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Falun Dafa
Words: 557 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5556318
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Meditation and Mindfulness in Psychology

Many people have a limited understanding of the idea of mediation and some go as far as to associate it with religious concepts, thus seriously damaging their own (and other people's) comprehension of the topic. However, in order to actually be able to understand what a meditation session is all about, a person would have to experience it first-hand. It is not necessarily that meditation can only occur alongside of others or that one needs a teacher in order to be able to meditate. However, being in the presence of someone who instructs the person and who provides information that can play an important role in helping them achieve higher states can be especially beneficial.

One of the first things I learnt when going to a meditation session was that my background or my religious preferences were irrelevant in this context. I went to a…

Techniques for Relaxation
Words: 1104 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79365046
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By wiping out all other thoughts from the conscious mind, the person is able to address only one thought -- and that thought is to remain the focus throughout the entire meditation (Kaur, Agarwal, & Babbar, 2014). The continual repetition of Om or another word, sound, or phrase, would be an example of exclusive meditation. Additionally, a person can visualize a specific image and hold that image in his or her head as a point of focus for exclusive meditation. Transcendental meditation is a popular method, along with another similar method called relaxation response (Smith, 2007). Studies done on transcendental meditation from Harvard researchers have shown that the technique is effective for people who want to reduce stress levels (Smith, 2007).

Mental imagery is the creation of an image in the mind (Smith, 2007). This can be an image that is put there as a suggestion from someone else, or…


Kaur, S., Agarwal, N., & Babbar, R. (2014). Effectiveness of relaxation techniques in reducing stress levels by measuring heart rate variability. International Journal of Physiology, 2(1), 26-30.

Payne, R.A., & Donaghy, M. (2010). Relaxation techniques: A practical handbook for the health care professional. NY: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Smith, J.C. (2007). Chapter 3: The Psychology of Relaxation. In Lehrer, P.M., Woolfolk, R.L., & Sime, W.E. Principles and practice of stress management (3rd ed.). NY: The Guilford Press.

Religion What Roles Do the
Words: 1633 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50906528
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There was no time to allow better preparation of the bread. They had to move out of Egypt in before Pharaoh could realize. The bitter herbs symbolized the bitter life experienced in Egypt. They remained as captives of slavery for many years, and a moment of redemption approached. In the book of Exodus, one sympathizes with the Jews that served life of slavery without freedom.

However, one feels delighted because of the happy conclusion when the Jews attain freedom and redemption. Passover offers a bonding moment that brings together everyone that shares the Jewish customs. The home and most Jewish families celebrate the holy days such as the New Year in Jewish calendar and the Day of Atonement. They celebrate these holy days at night of the eve of the holy day and families prepare meals before performing the synagogue service. They serve the meals with apples and honey which…


Heehs, Peter, ed. 2002. Indian Religions: A Historical Reader of Spiritual Expression and Experience. New York.

Online Conference on Socially Engaged Buddhism. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, April 2000, available online at http: / /

Queen, Christopher, Charles Prebish and Damien Keown. 2003. Action Dharma: New Studies in Engaged Buddhism. London: Routledge Curzon.

Descartes' Contributions to Philosophy Have
Words: 2711 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88674246
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1) and a boy who woke up one day to realise the world was not the world anymore, but something paper-ish. Flowers looked like flowers but were not, Milly, his friend, resembled Milly but was not the Milly of yesterday. Through his example, Bouwsma thought to illustrate that illusions may create similar perceptions to reality but ultimately the former can be depicted, as Tom, the boy, balked the phantasy that was deceiving him. And Tom managed to separate what he was experiencing because "he knew the difference between flowers and paper, and that when presented with one or the other, he can tell the difference." (Bouwsma, p. 2)

How can we know if what we are experiencing is dream or reality? Whether or not all man's experiences are products of man's own dreams can be illustrated in matters of what man knows to be real and what man knows to…

Reference List

Bouwsma, O.K., 1949. Descartes' Evil Genius. In E. Sesonske and N. Fleming, eds. 1965. Meta-meditations. Available at <> [Accessed 5 June 2013]

Crome, K., 2005. Descartes' Evil Demon. Richmond Journal of Philosophy, 11, pp.: 1-8. Available at <> [Accessed 4 June 2013]

Descartes, R., 1901. Meditations of First Philosophy [trilingual HTML edition]. Translated from Latin by John Veitch. Available through: Descartes' Meditations Home Page

[Accessed 4 June 2013]

Descartes' Method of Doubt Right
Words: 1422 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48048093
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Some of the reason for error, therefore, is not related to indifference or for not having enough time to fully consider some matter. Some of it is due to man's propensity to flaw, and to his limited ability (which is related to his limited mental and physical power).

In addition to misinterpreting the nature of the relationship between intellect and free will, Descartes has incorrectly interpreted some of the most vital connotations that accompany free will. There is an innate responsibility that accompanies this gift. Free will presents human beings (and anything else endowed with it, for that matter), the opportunity to do good or evil, to make use of or to squander opportunity, to laugh or to cry. The power of the decision, regardless of the source (which is, of course, God) ultimately resides with the individual. And while the author readily acknowledges the relationship of intellect and will…

Robert Wrigley News There's a
Words: 1265 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69040279
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How much feeling there is in the third and fourth stanzas! -- the panicked and fearful bird, heart pumping, the calmness of the man, the soft, loving strokes and upward lifting of the bird.

However, behind this calm and ease, is another emotion that Wrigley portrays. It is subtle, yet winds through the poem, so the reader knows that there is some kind of problem, challenge of violence that the man (and the outside world) is facing. Just the title, itself, foreshadows this. Who wants to listen to "news" these days? Is there anything positive and uplifting on CNN or in the papers? he poem explains it as the bird's frantic chirping and the line "even peace seemed possible."

What makes this so effective is the juxtaposition. In one case, is mankind en masse waging war and killing one another. Yet, in another situation, one man, stands alone, helping free…

The man in the poem is trying to find a middle ground. He is attempting to escape into nature and away from the middle of a town or city where road rage threatens, depression and antidepressant increase, car horns blare, and gun shots blare. However, the radio, one of his concessions, keeps him in the midst of the violence with its news. And, ironically, even in the calm and beauty of nature, potential harm strikes, like the bird being trapped and frantically searching for a way out into the light. Violence cannot be left behind.

Interview with Robert Wrigley. Fugue. University of Idaho. Retrieved January 12, 2007 .

Wrigley, R. (2006). Earthly Meditation. New York: Penguin Books.

Buddhism Is Distinct From Most
Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15758920
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Instead, the practice bhakti-style devotion to various Buddhas and other supramundane figures (Protehero, 2010, p. 177). These are not manifestations of one God, as might be understood by practitioners of most Western religions, but more similar to spirit guides.

Another aspect of Buddhism that might be surprising is the understanding of "karma." The word is commonly used in our current lexicon and refers to the good or bad that comes one's way based on one's own good or bad deeds. It is thought of as a reward or, conversely, payback. It helps people make sense of the world if they can conceive of such cosmic justice. However, karma is more complicated and really has to do with cause and effect. The idea is that everything one does has consequences, which must be dealt with constructively before one can move on (Martin, 2011). It is about learning and personal growth rather…


Bailey, S.P. (2010). American zenophilia. Humanities 31(2).

Martin, S. (2011). 10 things you didn't know about Buddhism. The Boomington Post. Retrieved from 

Prothero, S. (2010). God is not one: Eight rival religions that run the world -- and why their differences matter. New York: HarperOne.

Wilson, J. (2011). The popularity of selected elements of Buddhism in North America. Dharma World. Retrieved from http://www.rk- selectedelements.aspx

Beyond Katrina
Words: 1320 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 8257843
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Beyond Katrina

The Merriam-ebster dictionary defines meditation, in basic terms, as "a discourse intended to express its author's reflections or to guide others in contemplation." In an interview with Jonathan Fink, Trethewey reveals that her text is aimed at recollecting people's historical and collective memory (Hall 85). This is the only sure way to deal with the issue of history-erasure, and have a more complete version. The author's aim, therefore, is to "reclaim and to get as many of those erased stories back into the larger narrative" (Hall 85).

This section's main focus is showing the degree of importance attached to commercialized activities, at the expense of the environment, and people's safety. However, other points of concern are: the state's tendency to forget about the victims of such catastrophes, the change in the social aspect of people's lives after Hurricane Katrina, and the large extent of erasure facing such historical…

Works Cited

Hall, Joan W., ed. Conversations with Natasha Trethewey. New York: Harper Collins, 2014. Print.

Trethewey, Natasha. Beyond Katrina: A Meditation on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Athens: University of Georgia, 2010. Print.

Globalization and Innovations in Telecommunications
Words: 18188 Length: 66 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 2190458
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Chapter 2:

Review of Related Literature

Chapter Introduction

This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.


In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have een proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stale trait that exhiits sustantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-ehavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, elief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…

bibliography. (2010).  / pages/7857/Meditation-Eastern.html.

Many religious traditions have practices that could possibly be labeled meditation. In Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, these practices are usually associated with prayer, contemplation, or recitation of sacred texts. In the religious traditions of the Native Americans, Australian aboriginals, Siberian peoples, and many others, what could be identified as meditation techniques are incorporated within the larger rubric of shamanism. It is, however, in the religions of Asia that meditation has been most developed as a religious method.

Meditation has played an important role in the ancient yogic traditions of Hinduism and also in more recent Hindu-based new religious movements such as Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Transcendental Meditation program. But it is most especially in the monastic or "elite" forms of the various traditions of Buddhism (Theravada, Tibetan/Vajrayana, and Ch'an/Zen) that meditation techniques have taken center stage and have been developed to the highest degree of sophistication and complexity.

Short-Term Effects of Meditation vs. Relaxation on Cognitive Functioning. Contributors: Gillian King - author, Jeffrey Coney - author. Journal Title: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. Volume: 38. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 2006. Page Number: 200+.

Authors cite the lack of relevant studies concerning the effect, if any, of meditation on short-term improvements in cognitive performance. The results of this study clearly showed that meditation, per se, does not produce a short-term improvement in cognitive performance compared to other relaxation techniques.

Nursing Mindfulness and its impact
Words: 1585 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52739138
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PICOT Question and its Significance

The PICOT question is: Does mindfulness meditation (I) reduce long-term risk factors and suicidal behaviors (O) among psychiatric patients (P) versus those who do not participate in the meditation programs (C)? This is of great significance to the nursing practice because psychiatric disorders are risk factors that cause an increase in the probability of a suicidal occurrence. As a result, it is imperative for psychiatric nurses to comprehend how to pinpoint such risk factors and institute a clinical practice setting that dissuades suicide. More importantly, nursing practice encompasses the execution of best practices for generating a clinical setting that diminishes risk such as mindfulness meditation.

Summary of Literature Review

The mindfulness meditation theory is deemed to the most prospective one in treating addictive disorder patients. The safety of these models is guaranteed if carried out in the framework of clinical studies. In recent periods, associated…

Descartes' Method of Doubt and
Words: 1840 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30143988
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Then, by beginning with the idea that there may or may not be a chair present at all, one can begin building on those truths that remain to establish more truths and eventually establish the presence of the chair.

Descartes uses such reasoning not only to establish the presence of those things that can be verified by the use of the senses, but also to establish the existence of God and the immortality of the soul. Descartes begins with the premise that neither mountains nor valleys may exist, but that if they do exist, then "a necessary attribute of a mountain is that it be adjacent to a valley" (Burnham and Fieser). Descartes acknowledges that the same could be said of the existence of God:

In the same way, even though the concept of supremely perfect being necessarily possesses certain attributes, it doesn't follow that this being exists. It only…

Works Cited

Burnham, Douglas and James Fieser. "Rene Descartes." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2001. University of Tennessee at Martin. 4 Mar. 2005 .

Chew, Robin. "Rene Descartes: Philosopher." Lucidcafe. 2005. Lucidcafe. 4 Mar. 2005

Descartes, Rene. "Meditations." Eds. David B. Manley and Charles S. Taylor. Descartes'

Meditations. 1996. Wright State University. 4 Mar. 2005 .

Pilgrimages in India
Words: 2948 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37564140
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Pilgrimages in India


A Quest for Finding Oneself in India: Introduction

Humans are born with an incredible amount of mental capacity to learn and grow, yet we are not born with a pre-determined set of rules guiding our thoughts. Religious practice around the world is thus the result of a collaboration of ideas between humans within a society in order to bring a framework of understanding into everyday life. Yet even with justifications of existence provided by religion, some individuals choose to pursue unanswered questions, in order to find a deeper meaning to life, and existence. Pilgrimage is such a quest, and is the pursuit of knowledge, as well as a journey of the mind and body, in search of answers to the unknowable questions of the universe. Pilgrimage also serves to prove one's own devotion to his or her faith, and can be qualified as a measure of…

Works Cited:

"Essay on Bhakti Movement of India." Preserving Your Articles for Eternity. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. .

"Foot Pilgrimage to Murugan Shrines." Murugan Bhakti: Skanda-Kumara Website. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. .

Haberman, David L. Journey through the Twelve Forests: an Encounter with Krishna. New York: Oxford UP, 1994. Print.

"History of Pilgrimage." HOME. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. .

Joy of Living the Buddhist Teacher and
Words: 1307 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28572163
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Joy of Living, the Buddhist teacher and spiritual leader Yongey Mingyur approaches what may be one of the most fundamental dilemmas in modern life: how to attain happiness. He talks about the fact that so many people simply do not seem to be able to access happiness in their lives. According to Mingyur, meditation is one of the ways to find happiness in life. Furthermore, Mingyur does not rely simply on what he knows about the practice of Buddhism, but also modern medical research and modern knowledge of physics to demonstrate how meditation works with the brain and to help explain Buddhism to those for whom Buddhism may be an unfamiliar religion. By combining these different aspects, Mingyur attempts to provide a guide for using meditation in daily life.

I learned a lot about Buddhism and meditation from reading this book. Perhaps most importantly, I unlearned things that I believed…

Works Cited

Mingyur, Yongey and Eric Swanson. The Joy of Living. New York: Harmony Books,

Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche I Experienced
Words: 2975 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23065100
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Both Taoism and Buddhism encourage meditation as a means by which to liberate the mind and achieve emptiness. One of the Buddhist practices that encourages emptiness is mindfulness meditation, or vipassana. However, there are numerous specific methods that be used during the meditation practice. Some are more Tibetan in origin as those espoused by Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche and the Vajrayana tradition. Other meditation practices are like those I learned at the Hsi Lai Temple, which combine Ch'an (Chinese Zen) Buddhism with Buddhist humanism. Taoism, unlike Buddhism, also offers ancillary spiritual practices such as Tai Chi and Chi Gung. The teachings of Buddhism and Taoism go neatly hand in hand.

Therefore, I am continually growing from becoming more open to spiritual teachings. The spiritual journey is like a flower blossoming. I do not believe that religious dogma or ideology are necessary, and in some cases they can be harmful. As Chogyam…

Works Cited

Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche. Cutting Through Spiritual Materialism. Shambala, 1987.

"Emptiness." Retrieved online: 

"Humanism." Hsi Lai Temple. Retrieved online:

Anselm Aquinas Augustine and the
Words: 1593 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47678249
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Aquinas argues that the fact that man can perceive himself to be true serves as a validation for God's existence; however this is dissimilar to Descartes impressions of the Mediator who, according to the philosopher, is capable of mistaking that which is certain and uncertain.

It is important to remember to distinguish fact from fiction; will from intellect. In this presentation I believe that Aquinas and Anselm intermingled the two, suggesting that intellect and will are more similar than different. This clearly offers a different interpretation of what is certain and uncertain as Descartes might argue that the intellect is certain but the will or mind may interpret that which is certain incorrectly.


Descartes, ene. The philosophical writings of Descartes, Vol. II. Trans. John Cottingham, obert Stoothoff, and Dugald Murdoch. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 1984.

Egan, David. SparkNote on Meditations on First Philosophy. 3, May 2007

S. This…


Descartes, Rene. The philosophical writings of Descartes, Vol. II. Trans. John Cottingham, Robert Stoothoff, and Dugald Murdoch. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 1984.

Egan, David. SparkNote on Meditations on First Philosophy. 3, May 2007 .

S. This is surprisingly similar to Descartes' meditations suggesting the human mind is impossible to understand fully.

D. While the philosopher again confirms a distinction between the mind and intellect as Descartes might, he does not provide physical evidence that God exists, only suggests that some "form" of intellect must direct everything in nature.

Descartes Successful in Showing That
Words: 1708 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10055002
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The object still exists as well, even if it only perceived inaccurately by the material world and by the sensations

Mathematical proofs and mathematical calibrations are accurate, when correctly done, according to Descartes, because they can be proven by logic that the existence of such things exist with tools outside of the body. But although Descartes' Christian world of a non-deceitful god may have been persuasive to his readers, a contemporary reader might ask, what about when the body is affected by the mind -- for example, when one's heart pounds when the mind is nervous, or when one feels hungry because one has seen a television commercial? The sensations are correct in the sense that they perceive a sight, but the pilot of the ship, in essence, interferes with the correct course of action. This suggests a connection between mind and body that is less causal and easy to…

Works Cited

Modern Philosophy. An Anthology of Primary Sources. Ed. By Roger Ariew and Eric Watkins. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Inc.

States of Consciousness
Words: 1640 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7324872
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The term consciousness has been defined as "mental awareness of sensations, perceptions, memories, and feelings" (Brown, et al. 2003, p. 166). Most human beings live in three states of consciousness: waking, sleeping, and dreaming. Two other states of consciousness, meditation and drug-altered consciousness, can be induced. This essay will explore these five states further and will conclude with a discussion on their psychological relevance.


Most of our lives are spent in waking consciousness, that is, a state of clear and organized alertness (Brown, et al., 2003). When we are awake, our perception of time, places, and events are real and often accurate. An electroencephalograph (EEG), a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain, reveals that a person in the waking state has low-amplitude brain wave patterns that are fast and irregular.


Contrary to popular beliefs, sleep does involve some awareness (Lindsay et al., 2004). The…


Brannon, L. & Feist, J. (2007). Health psychology: an introduction to behaviour and health.

Belton, CA: Wadsworth.

Brown, P., Coon, D., Malik, R., & McKenzie, S. (2003). Psychology: a journey. Scarborough,

ON: Thompson Nelson.

Benefit of Mindfulness on Pain Attenuation
Words: 1203 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 66941530
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Mindfulness Meditation Training on Experimentally Induced Pain" by Zeidan et al., (2010), published in the Journal of Pain, presents the results of research to investigate

The research addresses a gap in the research examining the benefit of meditation in attenuating pain symptoms. The research problem is clearly articulated, with the title clearly stating the content of the paper and the introduction expressing and justifying the issue. Past research has demonstrated that meditation programs, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBS) programs have been correlated with positive health outcomes, including pain attenuation. The most common form of program is the MBS. In the context of pain management the eight-week length of the program renders it difficult for some patients, such as suffers of chronic pain, as they may not have the ability, or the time, required to complete the course. The research undertaken by Zeidan et al. (2010) addresses this problem, implementing…


Zeidan, Fadel, Gordon, Nakia S., Merchant, Junaid, Goolkasian, Paula, (2010), The Effects of Brief Mindfulness Meditation Training on Experimentally Induced Pain, The Journal of Pain, 11(3), 199-209

Philosophy What Did Kierkegaard Mean
Words: 2576 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61109929
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How is it possible, then, that we can come to know anything?

Methodological doubt is best represented in the first of the Meditations, "hat can be called into doubt."

In this meditation, the meditator is forced to think about everything that he has believed throughout the course of his life. He must then make a conscious decision to do away with all of these lies and begin again so that the basis of his knowledge is free of any lies.

4. hat is the difference between atheism and agnosticism?

Atheism means that there is a denial of theism (i.e., the existence of God) while agnosticism means that there is a question concerning the existence of God, a heaven, or any type of spiritual being. An atheist would believe that God does not exist and therefore does not have any control over his or her life while an agnostic would believe…

Works Cited

Allison, Henry E. Kant's Transcendental Idealism: An Interpretation and Defense. Yale University Press; Rev Exp edition, 2004.

Descartes, Rene., Cottingham, John., Ameriks, Karl. & Clarke, Desmond M. Descartes:

Meditations on First Philosophy: With Selections from the Objections and Replies. Cambridge University Press; Revised edition, 1996.

Kierkegaard, Soren. Fear and Trembling (Penguin Classics). Penguin Classics, 1986.

Spirituality vs Religion in Western
Words: 315 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93020713
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Buddhism requires intense study and meditation times, which is a very individual choice.

However, there were some aspects that parallel Christianity as a religion... The bhikkus, or very dedicated individual followers of this spiritual path, are analogous to Christianity's monks and nuns, studying spirituality on a very advanced level; the lay Buddhists are perhaps more like average religious followers, supporting and learning from the Bhikkus, living by a simple moral code (similar to the ten commandments) taught by the Bhikkus, but not taking the spirituality to the same level. In this sense, the Bhikkus are spiritualists, while the lay Buddhists are members of a Buddhist religion, if one were to try to apply Western terminology. Approaching Western concepts to Buddhism in this way may help to clarify some of the difficulty that students have in understanding the basic functionality of Buddhism and Buddhist practice.

Humans Have Been Experimenting With and Fascinated
Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58779774
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humans have been experimenting with and fascinated by the various states of consciousness. It is common knowledge that man regularly moves through these different states of being. Equally known is the ability to intentionally change one's experiential level. Such is man's attraction to altered consciousness that some religions, chiefly Eastern ones, have incorporated into their repertoires philosophies of and activities towards attention manipulation. Science, particularly biopsychology, has also recognized the value of managing consciousness. Biofeedback, meditation, and sleep are examples of the relationship between attention and one's state of being.

Biofeedback involves electrically monitoring involuntary responses to stimuli. In other words, one's heartbeat, muscle tension, and brain wave activity are recorded while specific conditions occur. By analyzing and correlating this data to an individual's physiological dysfunctions, professionals are able to prescribe explicit and effective therapies. The belief guiding biofeedback treatment is that spontaneous reactions can be harnessed and modified thereby…


Morris, Charles G. & Maisto, Albert A. (2002). Psychology: An Introduction. Prentice Hall:

New Jersey.

Psychological Experiment The Experiment in Question Studied
Words: 1635 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99981362
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psychological experiment. The experiment in question studied the effect of maternal stress reduction, during pregnancy, on the health of their children, at one year of age. In this paper, I will apply my understanding of some fundamental principles of proper psychological research and the principles of critical thinking.

First, I will discuss the independent variable, and possible ways the researchers' treatment of this variable may have invalidated their claimed outcome. Further, I will discuss construct and internal validity. Finally, I will investigate possible extraneous variables that may invalidate the researchers' claimed outcome of the research study. I conclude that the researchers claimed outcome results from flawed research practices and design, and that their claimed outcome is therefore, highly questionable.

The experiment analysed in a research study about preparing for parenthood. The research study focuses on the effect of maternal meditation and stress reduction on the health of their children. The…


Christensen, L.B. 1991. Experimental Methodology, 5th Edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Donne Island No Man Is an Island
Words: 1311 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95709228
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Donne Island

No man is an island unto himself," a line written during the Renaissance by poet John Donne, reflects the brotherhood of all men. hile this line was written at the height of the Renaissance, it has remained meaningful in both public and private spheres in the decades since. Today, contemporary attitudes in society often reflect this theme of the brotherhood of man, including the humanitarian reasons that George Bush gave for the invasion of Iraq. In my personal experience, the idea of brotherhood put forth by Donne, plays an important role in personal hopes for the future of my generation. Ultimately, both Donne's poem itself and the ideas about brotherhood that it espoused have had a lasting influence in western history and culture that remains valid today.

Donne's Mediation XVII

Meditation XVII is a poem that delves into the theme of the brotherhood of man. In Meditation XVII,…

Works Cited

Donne, John. Meditations XII. Literature Network>. 01 April 2004. 

Wikipedia. Donne, John. 01 April 2004.

Altered States of Consciousness Throughout
Words: 521 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37496242
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There are also physiological data indicating that people really do experience hypnotic suggestions. ecent brain-imagining studies show that when hallucinations or pain inhibition is suggested, brain activity can be observed that is consistent with the suggested experiences (Kirsh, 2001)."

Alternate consciousness states also provide humans with the ability to numb themselves to pain and stress. Whether it is the use of drugs, drinking in excess or learning to meditate each morning, the ability to alter one's state of consciousness can allow at least a temporary relief of life stress symptoms.

There have been more than 1.000 peer reviewed journal articles published with regard to altered states of consciousness with meditation and its impact on stress. The research indicates that the altered state has a positive effect on people's stress levels, which allows them to function in a more efficient manner (Mind, 2006).


Altered states of consciousness have attracted humans…


Kirsch, Irving (2001) the altered states of hypnosis. Social Research

____(2006) Meditation -- the relaxation remedy: research suggests meditation can help ease stress, improve health and well-being, and even boost brain activity.

Mind, Mood & Memory

Descartes & Web Du Bois
Words: 1255 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8241258
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For Descartes, the individual is capable of thinking beyond the physical and real, and this can be done by arguing based on pure reason. is version of "truths" about human existence and other universal truths about life can be generated from human reason alone, in the same manner in which he proved his existence as a result of his belief that he is "persuaded" that he exists. That is, even though experience and reality does not provide proof of his existence, the fact that Descartes believed that he existed is proof enough that he, indeed, exists in the world he lives in.

Descartes' questioning of reality and experience profoundly helped the manner by which human knowledge is created and developed. Rationalism as a philosophy puts premium on the human ability to think and reason, and through these attributes, be able to create ideas that make sense of one's existence and…

He began to have a dim feeling that, to attain his place in the world, he must be himself, and not another. For the first time he sought to analyze the burden he bore upon his back, that dead-weight of social degradation partially masked behind a half-named Negro problem. He felt his poverty; without a cent, without a home, without land, tools, or savings, he had entered into competition with rich, landed, skilled neighbors. To be a poor man is hard, but to be a poor race in a land of dollars is the very bottom of hardships. He felt the weight of his ignorance, -- not simply of letters, but of life, of business, of the humanities...The red stain of bastardy, which two centuries of systematic legal defilement of Negro women had stamped upon his race

Descartes, R. "Meditations." Available at .

Du Bois, W.E.B. "Souls of the Black Folk." Available at .

Descartes Wax Argument Descartes Philosophy Heavily Deals
Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53809652
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Descartes: Wax Argument

Descartes philosophy heavily deals with the "thinking thing," of perception and knowledge, and the correlation of the two. Like Plato's views on knowledge and opinion, Descartes concludes that human perception -- or opinion, according to Plato -- is faulty. However, unlike Plato -- who takes sense-perception in stride and allows the use of it to gain knowledge -- Descartes discards sense-perception, determining that it is an unreliable path to true and ineffable knowledge. In Meditations II, Descartes further discusses this argument using the changing of wax.

Prior to his examples with the wax, Descartes has logically deduced that he is a "a thing which thinks," and through that realization a thing that thinks has the inherent ability to "doubt, understand, conceive, deny, will, refuse, which also imagine and feel." In order to affirm his being a thinking thing, he examines the example of a wax, where he…


Descartes, Rene. Meditations on First Philosophy. Retrieved March 24, 2011. .

Plato. The Republic. Retrieved March 24, 2011. .

Role of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression
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ole of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression

Over the last thirty years, one of the most interesting paradoxes in the study and treatment of depression has been that increased knowledge about the biomedical and genetic causes of the disease has been coupled with a renewed interest in the effect of religion and spirituality on human mental health and well-being. No matter how religion and spirituality are defined -- and many scholars and laypersons see no great distinctions between the two -- there are now hundreds of studies that demonstrate the beneficial effects of religion on both mental and physical health. Indeed, the more firmly held and intrinsic a person's religious convictions are, the more salutary the effect. eligious people are more optimistic, hopeful and trusting, and have more purpose and meaning in life than those with weak or no religious views. All of these qualities are of course lacking…


Ai, A..L. et al. (2005). "Prayer Coping, Positive Attitudes, and Cardiac Surgery" in Lee, A.V. Coping with Disease. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., pp. 23-64.

Auer, B. And J.A. Ang (2007). Torment of the Soul: Suicidal Depression and Spirituality. AuthorHouse.

Beck, A.T. And B.A. Alford (2009). Depression: Causes and Treatment. University of Pennsylvania Press.

Biebel, D.B. And H.G. Koenig (2010). New Light on Depression: Help, Hope and Answers for the Depressed and Those Who Love Them. Zondervan Publishing House.

Unconscious Thoughts After Reading the Instructions for
Words: 1434 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2488958
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Unconscious Thoughts

After reading the instructions for this project, I closed all the windows and doors to my apartment, and set the stopwatch on my phone for 10 minutes. I composed myself, and then sat on my couch. It was nighttime, so that there were no audible sounds except the hum of the refrigerator and my own breathing. I closed my eyes and began to meditate. To help me do so, I inhaled slowly and deeply, before exhaling in an equally deliberate way. I attempted to concentrate solely on my breathing and to keep my mind bereft of other thoughts. My hands were on my side; my feet were firmly in front of me. I sat in the same position for the duration of the time. I experienced various feelings during this time period -- both a drowsiness and alertness. There were several thoughts that invaded my mind, despite my…


Baars, B. (1997). In the Theater of Consciousness: the Workspace of the Mind. San Diego: Oxford University Press.

Furuya, S. (1997). Unfinished business. Family of Origin Systems MAP603C.

Greenberg, L.S., Goldman, R.N. (2008). Emotion-Focused Couples Therapy. New York: American Psychological Association.

Greenberg, L.S. (2002). Emotion Focused Therapy. New York: American Psychological Association.

Two Views of the Mind Body Problem
Words: 1614 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88532162
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Cartesian dualism emerges from Descartes's approach of radical skepticism. Wanting to know what can be determined to be absolutely true, Descartes begins by doubting all sensory perception as fundamentally external and liable to interference. Just as we understand that hallucination exists as a real phenomenon -- whereby we might "see" an object that is not really there -- we may come to understand that all the evidence obtained from eyesight may not necessarily be a valid representation of the external world. Indeed, we do not even have to refer to the pathological category of hallucination to understand what it would mean to find sensory evidence to be deceptive. In his recent book on hallucinations, the noted neuroscientist Dr. Oliver Sacks (2012) makes reference to "dreams, which one can argue are hallucinations of a sort" (xiii). Anyone who has had a vivid dream knows that they contain visual, auditory, and…


Churchland, PM. (1988). Matter and consciousness: A contemporary introduction to the philosophy of mind. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Descartes, R. (1999). Discourse on method and Meditations on first philosophy. 4th ed. Trans. D. Cress. New York: Hackett.

Sacks, O. (2012). Hallucinations. New York: Knopf.

Teachings on Human Dignity Written
Words: 322 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5539847
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2. Thomas Merton's teachings on meditation and contemplative prayer are tremendously helpful in bridging the gap between public and private spirituality, and between a person's inner and outer lives. Moreover, Merton's essays on meditation help Christians incorporate the teachings of the faith into their daily existence, grounding faith into practice. Meditation and contemplative prayer encourage honesty and self-awareness, enabling any practitioner to improve their moral outlook and eliminate sinful behaviors. Merton's approach is rooted deep within the Christian faith and yet transcends it too, illuminating the universal truths of human spiritual wisdom. Incorporating Thomas Merton's approach to contemplative prayer and meditation into the Christian life can promote a more philanthropic attitude and more selfless deeds.


Pope Paul VI. Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World. From Vatical Counsel II. etrieved Sept 27, 2008 from


Pope Paul VI. Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World. From Vatical Counsel II. Retrieved Sept 27, 2008 from