Medical And Medicine Essays (Examples)

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Ethics of Medicine

Words: 922 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7805431

Medical Dilemma

The Dilemma

The dilemma associated with this case study suggests that little is known or can be done with serious illness with any great confidence. At the heart of the issue is who is responsible for the sick child as it appears, but may not be true, that he cannot take care of himself and that his immune system needs to be guided by someone else.

The lack of a formal family and the unnatural formation of this family also contributes to the confusion of this ethical problem. The Christian Scientist mother of the child holds no biological claim to the child and is demanding a unique spiritual procedure to be used to the heal the child. Although this method is controversial and not based in traditional science, the laws allowing for this type of treatment are allowed in reasonable circumstance in many areas of the world.

The…… [Read More]


Dean, M. (2010). Comparative evaluation of homeopathy and allopathy within the Parisian hospital system, 1849 -- 1851. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 103(1), 34-36.

Flamm, B.L. (2004). Faith healing confronts modern medicine. Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine, 8, 9-14.

Starfield, B. (2000, July 26). Is U.S. health really the best in the world? Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(4), 483-485
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Medical Records Case Study Section I Introduction

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77572928

Medical Records Case tudy

ection I (Introduction) -- Liam O'Neill and William Klepack, the authors of Case tudy # 3, Integrating Electronic Medical Records and Disease Management at Dryden Family Medicine, begin their published findings by introducing readers to the concept of electronic medical records (EMR). The authors immediately narrow their focus to the adoption and implementation of EMR by Dryden Family Medicine, a rural family practice located in upstate New York, and explain that "for smaller group practices, electronic medical records (EMR) adoption is a huge undertaking that poses significant risks" (O'Neill and Kleback, 2010). The Introduction section then covers the multitude of obstacles encountered by small group practices attempting to convert to EMR, including the limited information technology experience possessed by most staff members, and the constant concern of budgetary constraints. Finally, the authors seek to clarify the emphasis of their study by stating that their focus remains…… [Read More]

Section III (The Vendor Selection Process) -- This section covers the process employed by Dryden Family Medicine to direct the transition to EMR. The authors begin with the steering committee established in 2002, which was "composed of one physician, the office manager, the nursing supervisor, and the front-desk supervisor" (O'Neill and Kleback, 2010). The issue of vendor fallibility is explored, as the choice of an unprepared or unskilled billing systems provider could easily undermine the practice's 50 years of record keeping. Finally, the reader is guided through the EMR vendor selection process, from the industry trade journals to consultations with fellow family practices that have previously implemented EMR systems.

Section IV (Stages of EMR Implementation) -- This section includes a detailed timeline of the EMR implementation process utilized by Dryden Family Medicine. Found in Table C3.1 and Figure C3.1 are various benchmarks in the EMR adoption process, such as "August 2003 Prescriptions generated electronically and faxed to pharmacies" and "March 2005 Patient education literature is scanned into the system and linked to EMR" (O'Neill and Kleback, 2010). The informative tables are followed by a thorough analysis of the three-stage process used to effectively introduce EMR strategies to Dryden Family Medicine's overall system. The section concludes with a concrete example of EMR-based improvements, as the authors recount a 2005 incident involving the painkiller Bextra and a Food and Drug Administration recall that patients were notified about immediately.

Section V (Impact on Job Responsibilities) -- The purpose of this section is to determine the impact of implementing an EMR system which clearly "resulted in changes in the job descriptions and responsibilities of all members of the practice" (O'Neill and Kleback, 2010). The authors observe several instances involving physician's problematic interaction with
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Medical Abbreviations How Can Eliminating Abbreviations Reduce

Words: 586 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23606062

Medical Abbreviations

How can eliminating abbreviations reduce errors?

In the medical profession, time is everything. To make documentation as expeditious as possible, a series of abbreviations have been accepted in records. This has been considered an acceptable practice as much as calling a registered nurse an "RN." The problems occur when people are unclear about the abbreviations mean or if a set of letters can have more than one meaning. For example, there is the abbreviation "CA" which means cancer and then "Ca" which is calcium. Another example is "a" which can mean both "artery" and "before" (Medical 2011-page 1). It is very easy to misread abbreviations when medical staff is in a hurry. Imagine the problem if a "q.w." which is take weekly was confused for a "q.v." which is take as one wishes. If the terms were written out rather than abbreviated, these potentially dangerous situations could be…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Berman, Jules. (2008). "Specified Life." Biomedical Informatics.

Greenall, Julie (2006). "Safe Medication Practices." Hospital News.

"Medical Abbreviations Glossary." (2011). JD-MD.
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Medical Use of Marijuana Increasing Use of

Words: 814 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30556120

Medical Use of Marijuana

Increasing use of medical marijuana

Having looked at the various areas that medical marijuana has been brought into use and the various forms in which marijuana is administered, it is also important to take note of the various challenges that come with it. There have been various researches that have been conducted that covers the medical as well as the ethical side of the medicinal marijuana, and there have been a dilemma in the balance of the two sides on whether to institutionalize the drug or to stop it, and even on whether the medicinal use can be made to work without the proneness to abuse as is the case at the moment.

Medicinal marijuana has neither medical nor ethical standing within the contemporary society where drug abuse is one of the biggest worries of governments across the world and the alternative medicines that medical research…… [Read More]

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Medical Errors Are Preventable Adverse

Words: 1497 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70782223

Conclusions - by the very nature of culture and humanity, humans tend to be group animals -- they thrive in groups, coalesce into groups, indeed, the very process of moving from hunter-gatherer to cities was part of a group behavior. Group norms are internal rulings that are followed by individuals so that the synergistic effect of the group will be more efficient. These values usually focus on the way members of that group look and behavior towards themselves, and the hierarchical structure they tend to set up to "police" their efforts. Norms help groups solve problems, define and address new situations, make better decisions, and even process their daily work. Groups, in this case members of the medical community, join these groups in order to reflect specific notions and values associated with the overall group. Normative behavior in the medical field is covered by a willingness to help, to "do…… [Read More]


Physicians Want to Learn from Medical Mistakes. (2008, January 9). Retrieved November 2010, from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality:

Error Disclosure. (2009, March). Retrieved from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality:

Improving America's Hosptials. (2010, March). Retrieved November 2010, from the Joint Commission's Annual Report on Quality and Safety:

Dewar, D. (2010). Essentials of Health Economics. Philadelphia, PA: Jones and Bartlett.
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Medical Research & Ethics Medical Research and

Words: 1958 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65923835

Medical esearch & Ethics

Medical esearch and Ethics

Conflict between Medical esearch & Ethics

Conflict between Medical esearch & Ethics: Case of Tuskegee Syphilis

Each day medical providers and researchers make decisions about what information is necessary to disclose to patients and under what circumstances they should make disclosures. In the clinical setting, the negative implications of a poorly considered disclosure decision can involve simple problems such as a patient being unaware that a medication may cause nausea. However, some disclosure decisions can have more serious consequences such as a patient undergoing intensive treatment without sufficient knowledge of their poor prognosis. ( L. Carroll, 2001) In the research setting, the result of nondisclosure can range from a subject not understanding their time commitment of trial participation to more extreme consequences -- such as a subject participating in research without being aware of life-threatening risks.( James H. Jones, 1993)

The current…… [Read More]


Ami Schattner and Merav Tal, (2002). Truth Telling and Patient Autonomy: The Patient's Point-of-View. American Journal of Medicine. 113(1): 66-69,

C. Keown.(1984) Attitudes of Physicians, Pharmacists and Laypersons Toward Seriousness and Need for Disclosure of Prescription Drug Side Effects. Health Psychology. 3(1). 1-11.

Charles M. McCarthy. (1995) Research Policy: General Guidelines. In Encyclopedia of Bioethics Vol. 4. Warren Thomas Reich, Ed. New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan: 2288.

Charles M. McCarthy. (1995) Research Policy: General Guidelines. In Encyclopedia of Bioethics Vol. 4. Warren Thomas Reich, Ed. New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan: 2288.
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Medical Practice Case Study Summary

Words: 1715 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80415955

In this case, that power dynamic was only exacerbated by the fact that the entire MSICU nursing team had never received training in management of the type of clinical issues presented and by the fact that they were excluded from any consultation in connection with a post-operative management plan.

Therefore, it is recommended that the institution immediately implement a policy of "see something, say something" according to which all members of healthcare teams are encouraged to speak up irrespective of power differentials. Furthermore, that protocol must include a statement of policy insulating any member of a healthcare team who does voice a legitimate concern in good faith from any retaliation or other negative response that could conceivably deter such diligence. Finally, the record of this case also indicates the immediate need for protocols requiring all members of the healthcare team to identify themselves to other members of the team, especially…… [Read More]


Bosk, Charles L. (2003). Forgive and Remember: Managing Medical Failure.

Gawande, Atul. (2008). Better: A Surgeon's Notes on Performance.

Groopman, Jerome. (2008). How Doctors Think.

Timmermans, Stefan. (2003). The Gold Standard: The Challenge of Evidence-Based
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Medical Writing Boon and Bane'

Words: 1034 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36094312

These examples highlight that technology is always a tool, a way of enhancing human judgment -- we must not mistake it as a replacement for good nursing practice.

After all, the use of a computer is no substitute for a medical education. Anyone who works in a hospital can see this -- the increased accessibility of information through the Internet also means that patients often come in, convinced that they are suffering from a serious illness, allergy, or condition, based more upon a diagnosis Googled on WebMD, rather than upon the fact that they saw a doctor! If a computer alone was required to diagnose, everyone would have a degree!

Don't get me wrong -- I use technology every day in my life, and thank my lucky stars, and my patient's lucky stars, that it is so ubiquitous. When health care providers wish to communicate, the use of cell phones…… [Read More]

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Medical Skills Needed to Be

Words: 2203 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74711001

According to the work of Fulford (1994) in an Oxford Practice Skills Project eport "Three elements of practice (ethics, law and communication skills) are approached in an integrated teaching programme which aims to address everyday clinical practice. The role of a central value of patient-centered health care in guiding the teaching is described. Although the final aim of the teaching is to improve the actual practice, we have found three 'sub-aims' helpful in the development of the programme. These sub-aims are: increasing students' awareness of ethical issues; enhancing their analytical thinking skills, and teaching specific knowledge. (Hope, 1994)

In the work of Miles, et al. (1989) entitled "Medical Ethics Education: Coming of Age it is stated that "medical ethics education is instruction that endeavors to teach the examination of the role of values in the doctor's relationship with patients, colleagues and society. It is one form of a broad curricular…… [Read More]


Fryer-Edwards, PhD (2005) Tough Talk: Helping Doctors Approach Difficult Conversations - Resources for Teaching- Domains for Small Group Teaching Prelude 3 Department of Medical History and Ethics University of Washington School of Medicine.

Siegler, Mark MD (2001) Lessons from 30 Years of Teaching Clinical Ethics AMA Journal 2001 October.

St. Onge, Joye (1997) Medical Education Must Make Room for Student-Specific Ethical Dilemmas" Canadian Medical Association Journal 15 Apr 1987, 156(8).

Hicks, L. et al. (2001) Understanding the Clinical Dilemmas that Shape Medical Students' Ethical Development: Questionnaire Survey and Focus Group study. BMJ Journal 2001;322-709-71- 24 march 2001.
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Medical Admissions Fortunately or Not

Words: 335 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56470243

My predilection for working under stress prepares me psychologically for the unique and demanding profession. The college professor who advised that my disposition and talents lend themselves to a career in osteopathy told me that osteopaths need to be creative as well as analytical: to assess situations and make decisions that synthesize years of prior knowledge and experience. I believe I possess the qualities that would prepare me for a successful and rewarding career as an osteopathic physician.

As I seek entry into your esteemed medical school program with a focus in osteopathy, I can assure you of my capacity to meet challenges with poise and calm. My business experience has prepared me for the demands of medical school: owning a business while attending school full-time has not deterred nor tired me physically. I look forward to participating in your program; I assure you that I will represent your school…… [Read More]

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Medical Fraud and Abuse --

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92526914

The facts that you have provided indicate extremely troubling circumstances that could seriously jeopardize the welfare of your organization. It is well-settled law that entities contracting for the services of subsidiaries are legally responsible for legal and ethical improprieties committed by those subsidiaries irrespective of whether or not the contracting organization had any specific involvement in or knowledge of those actions. Accordingly, we would strongly advise that you take immediate action to rectify the situations described in the manner outlined in our recommendations below.


To avoid the potentially serious criminal, civil, and financial consequences arising under MWHC's respondeat superior responsibility to prevent fraud and abuse in connection with its association with subsidiaries, it is hereby recommended that MWHC immediately:

1. Instruct the subsidiary to cease and desist from offering its contracted home health agency employees compensation of any kind in connection with client durable medical equipment (DME) orders from…… [Read More]


Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.

USDHHS. (2004). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services-Office of Inspector

General-Statement of Organization, Functions -- and Delegations of Authority.

Federal Register. Vol. 69, No. 127; July 2, 2004. Retrieved November 14, 2010,
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Medical Theory Ever Since the

Words: 3095 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24024442

As mentioned earlier, the desired outcome of nursing care is comfort and there are many articles in which the researchers have talked about the needs of the patients and the things that alter the comfort of the patients. Kolcaba suggested that the cancer patients who are terminally ill can benefit from comfort care as it pays attention to the perspective and needs of the patients. Through such kind of care, the patient is not only provided with pain relief, but the depression of the patient is also addressed adequately. As she said that patients who are not in pain but are depressed seek comfort in the transcendental sense as well as in the psycho-spiritual sense (Kolcaba, 1992 p 4). In some of her works, she has explained the use of the instruments and their application by the nurses. Kolcaba reckons that the instruments presented by her to evaluate the comfort…… [Read More]


Kolcaba K. (1994). A theory of holistic comfort for nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(10): 1178-1184.

Kolkaba, K. (1992). Holistic comfort: Operationalizing the construct as a nurse-sensitive outcome..Advances in Nursing Science, 15 (1), pp. 1-10.

Kolkaba, K. (1997). The primary holisms in nursing..Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25 pp. 290-296.

Kolkaba, K. And Fisher, E. (1996). A holistic perspective on comfort care as an advance directive..Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 18 pp. 66-76.
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Medical Records System Definition of

Words: 3005 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30994463

The master patient index (MPI) value was mainly liked by the personnel in the medical record section.

The Golden 90s

Equipped with MPI and record-keeping growth, software designers sustained to generate and progress with a new emphasis on individual hospital sections. Auxiliary department purposes, for example radiology and laboratory showed to be fairly adaptive to software that is fresh and innovative, and computer healthcare applications start to show on the market. Patient test outcomes that instigated in the laboratory and radiology department now too were obtainable via computers nonetheless again with limit as the outcomes were separate and were not linked to one another, or to any other software for instance that being done with the patient registration. A lot of these applications had basically been marked as "source" governments, and they were not courteous to assembly athwart the healthcare aptitude. This is the state that mechanization in healthcare found…… [Read More]


Holden, R.J. (2011). Cognitive performance-altering effects of electronic medical records: An application of the human factors paradigm for patient safety. Cognition, Technology & Work, 13(1), 11-29.

Kaliyadan, F., Venkitakrishnan, S., Manoj, J., & Dharmaratnam, a. (2009). Electronic medical records in dermatology: Practical implications. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, 75(2), 157-61.

Kochevar, J., Gitlin, M., Mutell, R., Sarnowski, J., & Mayne, T. (2011). Electronic medical records: A survey of use and satisfaction in small dialysis organizations. Nephrology Nursing Journal, 38(3), 273-81.

Kurbasic, I., Pandza, H., Masic, I., Huseinagic, S., Tandir, S., Alicajic, F., & Toromanovic, S. (2008). The advantages and limitations of international classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death from aspect of existing health care system of B&H. Acta Informatica Medica, 16(3), 159.
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Medical Home Concept and Describe the Principles

Words: 1055 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56730739

medical home concept and describe the principles (operational characteristics mentioned above) of the PC-MH as defined by these organizations. How does this concept differ from the gatekeeper concept of Managed Care Organizations?

According to the 'gatekeeper' philosophy of health management organizations (HMOs), physicians are intentionally given incentives to reduce access to care. This is based upon the assumption that patients will want to obtain as much care as they can receive and physicians will want to bestow that care to please patients and incur more revenue. HMOs encourage physicians to do the opposite and often financially reward physicians for cost reductions and limiting access of patients to specialists or heroic treatments. In the HMO model, physicians try to restrict access to specialists when they do not deem it necessary.

In contrast, the medical home concept is viewed as a partnership between "individual patients, and their personal physicians, and when appropriate,…… [Read More]


Case for change to the PC-MH Model (2011). American Dietetic Association.

Retrieved October 19, 2011 at

Joint Principles of the Patient-Centered Medical Home. (2007). American Academy of Family

Physicians (AAFP). American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). American College of Physicians (ACP). American Osteopathic Association (AOA)
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Medical Marijuana Growing in Butte County

Words: 2199 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24923351


Medical marijuana has increasingly been in the news as a growing number of states throughout the U.S. have passed measures or at least put on the ballot an initiative to legalize either medicinal or recreational marijuana usage.  The history of marijuana in the U.S. is one that goes back as far as the country itself:  hemp (a type of marijuana plant) was used for rope, paper and a number of other purposes because of its strong fibrous tissue.1  It was not until the Prohibition Era of the 1920s that marijuana began to be prohibited by law in the U.S.—and within a decade, it was regulated among most states under the Uniform State Narcotic Act.2  Thus, from its very first days as a crop grown by the Virginia Company for exporting to England by decree of James I—and in fact from the days of the first President of the U.S.…… [Read More]

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Medical and Ethical Dilemmas Even if the

Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25574413

medical and ethical dilemmas, even if the activities were deemed technically legal or not questioned at the time. The fact that the studies sought to gain information from human subjects under unfair and undesirable circumstances means their results cannot be condoned and the findings cannot be accepted or used as viable study data. Each study directly crosses the line into scientific unacceptability in different ways; and while their underlying approaches raise interesting historical and philosophical questions -- that did not need to be tested to be debated -- there is no way to weed out the biases that contaminate the data.

This being said, it is generally safe to say that all of the studies were improper (unethical and/or illegal) at the time that they were being undertaken. This can be seen in the fact that in every instance the medical professionals involved were either directly or indirectly punished for…… [Read More]


Consumer Reports (2007). "Off-Label" Drug Use, Shopper's Guide. Downloadable at .

Pain Management of America (2011). Chronic Pain Treatment and Management with Medical Marijuana. Viewable at .


Jewish Chronic Disease:
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Medical Condition Delirium and Its Relationship to

Words: 1800 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33101234

medical condition, delirium, and its relationship to the nursing profession. The paper is partially a literature review as well as a literary comparison. The Journal of Gerentologic Nursing defines delirium as "a syndrome characterized by the rapid onset and fluctuation of altered mental status, primarily involving the domains of attention and cognition." (Waszynski & Petrovic, 2008, 49) The material provided suggests that detection of delirium very early is important in the prognosis of the patient who experiences delirium. The American Journal of Critical Care (AJCC) states, "delirium is associated with higher mortality, prolonged ICU stay, and greater health care costs." (Devlin et al., 2008, 556) The articles to be examined make critical connections between the roles that nurses play in the diagnoses and treatments of delirium, but they each approach the subject from a different perspective. McCarthy, for example, focuses upon the various perspectives of nurses that impede the recognition…… [Read More]


Devlin, J.W., Fong, J.J., Howard, E.P., Skrobik, Y., McCoy, N., Yasuda, C., & Marshall, J. (2008). Assessment of the delirium in the intensive care unit: nursing practices and perceptions. American Journal of Critical Care, 17(6), 555-565.

Inouye, MD, S.K., Foreman, PhD, M.D., Mion, PhD, L.C., Katz, K.H., & Cooney, Jr., MD, L.M. (2001). Nurses' Recognition of Delirium and Its Symptoms. Arch Internal Medicine, 161, 2467 -- 2473.

McCarthy, M.C. (2003). Detecting Acute Confusion in Older Adults: Comparing Clinical Reasoning of Nurses Working in Acute, Long-Term, and Community Health Care Environments. Research in Nursing & Health, 26, 203 -- 212.

Ramaswamy, MD, R., Dix, PharmD, E.F., Drew, J.E., Diamond, PhD, J.J., Inouye, MD, S.K., Roehl, MD, B.J.O. (2010) Beyond Grand Rounds: A Comprehensive and Sequential Intervention to Improve Identification of Delirium. The Gerontologist, 51(1), 122 -- 131.
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Medical Research in the United States Specifically

Words: 1766 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86573757

medical research in the United States. Specifically it will discuss stem cell research and its relationship to ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease). Stem cell research, although highly debated in the U.S., should be made available in the country to enhance the quality of life by providing research, government funding, and quality physicians.

Just what exactly is stem cell research? Stem cell research is one of the fastest growing areas of medicine, because it holds so much potential for medical breakthroughs. One doctor said, "It is not unrealistic to say that stem cell research has the potential to revolutionize the practice of medicine. -- Dr. Harold Varmus, former NIH director" (Best & Kellner, 2004, p. 214). Basically, stem cells can be reproduced in the laboratory, and these stem cells can be used to help fight a variety of diseases, as well as understand how diseases affect the human body and how cells…… [Read More]


Best, S., & Kellner, D. (2004). Chapter 8 Biotechnology, democracy, and the politics of cloning. In Biotechnology and communication: The meta-technologies of information, Braman, S. (Ed.) (pp. 197-222). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bruijn, Dr. Lucie. (2005). A primer on stem cells. Retrieved from the ALS Association Web site: 31 Oct. 2005.

Callahan, D. (2005, January 14). Promises, promises: Is embryonic stem-cell research sound public policy?. Commonweal, 132, 12+.

Hopkins, H. (1984, January). A.L.S.: "Lou Gehrig's Disease" still needs a cure. FDA Consumer, 17, 23+.
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Medical Evacuation Evolution In the US

Words: 738 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19433058

How Medical Evacuation Evolved from Post Civil War to Present
1st Historical Interest Timeline: 1877 to 1910
Medical advances during this period were more in organization and technique and not in medical breakthroughs. Jonathan Letterman is credited with creating a highly organized system of ambulances and trained stretcher bearers that were designed to evacuate the wounded quickly. This was a great improvement from the previous methods. It was also during this period that sanitary conditions for medical care were improved upon. Previously surgeons did not wash their hand before attending to a patient and their equipment was not sanitized. This resulted in the number of deaths occurring from medical care increasing and the mortality rate was two soldiers died out of disease and infections as compared to one who died from injury or gunshot wound in the battlefield. Organized trauma care was also suggested and practiced in the late 19th…… [Read More]

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Medical Reconciliation

Words: 1028 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80459674


Describe briefly your topic of interest (15 possible points):

According to the United States Department of Health and Human Services (2013), medical reconciliation is "the process of comparing a patient's medication orders to all of the medications that the patient has been taking. This reconciliation is done to avoid medication errors such as omissions, duplications, dosing errors, or drug interactions." The process of medical reconciliation falls within the rubric of electronic medical records, which enable medical reconciliation. Medical reconciliation saves lives, improves the efficiency of hospital administration and of the healthcare team, and is simply necessary for providing quality of care.

#1 Database (or collection) (30 possible points):

Title of source:

"Electronic Health ecord (HE)"

Location of source (UL):

Owner or publisher:

Indian Health Service

The Indian Health Service (2013) offers an overview of what medical reconciliation is, and how it applies to both individual and community health.…… [Read More]


"Electronic Health Record (EHR)," (2013). Indian Health Service. Retrieved online:

"Medical Reconciliation," (2013). Greater Baltimore Medical Center. Retrieved online:

United States Department of Health and Human Services (2013). Electronic health record (EHR). Retrieved online:

United States National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (2013). Search term "medical reconciliation." Retrieved online:
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Medical Errors in the Healthcare

Words: 1266 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31330309

Large health care systems with multiple facilities can track as many as 1,000 events each month" (Berntsen, 2004, p. 44). That is an amazing number of cases that came extremely close to becoming medical errors, and they were only stopped by caregiver response or sometimes by chance. Near misses are an extremely important part of the healthcare facility's treatment program, because they can indicate just how accident and error-prone a facility is, and they can even indicate which departments and individuals may be the most error-prone.

How does a staff effectively reduce medical errors in their facility? Authors Turner and Kurtz believe debriefing of the team is key to reducing errors. They write, "Effective debriefing is the key to long-term sustainable improvements in patient safety and care. It is only through debriefing that an organization, team, or individual will improve consistently over time" (Turner, and Kurtz, 2008). Debriefing, the authors…… [Read More]


Berntsen, K.J. (2004). The patient's guide to preventing medical errors. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Turner, S.H., and Kurtz, W.D. (2008). Debriefing for patient safety. Retrieved 28 Nov. 2008 from the Patient Safety & Quality Healthcare Web site:
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Medical Experiments

Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75410058

Ethical Dilemma: case study of clinical trial on a child

The field of medicine and research has been surrounded by issue of experiments in order to have the conclusive result of the effectiveness of a drug or otherwise. These results can only be obtained if the drugs are at times used on human beings with the real medical problem that the experiment seeks to find solution to. The problem of ethical dilemma often comes in at such stages on whether to go ahead to experiment on the effectiveness of the new drug or not.

Ethical dilemma refers to the situation that is deemed complex since it involves some element of mental conflict between moral imperatives that is one goes ahead and obeys one, it will mean the transgression of another (Braunack-Meyer A.J., 2001). The individual does not have a clear cut direction on which option to go for, despite there…… [Read More]


Braunack-Meyer A.J., (2001). What makes a problem an ethical problem? An empirical perspective on the nature of ethical problems in general practice. Retrieved November 29, 2014 from

Pier B.K., (2007). Children, Gillick Competency and Consent for Involvement in Research. Retrieved November 29, 2014 from

Spriggs M., (2010). Understanding Consent in Research Involving Children: The ethical Issues. Retrieved November 29, 2014 from
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Medical Care Policies

Words: 717 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89251074

Healthcare Policies

Health care policy usually is developed to address health care cost, quality, or access, or a combination of the three. Due to the nature of their interaction with patients, nurses are well situated to be effective, knowledgeable advocates for their patients. The impact of health policy and regulation when it comes to the nursing profession is not something that can be ignored. Healthcare issues are very complex and they involve the fields of economics and medicine and affecting the rights of individuals as well as accessing healthcare. Consumers' main concern is quality while the individual and corporations providers are mainly concerned about the economic survival (Heller, Oros, & Durney-Crowley, 2009).

One public policy that is influencing my nursing practice and I is the Medicaid policy. This is a social health program meant for families and individuals that have low income and resources. This is an insurance program by…… [Read More]


Coffman, J.(2010). Evaluation Based on Theories of the Policy Process. Retrieved July 16, 2014 from 

Heller, B., Oros, M & Durney-Crowley, J.(2009). Impact of Health Policy. Retrieved July 16, 2014 from
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Application for medicine'studies Motivational

Words: 1603 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79347036

Medicine as a discipline is predominantly rooted in science, particularly biology and chemistry. My strong performance in and enjoyment of sciences makes me an ideal candidate for medical school. Nevertheless, my greatest motivation to pursue the field comes from my passion for serving people. Right from elementary school through to college, I have always been passionate about serving people in a direct way. I have participated in numerous volunteer and community initiatives, which have further strengthened my desire to serve people. Serving people gives me satisfaction more than anything else. Medicine is one field that offers the opportunity to serve humanity. It is not only a job, but also a career. It enables one to practically apply the knowledge acquired in class in helping people.

Dissimilar to most courses, medicine is a vocational course in the sense that one gets practical training in a specific job. Students do not just…… [Read More]

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Approving Medicine

Words: 768 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37534236

Medical License

Licensing of anything is applying the legality of its use to a collective group of people. Understanding this concept is critical in developing an attitude towards the history of licensing of health care professionals. The purpose of this essay is to describe how it came to be that physicians are licensed and essentially under governmental control and direction. The essay will give a brief history of this process to help contextualize these efforts. Before concluding this essay will also address the importance of why the federal government is the sole licensing authority for physicians to dispense or prescribe control substances.

The ole of Government

Before realizing the impact of the licensing of health care professionals by the government, it is necessary to understand the role of the government. While it is historically and culturally acceptable to interpret the role of government as extremely important in guiding the citizens…… [Read More]


America Medical Association (nd). Medical Licensure. Viewed 20 July 2014. Retrieved from 

Hamowy, R. (1979). The Early Development of Medical Licensing Laws in the United States. The Journal of libertarian studies, 3, 73.

US Department of Justice (nd). Drug Schedules. Viewed 20 July 2014. Retrieved from
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An Explanation of Malpractice in Medicine

Words: 839 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69683429

Medical malpractice is defined as "any act or omission by a physician during treatment of a patient that deviates from accepted norms of practice in the medical community and causes an injury to the patient" (Bal, 2009, p.340). Notability, while Bal (2009) defines this in the context of physicians, it is also important to realise that other medical practitioners, such as nurses, dentists, pharmacists, and occupational therapists, can also be subject to malpractice suits. The risks associated with an accusation of malpractice remain high, for example, in a recent report it was found that doctors in low risk specialty areas had a 75% chance of facing a malpractice claim, whereas those is high risk specialities had a 100% chance (Seabury, Lakdawalla, and Chandra, 2011). However, the incidence level of paid claims is reducing; in 2014 there were a total of 11,922 claims, a 4.3% decrease on the preceding year (Gamble,…… [Read More]


Bal., B S. (2009). An Introduction to Medical Malpractice in the United States. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 647(2), 339-347

Budetti, P P., Waters, T M. (2005). Medical Malpractice Law in the United States. Kaiser Foundation. Retrieved 

Edwards, J S., Wells, P K., (2015), Tort Law. New York, Delmar Cengage Learning

Gamble, M. (2016). 29 Statistics on Medical Malpractice Payouts and Lawsuits. Beckers Hospital Review. Retrieved
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Pharmacists Get Involved in Medical

Words: 310 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54707549

ithin the profession itself, there are many ethical debates, pertaining to medications, such as prescribing psychotropic drugs like antidepressants to adolescents, the correct times to use palliative care at the end of a patient's life, the ethics of emergency contraception and giving 'the morning after pill' and contraception to adolescents without parental consent. For pharmacists engaged in research, the appropriate use of animals in research and whom to include or exclude in clinical trials may be another issue of personal concern (Applelbe 2008). In all cases, to dispense medication means one must dispense good judgment, not simply pills and potions.

orks Cited

Pharmacy Ethics and Decision Making. (2008). Foreword by Gordon E. Appelbe. First edition.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Pharmacy Ethics and Decision Making. (2008). Foreword by Gordon E. Appelbe. First edition.

London: Pharma Press.
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Companion Diagnostics Translational Medicines

Words: 4711 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9971327

Translational medicine is a new discipline, which covers studies on basic science, on human investigations, non-human investigations, and translational research (Mankoff et al. 2004). asic science studies address the biological effects of medicines on human beings. Studies on humans discover the biology of disease and serve as foundation for developing therapies. Non-human or non-clinical studies advance therapies for clinical use or use in human disease. And translational research refers to appropriate product development for clinical use. Translational research looks into the identity, purity and potency of a drug product during early clinical trial (Mankoff et al.). Translating the knowledge derived from basic sciences into clinical research and treatments is the task of translational medicine (Nagappa 2006). There is a groaning need for this type of research on account of voluminous information in the information age. Using this information is the challenge encountered by scientists and healthcare providers everywhere in the…… [Read More]


Hersh, William. A Stimulus to Define Informatics and Health Information Technology.

Vol 9 BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making: BioMed Central Ltd., 2009.

Retrieved on November 24, 2010 from 

Mankoff, Stacey P. et al. Lost in Translation: Obstacles to Translational Medicine Vol 2
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Ethics and Medicine

Words: 2188 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70905381

Moral Medicine, and a Doctor's Duty to the World

The 18th chapter of On Moral Medicine talks about the way medical professionals build their identity as practitioners and how the form relationships with other professionals and with patients. The author uses four unique terms to define his ideas on the four things these relationships can be based on: covenant, contract, code, and philanthropy. Using these concepts, he explores the current and the ideal relationships which define the medical field and experience. In the end, the author finishes by suggesting a change in the way doctor-patient relationships are conceived, but from the evidence of his own work one can see that he may not push this revolution far enough.

The idea of a covenant in this context is the idea of a deep commitment that transforms those who make it. Covenants are usually made through the exchange of gifts and responsibilities,…… [Read More]

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Herbal or Botanical Medicine Herbal

Words: 862 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45105150

The article summarizes the herbal medicine also known as botanical medicine to refer to the usage of plant seeds, roots, leaves and berries for the medicinal purposes. The article also indicates that use of herbal is today becoming more mainstream as improvements in the quality control with the advances in a clinical research shows the significance of the herbal medicine in treating and prevention of diseases (Herbal medicine, 2011).

How Herbs work and used

The herb contains ingredients that work together in producing a beneficial effect. For instance, the type of the environments in which the herbs plants grow may affect the herb. The use of the herbs has drastically increased over the past 40 years. Presently, the medicines are categorized as the dietary supplements by the people of United States of America (USA). This therefore means that, herbal supplements can be sold before being tested to prove that they…… [Read More]


Herbal medicine. (2011). University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved March 26, 2013, from

Lyon, J. (2011). Veterinary Botanical Medicine Association: Home. Retrieved March 26, 2013, from 

Sifferlin, A. (2013). Herbal Medicines Pose Health Risk to Millions in Asia. TIME Health & Family Retrieved march 26, 2013 from 

Symons, J. (2013). How safe is your herbal medicine? Express. Retrieved March 26, 2013 from
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Animal Rights - Medical Research

Words: 310 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13774084

Society at large does not and would not permit risking harm to humans in order to avoid using animals for research (Animals pp).

The pharmaceutical industry uses animals only when research cannot be accomplished in other ways, and always with care (Animals pp). If society wants to relieve conditions such as epilepsy, asthma, multiple sclerosis, and heart disease, then animals will continue to be need for research (Animals pp).

Although it is important and morally right to minimize the use of animals for research, it would be morally wrong to place the concern for animals above the concerns and needs of people who are dying from and/or living with incurable and untreatable conditions that could benefit from such research (Animals pp).

orks Cited

Animals in Medicines Research Information Centre - AMRIC.… [Read More]

Works Cited

Animals in Medicines Research Information Centre - AMRIC.
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Legal Aspects of Medical Errors Various Factors

Words: 1275 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27766872

Legal Aspects of Medical Errors

Various factors in the health care system are reported to be contributors to medication errors. This work reviews a case study discussed in 'Hospital Pharmacy' (Smetzer and Cohen, 1998) which provides a clear example of the complex nature of the health care system and the process of medication use and how this interrelates to medication safety and quality. The nurse made the decision to administer the medication by IV. The syringe was labeled IM use only. The administration of the medication by IV would prove to be lethal since the drug is insoluble and obstructs blood flow the lungs needed for transferring oxygen to the individual's airways. The baby after it had died was found to not be in need of the treatment after all.

There were 50 latent and active failures that had occurred during the medication-use process and the majority of these failures…… [Read More]


ASHP Technical Assistance Bulletin on Hospital Drug Distribution and Control (2011) Drug Distribution and Control: Distribution -- Technical Assistance Bulletins. Retrieved from:

Institute of Medicine. (2007). Understanding the causes and costs of medication errors (Case on the death of the day-old infant). In P. Aspden, J.A. Wolcott, J.L. Bootman, & L.R. Cronenwett (Eds.), Preventing medication errors: Quality chasm series (pp. 43 -- 4-5)Retrieved from

Pharmacist's Manual Section IX -- Valid Prescription Requirements (2012) Office of Diversion and Control. DEA. Retrieved from:
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Veterinary Medicine

Words: 395 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16522084

Veterinary Medicine

Truthfully I believe the single greatest asset I bring to the veterinary medical field is my enthusiasm for learning and desire to see all animals cared for in a holistic and safe manner. Though I do not have a great deal of experience working directly in the field, I do have a great many life experiences I believe will contribute to the profession. I believe some of the most critical attributes a student of veterinary medicine should have include an open mind, warm spirit, and a good sense of humor.

During the course of my life, I have interacted with a variety of different people from many countries, cultures and backgrounds. While making new friends and discovering new worlds, I have had the opportunity to view how different perspectives and traditions impact mans attitudes toward medicine and medical care.

One of the most distinct things I have learned…… [Read More]

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Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regenerative Medicine

Words: 999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39588755

However, there would also need to be an extended period of longitudinal analysis of the effects of the therapy on the experimental group mice's health to see if the improvement continued and did not produce damaging side effects.

The MSCs in the liver therapy are not derived from human embryos and thus the objections to discarding human embryos are not a factor in the ethical discussion about the therapy. In fact, "the number of MSCs that can be obtained from a donor is significantly lower than the number needed for tissue regeneration. Therefore, MSCs are expanded ex-vivo in media supplemented with growth factors" and created in a lab ("MSC growth factors," R&D Systems, 2013). The main ethical objections to the use of MCSs revolve around the question of scientists' right to create new organs and the possible risks involved. The Japanese research team "relied on a 'cocktail' of so-called induced…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)." R&D Systems. [7 Jul 2013]

"Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) growth factors." R&D Systems. [7 Jul 2013]
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Jewish Client When Discussing Medical Care With

Words: 376 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44599599

Jewish Client

When discussing medical care with Sara, one must keep in mind that she is alone now, having been married for 50 years, but now widowed. She seems to have a rather active social circle, and is more of a middle-of -- the road practitioner of Judaism. Her belief system is likely sensitive to end-of-life issues, but she seems to be a candidate for hospice, rather than palliative care due to her age and the progression of her illness.

In response to Sara's initial decision to have surgery and treat the cancer with chemotherapy, medical personnel would be required to allow her this choice, but ensure that the principles of fidelity and benevolence are followerd. In other words, tell Sara the truth about odds and any prognosis, as well as side-effects. Inform her in a way that is non-paternalistic so that she may make up her own mind about…… [Read More]


Edgedorf, L. (2005). Medical Ethics. New York: Greenhaven Pres.

Jewish Home Lifecare (2013). How Does Pallative Care Differ From Hospice Care? Retrieved from:
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Ethical Issues in Medicine Ethical Dimensions of

Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43439111

Ethical Issues in Medicine

Ethical Dimensions of esearch Studies

Ethical issues in medicine: Clinical trials and cancer patients.

Clinical trials, in which a treatment or a drug is tested upon human beings, are a vital part of bringing a drug to market. It is essential that the treatment be shown to be safe, effective, and better than existing treatments of similar cost and safety levels. However, when developing a drug for patients who are facing a potentially terminal diagnosis such as cancer patients, the ethics of using clinical trials becomes extremely murky. "To advance the science of medicine and improve the care of patients, we need the objective data that can only be gained from clinical trials, in which outcomes are dispassionately analyzed. But the patients in cancer trials are not data points; they are vulnerable people who often view a clinical trial as perhaps their last hope" (Markman 2003:…… [Read More]


Markman, Maurie. (2003). The needs of science vs. The needs of patients. Cleveland Clinic

Journal Of Medicine, 70. 12. Retrieved:
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Sustainable Distribution for Essential Medicines

Words: 3831 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9578906

Sustainable Distibution fo Essential Medicines in Emeging Makets

Business Case Backgound

The Sustainable challenge

Cuent distibution climate of Cue Phamaceutical

The gowing impotance of the emeging makets

Baies to gowth

Pocuement and Distibution

Challenge to oveall sustainability in phamaceutical companies

Patneships utilized in emeging makets and essential medicine distibution

Suggestions of patneships effective in essential medicine distibution

Data gatheing in essential medicine distibution

Sustainable distibution fo essential medicines in emeging makets

Business Case Backgound

This epot addesses the ole phamaceuticals play in emeging makets. Many people have associated these makets as havens fo explosive futue gowth, but thee ae also seious challenges to be faced. The epot will discuss what views investos, stakeholdes, and company executives hold on emeging makets. Thee ae thee pobable significant factos that may sway thei stance. Fist, the efoms ecently made by the govenment egading phamaceuticals and the obligations of multinationals esulting fom the efoms.…… [Read More]


(Multi-Stakeholder Toolkit, n.d), A Toolkit for Improved Understanding and Transparency of Drug Shortage Response in Canada 2013

Banks, M.A., & Persily, G.L. (2010). Campus perspective on the National Institutes of Health public access policy: University of California, San Francisco, library experience. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 98(3), 256 -- 259. doi:10.3163/1536-5050.98.3.015

Bors, C., Christie, A., Gervais, D., & Wright Clayton, E. (2015). Improving Access to Medicines in Low-Income Countries: A Review of Mechanisms. The Journal of World Intellectual Property. 18, 1-28.

Cure Pharmaceutical
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Clinical vs Academic Study in Medicine One

Words: 719 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81058354

Clinical vs. Academic Study in Medicine

One of the most fascinating subjects of today is undoubtedly medicine, and all the science, pactice, o theoy that comes with it. It is vital fo new doctos to become accustomed quickly with suoundings in a hospital, fo example, and to know how to teat patients o diagnose them in a matte of minutes; but it is also vital fo them to have a base of academic knowledge on which to ely at all times. These two factos, then, can help shape an individual as a physician and ende him o he capable o incapable of being successful in the field. This pape will thus speak about why both clinical and academic studies ae necessay fo a successful medical caee, as well as what balance can be stuck between the two to ensue optimal leaning.

The best illustation of the long-going debate on pactice…… [Read More]

references taken from: No Author. (2011). Study Medicine At Oxford: Course Structure. [Online]. Available: . Accessed: 18 October 2011. Updated October 2011. ]

Balance, as seen above, is quite important, and, as seen above, each type of study structure has its advantages. One is therefore left to conclude that medicine should always consider a balanced approach between clinical and academic study, for without one, the other will not work well and a doctor will neither work at his or her full potential, nor be successful in his or her profession.
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Annals of Emergency Medicine in 2014 and

Words: 989 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4758471

Annals of Emergency Medicine, in 2014, and is titled Apneic oxygenation was associated with decreased desaturation rates during rapid sequence intubation by an Australian helicopter emergency medicine service." The article studies a new technique that was introduced in 2011, to see if that technique has proven effective at meeting its objectives.

The Wimalasena (2014) article does not have a literature review. It moves straight from the introduction to the materials and methods. The background section of the introduction serves the purpose of a literature review to some extent. There is no problem statement written into this section. The problem statement can be found in two other places, however. First, it is in the abstract under "study objective": "We evaluate the association between the introduction of apneic oxygenation and incidence of desaturation during rapid sequence intubation in both out-of-hospital and interhospital retrievals." This is rephrased for the box "editor's capsule summary,"…… [Read More]


Wimalasena, Y., Burns, B., Reid, C., Ware, S., Habig, K. (2014). Apneic oxygenation was associated with decreased desaturation rates during rapid sequence intubation by an Australian helicopter emergency medicine service. Annals of Emergency Medicine.
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Ray Technology in Medicine How

Words: 1960 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94082880

Some sources also offer a different insight for the emergent increase in need of this technology. Bernike Pasveer follows the idea that it was because there was a need for efficient diagnosis methods (Pasveer, 1993, p89). It was only after the introduction of X-rays that there was a determination of the nature of tuberculosis. The need for an efficient method that disputed the myths was necessary, and that was achieved on the introduction of X-ray technology. This is supported by Andrew Warwick who claims that the reason why this technology is still significant was due to its diagnostic properties. However, Andrew differs from Bernike by instead using fractures as his example. Andrew explains the role of X-ray technology especially in Germany where the surgeons undertook this process to determine fractures and diagnose bone discrepancies (Warwick, 2005, p4). Incidentally, this is a role of the technology that is still in practice.…… [Read More]


Andrew Warwick (2005), X rays as evidence in German orthopedic surgery.

Anja Hiddinga (1992), X-ray technology in obstetrics: Measuring pelvis at the Yale School of Medicine, in J.V Pickstone ed.

Bernike Pasveer (1993), Depiction in medicine as a two way affair: X -- ray Pictures and Pulmonary Tuberculosis in the early Twentieth century, in Ilana Lowy ed. (Pasveer,

1993, p89).
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Personalize Medicine

Words: 955 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30316537

Personalized medicine as a field started developing in response to the recognition that every person is different in terms not only of genetic and genomic information, but also in terms of his or her clinical and environmental information. The fact that all these areas are different for each person means that each person would respond to illness in a different way, including the onset and duration of the condition. For this reason, many professionals have begun to promote this type of medicinal practice as preferable to more traditional, general methods.

According to the U.S. News (2012), personalized medicine functions on the premise that each disease is treated on an individualized level. Because the disease manifests itself in an individualized way, it is believed that the treatment should receive sufficient attention to also be individualized. Logic suggests that such a method of treatment would be more effective. To do this, the…… [Read More]


Saha, S. And Labs, R. (2010). Is healthcare industry moving towards personalized medicine? Retrieved from:

U.S. News (2012). Personalized Medicine. Retrieved from:
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Martin Army Medical Center Fort Benning Georgia

Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72428112

Martin Army Medical Center, Fort Benning, Georgia and St. Francis Medical, Columbus Georgia

Because resources are by definition scarce, it is important for tertiary healthcare providers to develop healthcare delivery structures that are efficient and effective. Since every healthcare organization is unique, though, these delivery structures can vary widely in scope and purpose. To gain some fresh insights into the healthcare delivery structures that are used by civilian and military health facilities, this paper provides a comparison of Martin Army Medical Center at Fort Benning, Georgia with St. Francis Medical in Columbus, Georgia, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

eview and Comparison

Martin Army Medical Center, Fort Benning, Georgia

Health care delivery structure. Opened in 1958, this is a U.S. Department of Defense facility operated by the U.S. Army that offers inpatient, outpatient and emergency services. At present, Martin Army Medical Center 250-bed,…… [Read More]


About St. Francis Hospital. (2012). St. Francis Hospital. Retrieved from http://www.

About us. (2012). Martin Army Community Hospital. Retrieved from http://www.martin.
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Personalized Medicine the Rapidly Increasing Demand of

Words: 1108 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36679412

Personalized Medicine

The rapidly increasing demand of healthcare needs and preventions methods along with newer forms of diseases being discovered each day, extensive investments have been made in researching the field of medicine to revolutionize the future of medicine. Medical practitioners are looking up to a promising future proposed by the studies being carried out in the fields of genetics. This has open doors for a new and one of its kind form of medicine, namely 'Personalized Medicine.' As the name suggests, this type of medicine is patient specific and involves carrying out diagnosis and treatment plans that is customised to suit individual needs.

With the increase in demands of health care needs and with the discoveries of newer and more mysterious diseases, researches are being carried out at rapid rate to discover newer methods of health care needs. These health care services includes a wide variety of medication practices…… [Read More]


Gilbert, S. (2011). Medicine That's a Little Too Personalized. The Hastings Center Report, 41(4), 49. Retrieved February 3, 2012, from Questia database:

Meadows, M. (2005, November/December). Genomics and Personalized Medicine. FDA Consumer, 39,. Retrieved February 3, 2012, from Questia database:

Woodcock, J. (2005, November/December). Pharmacogenomics: On the Road to "Personalized Medicine." FDA Consumer, 39,. Retrieved February 3, 2012, from Questia database:

Yurkiewicz, S. (2010). The Prospects for Personalized Medicine. The Hastings Center Report, 40(5), 14+. Retrieved February 3, 2012, from Questia database:
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Ruchi Tomar Advantages of Electronic Medical Records

Words: 3264 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74105747

The issue of misplaced or lost patient files is also gotten rid of. These advantages aid in producing a marked rise in the health connected security of patients and the welfare of patients (Ayers, 2009). Furthermore, electronic medical records and patient care are identical in that such systems effortlessly permit restrictions to be placed upon end users' admission to specific information of the patient. This personal security feature is likewise significant to meeting a patient's confidentiality anxieties.

Figure 4 Electronic medical records and their advantages with patients (Slaughter, 2000).

The Benefits of access that is easy to each patient's comprehensive medical information, and the ability for physicians to rapidly take part in medical records and organize patient care. Even though every department at SMG utilizes the EM, it is particularly valuable in the Urgent Care Center when rapid admission to a patient's material can make all the change in medical…… [Read More]


Angst, C.M., Agarwal, R., Sambamurthy, V., & Kelley, K. (2010). Social contagion and information technology diffusion: The adoption of electronic medical records in U.S. hospitals. Management Science, 56(8), 1219-1241.

Ayers, D.J., Menachemi, N., Ramamonjiarivelo, Z., Matthews, M., & Brooks, R.G. (2009). Adoption of electronic medical records: The role of network effects. The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 18(2), 127-135.

Berner, E.S., Detmer, D.E., & Simborg, D. (2005). Will the wave finally break? A brief view of the adoption of electronic medical records in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 12(1), 3-7.

Brooks, R., & Grotz, C. (2010). Implementation of electronic medical records: How healthcare providers are managing the challenges of going digital. Journal of Business & Economics Research, 8(6), 73-84
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How Medical Care Decisions Are Made

Words: 1072 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32642911

medical care sector, the decisions of what services should be produced, how they should be produced, how they should be distributed, and how to allow for growth and innovation must be made.

What combination of non-medical and medical goods and services should be produced in the macro-economy? In terms of guns or butter, the optimal balance of the production of non-medical and medical goods and services in the macro-economy would also include adequate provisions for defense. In sum, to the extent that this combination favored non-medical and medical goods and services in the macro-economy would be the extent to which defense spending would be diminished in the production-possibility frontier (Bandyopadhyay & Sandler, 2014).

What particular medical goods and services should be produced in the health economy? There is a growing recognition that preventive health care services are far more cost effective than reactive approaches that only intervene when people develop…… [Read More]


Bandyopadhyay, S. & Sandler, T. (2014). The effects of terrorism on trade: A factor supply approach. Review - Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, 96(3), 229-233.

Brown, C.E. & Ecoff, L. (2011, Winter). A systematic approach to the inclusion of evidence in healthcare design. Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 4(2), 7-10.

Chronology of events. (2015). National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from http://www.nih. gov/about/almanac/historical/chronology_of_events.htm.

Heller, B.R. & Nichols, M.A. (2001, March/April). Workforce development in nursing: Priming the pipeline. Nursing and Health Care Perspectives, 22(2), 70-73.
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Treatment for Emergency Medical Conditions and Women

Words: 1137 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72256795

Treatment for Emergency Medical Conditions and Women in Labor

The objective of this study is to complete a policy analysis on examination and treatment for emergency medical conditions and women in labor. Arising from the policy analysis will be three to five options to present to the client, a representative in Congress. K

This study is challenging because it is necessary to identify some type of added value to the health care services provided at a medical facility that treats women in labor for emergency medical conditions while at the same time adhering to regulations and standards of treatment both legally and ethically speaking. The costs of treating patients with non-insurance are extremely high and there are regulations barring the transfer of individuals to other facilities until they have been stabilized. In the case of the women in labor treated at this facility, the span of time that the facility…… [Read More]


Mind, Body, Sprit Research Education (2013) Penny George Institute for Health and Healing. Overview and Outcomes Report, 2010. Retrieved from:$FILE/ANW_PGIHH_Outcomes_FNL-1.ForWeb.pdf

Zastrocky, G. (2013) Healthcare Reform "No Birthday" For Holistic Medicine. Holistic Primary Care Vol 13 No. 4. Winter, 2013. Retrieved from: 

Overgaard, C. Fenger-Gron, M> and Sandall, J. (2011) Freestanding midwifery units vs. obstetric units: does the effect of place of birth differ with level of social disadvantage? International Journal for Equity in Health. Retrieved from:
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Patient Centered Medical Homes

Words: 3042 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30529280

Patient Centered Medical Homes (PCMH) are often confused as being actual "homes" for patients to be admitted in and given medical treatment and care. PCMH is actually a health care model based on which health care is provided to patients, under the supervision of physicians. The PCMH model of health care provides patients with continuous, comprehensive medical care, in order to increase the chances of achieving the goal of benefitting the patient with as much attention and medical care in order to maximize his/her health outcomes.

Over the years the PCMH model of health care has become widely adopted and preferred. This is because of the philosophy and approach that the model adopts in organizing and delivering the health care initiatives. The PCMH model is based upon delivering medical care and attention to patients with team-based health and medical experts that are focused strongly on the quality and the safety…… [Read More]


109-432, P.L. (2006, December 20). TAX RELIEF AND HEALTH CARE ACT OF 2006. Public Law 109-432 (109th Congress) .

Backer, L.A. (2009). Building the Case for the Patient-Centered Medical Home. Family Practice Management 16 (1), 14-18.

De Geest, S., Moons, P., Callens, B., Gut, C., Lindpaintner, L., & Spirig, R. (2008). Introducing advanced practice nurses/nurse practitioners in health care systems: a framework for reflection and analysis. Swiss Medical Weekly (138), 621-628.

NASHP. (2013, April). Medical Home & Patient-Centered Care. Retrieved from The National Academy for State Health Policy:
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Ethics Case Study Medical Law and Ethics

Words: 1239 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95526411

Ethics Case Study: Medical Law and Ethics

Jerry McCall is Dr. William's office assistant. He has received professional training as both a medical assistant and an LPN. He is handling all of the phone calls at the office while the receptionist is at lunch. During this period of time, a patient calls and says he must have a prescription refill for Valium, an antidepressant medication, called in right away to his pharmacy, since he is leaving for the airport in thirty minutes. The patient notes that Dr. Williams is a personal friend and always gives him a small supply of Valium when he has to fly. No one except Jerry is in the office at this time.

Does Jerry's Medical Training Qualify Him to efill the Order?

While Jerry's medical training qualifies him to receive a prescription order and transcribe it accurately for other nurses or physicians to implement or…… [Read More]


Lloyd, H. (2010). Workers' compensation: a brief history. Florida Department of Financial Services. Web. Retrieved from: on 1 November 2011.

Minnesota Board of Nursing. (2010). Nurses and prescribing. Web. Retrieved from: on 1 November 2011.

Nowicki, M. And Summers, J. (2004). Reducing your credibility liability. Healthcare Financial Management, 58.4: pp. 94-97. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
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Montefiore Medical Center Reasons for Developing New

Words: 3035 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16657719

Montefiore Medical Center

easons for Developing New Strategy

Designing the new strategy involved several meetings by the Medical Center's employees to assist in the development of a balanced scorecard and initiating nation-level measures. In this regard, the firm developed a new strategy to represent the cause-and-effect linkages among the environment, strategy, and operating plan that could deliver the required financial results. The new system proposed by the strategy was initiated to ensure that financials made up a 10-percent of the measures on the balanced scoreboard. Montefiore additionally, developed the new strategy to measure patient satisfaction, the cost, health care quality as well as cycle times of clinical and administrative processes. It was realized by the institution that the strategic measures were essential in positioning Montefiore for future innovation while encouraging organizational growth. The GIP strategy was initiated by the medical provider to help in increasing market penetration while assisting in…… [Read More]


Barney, J.B. (1986). Organizational Culture: Can It be a Source of Sustained Competitive Advantage? Academy of Management Review, 11(3), 656-665.

Barney, J.B. (1991). Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120.

Collis, D.J., & Montgomery, C.A. (1995). Competing on Resources: Strategy in the 1990s. Harvard Business Review.

Engestrom, Y., Miettinen, R., & Punamaki, R.-L. (1999). Perspectives on Activity Theory. Cambridge University Press.
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Disparities Original Medicine Chest Clause Aboriginal Treaties

Words: 2533 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27607330

disparities original "medicine chest" clause Aboriginal Treaties Canada, failure Canadian government meet health care Aboriginal people today

Policy Change for Improvement

The aboriginals of Canada comprise of the indigenous people who are within North America, but dwell in the boundaries of Canada. Nevertheless, people have continuously view them discriminatively. This is what has led to the formulation of numerous policies, which will favor the aboriginals and make them feel part of the Canadian society. Although this is the case, the policies, some of which are applicable, have not yielded much success. Owing to this, there is a need for policy improvement in an effort to attain some of the essential needs such as healthcare (Walkerman and Humphreys, 2002).

In so doing, the aboriginals will access healthcare, and subsequently feel as part of the society. Notably, aboriginals are present in many other parts of the Western world, and the treatment is…… [Read More]


Government of Ontario (1994). Aboriginal health policy -- Executive summary. Toronto, ON:

Aboriginal Healing & Wellness Strategy. Retrieved 17 December, 2013 from

Kinsley, C. (2002). Rural health in rural hands: Strategic decisions, remote, northern and aboriginal communities. Retrieved from 

Lavoie, J.G., Forget, E., Prakash, T., Dahl, M., Martens, P., & O'Neil, J.D. (2010). Have
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Harris Gardener 17 Feb 2005 Medical Panel

Words: 584 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77372645

Harris, Gardener (17 Feb 2005) "Medical Panel Poses Pointed Questions to Drug Makers Over Risks of Painkillers." The New York Times. Sunday Edition. Retrieved 19 Feb 2005 at

Perhaps the some of the most infamous research studies conducted in recent years were the ones currently undergoing FDA scrutiny, regarding the safety of the once-popular COZ-2 inhibitor drugs such as Vioxx and Bextra and Celebrex. An early Vioxx study found that patients taking the medication had more than four times the risk of undergoing a heart attack as those individuals in the control group. Those patients in the control group were taking Naproxen, another common pain pill but not a COX-2 inhibitor. The Merck Company has since stated it believed that the difference might have resulted because Naproxen protected against heart problems in a manner similar to aspirin.

This raises an important question validating the hypothesis of the research study…… [Read More]

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the ethics of'statistics in medicine

Words: 1423 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88722859

statistics have on shaping healthcare policy and guiding evidence-based practice, it is critical that researchers understand how to present the results of their studies. It is also critical that healthcare workers develop strong skills in statistical literacy, so that the results of studies are not misconstrued. Not all research results are generalizable to a population outside of the sample. Even the most carefully constructed research designs need to be critically analyzed. Similarly, care must be taken when communicating statistical results to a general audience.

The American Statistical Association (1999) outlines eight main areas of ethical concern. Those areas of concern include the following:

• Professionalism

• esponsibilities to employers or funders

• esponsibilities in testimony or publications

• esponsibilities to research subjects

• esponsibilities to research team colleagues

• esponsibilities to other statisticians

• esponsibilities regarding allegations of misconduct

• esponsibilities of employers or clients to the integrity of research…… [Read More]


American Statistical Association (1999). Ethical guidelines for statistical practice.

Aynsley-Green, A, et al. (2012). Medical, statistical, ethical and human rights considerations in the assessment of age in children and young people subject to immigration control. British Medical Bulletin 102(1): 17-42.

Gelman, A. (2014). Ethics and statistics. Retrieved online: 

"Medical Ethics and Statistics," (n.d.). Retrieved online:
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Distant Medical Surveillance Technology for Diabetics

Words: 2489 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65753674

Technology in Medicine: Distant Medical Surveillance Technology for Diabetics in the Less Developed Area of Texas

An estimated 26 million Americans live with diabetes. When not properly treated, diabetes could be fatal as it occupies the seventh position on the list of major mortality causes and it is also a strong causative factor of renal failures, sight damage and clinical limb removals among Americans. Diabetes occurrences are approximately 17% higher in less developed areas. Ethnicity and race are also major factors in determining the risk of suffering from the disease as it affects the smaller factions more. Distant medical surveillance can be very helpful in acquiring daily data about a diabetic's sugar levels, dangerous signs, feeding habits and therapy devotion. This method could help patients take their medications appropriately. Even though certain patients could decide not to adhere to their treatments and thus render this technology useless, the group who…… [Read More]


Balamurugan, A., Hall-Barrow, J., Blevins, M. A., et al. (2009). A pilot study of diabetes education via telemedicine in a rural underserved community -- opportunities and challenges: A continuous quality improvement process. The Diabetes Educator, 35(1), 147 -- 154.

Greenwood, D. A., Young, H. M., & Quinn, C. C. (2014). Telehealth Remote Monitoring Systematic Review: Structured Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose and Impact on A1C. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, 8(2), 378 -- 389.

Hale, N. L., Bennett, K. J., &Probst, J. C. (2010). Diabetes care and outcomes: disparities across rural America. Journal of community health, 35(4), 365-374.

Helseth, C. (2014). Diabetes Management in Rural Areas Takes Holistic, Community Approaches, Rural Health Information Hub. Retrieved from  on February 18, 2017
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Impact of the Medical Education Programs in the Interdisciplinary Staff Practice

Words: 1141 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55108031

Medical Education on Interdisciplinary Staff Practice

The research question I am addressing is the impact of continuing medical education on interdisciplinary staff practice. Researchers of the past decade produced systematic reviews of continuing medical education (CME) and other strategies intended to improve patient outcomes. The subjects of the reviews included such concepts as audit and feedback, chart-based reminders, clinical practice guidelines, and formal lectures. Defined as interventions to change interdisciplinary staff practice, the effects of those strategies were inconsistent across practitioners, settings, and behaviors. As a result, in the midst of contemporary discussions about quality improvement and the effects of continuing education, there is no singularly effective method for improving interdisciplinary staff performance.

Research Methods/Literature Searches

The literature to be studied will come under the rubric of medical education. Medical education journals such as JAMA, Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, and nursing journals such as the Journal…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adams KM, Kohlmeier M, Powell M, Zeisel SH (2010) Nutrition in medicine: nutrition education for medical students and residents. Nutr Clin Pract. 25(5):471-80.

Haycock A, Burling D, Wylie P, Muckian J, Ilangovan R, Thomas-Gibson S. (2010) CT colonography training for radiographers -- a formal evaluation Clin Radiol. 65(12):997-1004.

Karam MD, Marsh JL. (2010) Does a trauma course improve resident performance on the trauma domain of the OITE? J. Bone Joint Surg Am. 92(13):e19

Mazmonian, P. & Davis, D. (2002) Continuing Medical Education and the Physician as Learner. JAMA, 9: 1057-1060.
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Scientific Medical Translation Personal Statement

Words: 1216 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28591398

" here, I worked part-time as a translator and interpreter. It was indeed a magnificent experience to work with members of this demanding theatrical profession. Every day was a constant surprise and a constant challenge to my linguistic abilities. I had to put works of great emotion, the off-stage as well as the on-stage monologues, of these fine actors into comprehensible form, structure, and prose for the delight and edification of others and for audiences of all ages.

his constant, daily, living act of translation also highlighted for me the delicate balance between subjectivity and objectivity in the art of translating another's words and thoughts into another language and cultural system of ideas. Beyond decoding the meaning of the source text or voice, and recoding it into the language and meaning of another text and voice, I learned that in the immediacy of life there is always an element between…… [Read More]

This is even more important for someone in a specific field, as in medical and scientific translation, as often words have a different meaning in the technical lexicon of the profession or a discipline then they do in more colloquial usage. For much as I enjoyed my tenure with the theatrical company, for me, even more gratifying than making the arts understandable is the ability to make the often difficult and frightening world of medicine and science comprehensible. To see my knowledge of a language bring comprehension, the understanding of the 'yes, I see,' or the 'a-ha' in the eyes of another is as satisfying as landing a well-spiked volleyball over the net, another of my favorite leisure time pursuits, or of hearing applause while standing on the stage.

My knowledge of technical subjects and fluency in the language of scientific technology has been honed through my computer knowledge and my proficiency in technical languages. I am fluent in Windows98, Windows 2000, and Windows XP. Microsoft Applications such as Word, Excel, Access, Explorer, FrontPage, PowerPoint, Publisher, Photoshop, and I have a good knowledge of HTML programming and the languages involved in web design.

Translation, regardless of the language and the lexicon -- scientific, computer, medical, or artistic -- is about the conveyance of meaning as perfectly as possible into a language and a manner understandable to another person's language and lexicon. To be a translator is to be the human facilitator in the process of creating meaning and bridges between cultures. It is a skill I have performed in the past, and one that I hope to further sharpen and perfect, in school and in my professional life.
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Allopathic Medicine Outweigh the Risks

Words: 4631 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37148611

" Prescription drugs invade the markets today only to mask the symptoms of disease instead of preventing disease from happening. In this back-end approach to fighting disease instead of preventing it from occurring in the first place, pharmaceutical companies have profited at the expense of society." (Karel M.)

There is therefore also the feelings and the growing suspicion that prescription drugs are controlled by large pharmaceutical corporations and these influence practitioners and the health care industry. Modern medical practitioners are also "... subject to persuasion from drug manufacturers and rely on them for their information, despite their obvious bias to use their drugs." (Karel M.) This is an area that has been severely critiqued in allotropic health care; namely the fact that modern medicine is dominated by large drug companies which to a large extent are more concerned with their profit margins than with the quality and the ultimate effectives…… [Read More]


Bawaskar H.S. Non- allopathic doctors form the backbone of rural health.

Retrieved March 8, 2007, at

Death by Modern Medicine. Retrieved March 8, 2007, at

Definition of Allopathic. Retrieved March 6, 2007, at
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the benefits of crowdsourcing medicine

Words: 1527 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71724872

Defined as “the process of seeking a problem's solution from a wide community, often online,” crowdsourcing is common in almost every sector (Sanghavi 1). However, many patients may be unaware that they can also crowdsource their healthcare decisions. Referred to as “a second opinion writ large,” crowdsourcing medical diagnoses is now possible through many different online platforms including CrowdMed and the more artificial intelligence (AI)-driven HumanDx (Arnold 1). The way medical crowdsourcing works is a little more complicated than asking for fine dining tips in Tokyo or even asking the general public for clues to solving a crime. With crowdsourced medicine using the CrowdMed model, doctors, nurses, and other healthcare workers essentially compete for whoever offers the most accurate diagnosis, and receive financial compensation for accurate hits. Compensation is higher for difficult to diagnose problems. The HumanDx platform is different, available only to physicians at the moment and uses AI…… [Read More]