, D., Malamuth, N.M. And Wartella, A., 2003. The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in the Public interest, 4(3), pp. 81-110.
Berkowitz, L. And Geen R.G., 1966. Film violence and the cue properties of available targets. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3(5), pp. 525-530. [pdf]
Bjorkqvist, K., 1985. Violent films, anxiety, and aggression. Helsinki: Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters.
Bushmann, B.J. And Huesmann, L.R., 2001. Effects of televised violence on aggression. In D. Singer and J. Singer, eds. Handbook of children and the media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. pp. 223-254.
While many saw this as a moral victory, Russian citizens were entering a dark time in their history, with poverty and social unrest at the order of the day. Some blame the factors leading up to the fall of Communism for this. One of these factors can be seen as the basic contrast between the people's expectations of communism, and the way in which Russian leaders implemented the new paradigm. Rather than actually establishing a classless society where everybody would live in equality and peace, leaders used force, torture and murder to implement their point-of-view. In their zeal for Communism, leaders also mismanaged the natural resources and production within the country, and extreme national poverty resulted.
The above factors led to a nationwide dissatisfaction and disenchantment with Communism: there was not much left to "share," and what little there was went to the political elite. In effect this elite reimplemented…
media in the United States plays an increasingly more active role in what we see, what we hear, how we think, and how we learn about the rest of our world. The media today is comprised of massive, powerful conglomerates and has replaced the small, independent news agencies that once produced the news. Instead, the dissemination of the news has become the responsibility of large corporations whose primary business is most likely something other than collecting, researching, and broadcasting the news. Journalism is no longer the primary responsibility of most news agencies. The new responsibility is generating profits.
Take the example of the one of the world's largest news media companies: Rupert Murdochs's News Corporation which owns the Fox News Agency. In addition Murdoch's Corporation owns an additional individual 26 televisions stations and a majority interest in 7 others. The News Corporation has total assets in excess of 52 billion…
Media on Eating Disorders with a Concentration of 16- to 24-year-Olds
Agency Name: ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders
Location: The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders is located high in the ock Mountains just 15 miles from Colorado Springs, Colorado. It is located on an old camp ground that is housed inside an old student union building. The facility was once part of Colorado University and now used as treatment center for teens and young adults. Led by nine of the top full-time, board-certified psychiatrists plus other professionals that will specialize in treating eating disorders, The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders will consist of a highly skilled treatment team that will works to address each patient nutritionally and psychosomatically, as well as to manage other medical issues common to eating disorders. The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders provides the best contact to some…
Derenne, J.L., & Beresin, E.V. (2006). Body image, media, and eating disorders. Academic Psychiatry, 30(3), 257-61.
Harrison, K., & Cantor, J. (2011). The relationship between media consumption and eating disorders. Journal of Communication, 47(1), 40-67.
Jane, D.M., Hunter, G.C., & Lozzi, B.M. (2009). Do Cuban American women suffer from eating disorders? Effects of media exposure and acculturation. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21(2), 212-218.
Levine, M.P., & Murnen, S.K. (2009). "EVERYBODY KNOWS THAT MASS MEDIA ARE/ARE NOT [pick one] A CAUSE OF EATING DISORDERS": A CRITICAL REVIEW OF EVIDENCE FOR A CAUSAL LINK BETWEEN MEDIA, NEGATIVE BODY IMAGE, AND DISORDERED EATING IN FEMALES. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28(1), 9-42.
Advertisers recognize that brand loyalties and consumer habits formed when children are young and vulnerable will be carried through to adulthood.
However, by shifting children's preferences and their preferences as adults, the way of American eating has changed. Snacking on convenience foods advertised on television has replaced mealtimes, and the American preference of sweeter and blander foods has also increased. Before the mass media came to dominate American life, economics, culture, and parental dictates determined what food was served, and how it was served to children. Now children, under the persuasive influence of advertising, persuade their parents to eat more meat, processed foods, and to eat more snack foods like pizza rather than mealtime foods that require preparation.
Beder, Sharon "A Community View', Caring for Children in the Media Age, Papers from national conference." Edited by John Squires and Tracy Newlands, New
1998. pp. 101-111. 11 Oct 2007.…
Beder, Sharon "A Community View', Caring for Children in the Media Age, Papers from national conference." Edited by John Squires and Tracy Newlands, New
1998. pp. 101-111. 11 Oct 2007. http://www.uow.edu.au/arts/sts/sbeder/children.html
Coon, Katharine a., Jeanne Goldberg, Beatrice L. Rogers, & Katherine L. Tucker.
Relationships between Use of Television during Meals and Children's Food Consumption Patterns." Pediatrics. 107.1 January 2001, p. e7. 11 Oct 2007. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/107/1/e7
MEDIA (MIS) EPSENTATIONS OF CHINESE-AmericanS
Media (Mis) epresentations of Chinese-Americans
Media (Mis) epresentations of Chinese-Americans
In the west, representations of people who are outside of the standard or norm, (white, middle & upper class, male) are not represented with accuracy. Chinese-Americans are one such group that doese not often receive an accurate or dynamically real representation of the spectrum of the culture or the people within it. Media representations in the west of Chinese-Americans are limited to a few stereotypes, generally. Some of those stereotypes include that all Chinese people practice and have mastered martial arts, and that all Chinese have exceptional intelligence in mathematics, sciences, and technology. Another media stereotype of the Chinese is that they are all short of stature, particularly poking fun at short men. Chinese men are often stereotypically represented as geeks or nerds -- exceptionally "book smart," but lacking in coolness and social skills.…
Cheng, J., Hsieh, C., Talgo, S. (2012). Media Representations of Asians. University of Michigan, Web, Available from: http://sitemaker.umich.edu/psy457_tizzle/home . 2013 March 04.
Kwak, A. (2004). Asian-Americans in the Television Media: Creating Incentive for Change. Boston College Third World Journal, 24(2), 395 -- 420.
Wo, E. (2012). Beyond the Color Line: Asian-American Representations in the Media. Claremont Colleges Scripps Senior Thesis, Paper 114, Available from: http://scholarship.claremont.edu/scripps_theses/114 . 2013 March 06.
Media Influence on Today's Society
Details of the Media Artifact
The reality TV show, American Idol, was derived from Pop Idol (a British singing competition; Simon Fuller is credited with creating both. Nigel Lythgoe, a TV producer got the idea from Australian talent show, Popstars, and helped begin a similar concept in the UK (Armstrong). Popstars' concept of auditioning singers through a panel of judges was utilized by Fuller while designing the show. American Idol personally engaged TV audiences with contestants by means of voting, and required contestants to give their best shot because, on TV, communication takes place, for the most part, by way of visual imagery; that is, TV portrays conversations in images, rather than words (Postman 7). American Idol became, by the year 2004, the most popular and most-viewed of American shows-- it retained this status for seven seasons in a row.
How this Medium Influences Society…
Armstrong, S. (2010, January 11). "Nice work for Nasty Nigel Lythgoe." Retrieved October 20, 2015
Harris, B. (2012, December 4). The good and bad of 'American Idol'. Retrieved October 20, 2015
Kornhaber, S. (2015, May 12). The American Idol Dream Came True. Retrieved October 20, 2015
McLuhan, M. (1964). Understanding Media: The extensions of man. New York: Mc-Graw-Hill.
In the novel, Howad is foced to seve as an U.S. secet Agent by the Blue Faiy, a caee that eventually led to his own death.
Mothe Night epesents the fictional memois of Howad W. Campbell J., an Ameican who seved as a secet agent fo the Ameican Amy duing the Second Wold Wa. Giving that the actual autho of the novel seved himself as a soldie duing the same wa, the question of whethe o not the autho esembles the potagonist in the novel is undestandable. Pehaps one of the visions they shae is the eality of facts, Mothe Night being Vonnegut's only novel that does not featue fantastic elements. Vonnegut wote "We ae what we petend to be, so we must be caeful about what we petend to be," as the final moal fo his novel and one thing Campbell and Vonnegut shae afte all is thei vocation…
references to such stories like "Jack the Giant Killer" and uses the image of some demons and serpents to create the background. The tone of the play is quite humourous and ironic, thus explained by the existence of the Fool. However, the King himself is quite intelligent, even though Shakespeare uses his insanity to address nonhuman objects. Like in many of his other writings, Shakespeare's style of writing is poetic, using iambic rhythms and free verse.
Therefore, it is quite interesting to observe that such aspects of human nature depicted in King Lear resemble other works like that of Vonnegut's and his Mother Night. The technique used by the later is ultimately different from that of Shakespeare's, less dramatic, but tragic nonetheless, written in a first-person journal style. This confessional style is bound to credit the protagonist-narrator because we only get his version of the events. Interesting enough though, it seems as though Campbell discovers more things about himself as the story unfolds than does the reader.
Thirdly, the growing up-to-the-minute exposure of the journalists to the physicality of the war detracted from the big picture and instead exaggerated the importance of singular happenings and specific events.
It is in the loss of the big picture that the Bush regime is most able to capitalize on its military's control of the press. While in the 1990s, the President's father struggled with "pooled" journalists and the lack of coherent and stable eye witness accounts, the current President instead embedded an army of over 700 journalists inside the United tate's military campaign as they waged war on the unsuspecting Iraqis.
There is a pretty fine line between being embedded and being entombed," observed Dan Rather in response to the Gulf War of the 1990s.
With the American journalists and those internationally desiring the protection of the winning force fully embedded with the American soldiers at war, the military operation…
Sides, Hampton. "Unembedded." The New Yorker. March 24, 2003.
Jamail, Dahr. "Fallujah: How not to Handle Insurgency." The Arab-American News, April 27th.
Morford, p. 2.
Glasser's, Awad's, and Kim's study analyzes how four newspapers have written from different points-of-view relating to the same event. Two of the newspapers have written professionally, without attempting to influence the readers in any way. In contrast, the other two newspapers have written so that the public would get a wrong idea of the incident. Just as in the present case, it is normal for media services from within a local community to write differently than bigger, more specialized, media services. The journalists from the two newspapers which have distorted reality and have written the articles from their own points-of-view belong to the community involved in the incident discussed. The respective journalists have turned an ordinary conflict (between the officials and their community over the building of a mall) into a cry for help from a community presumably discriminated for years.
It is of no relevance whether or not the…
Glasser, T.L. & Awad I. & Kim J.W. (2009). The Claims of Multiculturalism and Journalism's Promise of Diversity. Journal of Communication, 59: 57-58.
In a one day diary of media consumption, it becomes evident that many of my interactions with the world are via media. I receive most of my information through media forms as well. Even when relaxing, media is something that drives the process. There is also a lot of passive consumption of media in my daily life. My media consumption will be analyzed through the lens of different media theories.
Turow argues that media and advertisers have become exceptionally adept since the 1970s at understanding audiences, their consumption patterns, and how to exploit these. For our part as audience, we have much less understanding of our own consumption patterns. This exercise was the first time that I had really given thought to my daily media exposure, only to realize that my use of media is constant, throughout the day, and sometimes very passive. I used media forms as…
Turow, J. (1997). Breaking up America University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
Fenton, N. (no date). The internet and social networking. In possession of the author.
Arguably, the raw data at ikiLeaks is far more powerful than anything that can be found in traditional media or satire news. The audience here must also acquire the tools necessary to properly digest the information, as an audience accustomed to uncritical digestion of mainstream media will be challenged by the raw information presented devoid of spin and context.
Feldman, L. (2007). The news about comedy. Journalism. Vol 8 (4) 406-427.
Ludlow, P. (2010). ikiLeaks and hacktivist culture. The Nation. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/7669895/771113000/name/ikileaks.pdf
McCue, D. (2009). hen news breaks, "the Daily Show" fixes it: Exposing social values through satire. University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl%3furl_ver=Z39.88-2004%26res_dat=xri:pqdiss%26rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation%26rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:1456354
Postman, N. & Power, S. (2008) How to watch TV news. Penguin Books.
Reilly, I. (2011). Satirical fake news and the politics of the fifth estate. University of Guelph. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl%3furl_ver=Z39.88-2004%26res_dat=xri:pqdiss%26rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation%26rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:NR71829
Feldman, L. (2007). The news about comedy. Journalism. Vol 8 (4) 406-427.
Ludlow, P. (2010). WikiLeaks and hacktivist culture. The Nation. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/7669895/771113000/name/Wikileaks.pdf
McCue, D. (2009). When news breaks, "the Daily Show" fixes it: Exposing social values through satire. University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl%3furl_ver=Z39.88-2004%26res_dat=xri:pqdiss%26rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation%26rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:1456354
Postman, N. & Power, S. (2008) How to watch TV news. Penguin Books.
Media in the Courtroom
High profile court cases, especially murder trials and celebrity cases are more likely to attract the national media than ordinary cases that usually of no interest beyond the local level. These are also the kinds of cases when the issue of TV cameras in the courtroom is most significant, and when judges have to give serious thought to handing down gag orders that block all public discussion of the case for the duration of the trial. In this era of Internet, Facebook, 24-hour cable news and YouTube, any events or statements in the court can easily become 'viral' and be seen instantly by millions of people around the world. For most of the 20th Century, recording devices and movie and TV cameras were not allowed in the courts, but only reports from the print media and drawings by sketch artists. This technology existed for many decades…
Ferguson, R. 2011. "Cameras in the Courtroom." The American Spectator.
Mesereau, T.A. 2011. "Effectively Handling High-Profile and Celebrity Cases." Los Angeles Lawyer, Survival Guide for New Attorneys in California, Fall 2011 Issue
A in millions)
Current in millions)
Provided by Federal ureau of Investigation as of September 18, 2006. www.whitehouse.gov/goodbye/3ae6b1ac94aa97e6650780f280890a7c81100e47.html"
CHART: National Correctional Populations
National Correctional Populations
The number of adults in correctional population has been increasing.
A in millions)
Current million in millions)
Provided by ureau of Justice Statistics as of November 30, 2006. (Social Statistics riefing Room, 2006)
Violence in the Media
Huston and colleagues have estimated that the average 18-year-old will have viewed 200,000 acts of violence on television (Huston, a.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H. et al. ig World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.)
41% percent of American households have three or more televisions (Nielsen Media Research, 2000).
56% of children ages 8-16 have a television in their rooms (Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000)
Percentage of television-time children ages 2-7 spend…
Alter, Jonathan. "Moving Beyond the Blame Game. (Panel Discussion)," Newsweek, May 17, 1999.
Beyer, John. "PERSPECTIVE: How movie and TV violence hits children; Is there too much violence on television and is it time to curb it? John Beyer, director of the organization mediawatch-uk argues that media viol," Birmingham Post, March 21, 2007.
Chatfield, Joanne E.. "Influence of Media Violence on Children." American Family Physician, February 15, 2002.
Children's Hospital Boston. "Teen-Rated Video Games Loaded With Violence;
MEDIA WORLD & CULTURE
The Media World in Today's Culture
The Media World and Today's Culture
The Media World and Today's Culture
The media is the most indispensable medium that most urbanized and developing countries have adapted to accessing first hand and vital information. It is also in the branch category of the most growing industries in today's global economy. However, the industry is faced with controversies from other sectors such as culture and politics. Implications of the social media and media personalties have always been at the limelight, especially with how the youth and children perceive what they see and hear from the media. It is therefore, necessitated to review how the current global culture allows for the continuity of the world of media.
According to Kaya and Cakmur, media has been a centre-stage in Turkey die to the linkage it has to politics. Turkish media is…
Television remains the single most influential medium in the lives of young people. However, a three-year National Television Violence Study found: "two-thirds of all programming contains violence; children's programs contain the most violence; the majority of all entertainment programming contains violence; violence is often glamorized; and the majority of perpetrators go unsanctioned" (Muscari 2002).
Television violence is graphic, realistic and involving, shows inequity and domination, and portrays most victims as women, children and the elderly (Muscari 2002). Children tend to focus on the more intense scenes, such as violent moments, rather than story components, and these "aggressive acts lead to a heightened arousal of the viewer's aggressive tendencies, bringing feelings, thoughts and memories to consciousness and can cause outwardly aggressive behavior" (Muscari 2002).
hen video games were introduced in the 1970's, they quickly became a favorite pastime for children, and now make up a $10+ billion industry. Today, children average…
Chory-Assad, Rebecca M. (2005 December 01). Effects of affective orientation and video game play on aggressive thoughts and behaviors. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
Kirn, Timothy F. (2006 September 01). Nature and media's nurture spawn girl violence.
Family Practice News. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
Muscari, Mary. (2002 November 01). Media violence: advice for parents.
Media Advertising: Posting an Ad on Facebook
Social media advertising provides a great platform for enhancing a brand message's reach and influencing prospects at the buying cycle's middle-of-the-funnel or evaluation stage. Facebook presents a unique marketing plan for advertisers; one that entirely focuses on middle-of-the-funnel offers as a way of influencing buyer decisions. This is quite logical since it is at the evaluation stage that a buyer i) clarifies exactly what they need, and then embarks on the search for a satisfying provider, and ii) is most likely to share information through their established network though a 'like' (Social Media Today, 2013).
In order to take advantage of this aspect, Sushi Fashions, a dealer in ladies wear, handbags and accessories intends to put up an ad regarding its Super Bowl sale, in which buyers could get up to 50% off on the conventional prices - over the entire product range.…
Catholic Democrats. (2008). Step-by-Step Instruction to Place a Facebook Ad. Catholic Democrats. Retrieved from http://catholicdemocrats.org/contribute/Facebook%20Instructions.pdf
Social Media Today. (2013). Enhance your MOFU: 10 Ways to Advertise on Social Media. Social Media Today Community. Retrieved from http://socialmediatoday.com/seanroyer/1444696/enhance-your-mofu-10-ways-advertise-social-media >
VanHoose, D. (2011). E-Commerce Economics (2nd ed.). New York: Taylor & Francis.
17). He is disgusted that news executives that direct what should be covered are less interested in "what's happening in Afghanistan" but more interested in "Michael Jackson and Laci Peterson" (Fenton, p. 20).
hat are the excuses TV executives, editors and producers give for focusing on scandal, sexual trysts, and embarrassing situations for celebrities? Fenton claims that those "gatekeepers of the news" will tell anyone listening that "the average [viewer] simply cannot absorb that much hard news, especially about events abroad" (p. 20). The CBS veteran insists that the media power brokers believe that "Americans are too broadly under-informed to digest nuggets of information that seem to contradict what they know of the world" (p. 20). That would seem to be a very condescending, elitist attitude on the part of the TV industry in particular.
Fenton (p. 22) asserts that because of the very real threats of terrorism on the…
Dorfman, Lori, Woodruff, Katie, Chavez, Vivian, and Wallack, Lawrence. "Youth and Violence
On Local Television News in California." American Journal of Public Health 87.8 (1997):
Downie, Leonard, and Schudson, Michael. "The Reconstruction of American Journalism."
This, to the advantage of the politician though it may be, is a disservice to the public. As we can see by the media's expanded agenda of campaign issues, the old issues have never been resolved in the sixty plus years since World War , and new ones have been piled on, and one very important one, healthcare, which is indicative of a serious problem in America. However, what we do not have to benefit the public is fact-based news reporting, and we do not have politicians who are plain-speak. This is because of the quid-pro-quo relationship that exists between the media and politics that facilitates one or the other over the public need and interest.
To be a member of an informed public today, means that one must rely on one's own ability and interest in assessing facts, and performing research independent of the "we make you,…
If you are a typical journalist, like those with whom I come in contact on a daily basis... you never have had an economics course that explains how a local business can affect the outcome of a bidding procedure, influence the growth patterns of a city, or even cheat its stockholders or consumers (Koch, Tom, 1990, p. 37)."
Ullman elaborates further the shortcomings of the academic nature of today's journalist, but the point is, that a journalist need not be schooled in these specialties to report the facts; the point further being that today journalists have begun analyzing speech patterns and words of politicians in ways such that it skews for the listener the meaning of what was originally said, and causes the listener to question his or her own interpretation of the politician's words. This, to the advantage of the politician though it may be, is a disservice to the public. As we can see by the media's expanded agenda of campaign issues, the old issues have never been resolved in the sixty plus years since World War II, and new ones have been piled on, and one very important one, healthcare, which is indicative of a serious problem in America. However, what we do not have to benefit the public is fact-based news reporting, and we do not have politicians who are plain-speak. This is because of the quid-pro-quo relationship that exists between the media and politics that facilitates one or the other over the public need and interest.
To be a member of an informed public today, means that one must rely on one's own ability and interest in assessing facts, and performing research independent of the "we make you, we'll break you," media and political machines that exist today.
The age of typography began with the Enlightenment and flourished in the New World, and coincided with significant social, political, and economic changes. As Postman (2005) points out in Amusing Ourselves to Death, Protestants with a predilection toward intellectualism made books and reading integral to American life. "The influence of the printed word in every arena of public discourse was insistent and powerful not merely because of the quantity of printed matter but because of its monopoly," (Postman, 2005, p. 41). In other words, print had a monopoly on information, communication, and the exchange of ideas. Print became endowed with a level of political and social significance that it does not have in the digital age, as there are now multiple modes of information exchange. When printed matter was all there was, the very ideals of democracy depended on it.
During the typographic age, content was meaningful as well…
Dewey, C. (2014). What makes some internet memes immortal. The Washington Post. 10 Nov, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-intersect/wp/2014/11/10/what-makes-some-internet-memes-immortal/
Postman, N. (2005). Amusing Ourselves to Death. New York: Penguin.
Sternberg, J. (2013). Technology today: What would Neil Postman think? Retrieved online: http://www.spinedu.com/technology-today-neil-postman-think/#.VGGC9_Q49oA
How Technology Shapes Society
A society is a conglomerate of people who, for some reason, are throw together in a particular bounded region. The group has to make laws that will govern their actions and they also determine how they will live together in the most productive manner. But, there are events and devices that some say can change the way this group of people behaves and what laws they will make for one another. For example, an early hunter-gatherer society subsisted on what they could kill and find. Then someone invented the hoe, and they became cultivating societies (Keel, 2011). This meant that the people did not have to roam so far afield to find they needed to exist. Thus they could stay closer together and build up societies. Small events sometimes shape great changes in society without the people within the society realizing that the invention will…
Anderson, P., & Tushman, M.R., (1990). Technological discontinuities and dominant designs: A cyclical model of technological change. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(4), 604-619.
Beals, G., (1997). The biography of Thomas Edison. Retrieved from http://www.thomasedison.com/biography.html
Carlson, W.B., (1992). "Artifacts and frames of meaning: Thomas A. Edison, his managers, and the cultural construction of motion pictures," in W.E. Bijker and J. Law Shaping technology/building society: Studies in sociotechnical change. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, pp. 175-198.
Chandler, D., (2002). Technological or media determinism. Retrieved from http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/tecdet/tdet01.html
These four readings were written between 1944 and 1955, and to a certain extent represent an outmoded era of media criticism. This does not mean these studies are obsolete, but it does mean that they must be considered in light of the current sea-change that is taking place in media overall -- most notably with the Internet, but also with the effect that the Internet is having upon other forms of media (such as the decline and instability of newspaper journalism). But we must acknowledge the limitations of these studies.
The most basic study is presented by Lasswell (1948), who is interested in defining the terminology, as scientifically as possible, as to what constitutes "communication." Lasswell draws parallels between various biological processes (of how organisms gather information through sensory apparatus, and how they attempt to control the amount of information they give out) to come up with a…
Media With the Military in Battle
There must be a cost-benefit analysis performed before formally agreeing to attach reporters to military units during active engagements. There are pros and cons for the side of the press and on the side of the military. It has become practice or tradition since the Vietnam War for journalists to be permitted to accompany and document the activities of various military units. Therefore, there is a fairly substantial precedent set for this form of cooperation. When considering this situation, imagining the outcome can assist in adequately preparing both sides for the accompaniment.
The military units that would have journalists should be provided as much notice as possible. This would give the commanding officers a chance to prepare assignments that would both satisfy the journalists and provide a respectable amount of operational secrecy. The journalists should receive some kind of basic military training and…
Constitutional Rights Foundation. (2012). Press Freedom vs. Military Censorship. Web, Available from: http://www.crf-usa.org/america-responds-to-terrorism/press-freedom-versus-military-censorship.html . 2012 November 09.
Ricchiardi, S. (2006). Dangerous Assignment. American Journalism Review, Web, Available from: http://www.ajr.org/article.asp?id=4003 . 2012 November 10.
According to Erika Engstrom: "because there are no legal rules for the wedding as a social event itself, wedding media such as found in The Knot's offerings provide informal, though structured, instruction (etiquette) to women regarding the correct way weddings should be conducted. In this sense, the uniform weddings portrayed and described in detail in such media, in the form of easily accessible magazines and etiquette books, television programs, and popular films, thus become the dominant version" (Engstrom 62). In other words, popular culture, the media, and websites that seamlessly merge advice and advertising now structure our view of what is a normal wedding, filling in for what was once dictated by religion or local culture. Ironically, although more marriages end in divorce, more couples live together before marriage, and the roles of the genders are being increasingly questioned in society, marriages are getting more expensive and elaborate.…
Yes, the Oedipus complex aspect of Shakespeare it gives us and which in turn invites us to think about the issue of subjectivity, the myth and its relation to psychoanalytic theory. (Selfe, 1999, p292-322)
Hemlet and Postcolonial theory
Postcolonial theory was born as a result of the publication of the famous work of Edward Said, Orientalism (1978). This theory claim that some authors (Paul Gilroy, Achille Mbembe, Francoise Verges, etc.) and that seem so elegant in its formulation, in my opinion raises three fundamental problems: At a time when we are witnessing the emergence of new expressions of colonialism (colonialism, cultural, political and economic globalization, neo-colonialism nestled in the relationship between the hegemonic colonial past and their old colonies, colonialism in disguise that structure the relationship between international institutions and developing countries, institutions from the rest behest of the former colonial powers according to their interests), speak of post-colonial era…
Aragay, Mireia, and Gemma Lopez. 2005. "Inflecting Pride and Prejudice: Dialogism, Intertextuality, and Adaptation." Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Ed. Mireia Aragay. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p201-19.
Aragay, Mireia, ed. 2005. Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p88-96.
Baetens, Jan. 2007. "From Screen to Text: Novelization, the Hidden Continent." The Cambridge Companion to Literature on Screen. Ed. Deborah Cartmell and Imelda Whelehan. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, p226-38.
Balides, Constance. 2000. "Jurassic Post-Fordism: Tall Tales of Economics in the Theme Park." Screen 4 I .2: p139-60.
The attorney general also made sure that the mainstream media had plenty of scary stuff about terrorists to cover in a dramatic fashion. For instance, Dettmer notes that, "The manner of the announcement by a live TV linkup for Ashcroft in Moscow and a star-studded news conference at the Justice Department added massive drama. With the surprising exception of Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, aides and officials appeared determined to talk up the dirty-bomb threat" (2002, p. 47). With the terrorist alert standing at orange today, and riveted up to red tomorrow, who knows where it will be next Tuesday? Indeed, anum (2004) emphasizes that, "The media, of course, doesn't really want definitive answers to the problems of homeland security. In fact, the media is probably happier with unanswered or unanswerable questions since these make for better stories and provide a good forum for endless pundits to discuss endless…
Allan, S. & Zelizer, B. (2004). Reporting war: Journalism in wartime. New York: Routledge.
Beale, S.S. (2006). The news media's influence on criminal justice policy: How market-driven news promotes punitiveness. William and Mary Law Review, 48(2), 397-399.
Billeaudeaux, A., Domke, D., Hutcheson, J.S. & Garland, P. (2003). Newspaper editorials follow lead of Bush administration. Newspaper Research Journal, 24(1), 166-167.
Crockatt, R. (2003). America embattled: September 11, anti-Americanism, and the global order.
Media Portrayal of Sexes
abies, when born, have no inherent knowledge about how girls and boys, men and women, are "supposed to act." They learn their cultural roles from the culture around them -- their adult and older-child role models, and more and more, through the media. As one writer quoted lum, "Nothing in biology labels behaviors as right or wrong, normal or abnormal. Any stereotypes we impose on children -- and by extension, adults -- are purely cultural, not biological" (Abels, 2002). Depiction of males and females in popular media is in a constant change of flux, partly based on inaccurate stereotype but partly reflecting the very real diversity seen in both sexes.
Experts in the field believe that children begin to learn what gender role is expected of them early in childhood, and that these expectations are communicated to them both purposefully and in unintended lessons. Part of…
Abels, Lori. 2002. "Sex-role stereotypes in TV Programs aimed at the preschool audience: an analysis of Teletubbies and Barney & Friends." Women and Language, Sept. 22.
Giuliano, Traci A. 2003. "Blood, sweat, and jeers: the impact of the media's heterosexist portrayals on perceptions of male and female athletes." Journal of Sport Behavior, Sept. 1.
MacKenzie, Nancy R. 1998. "Effects of television viewing on children's development." Pediatric Nursing, Sept.
Shugart, Helene A. 2003. "She shoots, she scores: mediated constructions of contemporary female athletes in coverage of the 1999 U.S. women's soccer team." Western Journal of Communication, Jan.
Media & Society
Media can have a strong influence on society. Media has the ability to shape how people view the world, how they perceive different issues and media can also have a direct influence on behavior in society as well. With political ads, the objective is direct behavioral influence, the behavior being voting, so the media role with these ads is a content-dependent relationship. The ads are intended to bring about a specific behavior, but the ads are also intended to change perspectives and dialogue, both about candidates and about the issues for which those candidates stand. This paper will examine two advertisements from the 2012 Presidential election campaign, one from each side, in order to illustrate this concept.
The Romney ad "Stand up to China" works primarily on the affective level. The copy of the ad is hilariously childish to anybody who understands anything about foreign policy…
Media portrayals of nurses and the nursing profession influences public perceptions. In fact, many viewers will have spent more time watching fictionalized accounts than actual interactions with nurses. Media portrayals affect how nurses are treated, and how their roles and status are negotiated in their professional life. Some of the most problematic portrayals of nurses on film and television include the show Scrubbing In, which depicts nurses as “self-centered, uncaring, unprofessional, and unintelligent,” (Berkowitz, n.d., p. 1). The negative view of nurses as coldhearted extends also from the film One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, in which Nurse Ratchett is one of the main antagonists.
Nurses have alternatively been positioned in subordinate roles, without reference to their education, training and competencies (Muehlbauer, 2012). In some media accounts, nurses are turned into sexual fetishes or in a “demeaning role,” (Talesnik, 2015). The situation may even be worse for male nurses, highlighting…
These results are important, however, in understanding if and how media images may be related to eating disorders in women. Polivy and Herman (2004) ask the commonsense question: "Why do women and girls continue to buy fashion magazines featuring thin models that make them feel anxious, depressed, and generally miserable about their bodies?" Some women find them to be a relaxing way to spend time. This shows that it is much too simple-minded for people to say that media images make women feel bad about themselves. Wouldn't it be smart to consider that maybe these small populations of women who do develop eating disorders are already dissatisfied and the media images may reinforce their inherent paranoia about their bodies? Or, perhaps it is people who are critical of every aspect of media who feel like they need to criticize the media because they themselves are made to feel insecure about…
Groesz, L.M., Levine, M.P., & Murnen, S.K. (2002). The effect of experimental presentation of thin media images on body satisfaction: A meta-analytic review.
International Journal of Eating Disorders, 31, 1-16.
Polivy, J. & Herman, P.C. (2004). Sociocultural idealization of thin female body shapes:
an introduction to the special issue on body image and eating disorders. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(1), 1-6.
Government officials and elected officers become unwilling to provide limited public funds to broadcasters whose audiences are becoming smaller, forcing public service programmers to reach for larger audiences with different types of program content. "While multiple program sources -- cable, home video -- make it unlikely that these systems will move toward "mass audience programming" it is the case that the face of broadcasting is changing in these contexts" (Narrowcasting, 2012).
Digital signage networks for narrowcast advertising are becoming part of the mainstream and not some sort of on the edge experimental medium reserved for the daring and advanced. ather than being seen as a risk in the eyes of media buyers, they are becoming a vital communications path for marketers and advertisers wishing to sway consumer spending decisions at the point of purchase. It isn't particularly surprising that narrowcast digital signage networks are entering the mainstream. Advertising buyers and…
Little, D. (2007). Digital signage -- InfoTrends sees significant growth for narrowcasting.
Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Digital-Signage-InfoTrends-Sees -
Narrowcasting. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.museum.tv/eotvsection.php?entrycode=narrowcasting
1. When you hear the word “scientist” what do you envision?
When I hear the word “scientist”, what I picture is an individual conducting practical experiments and also proving theories with the endeavor of advancing the field of science and the world at large. However, I also picture both aspects of science encompassing the scientists that wish to make the world a better place, for instance, preserving the earth and also advancing scientific theories as well as the scientists that use knowledge for negative purposes such as creating bombs and viruses.
2. Discuss at least three characteristics of your vision of a scientist
One of the characteristics of my vision of a scientist is having had formulated and developed a scientific theory that had massive impact. A second characteristic of a scientist is someone who is extremely smart and intellectual and lastly I consider scientists to be revolutionary.
Children and Media
Technology surrounds everything that children participate in nowadays. From using computers to watching television, the media influences children in just about every activity that they are a part of. The mainstream and social media have had a great impact on the behavior of children, as they are consistently exposed to numerous forms of the media at all times. As technology advances and children are more and more prone to watching television and participating in activities over the Internet, children will always be affected by how the media is presented to them. It can be difficult to shelter children from the growing media influence, however, the effects of this phenomenon on both the psychological and cognitive development of children need to be analyzed and considered (Christakis & Zimmerman, 2009).
Social life has been completely revolutionized due to the existence of the Internet and the development of social media.…
Anderson, D.R. & Hanson, K.G. (2009). Children, media, and methodology. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1204-1219.
Bargh, J.A. & McKenna, K.Y.A. (2003). The internet and social life. Annual Review of Psychology. 55, 573-590.
Chau, C. (2010). YouTube as a participatory culture. New Directions for Youth Development. 2010(128), 65-74.
Christakis, D.A. & Zimmerman, F.J. (2009). Young Children and media: Limitations of current knowledge and future directions for research. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1177-1185.
Media in America [...] How does mass media affect American values? American media is pervasive in nearly every aspect of society today. Newspapers, magazines, online Web sources, television, radio, and film all create a sense of commonality, and often a sense of how to behave, think, and react to social and societal situations.
Today, Americans rely on a variety of media for most of their news, information, and values, whether they know it or not. While this may seem like a recent occurrence, experts and researchers have been seeing this trend in media influence for decades. Two experts note, "Over a half century ago, Lippmann (1922) also noted this role of the news media in defining our world, not just the world of politics during and between elections, but almost all of our world beyond immediate personal and family concerns" (Bryant and Zillmann, 1994, p. 2). Thus, the media has…
Arant, M.D., & Meyer, P. (1998). Public journalism and traditional journalism: A shift in values? Journal of mass media ethics, 13(4), 205-218.
Brown, A. (1996). Economics, public service broadcasting, and social values. Journal of media economics, 9(1), 3-15.
Coleman, A.W. (2000). "Calvin and Hobbes": A critique of society's values. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 15(1), 17-42.
Gomez, D.S. (2001, April). Sex, peers, media -- and family values: The NEA health information network's 'can we talk?' program helps thousands of parents talk with their kids, in English or Spanish. NEA today, 19, 29.
The media is involved in all stages of policy-making, including in identifying what type of policies are needed. In many cases, the print media and social journalism draw attention on the problems that society has as they bring into discussion issues that interest the American public. Although print media is not the sole identifier of policy issues, it has the power to make the subject reach a great deal of the population, but most importantly, it has the power to reach to the decision-making responsible.
It is a known fact that politicians and politics can not be made without print media because only print media has the power to make the connection between a politician and his policies and the general public. In all times, print media was the main connector between politics and the people. This is why print media has a crucial importance in the political life of…
Barker, Michael, Manufacturing policies: the media's role in the policy making process, 2005, available at http://live-wirez.gu.edu.au/jea.papers/Barker.doc;
Davis, Richard and Diana Owen, New Media and American Politics, Oxford University Press, 1998;
The Media Influence on American Society in Politics, October 29, 2006, available at http://www.gather.com/viewArticle.jsp?articleId=281474976826497.
Campaign for Fiscal Equity, available at http://www.cfequity.org/ ;
but, the interesting thing is that their peers, family, friends and young boys are basing their opinion of what these girls should look like from what they see in the media.
Main Cause of Poor ody Images in Young Girls
The media has been with us for years and it is here to stay. There are good aspects of this industry because it serves to keep us informed and aware of what is happening in the world around us. The media can also be viewed negatively because of some of the television programs that are out there today. Technology is so advanced that we can now watch our favorite television shows and read our favorite fashion magazines right from our cell phones. We can assume that as the years go by, technology will get more advanced and the role of the media will become even more prominent.
Such outlets as…
Ata, R.N., Ludden, AB. And Lally, M.M. (2007). The effects of gender and family, friend, and media influences on eating behaviors and body image during adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36(8), 1024-1037.
Bell, B.T., Lawton R., and Dittmar, H. (2007). The impact of thin models in music videos on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction. Body Image, 4(2), 137-145.
Dohnt, H.K. And Tiggemann, M. (2006). Body image concerns in young girls: The role of peers and media prior to adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(2), 141-151.
Worell, J., & Goodheart, C.D. (2006). Body Image. Handbook of Girls' and Women's Psychological Health (pp. 68-75). New York: Oxford University Press.
The extreme power of this new cultural tool is the very nature -- it depends on nothing but an electronic connection. it, like many things in the modern world, is instantaneous, satisfying the 21st century need to have both dependence and independence based on our own decision or whim. Therein lies the confusion for many -- just how real is an electronic friendship that can exist without really "knowing" the person physically? How robust are virtual relationships except in the mind of those participating? and, how do we know with whom we are actually chatting or forming a bond -- could the mother of three living in Scotland be something quite different on the Internet? and, specifically, what impact might these social networks from a psychological perspective? (Gross, 2004).
Besides community, technology has changed entertainment for teens. Violence in the entertainment genre is not something that is new to the…
Ahn, J. (2011). Digital Divides and Social Network Sites: Which Students Participate in Social
Media. Jounral of Educational Computing Research, 45(2), 147-63.
Anderson-Butcher, D., et.al. (2010). Adolescent Weblog Use: Risky or Protective. Journal of Child and Adolescent Social Work, 27(2), 63-77.
Anderson, B. (1999). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso Publications.
Perceived Media Credibility
The media contributes immensely to the ideological beliefs held by an individual or group of people. The criminal justice system has, in recent years, embraced increasingly punitive crime-control policies with the intent of scaring off potential offenders (Gould, 2007). Such punitive measures have seen the rates of crime decline immensely, and have therefore, managed to garner massive public support.
Although the mass media, as Gould (2007) points out, has played a significant role in the increased popularity of punitive crime-control measures, it has been accused of doing so by raising false security alarms with the aim of attracting more crime news consumers. The article under analysis attempts to establish a link between media influence, and the fear of crime. The authors measured the punitive attitudes of a sampled 373 college students, through an 11-item scale covering issues such as the use of the death penalty on juveniles,…
Beckett, K. (1999). Making Crime Pay: Law and Order in Contemporary American Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gould, J. (2007). The Innocence Commission: Preventing Wrongful Convictions and Restoring the Criminal Justice System. New York: New York University Press.
Waid-Lindberg, C.A., Dobbs, R.R. & Shelley, T. (2011). Blame the Media? The Influence of Primary News Source, Frequency of Usage, and Perceived Media Credibility on Punitive Attitudes. Western Criminology Review, 12(3), 41-59.
2. Freedman, Jonathan. (2007). "No real evidence for TV violence causing real violence."
Retrieved July 7, 2010 from:
This source is an Internet editorial article published online on April 27, 2007 by Jonathan
Freedman, a Psychology professor and former department chairperson at the University
of Toronto. Professor Freedman has taught previously at Stanford University and Columbia University and has chaired the department at the University of Toronto.
Professor Freedman's central thesis is his fundamental opposition to the position taken in
2007 by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) that violence in media is a causal factor in actual aggression and violence in society. According to Professor
Freedman, the FCC relied on inaccurate information on the number of relevant studies, and also failed to distinguish between empirically valid information and anecdotal information in reaching their position on the issue. Professor Freedman also suggests the need to differentiate between depictions of…
Also, gay characters have slowly become more prominent both on TV and in the movies.
In the 1990s, producers gave up on feeling that they had to challenge gender representations as models of masculinity and femininity had become less offensive and clearly defined. We can, for instance, refer to the hit sit-com Friends which presented three male characters, Ross, Chandler and Joey whose masculinity was placed within conventional models of masculinity without excluding qualities such as gentleness and sensitivity. imilarly, the female characters were clearly feminine but sufficiently intelligent in order to escape the housewife cliche. Furthermore, the context of the show was relatively innovative as the six main characters were linked by friendship as opposed to the more traditional family circle which had dominated the previous two decades. The model of equal genders appears in many shows from the 1990s onwards (Gauntlett 61).
Race is depicted in the media…
Coover, Gail E. "Television and Social Identity: Race Representation as "White" Accommodation." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 45, no. 3 (2001): 413.
Gauntlett, David. Media, Gender, and Identity: An Introduction. Routledge, 2002.
Gurevitch, Michael, Tony Bennett, James Curran, and Janet Woollacott, eds. Culture, Society, and the Media. London: Routledge, 1990.
Mantios, Gregory. "Making Class Invisible"
In a democracy like American where freedom of speech is enshrined in the Constitution, this view takes on a certain reality in that the news and views disseminated by the media may not always be factual or true and the reader or viewer has to be very discerning in what they read or watch. A study on this subject entitled Mind control and the media states that while the invention of printing is historically linked to the rise of democracy in the worlds and in Media, yet, "...this does not mean that the mass media inherently serves democracy." (Gannaway)
This article goes on to articulate a view that has become reiterated in many other studies of the media with regard to the potential that the media has to present false and biased views to the general public. The study also repeats a view that is central to the criticism of…
Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery
Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…
Albrecht, G.L., Fitzpatrick, R., & Scrimshaw, S. (2013). Handbook of social studies in health and medicine. London: Sage Publications.
Armstrong, E.G. (2011). The health care dilemma: A comparison of health care systems in three European countries and the U.S. Singapore: World Scientific.
Bale, J.R., Stoll, B.J., & Lucas, A.O. (2013). Improving birth outcomes: Meeting the challenge in the developing world. Washington, DC: National academies press.
Buseh, A.G. (2008). Empowering resilience: Improving health care delivery in war-impacted African countries: a case study of Liberia. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
Mass Media Influences
It has long been known that the media has a strong influence on the public, and when television and other media presents strong messages on any particular topic, like smoking for example, society is impacted. This paper presents quality references in order to cover important aspects of the media, the issues it promotes, its history, it tactics, and its impacts.
Technological Transitions and Digital Technologies Influence Society
Author Paul Boyer explains that through "mediated communicative processes" individuals help to shape society. In those communicative processes there are to be found "complex interactions of human agency, social institutions," along with the various media-driven communicative processes that are the foundations of society (Boyer, 2012). The media that people use -- including today's Internet, television, print media, and radio -- shape both "national political conversations" and a number of aspects of social relationships (Boyer, 213).
And since the…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Estimates of Current Tobacco Use
Among Youth. Retrieved July 27, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov .
Digital Preservation Management. (2014). Timeline: Digital Technology and Preservation.
Retrieved July 27, 2015, from http://www.dpworkshop.org.
Social Media on Human Perception
The human interactivity has its rots in the inception of faster communication systems like the telephone, telegraph and later on the email system. As the IT continued to develop and the globalization intensified, the frequent interaction between people on extreme ends of the world became a more regular phenomenon and hence more valued over the years. The continued interaction has been seen in the gaming industry where competitors from different parts of the world connect to each other in real time over the internet and compete in the same game for hours. This has over the years engaged people from different parts of the globe though it has been limited to the gaming aspect only. The other predominant mode of interaction in the contemporary society is the social media which has mushroomed over the last decade, seeing companies like facebook, twitter, SnapChat, Instagram, Flickr among…
Society for Human Resource management, (2010). What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Networking Sites? What Should we Include in a Policy? Retrieved April 19, 2016 from http://www.aamga.org/files/hr/WhatAreTheAdvantagesAndDisadvantagesOf%20Social.pdf
Worsman S., (2011). Media's Influence on Social Norms and Identity Development of Youth. Retrieved April 19, 2016 from http://www.personal.psu.edu/bfr3/blogs/applied_social_psychology/2011/11/medias-influence-on-social-norms-and-identity-development-of-youth.html
Wallace K., (2015). Teens spend a 'mind-boggling' 9 hours a day using media, report says. Retrieved April 19, 2016 from http://edition.cnn.com/2015/11/03/health/teens-tweens-media-screen-use-report/
social media of hotel industy influence consume puchasing behavio 24/09/2015
Pominent examples of social media
Business Use of Social Media
Social media and consume puchasing
Role of Social media in Advetising and Maketing
Social Media Maketing
Evidence of impotance of Social Media Maketing
Impact of Social Media Maketing on Consume Puchasing Behavio
The Heding Effect
Theoy of Social Impact
Social Media Influence Factos on Consumes
Social Media in the Hotel Industy
Social media and Thailand Hotels
Appoaches to Methodology
Outline of eseach Method
Sample selection and Size
Obstacles in Reseach
: Data Analysis
: Ethical Consideations in Reseach
: Limitations of the study
Results and Analysis
: Results fom Suvey of Hotel subscibes
: Results fom Suvey of Hotel Maketing Officials
Infeence fom the Analysis
Social Media Factos Affecting Custome Puchasing Behavio 39
5.2: Recommendations fo Manages fo Use of Social Media 40
Chapte 1: Intoduction…
references and social tagging information. International Journal of Web Science, 2(1/2), p.80.
Balakrishnan, B., Dahnil, M. and Yi, W. (2014). The Impact of Social Media Marketing Medium toward Purchase Intention and Brand Loyalty among Generation Y. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 148, pp.177-185.
Book, L., Tanford, S., Montgomery, R. and Love, C. (2015). Online Traveler Reviews as Social Influence: Price is no Longer King. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research.
Burke, R., Martin, G. and Cooper, C. (2011). Corporate reputation. Farnham, Surrey: Gower.
Chaney, P. (2009). The digital handshake. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley & Sons.
By being born a man or a woman signals to bearing certain clear sexual characteristics. Socialization takes individuals through a path that inculcates certain norms and codes of conduct depending on whether one is born a male or a female. In other words, the rules that one adopts and follows are guided by whether they are biologically male or female. Therefore, one’s communication, expression and behavior is shaped by the preexisting cultural and social norms including non-verbal language. Consequently, people’s behavior may differ because they are shaped by cultural and social norms from varying socio-ethnic and cultural setups. All these forces define gender; which is effectively a social construction of one’s biological sex. It allows for the recognition and distinction between men and women. According to Lippman (1922), stereotypes were important because they were an offshoot of a people’s ideas and heritage and, thus, served important purposes. Stereotypes helped…