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Another group demonstrated that when insulin infusion was initiated in patients in the operating room before sternotomy and continued until the third postoperative day that there was improved glucose control. There was a 57% decrease in mortality rate, compared with control groups who were treated with subcutaneous insulin. Patients with diabetes have been shown to have worse outcomes compared to patients without diabetes. There have been no relationship was found between the presence of diabetes and the influence of hyperglycemia on outcomes. Patients who have diabetes, even though they are at increased risk for adverse outcomes because of having diabetes, have been found to have the same risk as patients without diabetes. Based upon these findings it would seem reasonable to say that that Perioperative serum glucose control for patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass surgery would be an encouraged best practice.
It has been found that strict glucose control is…
1. Gandhi, Gunjan Y., Nuttall, Gregory A., Abel, Martin D., Mullany, Charles J., Schaff, Hartzell
V., O'Brien, Peter C., Johnson, Matthew G., Williams, Arthur R., Cutshall, Susanne M.,
Munday, Lisa M., Rizza, Robert A., and McMahon, M. Molly. Intensive Intraoperative
Insulin Therapy vs. Conventional Glucose Management during Cardiac Surgery.
Limited information about oral hygiene and difficulty accessing preventive dental care are thought to add to the racial and income difference in the incidence of caries. Underprivileged and minority kids are more probable to have untreated dental decay, compared with more wealthy white children. In a recent examination of national survey data, the General Accounting Office found that underprivileged children had five times more untreated decay than did children from higher earnings families. Untreated decay can result in troubles with eating and drinking, talking, and education. Children who are underprivileged experience twelve times the number of limited activity days caused by dental troubles, compared with more wealthy children (Lewis, Grossman, Domoto and Deyo, 2000).
The baby teeth start to come through at varying ages throughout a child's first year of life. A child is vulnerable to tooth rot as almost immediately as their first teeth come in if they…
Bright Futures in Practice: Oral Health Pocket Guide (2004). Retrieved October 27, 2010, from Web site: http://brightfutures.aap.org/pdfs/Guidelines_PDF/8 -
Lewis, Charlotte W., Grossman, David C., Domoto, Peter K. And Deyo, Richard A. (2000). The
Role of the Pediatrician in the Oral Health of Children: A National Survey. Pediatrics,
Generally, the level of evidence for most of the studies is low. Ten studies are classified as level 2c which represents 'outcomes research' (evidence is obtained from uncontrolled trials without randomization) and two studies are classified as level 5 meaning 'expert opinion without explicit critical appraisal'.
#5 Were the results similar from study to study?
What is best?
When the compiled studies are homogenous, statistical applications can be useful, and meta-analysis is achievable (Stevens, 2009).
This paper: Yes ( No ( xx Unclear (
The studies were heterogeneous; therefore, meta-analysis could not be performed. Most of the included studies describe integrated processes but there is a variety in the described outcomes and processes within the models. At this moment standardized outcome measures in pain management are not available, so it is not always possible to make a proper comparison between the outcomes. Therefore, generalization of the results can be…
Brink-Huis, A., van Achterberg, T., & Schoonhoven, L. (2008). Pain management: A review of organisation models with integrated processes for the management of pain in adult cancer patients. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(15), 1986-2000. doi:10.1111/j.1365-
Stevens, K.R. (2009). Systematic reviews. In M.A. Mateo, & K.T. Kirchoff (Eds.), Research for advanced practice nurses: From evidence to practice. (pp.249-265). New York: Springer.
The dilemma associated with this case study suggests that little is known or can be done with serious illness with any great confidence. At the heart of the issue is who is responsible for the sick child as it appears, but may not be true, that he cannot take care of himself and that his immune system needs to be guided by someone else.
The lack of a formal family and the unnatural formation of this family also contributes to the confusion of this ethical problem. The Christian Scientist mother of the child holds no biological claim to the child and is demanding a unique spiritual procedure to be used to the heal the child. Although this method is controversial and not based in traditional science, the laws allowing for this type of treatment are allowed in reasonable circumstance in many areas of the world.
Dean, M. (2010). Comparative evaluation of homeopathy and allopathy within the Parisian hospital system, 1849 -- 1851. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 103(1), 34-36.
Flamm, B.L. (2004). Faith healing confronts modern medicine. Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine, 8, 9-14.
Starfield, B. (2000, July 26). Is U.S. health really the best in the world? Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(4), 483-485
How can eliminating abbreviations reduce errors?
In the medical profession, time is everything. To make documentation as expeditious as possible, a series of abbreviations have been accepted in records. This has been considered an acceptable practice as much as calling a registered nurse an "RN." The problems occur when people are unclear about the abbreviations mean or if a set of letters can have more than one meaning. For example, there is the abbreviation "CA" which means cancer and then "Ca" which is calcium. Another example is "a" which can mean both "artery" and "before" (Medical 2011-page 1). It is very easy to misread abbreviations when medical staff is in a hurry. Imagine the problem if a "q.w." which is take weekly was confused for a "q.v." which is take as one wishes. If the terms were written out rather than abbreviated, these potentially dangerous situations could be…
Berman, Jules. (2008). "Specified Life." Biomedical Informatics.
Greenall, Julie (2006). "Safe Medication Practices." Hospital News.
"Medical Abbreviations Glossary." (2011). JD-MD.
Medical Use of Marijuana
Increasing use of medical marijuana
Having looked at the various areas that medical marijuana has been brought into use and the various forms in which marijuana is administered, it is also important to take note of the various challenges that come with it. There have been various researches that have been conducted that covers the medical as well as the ethical side of the medicinal marijuana, and there have been a dilemma in the balance of the two sides on whether to institutionalize the drug or to stop it, and even on whether the medicinal use can be made to work without the proneness to abuse as is the case at the moment.
Medicinal marijuana has neither medical nor ethical standing within the contemporary society where drug abuse is one of the biggest worries of governments across the world and the alternative medicines that medical research…
In this case, that power dynamic was only exacerbated by the fact that the entire MSICU nursing team had never received training in management of the type of clinical issues presented and by the fact that they were excluded from any consultation in connection with a post-operative management plan.
Therefore, it is recommended that the institution immediately implement a policy of "see something, say something" according to which all members of healthcare teams are encouraged to speak up irrespective of power differentials. Furthermore, that protocol must include a statement of policy insulating any member of a healthcare team who does voice a legitimate concern in good faith from any retaliation or other negative response that could conceivably deter such diligence. Finally, the record of this case also indicates the immediate need for protocols requiring all members of the healthcare team to identify themselves to other members of the team, especially…
Bosk, Charles L. (2003). Forgive and Remember: Managing Medical Failure.
Gawande, Atul. (2008). Better: A Surgeon's Notes on Performance.
Groopman, Jerome. (2008). How Doctors Think.
Timmermans, Stefan. (2003). The Gold Standard: The Challenge of Evidence-Based
These examples highlight that technology is always a tool, a way of enhancing human judgment -- we must not mistake it as a replacement for good nursing practice.
After all, the use of a computer is no substitute for a medical education. Anyone who works in a hospital can see this -- the increased accessibility of information through the Internet also means that patients often come in, convinced that they are suffering from a serious illness, allergy, or condition, based more upon a diagnosis Googled on WebMD, rather than upon the fact that they saw a doctor! If a computer alone was required to diagnose, everyone would have a degree!
Don't get me wrong -- I use technology every day in my life, and thank my lucky stars, and my patient's lucky stars, that it is so ubiquitous. When health care providers wish to communicate, the use of cell phones…
According to the work of Fulford (1994) in an Oxford Practice Skills Project eport "Three elements of practice (ethics, law and communication skills) are approached in an integrated teaching programme which aims to address everyday clinical practice. The role of a central value of patient-centered health care in guiding the teaching is described. Although the final aim of the teaching is to improve the actual practice, we have found three 'sub-aims' helpful in the development of the programme. These sub-aims are: increasing students' awareness of ethical issues; enhancing their analytical thinking skills, and teaching specific knowledge. (Hope, 1994)
In the work of Miles, et al. (1989) entitled "Medical Ethics Education: Coming of Age it is stated that "medical ethics education is instruction that endeavors to teach the examination of the role of values in the doctor's relationship with patients, colleagues and society. It is one form of a broad curricular…
Fryer-Edwards, PhD (2005) Tough Talk: Helping Doctors Approach Difficult Conversations - Resources for Teaching- Domains for Small Group Teaching Prelude 3 Department of Medical History and Ethics University of Washington School of Medicine.
Siegler, Mark MD (2001) Lessons from 30 Years of Teaching Clinical Ethics AMA Journal 2001 October.
St. Onge, Joye (1997) Medical Education Must Make Room for Student-Specific Ethical Dilemmas" Canadian Medical Association Journal 15 Apr 1987, 156(8).
Hicks, L. et al. (2001) Understanding the Clinical Dilemmas that Shape Medical Students' Ethical Development: Questionnaire Survey and Focus Group study. BMJ Journal 2001;322-709-71- 24 march 2001.
My predilection for working under stress prepares me psychologically for the unique and demanding profession. The college professor who advised that my disposition and talents lend themselves to a career in osteopathy told me that osteopaths need to be creative as well as analytical: to assess situations and make decisions that synthesize years of prior knowledge and experience. I believe I possess the qualities that would prepare me for a successful and rewarding career as an osteopathic physician.
As I seek entry into your esteemed medical school program with a focus in osteopathy, I can assure you of my capacity to meet challenges with poise and calm. My business experience has prepared me for the demands of medical school: owning a business while attending school full-time has not deterred nor tired me physically. I look forward to participating in your program; I assure you that I will represent your school…
The facts that you have provided indicate extremely troubling circumstances that could seriously jeopardize the welfare of your organization. It is well-settled law that entities contracting for the services of subsidiaries are legally responsible for legal and ethical improprieties committed by those subsidiaries irrespective of whether or not the contracting organization had any specific involvement in or knowledge of those actions. Accordingly, we would strongly advise that you take immediate action to rectify the situations described in the manner outlined in our recommendations below.
To avoid the potentially serious criminal, civil, and financial consequences arising under MWHC's respondeat superior responsibility to prevent fraud and abuse in connection with its association with subsidiaries, it is hereby recommended that MWHC immediately:
1. Instruct the subsidiary to cease and desist from offering its contracted home health agency employees compensation of any kind in connection with client durable medical equipment (DME) orders from…
Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.
USDHHS. (2004). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services-Office of Inspector
General-Statement of Organization, Functions -- and Delegations of Authority.
Federal Register. Vol. 69, No. 127; July 2, 2004. Retrieved November 14, 2010,
As mentioned earlier, the desired outcome of nursing care is comfort and there are many articles in which the researchers have talked about the needs of the patients and the things that alter the comfort of the patients. Kolcaba suggested that the cancer patients who are terminally ill can benefit from comfort care as it pays attention to the perspective and needs of the patients. Through such kind of care, the patient is not only provided with pain relief, but the depression of the patient is also addressed adequately. As she said that patients who are not in pain but are depressed seek comfort in the transcendental sense as well as in the psycho-spiritual sense (Kolcaba, 1992 p 4). In some of her works, she has explained the use of the instruments and their application by the nurses. Kolcaba reckons that the instruments presented by her to evaluate the comfort…
Kolcaba K. (1994). A theory of holistic comfort for nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(10): 1178-1184.
Kolkaba, K. (1992). Holistic comfort: Operationalizing the construct as a nurse-sensitive outcome..Advances in Nursing Science, 15 (1), pp. 1-10.
Kolkaba, K. (1997). The primary holisms in nursing..Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25 pp. 290-296.
Kolkaba, K. And Fisher, E. (1996). A holistic perspective on comfort care as an advance directive..Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 18 pp. 66-76.
Case Involving a Medical Dilemma
Nurses usually experience ethical dilemmas while carrying out their work of providing care to different patient populations. Ethical dilemmas arising during nursing practice are largely attributable to the complex processes involved in healthcare delivery. An example of a landmark case involving a medical dilemma is the case of a 17-year-old girl in Connecticut, Cassandra C, who refused to continue receiving chemotherapy. Cassandra was diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma at Connecticut Children’s Medical Center in September 2014. Following her diagnosis, doctors recommended chemotherapy as a suitable treatment approach that would help save her life. However, with her mother’s support, Cassandra refused this treatment approach for her potentially curable cancer resulting in a medical dilemma that ended up at the Connecticut Supreme Court. In a unanimous decision, the Connecticut Supreme Court ruled that the teenager cannot refuse chemotherapy on the premise that she is not mature (Viale, 2015).…
Hevia, M. & Schnidrig, D. (2016, December). Terminal Patients and the Right to Refuse Medical Treatment in Argentina. Health and Human Rights Journal, 18(2), 247-250.
Viale, P.H. (2015, March-April). Refusal of Therapy: When Is It Appropriate? Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology, 6(2), 96-97.
medical home concept and describe the principles (operational characteristics mentioned above) of the PC-MH as defined by these organizations. How does this concept differ from the gatekeeper concept of Managed Care Organizations?
According to the 'gatekeeper' philosophy of health management organizations (HMOs), physicians are intentionally given incentives to reduce access to care. This is based upon the assumption that patients will want to obtain as much care as they can receive and physicians will want to bestow that care to please patients and incur more revenue. HMOs encourage physicians to do the opposite and often financially reward physicians for cost reductions and limiting access of patients to specialists or heroic treatments. In the HMO model, physicians try to restrict access to specialists when they do not deem it necessary.
In contrast, the medical home concept is viewed as a partnership between "individual patients, and their personal physicians, and when appropriate,…
Case for change to the PC-MH Model (2011). American Dietetic Association.
Retrieved October 19, 2011 at http://www.eatright.org/HealthProfessionals/content.aspx?id=7059
Joint Principles of the Patient-Centered Medical Home. (2007). American Academy of Family
Physicians (AAFP). American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). American College of Physicians (ACP). American Osteopathic Association (AOA)
Medical marijuana has increasingly been in the news as a growing number of states throughout the U.S. have passed measures or at least put on the ballot an initiative to legalize either medicinal or recreational marijuana usage. The history of marijuana in the U.S. is one that goes back as far as the country itself: hemp (a type of marijuana plant) was used for rope, paper and a number of other purposes because of its strong fibrous tissue.1 It was not until the Prohibition Era of the 1920s that marijuana began to be prohibited by law in the U.S.—and within a decade, it was regulated among most states under the Uniform State Narcotic Act.2 Thus, from its very first days as a crop grown by the Virginia Company for exporting to England by decree of James I—and in fact from the days of the first President of the U.S.…
medical and ethical dilemmas, even if the activities were deemed technically legal or not questioned at the time. The fact that the studies sought to gain information from human subjects under unfair and undesirable circumstances means their results cannot be condoned and the findings cannot be accepted or used as viable study data. Each study directly crosses the line into scientific unacceptability in different ways; and while their underlying approaches raise interesting historical and philosophical questions -- that did not need to be tested to be debated -- there is no way to weed out the biases that contaminate the data.
This being said, it is generally safe to say that all of the studies were improper (unethical and/or illegal) at the time that they were being undertaken. This can be seen in the fact that in every instance the medical professionals involved were either directly or indirectly punished for…
Consumer Reports (2007). "Off-Label" Drug Use, Shopper's Guide. Downloadable at http://www.consumerreports.org/health/resources/pdf/best-buy-drugs/money-saving-guides/english/Off-Label-FINAL.pdf .
Pain Management of America (2011). Chronic Pain Treatment and Management with Medical Marijuana. Viewable at http://www.medicalmarijuana.net/uses-and-treatments/chronic-pain/.
SOURCES OF STUDIES
Jewish Chronic Disease: http://johnmueller.org/Problems/Cancer.html
Describe briefly your topic of interest (15 possible points):
According to the United States Department of Health and Human Services (2013), medical reconciliation is "the process of comparing a patient's medication orders to all of the medications that the patient has been taking. This reconciliation is done to avoid medication errors such as omissions, duplications, dosing errors, or drug interactions." The process of medical reconciliation falls within the rubric of electronic medical records, which enable medical reconciliation. Medical reconciliation saves lives, improves the efficiency of hospital administration and of the healthcare team, and is simply necessary for providing quality of care.
#1 Database (or collection) (30 possible points):
Title of source:
"Electronic Health ecord (HE)"
Location of source (UL): http://www.ihs.gov/ehr/index.cfm?module=medication_reconciliation
Owner or publisher:
Indian Health Service
The Indian Health Service (2013) offers an overview of what medical reconciliation is, and how it applies to both individual and community health.…
"Electronic Health Record (EHR)," (2013). Indian Health Service. Retrieved online: http://www.ihs.gov/ehr/index.cfm?module=medication_reconciliation
"Medical Reconciliation," (2013). Greater Baltimore Medical Center. Retrieved online: http://www.gbmc.org/body.cfm?id=617
United States Department of Health and Human Services (2013). Electronic health record (EHR). Retrieved online:
Ethical Dilemma: case study of clinical trial on a child
The field of medicine and research has been surrounded by issue of experiments in order to have the conclusive result of the effectiveness of a drug or otherwise. These results can only be obtained if the drugs are at times used on human beings with the real medical problem that the experiment seeks to find solution to. The problem of ethical dilemma often comes in at such stages on whether to go ahead to experiment on the effectiveness of the new drug or not.
Ethical dilemma refers to the situation that is deemed complex since it involves some element of mental conflict between moral imperatives that is one goes ahead and obeys one, it will mean the transgression of another (Braunack-Meyer A.J., 2001). The individual does not have a clear cut direction on which option to go for, despite there…
Braunack-Meyer A.J., (2001). What makes a problem an ethical problem? An empirical perspective on the nature of ethical problems in general practice. Retrieved November 29, 2014 from http://jme.bmj.com/content/27/2/98.full
Pier B.K., (2007). Children, Gillick Competency and Consent for Involvement in Research. Retrieved November 29, 2014 from http://jme.bmj.com/content/33/11/659.abstract
Spriggs M., (2010). Understanding Consent in Research Involving Children: The ethical Issues. Retrieved November 29, 2014 from http://www.mcri.edu.au/media/62539/handbook.pdf
Medicine as a discipline is predominantly rooted in science, particularly biology and chemistry. My strong performance in and enjoyment of sciences makes me an ideal candidate for medical school. Nevertheless, my greatest motivation to pursue the field comes from my passion for serving people. Right from elementary school through to college, I have always been passionate about serving people in a direct way. I have participated in numerous volunteer and community initiatives, which have further strengthened my desire to serve people. Serving people gives me satisfaction more than anything else. Medicine is one field that offers the opportunity to serve humanity. It is not only a job, but also a career. It enables one to practically apply the knowledge acquired in class in helping people.
Dissimilar to most courses, medicine is a vocational course in the sense that one gets practical training in a specific job. Students do not just…
Licensing of anything is applying the legality of its use to a collective group of people. Understanding this concept is critical in developing an attitude towards the history of licensing of health care professionals. The purpose of this essay is to describe how it came to be that physicians are licensed and essentially under governmental control and direction. The essay will give a brief history of this process to help contextualize these efforts. Before concluding this essay will also address the importance of why the federal government is the sole licensing authority for physicians to dispense or prescribe control substances.
The ole of Government
Before realizing the impact of the licensing of health care professionals by the government, it is necessary to understand the role of the government. While it is historically and culturally acceptable to interpret the role of government as extremely important in guiding the citizens…
America Medical Association (nd). Medical Licensure. Viewed 20 July 2014. Retrieved from http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/education-careers/becoming-physician/medical-licensure.page
Hamowy, R. (1979). The Early Development of Medical Licensing Laws in the United States. The Journal of libertarian studies, 3, 73.
US Department of Justice (nd). Drug Schedules. Viewed 20 July 2014. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/dea/druginfo/ds.shtml
Medical malpractice is defined as "any act or omission by a physician during treatment of a patient that deviates from accepted norms of practice in the medical community and causes an injury to the patient" (Bal, 2009, p.340). Notability, while Bal (2009) defines this in the context of physicians, it is also important to realise that other medical practitioners, such as nurses, dentists, pharmacists, and occupational therapists, can also be subject to malpractice suits. The risks associated with an accusation of malpractice remain high, for example, in a recent report it was found that doctors in low risk specialty areas had a 75% chance of facing a malpractice claim, whereas those is high risk specialities had a 100% chance (Seabury, Lakdawalla, and Chandra, 2011). However, the incidence level of paid claims is reducing; in 2014 there were a total of 11,922 claims, a 4.3% decrease on the preceding year (Gamble,…
Bal., B S. (2009). An Introduction to Medical Malpractice in the United States. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 647(2), 339-347
Budetti, P P., Waters, T M. (2005). Medical Malpractice Law in the United States. Kaiser Foundation. Retrieved https://kaiserfamilyfoundation.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/medical-malpractice-law-in-the-united-states-report.pdf
Edwards, J S., Wells, P K., (2015), Tort Law. New York, Delmar Cengage Learning
Gamble, M. (2016). 29 Statistics on Medical Malpractice Payouts and Lawsuits. Beckers Hospital Review. Retrieved http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/legal-regulatory-issues/29-statistics-on-medical-malpractice-payouts-and-lawsuits.html
ithin the profession itself, there are many ethical debates, pertaining to medications, such as prescribing psychotropic drugs like antidepressants to adolescents, the correct times to use palliative care at the end of a patient's life, the ethics of emergency contraception and giving 'the morning after pill' and contraception to adolescents without parental consent. For pharmacists engaged in research, the appropriate use of animals in research and whom to include or exclude in clinical trials may be another issue of personal concern (Applelbe 2008). In all cases, to dispense medication means one must dispense good judgment, not simply pills and potions.
Pharmacy Ethics and Decision Making. (2008). Foreword by Gordon E. Appelbe. First edition.…
Pharmacy Ethics and Decision Making. (2008). Foreword by Gordon E. Appelbe. First edition.
London: Pharma Press.
Translational medicine is a new discipline, which covers studies on basic science, on human investigations, non-human investigations, and translational research (Mankoff et al. 2004). asic science studies address the biological effects of medicines on human beings. Studies on humans discover the biology of disease and serve as foundation for developing therapies. Non-human or non-clinical studies advance therapies for clinical use or use in human disease. And translational research refers to appropriate product development for clinical use. Translational research looks into the identity, purity and potency of a drug product during early clinical trial (Mankoff et al.). Translating the knowledge derived from basic sciences into clinical research and treatments is the task of translational medicine (Nagappa 2006). There is a groaning need for this type of research on account of voluminous information in the information age. Using this information is the challenge encountered by scientists and healthcare providers everywhere in the…
Hersh, William. A Stimulus to Define Informatics and Health Information Technology.
Vol 9 BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making: BioMed Central Ltd., 2009.
Retrieved on November 24, 2010 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6947/24
Mankoff, Stacey P. et al. Lost in Translation: Obstacles to Translational Medicine Vol 2
Moral Medicine, and a Doctor's Duty to the World
The 18th chapter of On Moral Medicine talks about the way medical professionals build their identity as practitioners and how the form relationships with other professionals and with patients. The author uses four unique terms to define his ideas on the four things these relationships can be based on: covenant, contract, code, and philanthropy. Using these concepts, he explores the current and the ideal relationships which define the medical field and experience. In the end, the author finishes by suggesting a change in the way doctor-patient relationships are conceived, but from the evidence of his own work one can see that he may not push this revolution far enough.
The idea of a covenant in this context is the idea of a deep commitment that transforms those who make it. Covenants are usually made through the exchange of gifts and responsibilities,…
The article summarizes the herbal medicine also known as botanical medicine to refer to the usage of plant seeds, roots, leaves and berries for the medicinal purposes. The article also indicates that use of herbal is today becoming more mainstream as improvements in the quality control with the advances in a clinical research shows the significance of the herbal medicine in treating and prevention of diseases (Herbal medicine, 2011).
How Herbs work and used
The herb contains ingredients that work together in producing a beneficial effect. For instance, the type of the environments in which the herbs plants grow may affect the herb. The use of the herbs has drastically increased over the past 40 years. Presently, the medicines are categorized as the dietary supplements by the people of United States of America (USA). This therefore means that, herbal supplements can be sold before being tested to prove that they…
Herbal medicine. (2011). University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved March 26, 2013, from http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/herbal-medicine-000351.htm
Lyon, J. (2011). Veterinary Botanical Medicine Association: Home. Retrieved March 26, 2013, from http://www.vbma.org/
Sifferlin, A. (2013). Herbal Medicines Pose Health Risk to Millions in Asia. TIME Health & Family Retrieved march 26, 2013 from http://healthland.time.com/2013/03/20/herbal-medicines-pose-health-risk-to-millions-in-asia/
Symons, J. (2013). How safe is your herbal medicine? Express. Retrieved March 26, 2013 from http://www.express.co.uk/life-style/health/385349/How-safe-is-your-herbal-medicine
Society at large does not and would not permit risking harm to humans in order to avoid using animals for research (Animals pp).
The pharmaceutical industry uses animals only when research cannot be accomplished in other ways, and always with care (Animals pp). If society wants to relieve conditions such as epilepsy, asthma, multiple sclerosis, and heart disease, then animals will continue to be need for research (Animals pp).
Although it is important and morally right to minimize the use of animals for research, it would be morally wrong to place the concern for animals above the concerns and needs of people who are dying from and/or living with incurable and untreatable conditions that could benefit from such research (Animals pp).
Animals in Medicines Research Information Centre - AMRIC. http://www.abpi.org.uk/amric/introduction.asp
Animals in Medicines Research Information Centre - AMRIC. http://www.abpi.org.uk/amric/introduction.asp
However, there would also need to be an extended period of longitudinal analysis of the effects of the therapy on the experimental group mice's health to see if the improvement continued and did not produce damaging side effects.
The MSCs in the liver therapy are not derived from human embryos and thus the objections to discarding human embryos are not a factor in the ethical discussion about the therapy. In fact, "the number of MSCs that can be obtained from a donor is significantly lower than the number needed for tissue regeneration. Therefore, MSCs are expanded ex-vivo in media supplemented with growth factors" and created in a lab ("MSC growth factors," R&D Systems, 2013). The main ethical objections to the use of MCSs revolve around the question of scientists' right to create new organs and the possible risks involved. The Japanese research team "relied on a 'cocktail' of so-called induced…
"Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)." R&D Systems. [7 Jul 2013]
"Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) growth factors." R&D Systems. [7 Jul 2013]
Ethical Issues in Medicine
Ethical Dimensions of esearch Studies
Ethical issues in medicine: Clinical trials and cancer patients.
Clinical trials, in which a treatment or a drug is tested upon human beings, are a vital part of bringing a drug to market. It is essential that the treatment be shown to be safe, effective, and better than existing treatments of similar cost and safety levels. However, when developing a drug for patients who are facing a potentially terminal diagnosis such as cancer patients, the ethics of using clinical trials becomes extremely murky. "To advance the science of medicine and improve the care of patients, we need the objective data that can only be gained from clinical trials, in which outcomes are dispassionately analyzed. But the patients in cancer trials are not data points; they are vulnerable people who often view a clinical trial as perhaps their last hope" (Markman 2003:…
Markman, Maurie. (2003). The needs of science vs. The needs of patients. Cleveland Clinic
Journal Of Medicine, 70. 12. Retrieved: http://ccjm.org/content/70/12/1008.full.pdf
Essay 2: In what collegiate extracurriculars did you engage? (400 characters)
As Vice President of Phi Kappa Sigma, I co-managed the annual $30k budget, participated in 100+ hours of community service, volunteered for the Rutgers Dance Marathon, raised funds for the Embrace the Kids Foundation, and organized the annual Phi-Esta fundraiser for the Eric Legrand’s Foundation with several other fraternities. I also volunteered for the Leukemia Lymphoma Society.
Essay 3: Did you work for compensation during college during the year or the summer? (300 Word limit)
Yes, every summer I worked full-time. During the summers of my undergraduate career, I worked at Selco Associates, a distribution and warehousing company. There I coordinated with management personnel to provide high quality customer service. I also managed apparel and footwear inventory for major companies and assisted in opening new accounts. This experience helped me to develop communication, organization, and problem-solving skills that I…
Sustainable Distibution fo Essential Medicines in Emeging Makets
Business Case Backgound
The Sustainable challenge
Cuent distibution climate of Cue Phamaceutical
The gowing impotance of the emeging makets
Baies to gowth
Pocuement and Distibution
Challenge to oveall sustainability in phamaceutical companies
Patneships utilized in emeging makets and essential medicine distibution
Suggestions of patneships effective in essential medicine distibution
Data gatheing in essential medicine distibution
Sustainable distibution fo essential medicines in emeging makets
Business Case Backgound
This epot addesses the ole phamaceuticals play in emeging makets. Many people have associated these makets as havens fo explosive futue gowth, but thee ae also seious challenges to be faced. The epot will discuss what views investos, stakeholdes, and company executives hold on emeging makets. Thee ae thee pobable significant factos that may sway thei stance. Fist, the efoms ecently made by the govenment egading phamaceuticals and the obligations of multinationals esulting fom the efoms.…
(Multi-Stakeholder Toolkit, n.d), A Toolkit for Improved Understanding and Transparency of Drug Shortage Response in Canada 2013
Banks, M.A., & Persily, G.L. (2010). Campus perspective on the National Institutes of Health public access policy: University of California, San Francisco, library experience. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 98(3), 256 -- 259. doi:10.3163/1536-5050.98.3.015
Bors, C., Christie, A., Gervais, D., & Wright Clayton, E. (2015). Improving Access to Medicines in Low-Income Countries: A Review of Mechanisms. The Journal of World Intellectual Property. 18, 1-28.
Cure Pharmaceutical http://www.curepharmaceutical.com/about.html
Clinical vs. Academic Study in Medicine
One of the most fascinating subjects of today is undoubtedly medicine, and all the science, pactice, o theoy that comes with it. It is vital fo new doctos to become accustomed quickly with suoundings in a hospital, fo example, and to know how to teat patients o diagnose them in a matte of minutes; but it is also vital fo them to have a base of academic knowledge on which to ely at all times. These two factos, then, can help shape an individual as a physician and ende him o he capable o incapable of being successful in the field. This pape will thus speak about why both clinical and academic studies ae necessay fo a successful medical caee, as well as what balance can be stuck between the two to ensue optimal leaning.
The best illustation of the long-going debate on pactice…
references taken from: No Author. (2011). Study Medicine At Oxford: Course Structure. [Online]. Available: http://www.medsci.ox.ac.uk/study/medicine/pre-clinical/structure . Accessed: 18 October 2011. Updated October 2011. ]
Balance, as seen above, is quite important, and, as seen above, each type of study structure has its advantages. One is therefore left to conclude that medicine should always consider a balanced approach between clinical and academic study, for without one, the other will not work well and a doctor will neither work at his or her full potential, nor be successful in his or her profession.
Annals of Emergency Medicine, in 2014, and is titled Apneic oxygenation was associated with decreased desaturation rates during rapid sequence intubation by an Australian helicopter emergency medicine service." The article studies a new technique that was introduced in 2011, to see if that technique has proven effective at meeting its objectives.
The Wimalasena (2014) article does not have a literature review. It moves straight from the introduction to the materials and methods. The background section of the introduction serves the purpose of a literature review to some extent. There is no problem statement written into this section. The problem statement can be found in two other places, however. First, it is in the abstract under "study objective": "We evaluate the association between the introduction of apneic oxygenation and incidence of desaturation during rapid sequence intubation in both out-of-hospital and interhospital retrievals." This is rephrased for the box "editor's capsule summary,"…
Wimalasena, Y., Burns, B., Reid, C., Ware, S., Habig, K. (2014). Apneic oxygenation was associated with decreased desaturation rates during rapid sequence intubation by an Australian helicopter emergency medicine service. Annals of Emergency Medicine.
Technology and the Development of Modern Medicine
The 20th century saw a seismic change in the perception of the human body, and the relationship of patients to physicians and other aspects of modern medicine. With the recent coronavirus pandemic, of course, the focus upon technology and medical developments has become a matter of global importance. Vaccines and innovative drugs were not solely innovations of the past century, but they extent to which they were proven safe and effective is relatively new. The relationship between providers and patients has likewise changed, as well as expectations about treatment.
Vaccination and Immunization Technology
Infectious disease was once an accepted part of modern life. However, the first smallpox vaccines were developed as early as the late 18th century. Safety of vaccines could not always be guaranteed, however. Inactivation of bacteria via heat or chemical treatment to confer immunity status was developed by the very…
Earl, Leslie. “How Sulfa Drugs Work.” National Institute of Health. March 12, 2012. Web. December 20, 2020. https://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-research-matters/how-sulfa- drugs-work
Gaynes, Robert. “The Discovery of Penicillin—New Insights After More Than 75 Years of Clinical Use.” Emerging Infectious Diseases vol. 23, 5 (2017): 849–853. Web. December 20, 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5403050/
Palca, Joe. “The Race For A Polio Vaccine Differed From The Quest To Prevent Coronavirus.” NPR. May 22, 2020. Web. December 20, 2020. https://www.npr.org/sections/health - shots/2020/05/22/860789014/the-race-for-a-polio-vaccine-differed-from-the-quest-to- prevent-coronavirus
Plotkin, Stanley. “History of vaccination.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 111, 34 (2014): 12283-7. December 20, 2020. Web. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4151719/pdf/pnas.201400472.pdf
Quianzon, Celeste C, and Issam Cheikh. “History of Insulin.” Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives, vol. 2, 2 10.3402/jchimp.v2i2.18701. July 16, 2012. Web. December 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3714061/
Some sources also offer a different insight for the emergent increase in need of this technology. Bernike Pasveer follows the idea that it was because there was a need for efficient diagnosis methods (Pasveer, 1993, p89). It was only after the introduction of X-rays that there was a determination of the nature of tuberculosis. The need for an efficient method that disputed the myths was necessary, and that was achieved on the introduction of X-ray technology. This is supported by Andrew Warwick who claims that the reason why this technology is still significant was due to its diagnostic properties. However, Andrew differs from Bernike by instead using fractures as his example. Andrew explains the role of X-ray technology especially in Germany where the surgeons undertook this process to determine fractures and diagnose bone discrepancies (Warwick, 2005, p4). Incidentally, this is a role of the technology that is still in practice.…
Andrew Warwick (2005), X rays as evidence in German orthopedic surgery.
Anja Hiddinga (1992), X-ray technology in obstetrics: Measuring pelvis at the Yale School of Medicine, in J.V Pickstone ed.
Bernike Pasveer (1993), Depiction in medicine as a two way affair: X -- ray Pictures and Pulmonary Tuberculosis in the early Twentieth century, in Ilana Lowy ed. (Pasveer,
Personalized medicine as a field started developing in response to the recognition that every person is different in terms not only of genetic and genomic information, but also in terms of his or her clinical and environmental information. The fact that all these areas are different for each person means that each person would respond to illness in a different way, including the onset and duration of the condition. For this reason, many professionals have begun to promote this type of medicinal practice as preferable to more traditional, general methods.
According to the U.S. News (2012), personalized medicine functions on the premise that each disease is treated on an individualized level. Because the disease manifests itself in an individualized way, it is believed that the treatment should receive sufficient attention to also be individualized. Logic suggests that such a method of treatment would be more effective. To do this, the…
Saha, S. And Labs, R. (2010). Is healthcare industry moving towards personalized medicine? Retrieved from: http://toostep.com/debate/is-healthcare-industry-moving-towards-personalized-medicine
U.S. News (2012). Personalized Medicine. Retrieved from: http://health.usnews.com/health-conditions/cancer/personalized-medicine
The rapidly increasing demand of healthcare needs and preventions methods along with newer forms of diseases being discovered each day, extensive investments have been made in researching the field of medicine to revolutionize the future of medicine. Medical practitioners are looking up to a promising future proposed by the studies being carried out in the fields of genetics. This has open doors for a new and one of its kind form of medicine, namely 'Personalized Medicine.' As the name suggests, this type of medicine is patient specific and involves carrying out diagnosis and treatment plans that is customised to suit individual needs.
With the increase in demands of health care needs and with the discoveries of newer and more mysterious diseases, researches are being carried out at rapid rate to discover newer methods of health care needs. These health care services includes a wide variety of medication practices…
Gilbert, S. (2011). Medicine That's a Little Too Personalized. The Hastings Center Report, 41(4), 49. Retrieved February 3, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5051546477
Meadows, M. (2005, November/December). Genomics and Personalized Medicine. FDA Consumer, 39,. Retrieved February 3, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017147700
Woodcock, J. (2005, November/December). Pharmacogenomics: On the Road to "Personalized Medicine." FDA Consumer, 39,. Retrieved February 3, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017127506
Yurkiewicz, S. (2010). The Prospects for Personalized Medicine. The Hastings Center Report, 40(5), 14+. Retrieved February 3, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5045643374
Martin Army Medical Center, Fort Benning, Georgia and St. Francis Medical, Columbus Georgia
Because resources are by definition scarce, it is important for tertiary healthcare providers to develop healthcare delivery structures that are efficient and effective. Since every healthcare organization is unique, though, these delivery structures can vary widely in scope and purpose. To gain some fresh insights into the healthcare delivery structures that are used by civilian and military health facilities, this paper provides a comparison of Martin Army Medical Center at Fort Benning, Georgia with St. Francis Medical in Columbus, Georgia, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Comparison
Martin Army Medical Center, Fort Benning, Georgia
Health care delivery structure. Opened in 1958, this is a U.S. Department of Defense facility operated by the U.S. Army that offers inpatient, outpatient and emergency services. At present, Martin Army Medical Center 250-bed,…
About St. Francis Hospital. (2012). St. Francis Hospital. Retrieved from http://www.
About us. (2012). Martin Army Community Hospital. Retrieved from http://www.martin.
Patient Centered Medical Homes (PCMH) are often confused as being actual "homes" for patients to be admitted in and given medical treatment and care. PCMH is actually a health care model based on which health care is provided to patients, under the supervision of physicians. The PCMH model of health care provides patients with continuous, comprehensive medical care, in order to increase the chances of achieving the goal of benefitting the patient with as much attention and medical care in order to maximize his/her health outcomes.
Over the years the PCMH model of health care has become widely adopted and preferred. This is because of the philosophy and approach that the model adopts in organizing and delivering the health care initiatives. The PCMH model is based upon delivering medical care and attention to patients with team-based health and medical experts that are focused strongly on the quality and the safety…
109-432, P.L. (2006, December 20). TAX RELIEF AND HEALTH CARE ACT OF 2006. Public Law 109-432 (109th Congress) .
Backer, L.A. (2009). Building the Case for the Patient-Centered Medical Home. Family Practice Management 16 (1), 14-18.
De Geest, S., Moons, P., Callens, B., Gut, C., Lindpaintner, L., & Spirig, R. (2008). Introducing advanced practice nurses/nurse practitioners in health care systems: a framework for reflection and analysis. Swiss Medical Weekly (138), 621-628.
NASHP. (2013, April). Medical Home & Patient-Centered Care. Retrieved from The National Academy for State Health Policy: http://www.nashp.org/med-home-map
disparities original "medicine chest" clause Aboriginal Treaties Canada, failure Canadian government meet health care Aboriginal people today
Policy Change for Improvement
The aboriginals of Canada comprise of the indigenous people who are within North America, but dwell in the boundaries of Canada. Nevertheless, people have continuously view them discriminatively. This is what has led to the formulation of numerous policies, which will favor the aboriginals and make them feel part of the Canadian society. Although this is the case, the policies, some of which are applicable, have not yielded much success. Owing to this, there is a need for policy improvement in an effort to attain some of the essential needs such as healthcare (Walkerman and Humphreys, 2002).
In so doing, the aboriginals will access healthcare, and subsequently feel as part of the society. Notably, aboriginals are present in many other parts of the Western world, and the treatment is…
Government of Ontario (1994). Aboriginal health policy -- Executive summary. Toronto, ON:
Aboriginal Healing & Wellness Strategy. Retrieved 17 December, 2013 from http://www.ahwsontario.ca/about/healthpolicy.html
Kinsley, C. (2002). Rural health in rural hands: Strategic decisions, remote, northern and aboriginal communities. Retrieved from http://www.srpc.ca/PDF/rural_hands.pdf
Lavoie, J.G., Forget, E., Prakash, T., Dahl, M., Martens, P., & O'Neil, J.D. (2010). Have
Ethics Case Study: Medical Law and Ethics
Jerry McCall is Dr. William's office assistant. He has received professional training as both a medical assistant and an LPN. He is handling all of the phone calls at the office while the receptionist is at lunch. During this period of time, a patient calls and says he must have a prescription refill for Valium, an antidepressant medication, called in right away to his pharmacy, since he is leaving for the airport in thirty minutes. The patient notes that Dr. Williams is a personal friend and always gives him a small supply of Valium when he has to fly. No one except Jerry is in the office at this time.
Does Jerry's Medical Training Qualify Him to efill the Order?
While Jerry's medical training qualifies him to receive a prescription order and transcribe it accurately for other nurses or physicians to implement or…
Lloyd, H. (2010). Workers' compensation: a brief history. Florida Department of Financial Services. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.myfloridacfo.com/wc/history.html on 1 November 2011.
Minnesota Board of Nursing. (2010). Nurses and prescribing. Web. Retrieved from:
http://www.state.mn.us/mn/externalDocs/Nursing/NURSES_AND_PRESCRIBING_090904125323_Prescribing%20FAQ2.pdf on 1 November 2011.
Nowicki, M. And Summers, J. (2004). Reducing your credibility liability. Healthcare Financial Management, 58.4: pp. 94-97. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Montefiore Medical Center
easons for Developing New Strategy
Designing the new strategy involved several meetings by the Medical Center's employees to assist in the development of a balanced scorecard and initiating nation-level measures. In this regard, the firm developed a new strategy to represent the cause-and-effect linkages among the environment, strategy, and operating plan that could deliver the required financial results. The new system proposed by the strategy was initiated to ensure that financials made up a 10-percent of the measures on the balanced scoreboard. Montefiore additionally, developed the new strategy to measure patient satisfaction, the cost, health care quality as well as cycle times of clinical and administrative processes. It was realized by the institution that the strategic measures were essential in positioning Montefiore for future innovation while encouraging organizational growth. The GIP strategy was initiated by the medical provider to help in increasing market penetration while assisting in…
Barney, J.B. (1986). Organizational Culture: Can It be a Source of Sustained Competitive Advantage? Academy of Management Review, 11(3), 656-665.
Barney, J.B. (1991). Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120.
Collis, D.J., & Montgomery, C.A. (1995). Competing on Resources: Strategy in the 1990s. Harvard Business Review.
Engestrom, Y., Miettinen, R., & Punamaki, R.-L. (1999). Perspectives on Activity Theory. Cambridge University Press.
Harris, Gardener (17 Feb 2005) "Medical Panel Poses Pointed Questions to Drug Makers Over Risks of Painkillers." The New York Times. Sunday Edition. Retrieved 19 Feb 2005 at http://www.nytimes.com/2005/02/17/health/17fda.html?pagewanted=
Perhaps the some of the most infamous research studies conducted in recent years were the ones currently undergoing FDA scrutiny, regarding the safety of the once-popular COZ-2 inhibitor drugs such as Vioxx and Bextra and Celebrex. An early Vioxx study found that patients taking the medication had more than four times the risk of undergoing a heart attack as those individuals in the control group. Those patients in the control group were taking Naproxen, another common pain pill but not a COX-2 inhibitor. The Merck Company has since stated it believed that the difference might have resulted because Naproxen protected against heart problems in a manner similar to aspirin.
This raises an important question validating the hypothesis of the research study…
statistics have on shaping healthcare policy and guiding evidence-based practice, it is critical that researchers understand how to present the results of their studies. It is also critical that healthcare workers develop strong skills in statistical literacy, so that the results of studies are not misconstrued. Not all research results are generalizable to a population outside of the sample. Even the most carefully constructed research designs need to be critically analyzed. Similarly, care must be taken when communicating statistical results to a general audience.
The American Statistical Association (1999) outlines eight main areas of ethical concern. Those areas of concern include the following:
• esponsibilities to employers or funders
• esponsibilities in testimony or publications
• esponsibilities to research subjects
• esponsibilities to research team colleagues
• esponsibilities to other statisticians
• esponsibilities regarding allegations of misconduct
• esponsibilities of employers or clients to the integrity of research…
American Statistical Association (1999). Ethical guidelines for statistical practice.
Aynsley-Green, A, et al. (2012). Medical, statistical, ethical and human rights considerations in the assessment of age in children and young people subject to immigration control. British Medical Bulletin 102(1): 17-42.
Gelman, A. (2014). Ethics and statistics. Retrieved online: http://www.stat.columbia.edu/~gelman/presentations/ethicstalk_2014_handout.pdf
"Medical Ethics and Statistics," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.wiley.com/legacy/products/subject/reference/cam001-.pdf
Technology in Medicine: Distant Medical Surveillance Technology for Diabetics in the Less Developed Area of Texas
An estimated 26 million Americans live with diabetes. When not properly treated, diabetes could be fatal as it occupies the seventh position on the list of major mortality causes and it is also a strong causative factor of renal failures, sight damage and clinical limb removals among Americans. Diabetes occurrences are approximately 17% higher in less developed areas. Ethnicity and race are also major factors in determining the risk of suffering from the disease as it affects the smaller factions more. Distant medical surveillance can be very helpful in acquiring daily data about a diabetic's sugar levels, dangerous signs, feeding habits and therapy devotion. This method could help patients take their medications appropriately. Even though certain patients could decide not to adhere to their treatments and thus render this technology useless, the group who…
Balamurugan, A., Hall-Barrow, J., Blevins, M. A., et al. (2009). A pilot study of diabetes education via telemedicine in a rural underserved community -- opportunities and challenges: A continuous quality improvement process. The Diabetes Educator, 35(1), 147 -- 154.
Greenwood, D. A., Young, H. M., & Quinn, C. C. (2014). Telehealth Remote Monitoring Systematic Review: Structured Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose and Impact on A1C. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, 8(2), 378 -- 389.
Hale, N. L., Bennett, K. J., &Probst, J. C. (2010). Diabetes care and outcomes: disparities across rural America. Journal of community health, 35(4), 365-374.
Helseth, C. (2014). Diabetes Management in Rural Areas Takes Holistic, Community Approaches, Rural Health Information Hub. Retrieved from https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/rural-monitor/rural-diabetes-management/ on February 18, 2017
" here, I worked part-time as a translator and interpreter. It was indeed a magnificent experience to work with members of this demanding theatrical profession. Every day was a constant surprise and a constant challenge to my linguistic abilities. I had to put works of great emotion, the off-stage as well as the on-stage monologues, of these fine actors into comprehensible form, structure, and prose for the delight and edification of others and for audiences of all ages.
his constant, daily, living act of translation also highlighted for me the delicate balance between subjectivity and objectivity in the art of translating another's words and thoughts into another language and cultural system of ideas. Beyond decoding the meaning of the source text or voice, and recoding it into the language and meaning of another text and voice, I learned that in the immediacy of life there is always an element between…
This is even more important for someone in a specific field, as in medical and scientific translation, as often words have a different meaning in the technical lexicon of the profession or a discipline then they do in more colloquial usage. For much as I enjoyed my tenure with the theatrical company, for me, even more gratifying than making the arts understandable is the ability to make the often difficult and frightening world of medicine and science comprehensible. To see my knowledge of a language bring comprehension, the understanding of the 'yes, I see,' or the 'a-ha' in the eyes of another is as satisfying as landing a well-spiked volleyball over the net, another of my favorite leisure time pursuits, or of hearing applause while standing on the stage.
My knowledge of technical subjects and fluency in the language of scientific technology has been honed through my computer knowledge and my proficiency in technical languages. I am fluent in Windows98, Windows 2000, and Windows XP. Microsoft Applications such as Word, Excel, Access, Explorer, FrontPage, PowerPoint, Publisher, Photoshop, and I have a good knowledge of HTML programming and the languages involved in web design.
Translation, regardless of the language and the lexicon -- scientific, computer, medical, or artistic -- is about the conveyance of meaning as perfectly as possible into a language and a manner understandable to another person's language and lexicon. To be a translator is to be the human facilitator in the process of creating meaning and bridges between cultures. It is a skill I have performed in the past, and one that I hope to further sharpen and perfect, in school and in my professional life.
" Prescription drugs invade the markets today only to mask the symptoms of disease instead of preventing disease from happening. In this back-end approach to fighting disease instead of preventing it from occurring in the first place, pharmaceutical companies have profited at the expense of society." (Karel M.)
There is therefore also the feelings and the growing suspicion that prescription drugs are controlled by large pharmaceutical corporations and these influence practitioners and the health care industry. Modern medical practitioners are also "... subject to persuasion from drug manufacturers and rely on them for their information, despite their obvious bias to use their drugs." (Karel M.) This is an area that has been severely critiqued in allotropic health care; namely the fact that modern medicine is dominated by large drug companies which to a large extent are more concerned with their profit margins than with the quality and the ultimate effectives…
Bawaskar H.S. Non- allopathic doctors form the backbone of rural health.
Retrieved March 8, 2007, at http://www.issuesinmedicalethics.org/044ed112.html
Death by Modern Medicine. Retrieved March 8, 2007, at http://www.ashtreepublishing.com/bookshop/carolyn-dean.php
Definition of Allopathic. Retrieved March 6, 2007, at http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010938986
Sociology -- Medical Dominance on the Profession of Nursing and How is the Profession of Nursing Challenging Medical Dominance in Australia
In the context of medical practice, the contemporary medical society is representing a change in the increasing issues of domination between medical professions. The focus of each practice's attention is on exploring its goals in providing integral contributions and impact to the framework of health care services. Each dimension of medical interest, specifically the doctors and nurses, are developing their respective paradigm and uniqueness to establish skills and authority in the field of health service.
This paper aims to do an informative research on medical dominance over the profession of nursing in Australia. As the industry of medicine progresses, the issue of domination among medical doctors and nurses in health care institutions are associated with competencies and authority over the other. The power and privileges of the profession is…
Andrews, I., Hale, A. (2000). The Division of Labour in Health Care Delivery.
Retrieved Sept 23, 2003, from Faculty of Health Sciences. The University of Sydney.
Web site: http://www2.fhs.usyd.edu.au/bach/1107/topic9.htm
Duffy, E. Evolving Role and Practice Issues: Nurse Practitioners in Australia.
Defined as “the process of seeking a problem's solution from a wide community, often online,” crowdsourcing is common in almost every sector (Sanghavi 1). However, many patients may be unaware that they can also crowdsource their healthcare decisions. Referred to as “a second opinion writ large,” crowdsourcing medical diagnoses is now possible through many different online platforms including CrowdMed and the more artificial intelligence (AI)-driven HumanDx (Arnold 1). The way medical crowdsourcing works is a little more complicated than asking for fine dining tips in Tokyo or even asking the general public for clues to solving a crime. With crowdsourced medicine using the CrowdMed model, doctors, nurses, and other healthcare workers essentially compete for whoever offers the most accurate diagnosis, and receive financial compensation for accurate hits. Compensation is higher for difficult to diagnose problems. The HumanDx platform is different, available only to physicians at the moment and uses AI…
The ranks of male nurses may be growing, but social perceptions have not. Thus, while much has changed in terms of expanding the ranks of the healthcare profession to nontraditional gender roles in all fields of medicine, perceptions that females are less committed to being physicians remain, and males continue to face social barriers in nursing.
Arnst, Catherine. "Are There Too Many Women Doctors?" usinessweek. April 17, 2008.
Accessed December 1, 2010.
Gorgos, Diana. "Why are there so few male nurses?" Dermatology Nursing. October 2002,
Accessed from FindArticles.com, December 1, 2010.
Nainggolan, Lisa. "Female doctors provide best HF care." The Heart. January 23, 2009.
Accessed December 1, 2010. http://www.theheart.org/article/936839.do
Nye, Robert a. "Medicine and Science as Masculine "Fields of Honor" Women, Gender, and Science: New Directions, 2nd ser., 12 (1997): 60
Westbrook, Mary T., and Lena a. Nordholm. "Characteristics of Women Health Professionals
with Vertical, Lateral, and…
Arnst, Catherine. "Are There Too Many Women Doctors?" Businessweek. April 17, 2008.
Accessed December 1, 2010.
Gorgos, Diana. "Why are there so few male nurses?" Dermatology Nursing. October 2002,
Advances in Digital Medical Imaging
In the past few decades advances in healthcare have emerged, as new forms of technological integration are implemented as part of the overall healthcare management system. Healthcare providers, doctors and patients require more technological integration into the system providing real time data analysis and the possibility of enhancing medical knowledge. Sharing that knowledge can lead to what many describe as "digital medicine" where stored clinical data can generate medical knowledge which can be widely distributed, incorporated into decision support systems, and lead to more effective medical practices (ouler & Morgenstern, 2005). Digital medical image processing within the healthcare area has its origins in the 1970's when computed tomography was introduced as the first digital modality. In the decades that followed, advances in digital medical imaging technology have dramatically affected the planning and design of diagnostic interventional radiology facilities. Soon after the advent of computerized…
Bang, C. (2005). Digital Imaging Drives Health Care Design. Building Operation
Becker, S. (1994). Costs and Benefits of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems.
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, vol. 1, no. 5: 361-371.
The patient was able to discontinue taking pain killing medications after only a few treatments.
I have also come to realize the importance of the psychological and social aspects of treatment in addition to the traditional physical aspects. In traditional medicine, these issues are handled by distinct specialists, while I believe they should also be considered in tandem during medical treatment. I believe that a patient's mental state can affect how well the patient responds to medical treatment and their ability to follow their physician's recommendations.
While professionals in medical care are responsible for their patient's health, the patients themselves are ultimately in the best position to take responsibility for their own well being. This is why I appreciated the role of the D.O. In educating patients about the external factors that affect their health such as the environment, stress, exercise and diet. In this way, patients can take a…
Medicine is designed to treat the sick and the injured. Its function is to either treat a condition or to better severe symptoms from a medical or physical condition. Some medicines, when first introduced, are controversial because of the ingredients that are used. In the modern era, Marinol has become the subject of heated debate over whether or not it should be provided to patients. Despite the fact that it has been proven to help people when other medications have failed, there are still some places where the medication cannot be gotten simply because it contains a synthetic form of a substance which is illegal in most states. Marinol is not made from an illegal material, but a synthetic version which replicates the effects of that illegal substance. The drug Marinol is a brand name of a medication which is a synthetic form of tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC which is…
Armentano, P. (2005). Marinol vs. natural plant. NORML.
Institute of Medicine (2002). Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C.
Loughlin, K. & Generali, J. (2006). The Guide to Off-Label Prescription Drugs. The Philip Lief
Group: Princeton, NJ.
One of the studies Halm reviewed, for instance, found an immediate reduction in respiratory rate during and immediately after aromatherapy treatment, but two hours after the treatment occurred there was no discernable effect (Halm 2008). This suggests that the commercial applications of aromatherapy, which tend to be long-term environmental applications rather than time- and person-specific treatments. Because the evidence shows that the calming effects of aromatherapy are really only present during the treatment and immediately after, long-term environmental applications of aromatherapy might be best.
There are problems with such an application in a medical setting, however. Chief among these is the entirely subjective nature of the sense of smell. Certain aromas which might be very pleasant -- and therefore presumably stress reducing -- for some might be particularly unpleasant for others. For these latter people, who do not enjoy a particular given aroma, stress might actually be increased by the…
Reduction of stress in nurses and medical staff will have a direct and casually and consciously observable effect on the treatment of patients. Speech and action both tend to be abbreviated during periods of stress, which can and most likely will have a direct effect on the way that patients perceive the quality of care they are receiving. This in turn will have an effect on the patient's stress level; if they feel that they are receiving a less-than-adequate level of care, their stress level is likely to rise, negatively impacting their recovery. On the other hand, if the nurses and medical staff are less stressed, this will also be communicated to the patient, and might have the opposite effect of improving patient attitude and enhancing their recovery.
Stress can be communicated subconsciously, too, perhaps to an even greater degree in subtle situations than the overt and conscious communications presented by alterations in observable attitude and action. This fact can only enhance the positive effects of the above suggestions of an available environmentally pervasive aromatherapy break room. Calmer people tend to help calm other people; if the nurses and medical staff are calm and less stressed, this will be unconsciously communicated to the patients as well, reducing their stress levels. Thus, it can be seen that pervasive aromatherapy might be even more efficacious in the treatment of patient stress and anxiety when provided to nurses instead of or in addition to the patients themselves.
All of this talk of environmentally pervasive aromatherapy is not to suggest that direct and patient-specific applications of aromatherapy not be utilized. The evidence clearly shows that such applications can be remarkable efficacious in the short-term as a stress reduction technique for patients and medical staff alike, even going so far as to reduce respiratory rates (Halm 2008). The evidence that aromatherapy can actually reduce levels of pain in critically ill patients has yet to be verified, but this is another avenue of aromatherapy application the merits further research (Halm 2008). In fact, aromatherapy in general is underutilized in this country, and the reports studied herein suggest that these practices should be changes if for no other reason than it will at least partially and temporarily reduce stress levels among patients and medical staff. The increase of the use of aromatherapy will also provide more evidence for further applications.
1993). Within medical settings in particular, physicians and supervisors are often too over-burdened with their myriad formal responsibilities to take note of minor irregularities in protocols and procedures. Because coworkers are often in the best possible situation to notice inadequacies, it is important for all levels of employees to be equally involved in the overall CQI process.
Optimal implementation of an effective CQI process also requires a culture of openness to suggestion and confidentiality with respect to reporting more serious issues such as those that result from negligence or willful misconduct on the part of co-workers.
11. The textbook states that "an organization's most vital component in costly resource is its staff." With this being the case, the human resource function plays a very important role. Should the human resource function be part of the senior management team?
In terms of policy implementation and organizational philosophy, the human resources function…
Horine, P.D., Pohiala, E.D., Luecke, R.W. (1993) Healthcare Financial Managers and CQI: Implementing Continuous Quality Improvement; Healthcare Financial Management.
Humphry, D. (1991) Final Exit: The Practicalities of Self-Deliverance and Assisted Suicide for the Dying. Secaucus: Carol Publishing
Russell-Walling, E. (2005) Fifty Management Ideas You Really Need to Know. London: Quercus
A chain of communication needs to be established for future cases.
More concrete recommendations for the organization include a clear system for assigning and determining a physician-in-charge for every admitted patient at all times, such that there is never a situation where emergency care is being directed through a cell phone, where there is not a clear hierarchy during medical response, and where there is clear accountability after the fact. Even simply signing at the top of a chart or on a room board can become an assignation of responsibility, and a simply rule that a physician must remain in the building until their patients have been signed over to someone else would ensure that care decisions are being made with immediacy and accountability in the future. More extensive training programs and requirements regarding proficiency testing should also be put into place for special types of cases before units are…
Bosk, C. (2003). Forgive and Remember: Managing Medical Failure. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press.
Gawande, a. (2008). Better: A Surgeon's Notes on Performance. New York:
This is particularly the case in sub-Saharan Africa where clinicians have often come to rely on signs and symptoms alone to make diagnoses." (Nicoll, Walraven, Kigadye, Klokke, 1995)
The laboratory environment is critical to administering testing to determine population rates of HIV / AIDS throughout nations and perhaps continents where the lacking of resources facilitates a substandard environment for care. In the case of the African nation of Mozambique, which perhaps can be understood as a case indicative of the environmental assessment one would find throughout Africa and therefore, can be labelled to be a median statistical nation. A nation representing the median would indicate that half of the population nations that are categorized as resourced deficient, half would be above Mozambique in terms of resource allocation and half would fall below.
esearch into the quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case-reporting system in Mozambique was conducted by (Chilundo,…
Chappuis, F., Loutan, L., Simarro, P., Lejon, V., and Buscher, P. Options for Field Diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, January 2005, p. 133-146, Vol. 18, No.1
Chilundo, B., Sundeep S., Sundby J. The Quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case reporting systems in Mozambique. African Journal of AIDS Research 2004, 145-155. Copyright NISC Pty Ltd.
Clark. Blood Safety PPT. CDC, WHO
Loefler, I. Surgical wound infection in the Third World: the African experience. Journal of Medical Microbiology. Volume 47, 471-473. 1998. The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
Where, the traditional foods of the Middle East (such as: honey, dates and the black seed) have became a part of Islamic culture and traditional practices. As a result, the positive effects of taking these different foods and supplements; have been shown to be effective at natural dealing with a variety of conditions. Evidence of this, can be seen by looking at how each of the different remedies can cure a number of ailments, with limited side effects. (Fealy, G. 2008)
When looking at the different traditional Islamic foods of: honey, dates and black seeds; it is clear that each food can address specific ailments / conditions that affect the underlying levels of health. Honey contains: amino acid, B complex vitamins, as well as vitamins C, D and E. Where, it is used to promote energy and healing. The only side effects of using honey, is that it can cause…
Since the 9th century A.D. Islamic traditions have provided a natural way for people to be able to have a safe and effective procedure, in controlling / maintaining general levels of health. This is because; traditional Islamic medicine is often based on the using herbal remedies, to deal with a variety of ailments. Over the centuries these different practices, became a common part of the culture of tradition (Sunnah). Where, the traditional foods of the Middle East (such as: honey, dates and the black seed) have became a part of Islamic culture and traditional practices. As a result, the positive effects of taking these different foods and supplements; have been shown to be effective at natural dealing with a variety of conditions. Evidence of this, can be seen by looking at how each of the different remedies can cure a number of ailments, with limited side effects. (Fealy, G. 2008)
When looking at the different traditional Islamic foods of: honey, dates and black seeds; it is clear that each food can address specific ailments / conditions that affect the underlying levels of health. Honey contains: amino acid, B complex vitamins, as well as vitamins C, D and E. Where, it is used to promote energy and healing. The only side effects of using honey, is that it can cause the blood sugar level in diabetics to increase. This is because the large amounts of natural sugars can cause blood sugar levels to spike, if the honey is not taken in balance. Beyond, this side effect, the use of honey on a daily basis can help to promote a healthy lifestyle. (Zamzam, W. n.d.)
Dates are often used to: increase sexual desire, promote testosterone production and help to battle the effects of the cold. The reason why; is because dates have been known to turn into a liquid once they are in the stomach, which causes the temperature of the blood to increase. When this occurs, it will help to cleanse the body of different toxins. The negative side effect is: that those who are not use to eating dates; can feel dizzy
It is of extreme importance in medicine to know accurately the anatomical changes that take place in a certain disease for diagnosis and treatment. The man who created this science was Morgagni who taught us to think anatomically in our approach of a disease. Morgagni studied at Bologna under Valsalva and Albertini, who are notable persons themselves in the history of medicine. Morgagni did this in the form of letters to an unknown friend who inquired about Morgagni's thoughts and observations in the diseases he had seen. These included affections of the pericardium, diseases of the valves, ulceration, rupture, dilation and hypertrophy of the aorta which were detailedly described clinically and anatomically. Of all his entires, the section on aneurysm of the aorta is one of the best he had written. A good example of his letter was about angina pectoris.
The aorta was considerably dilated at its curvature; and,…
1. Evolution of Medicine.Online. Available from Internet, http:://www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/tech/medicine/theEvolutionofmodernmedicin/legalese.html, Accessed May 12, 2007.
History of Anatomy. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.wikipedia.com Accessed May 12, 3007
Mayeaux, E.J. Jr. 1989. A History of Western Medicine and Surgery. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.lsumc.edu.com, Accessed May 12, 2007
Medieval Medicine. Online. Available from Internet,
School of Podiatric Medicine & Surgery
Admission Essay: Gelareh Noenifard
Thank you for the opportunity to submit a learning portfolio for you to consider my application to enroll for the Podiatry B.Sc. degree. I trust that the information provided will convince you of my passion for the medical profession. I believe that knowledge is power and it is my desire to explore every learning opportunity to broaden my education toward attaining this qualification. It is my goal to offer my services free of charge - while I am studying - to podiatry practices to gain work experience. I have attended a podiatry taster day and found it to be a rewarding and challenging career. My interest was sparked when I received medical attention for an injured ankle. I regularly visit the podiatric office to gather information about the profession, learn by observing the treatment procedures, and ask questions about podiatric…
(Illicit Drugs or Nutritional Supplements?) It is more likely that some illegal gratification was sought and not received and that led to this action. Since this was also a case for medicines, one should also be careful of the problems that may come up.
What has been stated earlier is that it would be better to leave the enterprise to operations by South Africans and in that case, they will determine most of the staffing. It is not advisable clearly that many ozambicans be depended on for operations at least due to their ability. An example of this has just been stated.
2. Training and Development
When we are talking about a business and a possible collaboration with an existing business owner, they would have completed the training in an operating business. This would be helpful as the culture of South Africa and ozambique would be similar.…
Mozambique- people and society. Retrieved at http://www.oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet/kidsweb/world/mozambique/mozpeop.htm . Accessed 11 October, 2005
Mozambique-South Africa - Investment climate generally favorable, new report. 2 June 2004.
Retrieved at http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=41385 . Accessed 11 October, 2005