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According to Power, in order to achieve successful meditation, I must first enter to "newness" and let go of all of my reservations and generalizations (Power 50). Because each interfaith group will have strong beliefs of faith, I am aware that it would require effort to establish the deep connection that Clinebell and Power teach of.
ith this in mind, it is likely that most members of these groups may not have other wise been exposed to Buddhist meditation and I kept this in mind while developing my approach. The first step I would take is to first research their religion and become familiar with its doctrine before sharing with them the principles of Buddhism. Since each of the different faith that I currently work with maintain their own set of beliefs and doctrines, it is important for me to remain flexible in my teaching and communication. This will help…
Bekwitz, Steven. The Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2010.
Clinebell, Howard. The Basic Types of Pastoral Care and Counseling: Resources for the Ministry of Healing and Growth. Tennessee: Abingdon Press, 1984. Print.
Dockett, Kathleen, H., Dudley-Grant, Rita G., and Bankart, Peter C. eds., Psychology and Buddhism: From individual to global community. New York: Plenum Publishers,
Inc. 2003. Print.
Physicians need to see, in person, the positive effects of these techniques in patients. To do this, hospitals and universities need to conduct larger and broader studies. Secondly, more work is required to demonstrate the triple link between stress-disease-meditation such that the effects are reduced by mediation. hat we have demonstrated is that stress deteriorates disease, that if stress is not part of the equation, healing is faster, that a positive attitude can improve overall mental health, and that meditation can improve not only attitude but can reduce stress. Therefore, meditation has a positive effect upon stress and is therefore beneficial in an overall treatment plan.
Anderson, R.A. (2006). Immune responsiveness and meditation. Townsend Letter: The Examiner of Alternative Medicine, 143.
Bormann, J.E., Gifford, a.L., Shively, M., Smith, T.L., Redwine, L., Kelly, a., et al. (2006). Effects of spiritual mantram repetition on HIV outcomes: a randomized controlled trial.…
Anderson, R.A. (2006). Immune responsiveness and meditation. Townsend Letter: The Examiner of Alternative Medicine, 143.
Bormann, J.E., Gifford, a.L., Shively, M., Smith, T.L., Redwine, L., Kelly, a., et al. (2006). Effects of spiritual mantram repetition on HIV outcomes: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 359(18).
Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. (n.d.). Meditation. Retrieved May 11, 2008, from Reference.com: http://www.reference.com/browse/columbia/meditatn
Maharishi University of Management. (2008). Transcendental Meditation (TM) Technique. Retrieved May 11, 2008, from Maharishi University of Management: http://www.mum.edu/tm
Similarly, the passage from the Pali Canon makes reference to mindfulness, which is concretely obtained through watching the breath and observing feelings, thoughts, and sensations come and go: "So he abides contemplating feelings as feelings...He abides contemplating arising phenomena in the feelings, vanishing phenomena, and both arising and vanishing phenomena in the feelings." Nyanaponika Thera's writing based on the Pali excerpt demonstrates how conscious awareness of present in the body and stopping the mind from wandering: "This practice of mindful walking is, particularly for certain types of meditators, highly recommendable both as a method of concentration and as a source of Insight." Finally, the passage describing zazen meditation shows how simlar that practice is to Vipassana meditation, and how both Vipassana and Zen meditation represent the embodiment of core Buddhist teachings. The "beginner's mind" is the attainment of mindfulness, the ability to be fully present in the moment, simply observing…
Recently, I had a little accident that I trapped my finger between wall strips in a door as I passed by. I experienced a huge burning pain, and the nail came off from the skin. Simultaneously as I screamed, "ouch!" because it hurt badly, I slapped the strips, which shouldn't have been separated. When people get angry in social event, there is a similar reaction but with certain variations. For instance attacking a stimulus instantaneously though response varies from vocally, mentally, to physically. I analyzed the steps backward. The last stage is attempting to prove one's strength, then being unable to forgive the stimulus or person, and feeling a pain or being hurt. Because we don't want to accept our weakness and try to defend our vulnerability, we often show an opposite stance by hiding and faking our 'self'.
One by one, I started recalling the moments when I experienced…
This love is everlasting, though, and it will not fade or stop over time. When I look up at the stars and all of creation, I feel how small and insignificant I seem to be, but then I remember that Jesus took special note of me, as he has all of his disciples. When I called out to Him in my need, He answered wit his sacrifice and, as in these verses, his own please to the Father to remember the believers. How can we be afraid when Jesus himself is imploring that we all be remembered and protected and loved, that we have a special place in the world and in His heart.
My thoughts were led mostly outside of myself, and I prayed for all of those whom I know who have not accepted Jesus as their savior, including close family, to learn to know the joy, love,…
(Schure, Christopher, and Christopher)
hile many may feel that they do not have the time to mediate, there are moments throughout the day when the practice could easily arise naturally. aiting in line, often a undesirable experience, can be a time to focus inward as well. Listen to your breathing, watch your thoughts pass and see how, weird, sad, interesting, profound or just plain ridiculous they are. Meditation, in plain English, is in actuality the art of doing nothing. Both waiting and meditation have this in common. Of course this can be difficult depending on one's frustration level and anxiety, but all the more reason to find alternatives since we know the poor health benefit to these conditions. After all if so much time is spent in waiting, and this detracts from living life, why not make it a part of life that can be of benefit, it is after…
Alfaro, Nancy. "Mind Your Body: Meditation How Stillness Improves Performance Skills." Dance Magazine Nov. 2006: 28.
Beck, C. Joko. "Everyday Zen." London: Thorsons. 1989.
Broderick, P.C., & Blewitt, P.. "The Life Span: Human Development For Helping Professionals" (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall. 2006
Gelderloos, Paul, Hubert J.M. Hermans, Henry H. AhlscrOm, and Rita Jacoby. "Transcendence and Psychological Health: Studies with Long-Term Participants of The Transcendental Meditation and Tm-Sidhi Program." Journal of Psychology 124.2 (1990): 177-197.
These have been collected in six volumes of research papers, of which over 150 are reprinted from scientific journals" (Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Programme: Collected Papers)
This section will describe how the research will actually take place. The description will include justification for the selected methods with reference to literature and will be grounded in primary health care principles. Discussion will also include practical issues such as: how the methods are to be implemented, any limitations of the chosen methodology, potential barriers to implementation and how I can maximize response rates, how the data will be analyzed (i.e. what data analysis technique you will use) and how results/findings will be disseminated (i.e. appropriate audiences and formats).
In research studies, the use of theories can be divided into two main categories; (1) inductive approach and (2) deductive approach. In induction, at first data is…
Astin, J. (1997). Stress reduction through mindfulness meditation. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 66, 97-106.
Bouma, G.D. (2002). The research process. 4th Ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Castleman, M. (1996). Nature's cures. Emmaus, PA: Rodale.
Curiati, J.A. Bocchi, E. Freire, J.O. Arantes, a.C. Braga, M. Garcia, Y. Guimaraes, G. Fo, W.J. (2005). Meditation Reduces Sympathetic Activation and Improves the Quality of Life in Elderly Patients with Optimally Treated Heart Failure: A Prospective Randomized Study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 11(3): 465-472
Ground-Breaking Meditation esearch: A Comparison of Presentations
Holzel and colleagues performed the study "Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density" as a result of the fact that little is known about the neural mechanisms that are impacted by specific forms of mindfulness meditation and comparable interventions. While some interventions are known to be more effective than others, there aren't a lot of details available about the precisely positive changes which can occur in the gray matter of one's brain as a result of effective and critically acclaimed techniques like Mindfulness-Based Stress eduction (MBS). Holzel and colleagues were able to confirm that the changes occurred were ones which specifically were connected to the gray matter in areas of the brain where the bulk of the learning process, memory processes, emotional regulation and perspective taking manifested. For example, one area of the brain that the study examined was…
Bhanoo, S. (2011). How Meditation May Change the Brain. Retrieved from nytimes.com: http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/01/28/how-meditation-may-change-the-brain/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0
Holzel, B., Carmody, J., & Vangel, M. (2011). Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Res, 36 -- 43.
Mediation and Wellness
Wellness is a modern concept that is used to describe a holistic view of health and growth in terms of mental, physical and spiritual aspects. "Wellness is a dynamic process of change and growth encompassing your physical, emotional, intellectual, spiritual, interpersonal, social and environmental well-being. "("WHAT IS WELLNESS?) The purpose of wellness is to achieve the best possible human potential and to lead a more vital life. This includes the physical as well as spiritual, emotional and environmental aspects of human life.
The art and practice of meditation forms part of the concept of wellness, as it can help to facilitate the holistic goals on all levels of human health. Meditation is defined in a broad sense as the " ... experience of relaxing the body, quieting the mind, and awakening the spirit. " (Massage Therapy)
There are numerous types and styles of mediation. However, all meditation…
Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Cancer Patients. Retrieved June 8, 2005 from University of California, San Diego. Web site: http://cancer.ucsd.edu/Outreach/PublicEducation/CAMs/taichi.asp
Holistic Approaches to Health. Retrieved June 7, 2005 from Vanderbilt University: Web site: Http://www.vanderbilt.edu/AnS/psychology/health_psychology/Holistic.htm
Massage Therapy. Retrieved June 8, 2005 from the University of New Hampshire. Web site: http://www.unh.edu/health-services/hepHolistic.htm
Petulla J. Crisis to Wellness. Retrieved June 8, 2005 from University of San Fransisico. Web site: http://www.usfca.edu/fac_staff/petullaj/postscript.html
Meditation Healing Process
The Validity of Meditation as a Healing Process according to Jovanov
Jovanov's (1995) study seeks to legitimize the role of meditation in the healing process by focusing on the activity of brain processes during meditation using special methodology and software. "Subtle EEG changes" are monitored and characterized according to behavioral patterns based on static and dynamic analysis (Jovanov, 1995). By using EEG as a window into "consciousness," the study opens up the door to the possibility of meditation acting as a healing process.
The history of EEG as a window onto altered states "is well established" according to Jovanov (1995), although subtle changes are less easy to detect. Nonetheless, subtleties do themselves register in EEG monitoring. Yet, while the relationship between altered states and physiological brain activity appears affirmative, understanding how the relationship works is still relatively unclear, as the exact process used by the brain to…
Jovanov, E. (1995). On the Methodology of EEG Analysis During Altered States of Consciousness. VXM. Retrieved from http://www.vxm.com/21R.94.html
Meditation for the Soul
The human spirit can be compared to a powerful motor having its own vibration. It is not a power I could "turn on" but a loving power that I could awaken and utilize. Also, it is not a power over which I have control; instead it is a loving presence to which I could safely submit. It never abandons me (Naylor, 2009). In the past, meditation practices were deemed as important only by those who were actively on the spiritual path. Currently, however, with the non-stop activity of sensory stimulation from high tech devices, meditation is now supported by majority in the area of psychology as a necessity for all. Studies reveal that individuals surrounded by an overflow of data and choices of data venues are now displaying signs of what is referred to as 'brain freeze.' Taking some time to refresh the mind…
Naylor, A. (2009, June 23). 12 Simple Steps To Meditate For Relaxation. Retrieved from Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/anne-naylor/12-simple-steps-to-medita_b_206617.html
Seaward, B. L. (2012). Health of the Human Spirit. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
The other main reason for continuing with meditation in the future is that the practice has liberated me from the old consideration of myself as a failure and an individual who cannot deal with some major challenges in life. This practice has also enabled me to experience real happiness, become more loving, and demonstrate calm when facing a problem. It has become easier for me to face challenges and develop appropriate solutions that help in dealing with the problem effectively. I have also learnt how to accept delays or negative feedback with more ease while remaining positive. Through meditation, I will be able to experience increased happiness, calm, and have a positive mental attitude towards everything.
In conclusion, meditation is an important practice that helps people to experience calm and real happiness in the midst of complex situations and issues. From my personal experience, meditation has transformed my old view…
Bhanoo, S.N. (2011, January 28). How Meditation may Change the Brain. The New York Times.
Retrieved April 9, 2014, from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/01/28/how-meditation-may-change-the-brain/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0
Brach, T. (n.d.). How to Meditate: A Guide to Formal Sitting Practice. Retrieved April 9, 2014,
One should be aware that meditation is able to bridge the gap between humanity and divinity and the first step is to believe in the possibility and desire such a state. In order to attain the state of meditation, Evelyn Underhill (1930) states that an act of perfect concentration, of passionate focus of the self on a certain point, when the self dedicates itself guided by a pure intention to real or transcendental things is required to be performed. On this condition mystic consciousness is based on and as well is the main requirement that favors pure contemplation.
Concentration and contemplation are two distinct phases in the process of meditation. The characteristics and issues addressed in these phases are given below (obbins, J, 2003):
Calming the unconscious or automatic movements of the mind
Increased focus and cognitive structuring
Better understanding of one's personality and unconscious defenses
Increased empathy and compassion…
Benson H. (1975) the relaxation response. New York: William Morrow,.158
Goleman D. (1977) the varieties of the meditative experience. New York: Irvington,. 130
Underhill, E. (1930). Mysticism. A Study of the Nature and Development of Man's Spiritual Consciousness, London, Methuen & Co Ltd.
Alexander CN, Langer EJ., editors. (1990) Higher Stages of Human Development: Perspectives on Adult Growth. New York: Oxford University Press;
Singer (2006) asserts in "A mindful recovery: mindfulness meditation practices can help clients, even in the earliest detox stages." According to Singer, "Mindfulness meditation is a process of purposefully paying attention to what is happening in the present moment without being distracted by what has already happened or what might happen" (¶ 1). Studies confirm, Singer contends that mindfulness meditation proves effective to help a person manage his/her pain, as well as reduce stress. Even children can reportedly learn to use mindfulness meditation.
Jon Kabat-Zinn, director of the University of Massachusetts Medical Center's relaxation program, describes mindfulness meditation:
Mindfulness is about being fully awake in our lives. It is about perceiving the exquisite vividness of each moment. We feel more alive. We also gain immediate access to our own powerful inner resources for insight, transformation, and healing.
Many forms of meditation exist, but they all share the intentional training of…
Bergin, Mary. (2004). Chopra and America's doctor Weil to visit. The Capital Times (Madison,
WI). Capital Newspapers. Retrieved April 25, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Brenizer, Susan Hartman. (2008). 20 ways to inoculate against stress. The Post-Standard
Healthcare Application Meditation
Aside from a willingness to place one's faith in the unproven, those who adhere to the ancient spiritual beliefs of Buddhism and Hinduism share one fundamental practice with patients who have adopted the increasingly prevalent practice of holistic healing: the use of meditation to improve clarity, concentration, and quality of life. Meditation is based on intense personal introspection, wherein an individual typically sits in solitude and silence, focusing their mind completely on a particular reflective topic, or simply concentrating deeply on the vexing concepts of being and nothingness. The process of meditation occurs in many forms throughout the world's major philosophical models, with Christians and Muslims joining their fellow worshippers in the Eastern religions by using the meditative act of prayer to delve within their mind's inner sanctum. Today, even secular individuals with no connection to a recognized religious following employ meditation as part of their fitness…
Anderson, E., & Anderson, P. (1987). General practitioners and alternative medicine. The Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 37(295), 52. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1710702/
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: Theoretical considerations and preliminary results. General hospital psychiatry, 4(1), 33-47. Retrieved from http://brainimaging.waisman.wisc.edu/~perlman/0903-EmoPaper/kabatzinn-mbsr- 1982.pdf
Spiegel, D., Stroud, P., & Fyfe, A. (1998). Complementary medicine. Western Journal of Medicine, 168(4), 241. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1304947/
The confused state of Descartes in the "Second Meditation" helps to illustrate the point that the body is known better than the mind. The mind may never know or understand its existence, yet the mind always knows the body's sensory perceptions. The mind is reliant on the body. The body is not only first, but is most important, and the perceptions of the body are known to the mind regardless of the mind's ability to know anything. Descartes may or may not exist solely because of thinking, but he thinks solely because of the body. There would be no wax example without the body; no knowledge of the malleable wax would exist without a physical understanding by the body. The mind cannot conceive an existence without a body, and although the mind may prove existence, the existence it proves is one of bodily existence meaning the body is better known…
Burnham, D., & Fieser, J. (2006). Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved March 28, 2007, at http://www.iep.utm.edu/d/descarte.htm#H3
Descartes, R. (YEAR). Second Meditation. BOOK TITLE (pp. 255-263). CITY: PUBLISHER.
ut how could one know that the true and immutable nature of a being is to exist purely on the basis of an idea? In fact, this argument works better for a triangle, since its essence is implied in the definition. It does not hold, however, for God, whose definition is contestable. Descartes would resort to saying that any other concept of God would be self-contradictory. This is not necessarily true. One's definition of God's attributes does not make it the case.
Descartes recognizes the major objection to this position: that his thinking the idea of God does not make God exist. What a person thinks does not create the thing. He says, "For my thought does not impose any necessity on things; and just as I may imagine a winged horse even though no horse has wings, so I may be able to attach existence to God even though…
Descartes, Rene. Meditations on First Philosophy with Selections from the Objections and Replies. Trans. John Cottingham. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Perfection might exist in a more general picture, one that brings together imperfect beings and where everyone contributes to making flawlessness.
According to the Meditator, people have to focus on society and the world as a whole instead of only being interested in themselves. God's perfection is, according to the Meditator, translated into humans through the fact that they have free will, both God and people being unlimited from this perspective.
The Meditator is doubtful in regard to the relationship between his mind and body, as even though he is perfectly aware that his mind exists, he cannot be sure about the existence of his body. Senses and imagination are for him the main reasons causing lack of trust in the existence of his corporeal body. The Meditator does not believe that imagination is a product of the mind, given that it can generate feelings that don't actually exist and…
Descartes, Rene. "Meditations on first philosophy: with selections from the Objections and replies." (Cambridge University Press, 1996).
And on the same principle, although these general objects, viz. [a body], eyes, a head, hands, and the like, be imaginary, we are nevertheless absolutely necessitated to admit the reality at least of some other objects still more simple and universal than these, of which, just as of certain real colors, all those images of things, whether true and real, or false and fantastic, that are found in our consciousness (cogitatio), are formed." Thus, Descartes states that when we are dreaming or creating the dream world of art, we still use forms and shapes that have a physical reference in the real world, even the very colors we use on the canvas. In other words, rather than creating out of whole cloth, dreams and art both have a basis in physical reality of non-dreaming life. One cannot be completely creative either in painting or in dreams, for even paintings of…
Descartes. "Meditations." From the Descartes "Meditations" home page. Last updated 1996. Translated by John Veitch 1901. Online 7 Dec 2004 at http://www.wright.edu/cola/descartes/ meditation1.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Descartes' Fourth Meditation, he begins with the assumption that God exists, is infallible, and is not a deceiver. While those assumptions may be subject to debate, for the purposes of the analyzing his argument, they will be taken as the truth. From those truths, Descartes takes several steps to arrive at the conclusion that human error is not the result of a failure of either the will or of intellect, but due to the fact that the will's scope is so much greater than the scope of the intellect, that the two are essentially incompatible. However, while this conclusion may seem satisfactory, when one examines the various steps in Descartes' argument, it becomes clear that he does not always use sound reasoning to come to that conclusion.
The first mini-conclusion that Descartes reaches in his argument is to conclude that, because man has been created in God's image, mankind's judgment,…
The positive psychology arena has undergone swift expansion in the last ten years, with studies explicitly highlighting the significance of examining processes, conditions, and factors improving wellbeing, facilitating psychological prosperity, and optimizing human functioning (Gable & Haidt, 2005; Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). Mindfulness is a factor that plays a part in psychological wellbeing and may be attained using meditation (Pepping, Donovan & Davis, 2013). The term 'meditation' is used to define a set of practices training awareness and focus, often aimed at promoting spiritual and mental growth and wellbeing. In meditation, the mind is trained, and mental processes brought under more conscious control, advantageously guiding them. Such control helps develop certain mental characteristics like calm, focus, and feelings like love, happiness, and empathy. Using increased awareness, an individual can get clearer insights into him/ herself as well as his/ her relationship with the world. Also, increased awareness is…
Meditation in Thurman and Nafisi
Reading and Meditation are similar because they both involve using the imagination. hen one reads, one creates a vivid picture in the mind of what the words are suggesting: it is an active process on the part of the reader, who must "picture" the events as the words are described (as opposed to sitting passively before a screen and allowing the projector to do all the work). Meditation is like reading in that it involves the active participation of the mind in creating an image or event or episode in the mind on which the one meditating is to consider and reflect. Thus, reading can be instrumental in meditation by serving as a launch pad, so to speak. In the end, both are about using the mind to effect a picture in the imagination's eye. It is essentially as Robert Thurman states when he notes…
Nafisi, Azar. "Selections from reading Lolita in Tehran."
Thurman, Robert. "Wisdom."
breathing meditation for 15 minutes in accordance with the principles and techniques described by both Seward (2015) and Stahl & Goldstein (2010), I enjoyed the process but it was challenging. My mind could not stand still. I thought a lot about the work I had to do that day, as well as some relationship problems that I had been having. Thinking about my work led to sensations like stress, anger at myself for procrastinating, anxiety about feeling incapable of fulfilling some of my duties, and worried I would not make a deadline. Many issues came up, especially related to feeling guilty about things that I had said to people during an argument, and feeling afraid of what others thought of me when I said them. I also ended up thinking, or worrying, about the future because my job situation is somewhat unstable. Fear, guilt, and anger all arose, but being…
Davidson, R.J., et al. (2003). Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine 65(4): 564-570.
Seaward, B. (2015). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Stahl, B., & Goldstein, E. (2010). A mindfulness-based stress reduction workbook. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc.
Teper, R. & Inzlicht, M. (2012). Meditation, mindfulness, and excecutive control. Social, Cognitive, and Affective Neuroscience 8(1): 85-92.
It is the mind that is the source of ideas, even those which we are very certain of, and not the senses or the imagination. From our mind, we learn about our bodies and every other material thing in the world.
In my opinion, Descartes was right in arguing that the mind is the source of our ideas. Everything else we know, we know because we thought about it and accepted that it exists. We experience many things on a daily basis and what we think of our experiences becomes our idea of the experience. An experience can be a sad one if we think that it is a sad experience. However, the same experience could be just an ordinary experience if we do not think that it is sad. However, we know whether an idea is true or false based on our experiences and the knowledge of other people…
Descartes, Rene. Meditations on First Philosophy.
Steup, Matthias. "Epistemology." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 14 December 2005. 21 April 2009
A synthesis of what the studies reveal about the current state of knowledge on the question developed
The mindfulness meditation theory appears to have the potential to treat addictive disorder patients. Zgierska and coworkers (2009) state that such models seem to be safe if implemented within the context of clinical studies. One can find considerable methodological shortcomings in a majority of existing works on the subject. Further, which addiction-diagnosed individuals may derive maximum benefits out of mindfulness meditation isn’t clear. But, of late, related initiatives and practices in the role of complementary clinical aids for treating multiple physical and psychological ailments have grown in popularity. MBCT (mindfulness-based cognitive therapy) and MBSR (mindfulness-based stress reduction) as clinical initiatives have specifically been analyzed, with a sound evidential pool recording their efficacy. Integration of the latter initiative’s aspects and cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive psychology strategies resulted in the former’s creation. At first,…
" Moral righteousness is an outward sign of human dignity. Dignity depends on moral action. In contrast, any immoral action or sin is an affront to human dignity. Sin "has diminished man, blocking his path to fulfillment," (section 13). Also, the voice of conscience is akin to the voice of God. If a person ignores his or her conscience, that act is explicitly a sin. Not only is conscience a reflection of higher law; the conscience provides an opportunity for an individual to enhance human dignity through the Word of God. A moral action reflects God's love for the world. The human being who acts with dignity and moral righteousness is one who becomes a beacon of light, a steward for God's will. On the other hand, a person who acts with sin directly affronts God by ignoring moral law as well as the inner voice of conscience.
Pope Paul VI. Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World. Retrieved Sept 27, 2008 from http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_const_19651207_gaudium-et-spes_en.html
He mourns the circumstances of the world that demands the sacrifice, even while he gives it willingly, trusting in the goodness of God and God's larger plan. Having faith does not mean that one does not feel sorrow at the inevitable. It is not sinful to feel sad that physical death is a part of the human, fallen world. A woman who loses her elderly mother will still weep, even though she knows that death comes to us all even while she also believes that eternal life comes to us all. The tears, like Abraham's heavy heart, are evidence of our humanity, even while, like Abraham, we believe that God will spare us at the end of time.
imultaneously in the moment of losing a loved one, with the same heavy heart felt by Abraham, believers also know that God will provide the sacrifice for the burnt offering -- God's…
Simultaneously in the moment of losing a loved one, with the same heavy heart felt by Abraham, believers also know that God will provide the sacrifice for the burnt offering -- God's only Son. Christians have long read Genesis 22 as a typological foreshadowing of Jesus' sacrifice for the sins of humanity on the cross. Isaac is a young innocent and a miraculous gift from God to the childless Abraham. Jesus is similarly given and taken away as a sacrifice in a manner that parallels Isaac: although Jesus suffers and dies in the physical world, the Son lives on in a reborn, physical and spiritual sense, like Isaac lives another day.
God's demand of Abraham shows that He does not ask of human beings more than He is willing to give himself: God gives His son, His faith and trust in human redemption, and gives His gift freely, without preconditions, as Abraham readied his sacrifice of Isaac. Of course, Abraham, a human being, could only trust in providence and could not foresee the larger plan of God in the demand of such a sacrifice, anymore than we humans can fully comprehend the sacrifices God demands of us. However, we can learn from Abraham's spiritual example.
Soren Kierkegaard, Fear and Trembling, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
Atlas, ed., How They See Us: Meditations on America
Although entertaining, and for the most part true, this book tends to have a "preaching to the choir" perspective that could too easily isolate some readers. I get the sense that a large segment of the population that could benefit from reading this book are precisely the ones that will avoid it, thereby nulling the potential benefit it might have in changing the attitudes and behaviors of Americans. As a history text, however, this book is essential in teaching students how much of American self-image is created of myth.
Blaisdell, ed., Great Speeches by Native Americans
Native Americans are rarely considered part of the fabric of the history of the nation; they were completely robbed not just of land but also of dignity and respect. This book counterbalances the centuries of stereotyping the "noble savages" by presenting dozens of eloquent speeches…
Descartes' Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy
Rene Descartes' biggest contribution to humanity and indeed, the sciences lies in his attempting to define a method of objective thinking, thereby encouraging academicians and all of humanity to constantly challenge and therefore further their knowledge of both the material world as well as the more intangible aspects of the Universe.
Descartes believed that all knowledge could only be regarded as 'true' if it had the certainty and evidence of mathematics. Descartes' Discourse on the "Method for Conducting One's Reason Well" is his attempt to apply the precision of mathematics to all fields of knowledge. Descartes' Method involved regarding the value of formal education in largely teaching the languages "...necessary for the understanding of classical texts..." (Part One, p 3), while the pursuit of true knowledge required independent thinking to "...distinguish the true from the false, in order to see my…
Context of Descartes' Method: Clarity and Distinctness." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. URL:
Descartes, Ren e. "Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy." Translated by Cress, Donald A. Hackett Publishing Company. Fourth edition.
Weber, Alfred. "History of Philosophy." University of Idaho, Department of Philosophy Web site. URL:
Gender reflection: On identifying with a particular gender
Until I took a class in critical theory, I never gave much thought to my gender. I am sure that some of this is by virtue of being a straight male. I have female friends who have experienced discrimination or harassment in school and at work by virtue of not being male. I do not believe I have experienced such direct prejudice as a result of my gender. Also, physical fitness is a very important part of my life, and many of my female friends and girlfriends have been very passionate about working out, yet unlike me they have been told not to lift weights or box because this would give them 'bulky' and masculine-looking muscles (which is not true). Obviously, I have never faced such discrimination based upon my interests or because I look strong.
I have come to understand that…
"Dude, you're a fag." YouTube. 20 Sept 2011. [8 Apr 2013]
Fogel, Curtis. Review of Kath Woodward, Boxing, Masculinity and Identity: The 'I' of the Tiger.
New York: Routledge, 2007. Gender Forum: An Internet Journal of Gender Studies, 19 (2007): 1-2. [8 Apr 2013] http://www.genderforum.org/issues/illuminating-gender-ii/kath-woodward-boxing-masculinity-and-identity-the-i-of-the-tiger-new-york-routledge-2007/
Meditation and Mindfulness in Psychology
Many people have a limited understanding of the idea of mediation and some go as far as to associate it with religious concepts, thus seriously damaging their own (and other people's) comprehension of the topic. However, in order to actually be able to understand what a meditation session is all about, a person would have to experience it first-hand. It is not necessarily that meditation can only occur alongside of others or that one needs a teacher in order to be able to meditate. However, being in the presence of someone who instructs the person and who provides information that can play an important role in helping them achieve higher states can be especially beneficial.
One of the first things I learnt when going to a meditation session was that my background or my religious preferences were irrelevant in this context. I went to a…
By wiping out all other thoughts from the conscious mind, the person is able to address only one thought -- and that thought is to remain the focus throughout the entire meditation (Kaur, Agarwal, & Babbar, 2014). The continual repetition of Om or another word, sound, or phrase, would be an example of exclusive meditation. Additionally, a person can visualize a specific image and hold that image in his or her head as a point of focus for exclusive meditation. Transcendental meditation is a popular method, along with another similar method called relaxation response (Smith, 2007). Studies done on transcendental meditation from Harvard researchers have shown that the technique is effective for people who want to reduce stress levels (Smith, 2007).
Mental imagery is the creation of an image in the mind (Smith, 2007). This can be an image that is put there as a suggestion from someone else, or…
Kaur, S., Agarwal, N., & Babbar, R. (2014). Effectiveness of relaxation techniques in reducing stress levels by measuring heart rate variability. International Journal of Physiology, 2(1), 26-30.
Payne, R.A., & Donaghy, M. (2010). Relaxation techniques: A practical handbook for the health care professional. NY: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Smith, J.C. (2007). Chapter 3: The Psychology of Relaxation. In Lehrer, P.M., Woolfolk, R.L., & Sime, W.E. Principles and practice of stress management (3rd ed.). NY: The Guilford Press.
There was no time to allow better preparation of the bread. They had to move out of Egypt in before Pharaoh could realize. The bitter herbs symbolized the bitter life experienced in Egypt. They remained as captives of slavery for many years, and a moment of redemption approached. In the book of Exodus, one sympathizes with the Jews that served life of slavery without freedom.
However, one feels delighted because of the happy conclusion when the Jews attain freedom and redemption. Passover offers a bonding moment that brings together everyone that shares the Jewish customs. The home and most Jewish families celebrate the holy days such as the New Year in Jewish calendar and the Day of Atonement. They celebrate these holy days at night of the eve of the holy day and families prepare meals before performing the synagogue service. They serve the meals with apples and honey which…
Heehs, Peter, ed. 2002. Indian Religions: A Historical Reader of Spiritual Expression and Experience. New York.
Online Conference on Socially Engaged Buddhism. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, April 2000, available online at http: / / jbe.gold.ac.uk.
Queen, Christopher, Charles Prebish and Damien Keown. 2003. Action Dharma: New Studies in Engaged Buddhism. London: Routledge Curzon.
1) and a boy who woke up one day to realise the world was not the world anymore, but something paper-ish. Flowers looked like flowers but were not, Milly, his friend, resembled Milly but was not the Milly of yesterday. Through his example, Bouwsma thought to illustrate that illusions may create similar perceptions to reality but ultimately the former can be depicted, as Tom, the boy, balked the phantasy that was deceiving him. And Tom managed to separate what he was experiencing because "he knew the difference between flowers and paper, and that when presented with one or the other, he can tell the difference." (Bouwsma, p. 2)
How can we know if what we are experiencing is dream or reality? Whether or not all man's experiences are products of man's own dreams can be illustrated in matters of what man knows to be real and what man knows to…
Bouwsma, O.K., 1949. Descartes' Evil Genius. In E. Sesonske and N. Fleming, eds. 1965. Meta-meditations. Available at < http://users.humboldt.edu/jwpowell/okbcartev.pdf> [Accessed 5 June 2013]
Crome, K., 2005. Descartes' Evil Demon. Richmond Journal of Philosophy, 11, pp.: 1-8. Available at < http://www.richmond-philosophy.net/rjp/back_issues/rjp11_crome.pdf> [Accessed 4 June 2013]
Descartes, R., 1901. Meditations of First Philosophy [trilingual HTML edition]. Translated from Latin by John Veitch. Available through: Descartes' Meditations Home Page
[Accessed 4 June 2013]
Some of the reason for error, therefore, is not related to indifference or for not having enough time to fully consider some matter. Some of it is due to man's propensity to flaw, and to his limited ability (which is related to his limited mental and physical power).
In addition to misinterpreting the nature of the relationship between intellect and free will, Descartes has incorrectly interpreted some of the most vital connotations that accompany free will. There is an innate responsibility that accompanies this gift. Free will presents human beings (and anything else endowed with it, for that matter), the opportunity to do good or evil, to make use of or to squander opportunity, to laugh or to cry. The power of the decision, regardless of the source (which is, of course, God) ultimately resides with the individual. And while the author readily acknowledges the relationship of intellect and will…
How much feeling there is in the third and fourth stanzas! -- the panicked and fearful bird, heart pumping, the calmness of the man, the soft, loving strokes and upward lifting of the bird.
However, behind this calm and ease, is another emotion that Wrigley portrays. It is subtle, yet winds through the poem, so the reader knows that there is some kind of problem, challenge of violence that the man (and the outside world) is facing. Just the title, itself, foreshadows this. Who wants to listen to "news" these days? Is there anything positive and uplifting on CNN or in the papers? he poem explains it as the bird's frantic chirping and the line "even peace seemed possible."
What makes this so effective is the juxtaposition. In one case, is mankind en masse waging war and killing one another. Yet, in another situation, one man, stands alone, helping free…
The man in the poem is trying to find a middle ground. He is attempting to escape into nature and away from the middle of a town or city where road rage threatens, depression and antidepressant increase, car horns blare, and gun shots blare. However, the radio, one of his concessions, keeps him in the midst of the violence with its news. And, ironically, even in the calm and beauty of nature, potential harm strikes, like the bird being trapped and frantically searching for a way out into the light. Violence cannot be left behind.
Interview with Robert Wrigley. Fugue. University of Idaho. Retrieved January 12, 2007 http://www.uidaho.edu/fugue/robert_wrigley.htm .
Wrigley, R. (2006). Earthly Meditation. New York: Penguin Books.
Instead, the practice bhakti-style devotion to various Buddhas and other supramundane figures (Protehero, 2010, p. 177). These are not manifestations of one God, as might be understood by practitioners of most Western religions, but more similar to spirit guides.
Another aspect of Buddhism that might be surprising is the understanding of "karma." The word is commonly used in our current lexicon and refers to the good or bad that comes one's way based on one's own good or bad deeds. It is thought of as a reward or, conversely, payback. It helps people make sense of the world if they can conceive of such cosmic justice. However, karma is more complicated and really has to do with cause and effect. The idea is that everything one does has consequences, which must be dealt with constructively before one can move on (Martin, 2011). It is about learning and personal growth rather…
Bailey, S.P. (2010). American zenophilia. Humanities 31(2).
Martin, S. (2011). 10 things you didn't know about Buddhism. The Boomington Post. Retrieved from http://www.sharpseniors.com/blog/10-things-you-didnt-know-about-buddhism/
Prothero, S. (2010). God is not one: Eight rival religions that run the world -- and why their differences matter. New York: HarperOne.
Wilson, J. (2011). The popularity of selected elements of Buddhism in North America. Dharma World. Retrieved from http://www.rk- world.org/dharmaworld/dw_2011julysept selectedelements.aspx
The Merriam-ebster dictionary defines meditation, in basic terms, as "a discourse intended to express its author's reflections or to guide others in contemplation." In an interview with Jonathan Fink, Trethewey reveals that her text is aimed at recollecting people's historical and collective memory (Hall 85). This is the only sure way to deal with the issue of history-erasure, and have a more complete version. The author's aim, therefore, is to "reclaim and to get as many of those erased stories back into the larger narrative" (Hall 85).
This section's main focus is showing the degree of importance attached to commercialized activities, at the expense of the environment, and people's safety. However, other points of concern are: the state's tendency to forget about the victims of such catastrophes, the change in the social aspect of people's lives after Hurricane Katrina, and the large extent of erasure facing such historical…
Hall, Joan W., ed. Conversations with Natasha Trethewey. New York: Harper Collins, 2014. Print.
Trethewey, Natasha. Beyond Katrina: A Meditation on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Athens: University of Georgia, 2010. Print.
Review of Related Literature
This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.
In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have een proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stale trait that exhiits sustantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-ehavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, elief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…
bibliography. (2010). http://science.jrank.org / pages/7857/Meditation-Eastern.html.
Many religious traditions have practices that could possibly be labeled meditation. In Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, these practices are usually associated with prayer, contemplation, or recitation of sacred texts. In the religious traditions of the Native Americans, Australian aboriginals, Siberian peoples, and many others, what could be identified as meditation techniques are incorporated within the larger rubric of shamanism. It is, however, in the religions of Asia that meditation has been most developed as a religious method.
Meditation has played an important role in the ancient yogic traditions of Hinduism and also in more recent Hindu-based new religious movements such as Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Transcendental Meditation program. But it is most especially in the monastic or "elite" forms of the various traditions of Buddhism (Theravada, Tibetan/Vajrayana, and Ch'an/Zen) that meditation techniques have taken center stage and have been developed to the highest degree of sophistication and complexity.
Short-Term Effects of Meditation vs. Relaxation on Cognitive Functioning. Contributors: Gillian King - author, Jeffrey Coney - author. Journal Title: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. Volume: 38. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 2006. Page Number: 200+.
Authors cite the lack of relevant studies concerning the effect, if any, of meditation on short-term improvements in cognitive performance. The results of this study clearly showed that meditation, per se, does not produce a short-term improvement in cognitive performance compared to other relaxation techniques.
PICOT Question and its Significance
The PICOT question is: Does mindfulness meditation (I) reduce long-term risk factors and suicidal behaviors (O) among psychiatric patients (P) versus those who do not participate in the meditation programs (C)? This is of great significance to the nursing practice because psychiatric disorders are risk factors that cause an increase in the probability of a suicidal occurrence. As a result, it is imperative for psychiatric nurses to comprehend how to pinpoint such risk factors and institute a clinical practice setting that dissuades suicide. More importantly, nursing practice encompasses the execution of best practices for generating a clinical setting that diminishes risk such as mindfulness meditation.
Summary of Literature Review
The mindfulness meditation theory is deemed to the most prospective one in treating addictive disorder patients. The safety of these models is guaranteed if carried out in the framework of clinical studies. In recent periods, associated…
Then, by beginning with the idea that there may or may not be a chair present at all, one can begin building on those truths that remain to establish more truths and eventually establish the presence of the chair.
Descartes uses such reasoning not only to establish the presence of those things that can be verified by the use of the senses, but also to establish the existence of God and the immortality of the soul. Descartes begins with the premise that neither mountains nor valleys may exist, but that if they do exist, then "a necessary attribute of a mountain is that it be adjacent to a valley" (Burnham and Fieser). Descartes acknowledges that the same could be said of the existence of God:
In the same way, even though the concept of supremely perfect being necessarily possesses certain attributes, it doesn't follow that this being exists. It only…
Burnham, Douglas and James Fieser. "Rene Descartes." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2001. University of Tennessee at Martin. 4 Mar. 2005 http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/d/descarte.htm .
Chew, Robin. "Rene Descartes: Philosopher." Lucidcafe. 2005. Lucidcafe. 4 Mar. 2005 http://www.lucidcafe.com/lucidcafe/library/96mar/descartes.html.
Descartes, Rene. "Meditations." Eds. David B. Manley and Charles S. Taylor. Descartes'
Meditations. 1996. Wright State University. 4 Mar. 2005 http://www.wright.edu/cola/descartes/ .
Pilgrimages in India
A Quest for Finding Oneself in India: Introduction
Humans are born with an incredible amount of mental capacity to learn and grow, yet we are not born with a pre-determined set of rules guiding our thoughts. Religious practice around the world is thus the result of a collaboration of ideas between humans within a society in order to bring a framework of understanding into everyday life. Yet even with justifications of existence provided by religion, some individuals choose to pursue unanswered questions, in order to find a deeper meaning to life, and existence. Pilgrimage is such a quest, and is the pursuit of knowledge, as well as a journey of the mind and body, in search of answers to the unknowable questions of the universe. Pilgrimage also serves to prove one's own devotion to his or her faith, and can be qualified as a measure of…
"Essay on Bhakti Movement of India." PreserveArticles.com: Preserving Your Articles for Eternity. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. .
"Foot Pilgrimage to Murugan Shrines." Murugan Bhakti: Skanda-Kumara Website. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. .
Haberman, David L. Journey through the Twelve Forests: an Encounter with Krishna. New York: Oxford UP, 1994. Print.
"History of Pilgrimage." HOME. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. .
Joy of Living, the Buddhist teacher and spiritual leader Yongey Mingyur approaches what may be one of the most fundamental dilemmas in modern life: how to attain happiness. He talks about the fact that so many people simply do not seem to be able to access happiness in their lives. According to Mingyur, meditation is one of the ways to find happiness in life. Furthermore, Mingyur does not rely simply on what he knows about the practice of Buddhism, but also modern medical research and modern knowledge of physics to demonstrate how meditation works with the brain and to help explain Buddhism to those for whom Buddhism may be an unfamiliar religion. By combining these different aspects, Mingyur attempts to provide a guide for using meditation in daily life.
I learned a lot about Buddhism and meditation from reading this book. Perhaps most importantly, I unlearned things that I believed…
Mingyur, Yongey and Eric Swanson. The Joy of Living. New York: Harmony Books,
Both Taoism and Buddhism encourage meditation as a means by which to liberate the mind and achieve emptiness. One of the Buddhist practices that encourages emptiness is mindfulness meditation, or vipassana. However, there are numerous specific methods that be used during the meditation practice. Some are more Tibetan in origin as those espoused by Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche and the Vajrayana tradition. Other meditation practices are like those I learned at the Hsi Lai Temple, which combine Ch'an (Chinese Zen) Buddhism with Buddhist humanism. Taoism, unlike Buddhism, also offers ancillary spiritual practices such as Tai Chi and Chi Gung. The teachings of Buddhism and Taoism go neatly hand in hand.
Therefore, I am continually growing from becoming more open to spiritual teachings. The spiritual journey is like a flower blossoming. I do not believe that religious dogma or ideology are necessary, and in some cases they can be harmful. As Chogyam…
Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche. Cutting Through Spiritual Materialism. Shambala, 1987.
"Emptiness." Retrieved online: http://thebigview.com/buddhism/emptiness.html
"Humanism." Hsi Lai Temple. Retrieved online: http://www.hsilai.org/en/intro_subpages/intro_hsi_lai_human_Buddhism.html
Aquinas argues that the fact that man can perceive himself to be true serves as a validation for God's existence; however this is dissimilar to Descartes impressions of the Mediator who, according to the philosopher, is capable of mistaking that which is certain and uncertain.
It is important to remember to distinguish fact from fiction; will from intellect. In this presentation I believe that Aquinas and Anselm intermingled the two, suggesting that intellect and will are more similar than different. This clearly offers a different interpretation of what is certain and uncertain as Descartes might argue that the intellect is certain but the will or mind may interpret that which is certain incorrectly.
Descartes, ene. The philosophical writings of Descartes, Vol. II. Trans. John Cottingham, obert Stoothoff, and Dugald Murdoch. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 1984.
Egan, David. SparkNote on Meditations on First Philosophy. 3, May 2007 http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/meditations.
Descartes, Rene. The philosophical writings of Descartes, Vol. II. Trans. John Cottingham, Robert Stoothoff, and Dugald Murdoch. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 1984.
Egan, David. SparkNote on Meditations on First Philosophy. 3, May 2007 http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/meditations .
S. This is surprisingly similar to Descartes' meditations suggesting the human mind is impossible to understand fully.
D. While the philosopher again confirms a distinction between the mind and intellect as Descartes might, he does not provide physical evidence that God exists, only suggests that some "form" of intellect must direct everything in nature.
The object still exists as well, even if it only perceived inaccurately by the material world and by the sensations
Mathematical proofs and mathematical calibrations are accurate, when correctly done, according to Descartes, because they can be proven by logic that the existence of such things exist with tools outside of the body. But although Descartes' Christian world of a non-deceitful god may have been persuasive to his readers, a contemporary reader might ask, what about when the body is affected by the mind -- for example, when one's heart pounds when the mind is nervous, or when one feels hungry because one has seen a television commercial? The sensations are correct in the sense that they perceive a sight, but the pilot of the ship, in essence, interferes with the correct course of action. This suggests a connection between mind and body that is less causal and easy to…
Modern Philosophy. An Anthology of Primary Sources. Ed. By Roger Ariew and Eric Watkins. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Inc.
The term consciousness has been defined as "mental awareness of sensations, perceptions, memories, and feelings" (Brown, et al. 2003, p. 166). Most human beings live in three states of consciousness: waking, sleeping, and dreaming. Two other states of consciousness, meditation and drug-altered consciousness, can be induced. This essay will explore these five states further and will conclude with a discussion on their psychological relevance.
Most of our lives are spent in waking consciousness, that is, a state of clear and organized alertness (Brown, et al., 2003). When we are awake, our perception of time, places, and events are real and often accurate. An electroencephalograph (EEG), a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain, reveals that a person in the waking state has low-amplitude brain wave patterns that are fast and irregular.
Contrary to popular beliefs, sleep does involve some awareness (Lindsay et al., 2004). The…
Brannon, L. & Feist, J. (2007). Health psychology: an introduction to behaviour and health.
Belton, CA: Wadsworth.
Brown, P., Coon, D., Malik, R., & McKenzie, S. (2003). Psychology: a journey. Scarborough,
ON: Thompson Nelson.
Mindfulness Meditation Training on Experimentally Induced Pain" by Zeidan et al., (2010), published in the Journal of Pain, presents the results of research to investigate
The research addresses a gap in the research examining the benefit of meditation in attenuating pain symptoms. The research problem is clearly articulated, with the title clearly stating the content of the paper and the introduction expressing and justifying the issue. Past research has demonstrated that meditation programs, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBS) programs have been correlated with positive health outcomes, including pain attenuation. The most common form of program is the MBS. In the context of pain management the eight-week length of the program renders it difficult for some patients, such as suffers of chronic pain, as they may not have the ability, or the time, required to complete the course. The research undertaken by Zeidan et al. (2010) addresses this problem, implementing…
Zeidan, Fadel, Gordon, Nakia S., Merchant, Junaid, Goolkasian, Paula, (2010), The Effects of Brief Mindfulness Meditation Training on Experimentally Induced Pain, The Journal of Pain, 11(3), 199-209
How is it possible, then, that we can come to know anything?
Methodological doubt is best represented in the first of the Meditations, "hat can be called into doubt."
In this meditation, the meditator is forced to think about everything that he has believed throughout the course of his life. He must then make a conscious decision to do away with all of these lies and begin again so that the basis of his knowledge is free of any lies.
4. hat is the difference between atheism and agnosticism?
Atheism means that there is a denial of theism (i.e., the existence of God) while agnosticism means that there is a question concerning the existence of God, a heaven, or any type of spiritual being. An atheist would believe that God does not exist and therefore does not have any control over his or her life while an agnostic would believe…
Allison, Henry E. Kant's Transcendental Idealism: An Interpretation and Defense. Yale University Press; Rev Exp edition, 2004.
Descartes, Rene., Cottingham, John., Ameriks, Karl. & Clarke, Desmond M. Descartes:
Meditations on First Philosophy: With Selections from the Objections and Replies. Cambridge University Press; Revised edition, 1996.
Kierkegaard, Soren. Fear and Trembling (Penguin Classics). Penguin Classics, 1986.
Buddhism requires intense study and meditation times, which is a very individual choice.
However, there were some aspects that parallel Christianity as a religion... The bhikkus, or very dedicated individual followers of this spiritual path, are analogous to Christianity's monks and nuns, studying spirituality on a very advanced level; the lay Buddhists are perhaps more like average religious followers, supporting and learning from the Bhikkus, living by a simple moral code (similar to the ten commandments) taught by the Bhikkus, but not taking the spirituality to the same level. In this sense, the Bhikkus are spiritualists, while the lay Buddhists are members of a Buddhist religion, if one were to try to apply Western terminology. Approaching Western concepts to Buddhism in this way may help to clarify some of the difficulty that students have in understanding the basic functionality of Buddhism and Buddhist practice.
humans have been experimenting with and fascinated by the various states of consciousness. It is common knowledge that man regularly moves through these different states of being. Equally known is the ability to intentionally change one's experiential level. Such is man's attraction to altered consciousness that some religions, chiefly Eastern ones, have incorporated into their repertoires philosophies of and activities towards attention manipulation. Science, particularly biopsychology, has also recognized the value of managing consciousness. Biofeedback, meditation, and sleep are examples of the relationship between attention and one's state of being.
Biofeedback involves electrically monitoring involuntary responses to stimuli. In other words, one's heartbeat, muscle tension, and brain wave activity are recorded while specific conditions occur. By analyzing and correlating this data to an individual's physiological dysfunctions, professionals are able to prescribe explicit and effective therapies. The belief guiding biofeedback treatment is that spontaneous reactions can be harnessed and modified thereby…
Morris, Charles G. & Maisto, Albert A. (2002). Psychology: An Introduction. Prentice Hall:
psychological experiment. The experiment in question studied the effect of maternal stress reduction, during pregnancy, on the health of their children, at one year of age. In this paper, I will apply my understanding of some fundamental principles of proper psychological research and the principles of critical thinking.
First, I will discuss the independent variable, and possible ways the researchers' treatment of this variable may have invalidated their claimed outcome. Further, I will discuss construct and internal validity. Finally, I will investigate possible extraneous variables that may invalidate the researchers' claimed outcome of the research study. I conclude that the researchers claimed outcome results from flawed research practices and design, and that their claimed outcome is therefore, highly questionable.
The experiment analysed in a research study about preparing for parenthood. The research study focuses on the effect of maternal meditation and stress reduction on the health of their children. The…
Christensen, L.B. 1991. Experimental Methodology, 5th Edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
No man is an island unto himself," a line written during the Renaissance by poet John Donne, reflects the brotherhood of all men. hile this line was written at the height of the Renaissance, it has remained meaningful in both public and private spheres in the decades since. Today, contemporary attitudes in society often reflect this theme of the brotherhood of man, including the humanitarian reasons that George Bush gave for the invasion of Iraq. In my personal experience, the idea of brotherhood put forth by Donne, plays an important role in personal hopes for the future of my generation. Ultimately, both Donne's poem itself and the ideas about brotherhood that it espoused have had a lasting influence in western history and culture that remains valid today.
Donne's Mediation XVII
Meditation XVII is a poem that delves into the theme of the brotherhood of man. In Meditation XVII,…
Donne, John. Meditations XII. Literature Network>. 01 April 2004. http://www.online-literature.com/donne/409/
Wikipedia. Donne, John. 01 April 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Donne
There are also physiological data indicating that people really do experience hypnotic suggestions. ecent brain-imagining studies show that when hallucinations or pain inhibition is suggested, brain activity can be observed that is consistent with the suggested experiences (Kirsh, 2001)."
Alternate consciousness states also provide humans with the ability to numb themselves to pain and stress. Whether it is the use of drugs, drinking in excess or learning to meditate each morning, the ability to alter one's state of consciousness can allow at least a temporary relief of life stress symptoms.
There have been more than 1.000 peer reviewed journal articles published with regard to altered states of consciousness with meditation and its impact on stress. The research indicates that the altered state has a positive effect on people's stress levels, which allows them to function in a more efficient manner (Mind, 2006).
Altered states of consciousness have attracted humans…
Kirsch, Irving (2001) the altered states of hypnosis. Social Research
____(2006) Meditation -- the relaxation remedy: research suggests meditation can help ease stress, improve health and well-being, and even boost brain activity.
Mind, Mood & Memory
For Descartes, the individual is capable of thinking beyond the physical and real, and this can be done by arguing based on pure reason. is version of "truths" about human existence and other universal truths about life can be generated from human reason alone, in the same manner in which he proved his existence as a result of his belief that he is "persuaded" that he exists. That is, even though experience and reality does not provide proof of his existence, the fact that Descartes believed that he existed is proof enough that he, indeed, exists in the world he lives in.
Descartes' questioning of reality and experience profoundly helped the manner by which human knowledge is created and developed. Rationalism as a philosophy puts premium on the human ability to think and reason, and through these attributes, be able to create ideas that make sense of one's existence and…
He began to have a dim feeling that, to attain his place in the world, he must be himself, and not another. For the first time he sought to analyze the burden he bore upon his back, that dead-weight of social degradation partially masked behind a half-named Negro problem. He felt his poverty; without a cent, without a home, without land, tools, or savings, he had entered into competition with rich, landed, skilled neighbors. To be a poor man is hard, but to be a poor race in a land of dollars is the very bottom of hardships. He felt the weight of his ignorance, -- not simply of letters, but of life, of business, of the humanities...The red stain of bastardy, which two centuries of systematic legal defilement of Negro women had stamped upon his race
Descartes, R. "Meditations." Available at http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/descartesmeditations.html .
Du Bois, W.E.B. "Souls of the Black Folk." Available at http://www.bartleby.com/114/1.html .
Descartes: Wax Argument
Descartes philosophy heavily deals with the "thinking thing," of perception and knowledge, and the correlation of the two. Like Plato's views on knowledge and opinion, Descartes concludes that human perception -- or opinion, according to Plato -- is faulty. However, unlike Plato -- who takes sense-perception in stride and allows the use of it to gain knowledge -- Descartes discards sense-perception, determining that it is an unreliable path to true and ineffable knowledge. In Meditations II, Descartes further discusses this argument using the changing of wax.
Prior to his examples with the wax, Descartes has logically deduced that he is a "a thing which thinks," and through that realization a thing that thinks has the inherent ability to "doubt, understand, conceive, deny, will, refuse, which also imagine and feel." In order to affirm his being a thinking thing, he examines the example of a wax, where he…
Descartes, Rene. Meditations on First Philosophy. Retrieved March 24, 2011. .
Plato. The Republic. Retrieved March 24, 2011. .
ole of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression
Over the last thirty years, one of the most interesting paradoxes in the study and treatment of depression has been that increased knowledge about the biomedical and genetic causes of the disease has been coupled with a renewed interest in the effect of religion and spirituality on human mental health and well-being. No matter how religion and spirituality are defined -- and many scholars and laypersons see no great distinctions between the two -- there are now hundreds of studies that demonstrate the beneficial effects of religion on both mental and physical health. Indeed, the more firmly held and intrinsic a person's religious convictions are, the more salutary the effect. eligious people are more optimistic, hopeful and trusting, and have more purpose and meaning in life than those with weak or no religious views. All of these qualities are of course lacking…
Ai, A..L. et al. (2005). "Prayer Coping, Positive Attitudes, and Cardiac Surgery" in Lee, A.V. Coping with Disease. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., pp. 23-64.
Auer, B. And J.A. Ang (2007). Torment of the Soul: Suicidal Depression and Spirituality. AuthorHouse.
Beck, A.T. And B.A. Alford (2009). Depression: Causes and Treatment. University of Pennsylvania Press.
Biebel, D.B. And H.G. Koenig (2010). New Light on Depression: Help, Hope and Answers for the Depressed and Those Who Love Them. Zondervan Publishing House.
After reading the instructions for this project, I closed all the windows and doors to my apartment, and set the stopwatch on my phone for 10 minutes. I composed myself, and then sat on my couch. It was nighttime, so that there were no audible sounds except the hum of the refrigerator and my own breathing. I closed my eyes and began to meditate. To help me do so, I inhaled slowly and deeply, before exhaling in an equally deliberate way. I attempted to concentrate solely on my breathing and to keep my mind bereft of other thoughts. My hands were on my side; my feet were firmly in front of me. I sat in the same position for the duration of the time. I experienced various feelings during this time period -- both a drowsiness and alertness. There were several thoughts that invaded my mind, despite my…
Baars, B. (1997). In the Theater of Consciousness: the Workspace of the Mind. San Diego: Oxford University Press.
Furuya, S. (1997). Unfinished business. Family of Origin Systems MAP603C.
Greenberg, L.S., Goldman, R.N. (2008). Emotion-Focused Couples Therapy. New York: American Psychological Association.
Greenberg, L.S. (2002). Emotion Focused Therapy. New York: American Psychological Association.
Cartesian dualism emerges from Descartes's approach of radical skepticism. Wanting to know what can be determined to be absolutely true, Descartes begins by doubting all sensory perception as fundamentally external and liable to interference. Just as we understand that hallucination exists as a real phenomenon -- whereby we might "see" an object that is not really there -- we may come to understand that all the evidence obtained from eyesight may not necessarily be a valid representation of the external world. Indeed, we do not even have to refer to the pathological category of hallucination to understand what it would mean to find sensory evidence to be deceptive. In his recent book on hallucinations, the noted neuroscientist Dr. Oliver Sacks (2012) makes reference to "dreams, which one can argue are hallucinations of a sort" (xiii). Anyone who has had a vivid dream knows that they contain visual, auditory, and…
Churchland, PM. (1988). Matter and consciousness: A contemporary introduction to the philosophy of mind. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Descartes, R. (1999). Discourse on method and Meditations on first philosophy. 4th ed. Trans. D. Cress. New York: Hackett.
Sacks, O. (2012). Hallucinations. New York: Knopf.
2. Thomas Merton's teachings on meditation and contemplative prayer are tremendously helpful in bridging the gap between public and private spirituality, and between a person's inner and outer lives. Moreover, Merton's essays on meditation help Christians incorporate the teachings of the faith into their daily existence, grounding faith into practice. Meditation and contemplative prayer encourage honesty and self-awareness, enabling any practitioner to improve their moral outlook and eliminate sinful behaviors. Merton's approach is rooted deep within the Christian faith and yet transcends it too, illuminating the universal truths of human spiritual wisdom. Incorporating Thomas Merton's approach to contemplative prayer and meditation into the Christian life can promote a more philanthropic attitude and more selfless deeds.
Pope Paul VI. Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World. From Vatical Counsel II. etrieved Sept 27, 2008 from http://www.cin.org/v2modwor.html
Pope Paul VI. Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World. From Vatical Counsel II. Retrieved Sept 27, 2008 from http://www.cin.org/v2modwor.html