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Foundations; Compare Meiji Restoration founding German Reich. Identify similarities differences origin nature events. Refer social groups involved nature wrought social political structures created.
The Meiji Restoration and the German Reich
The Meiji Restoration Period is relatively similar to the founding of the German Reich when considering the fact that both eras brought significant reform in these countries and made it possible for them to experience great technological advancements as a consequence. The two nations were going through difficult times at the moment when restructuring took place. Japan had little military resources in 1868, was focused on agriculture, and had almost no technological development. Similarly, Germany was predominantly rural in 1871, possessed a weakened military system, and was largely underdeveloped in comparison to some of the greatest powers at the time. Even with that, Germany was already experiencing progress by the time when the empire was founded, as its industry and…
Disorder does not descend from Heaven,
It is the spawn of a woman. 10
Contemporaneous with relocating the capital from Edo to Tokyo was the drawing up of the 'Memorandum on Reform of the Imperial Palace' in which Article 1 states that the emperor would 'deign to hear about all political matters' in the front throne room adding that 'women are to be prohibited from entering the front throne room' 11.
Yoshii Tomozane, enior ecretary for Court Affairs peremptorily dismissed all court ladies, after which a rare few were reselected for appointment. In his dairy, he noted: 'this morning, the court ladies were dismissed in their entirety… the power of women already lasting for centuries has been erased in a single day. My delight knows no bounds." 12.
In this way the power of the 'hens' was removed from the 'Enlightened regime' of Meiji rule and suppressed throughout the country.…
Adler, Philip. World Civilizations. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth / Thomson, 2008
De Vos, George & Wagatsuma, Hiroshi, "Value Attitudes Towards Role Behavior of Women in Two Japanese Villages," American Anthropologist, 63, (1961).
Hastings, S.A. "Gender and Sexuality in Modern Japan" a Companion to Japanese History, Blackwell Pub., 2007
Hendry, Joy, Understanding Japanese Society. London: Routledge, 1991.
..Of course, her earnings were also meager, but it was better than relying on farming alone" (Nagatsuka, 1). Oshina, the wives' character in the novel, could be the impersonation of any hardworking farmer's wife during the Meiji Restoration in Japan. The hardship of the life in a village struggling to adjust to the wave of modernity swiping the country, but still very deeply rooted in the previous period was plausible in the case of those who did not own much land or the means to improve their living standards from other not farm-related activities. "At all hours of the day, as long as there was light, Oshina kept busy at one task or another; soaking straw from rope making, sweeping up leaves, her hands were never idle" (Nagatsuka, 1). The lives of the farmers like those described by Nagatsuka were subject to rapid change since the early stages of the…
1. Bernier, Bernard. "The Japanese Peasantry and Economic Growth Since the Land Reform of 1946-47." Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 12.1 (1980)
2. Birrell, Robert. "Obstacles to Development in Peasant Societies: An Analysis of India, England, & Japan." Peasants in the Modern World. Ed. Philip K. Bock. 1st ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1969.
3. Eisenstadt, Shmuel Noah. Japanese Civilization: A Comparative View. University of Chicago Press, 1996
4. Gordon, Andrew. A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003
The number of educational institutions remained the same and child labor has also stagnated. Entrepreneurs were still allowed to employ children, which they did moreover when they paid them lower wages.
Just like with the Meiji Era, the British Industrial evolution opened new horizons and generated numerous development possibilities for the country and its population. The most important contributions were felt in the technological sector and materialized in a wide series of advancements. "It was not only gadgets, however, but innovations of various kinds -- in agriculture, transport, manufacture, trade, and finance -- that surged up with a suddenness for which it is difficult to find a parallel at any other time or place. The quickened pace of development is attested by the catalogue of new patents, the lengthening list of Acts of enclosure, the expanding figures of output and exports, and the course of prices, which, after remaining roughly…
Ashton, T.S., the Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830, Oxford University Press, 1997
Buer, M.C., Health, Wealth and Population in the Early Days of the Industrial Revolution, Routledge, 1926
Hunter, J., Institutional Change in Meiji Japan: Image and Reality, Routledge, 2005
Kinzley, W.D., Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World, 1852-1912, the Historian, Volume 66, 2004
In many regards, the First Sino-Japanese War and the actions and situations that immediately preceded the outbreak of full-on warfare can be seen as an extension of the exact policy debate that made up the Seikanron, with the need for either control or liberation (from China) of Korea having become even more pressing in the twenty years since the Seikanron inflamed Japanese politics (Paine 2003). Seen in this context, it is actually surprising that the First Sino-Japanese War took as long to come about as it did.
Japanese War Propaganda
The First Sino-Japanese War was recorded not simply by reports from the battlefield, but also by artists back home in Japan, making detailed woodblock prints from these battlefield reports. In keeping with many of the cultural and psychological motivations and justifications for the war, these prints reinforced concepts of Japanese superiority while at the same time evoking the sense that…
Jansen, M. (1994). Makamoto Ry-ma and the Meiji Restoration. New York: Columbia University Press.
Mamoru, T. (2005). Distortion in the Study of Japanese Modern and Contemporary Economic History. Yokohama: Shumpusha Publishing.
MIT. (2011). Throwing off Asia. Accessed 29 June 2011. http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/throwing_off_asia_02/visnav_ii_c.html
Paine, S. (2003). The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Beauty & Sadness in Japanese Literature
My Dear Friend,
I applaud you ambition to visit Japan for a summer session of study, and your focus on the distinct works of literature and art to emerge from Japanese culture is admirable. Having devoted much of my own studies to Japanese literature, both in historical and contemporary form, I can honestly say that you are embarking on a personal quest for knowledge that, while beginning on the Japanese mainland, will remain a valued part of your life for years to come. During my own readings of classic Japanese literary works like Natsume Soseki's Kokoro (1914), and Jun'ichir? Tanizaki's Naomi (1947), I have found that the seemingly opposing concepts of beauty and sadness are inextricably linked throughout much of the Japanese cultural experience. From the late 19th through the early 20th centuries, the Japanese people experienced a collective social transformation known as the…
Hitori, Nakano. "Densha otoko (Train Man)." Tokyo: Shinchsha (2004).
Murakami, Haruki. Hard-boiled Wonderland and the End of the World. Vintage, 2010.
Shirane, Haruo. Traditional Japanese literature: an anthology, beginnings to 1600. Columbia University Press, 2008.
Soseki, Natsume. Kokoro. Penguin Classic, 2010.
Japanese political history from the Meiji Restoration to Following the ousting of the Tokugawa shogun, the emperor embarked on his role as the "enlightened ruler" of Japan. From this point, known as the "Meiji Restoration," Japan began a transformation from an agriculturally based, feudalistic society to a nation that, by the 1912 death of the emperor, had a centralized government, developed infrastructure, well-educated general population, fast growing industrial sector, as well as a very powerful military.
Of course, one of the most striking developments of the period was Japan's "shaking off" of foreign influence in its trade and legal affairs, leading it to a full and independent standing in the world community. Arguably this transformation was only possible due to the nation's ability to transform itself from a fragmented nation, ruled by class distinction and feudalistic division, to a unified state -- represented by one national army and economic authority…
Theen, Rolf. Wilson, Frank. "Comparative Politics: An Introduction to Seven Countries." Fourth edition, Prentice Hall. 2000
The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers
The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:
a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.
b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.
c. white settlers who administered British rule.
d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.
Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:
a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.
Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:
a. Japanese modernization.
b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.
c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.
d. British Fabian socialism.
Although this might be seen as giving certain veracity to his account, ultimately his attention to detail suggests that he is relying upon unsubstantiated sources after the battle, or worse, a kind of collective memory of the survivors of the tragedy. "The decree [from Katamori for the people of Aizu to unite] was received by one and all with 'gnashing of teeth and clenching fists." (42) Surely not 'all' of Aizu reacted as one unit; a reflective reader might wish to say. "The fighting force was organized into four battalions, each named after a god traditionally believed to guard one of the four compass directions," (45) This sounds less like what a child would remember, then of how the tales of battle were traditionally told and remembered.
But, Goro might stress, I was there and who better could tell what happened to Aizu, and also to my family, who was…
Goro, Shiba. Remembering Aizu: The Testament of Shiba Goro. Edited by Ishimitsu Mahito Translated with introduction & notes by Teruko Craig Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999.
Roles of Japanese Emperors 1863-1945
An Analysis of the Respective Roles of Japanese Emperors: 1863-1945
Today, Japan stands side by side with many of the Western nations of the world in terms of its political philosophy and free market economy, but it has not always been thus. In fact, many contemporary observers would be surprised at just how much political intrigue and maneuvering took place over the past century and a half to arrive at this position today. The recent anniversary of the 60th anniversary of V-J Day only serves to reinforce just how far Japan has come in recent years, from a country than was virtually devastated to one that can compete on equal terms with any nation in the world. To determine how Japan has come to this phase in its history, this paper will provide an analysis of the respective roles played by the emperors Meiji, Taisho…
Bix, Herbert. 2000. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. New York: HarperCollins.
Buruma, Ian. 2003. Inventing Japan: 1853-1964. New York: Modern Library.
Dobson, Hugo, and Glenn D. Hook. Japan and Britain in the Contemporary World: Responses
to Common Issues. New York: Routledge.
It was the end of the 19th century, during the heyday of the Industrial Revolution and the Age of Imperialism. Meiji Japan and Qing China engage in modern warfare. The Sino-Japanese ar was a defining moment for all of East Asia. The outcome of the war impacted not just its major players (China and Japan) but also Korea and Taiwan. The Sino-Japanese ar highlighted the ways that globalization and industrialization were influencing global politics and international relations. ith Japan's victory, the world also understood that a balance of power had shifted. Japan's military might had been massively underestimated, while China's power had weakened.
Japan had made much greater strides than China during the Industrial Revolution, in terms of upgrading its infrastructure and migrating towards a modern economy. Although both countries remained mistrustful of the est, they had yet to develop any strategic plan to form a united anti-American or…
John La Farge is often referred to as one of the most "innovative and versatile American artists of the nineteenth century" and "the most versatile American artist of his time," a true Renaissance spirit that was not afraid to experiment in different areas of paintings and with different techniques. One look at works such as "The Great Statue of Amida uddha at Kamakura, Known as the Daibutsu, from the Priest's Garden," painted during his trip to Japan, will gives us the impression of a personality that transcended boundaries, approached new cultures and civilizations and remained an icon for art in the 19th century.
orn in New York City, in 1835, John La Farge studied with William Morris Hunter at the beginning of his career as a painter. In 1856, he benefited from a trip to France, where he familiarized himself with the most notable artists in art history. Visiting the…
1. John La Farge. On the Internet at http://www.metmuseum.org/explore/lafarge/Html/Index.htm
2. JOHN LA FARGE. On the Internet at http://www.butlerart.com/pc_book/pages/john_la_farge_1835.htm
3. Biography-John La Farge. On the Internet at http://www.crgalleries.com/lafarge.html
4. Akiko Mabuchi. Japanese Art and Japonisme Part I: Early English Writings. Ganesha Publishing, 1999
Power Relations in Junichiro Tanizaki's Naomi
The most powerful and lasting contributions to the literature of a given era are invariably penned by bold thinkers struggling to comprehend the ever changing world in which they live. Spanning the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Japanese Meiji Restoration period, which was propelled by the fusion of industrialized economy and estern culture, and personified by the authorial brilliance of authors such as Jun'ichir? Tanizaki, shaped and inspired a momentous political and social transformation within one of the world's most ancient civilzations. The toppling of previously infallible Shoguns and the sudden distribution of democratic ideals across boundaries of gender and class forced many traditional Japanese to recalibrate their worldview instantly, and the result is a wealth of material, including novels, plays and works of critical nonfiction, all of which focuses intently on the crumbling conventions of age-old gender roles. ith the external…
Tanizaki, Jun'ichiro. "Naomi," trans. Anthony H. Chambers." (1986).
Just a half century ago, though, the country was brought to its knees after becoming the first - and only - country to ever be attacked with nuclear weapons. hile the pundits continue to debate whether the two atomic bombs used to end orld ar II were truly necessary, the fact remains that they were used because policymakers in the est believed that the Japanese people would defend their homeland to the last Japanese citizen, resulting in perhaps millions more casualties than those experienced in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This spirit of defending the homeland to the death was the proximate result of the bushido spirit engendered throughout Japanese society by the samurai tradition that had such a profound impact on the country's culture over the years. Other aspects of Japanese culture were also shown to have been influenced by the samurai, including arts and theatre, as well as the popular…
Lebra, Takie Sugiyama and William P. Lebra. - Japanese Culture and Behavior: Selected Readings. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.
Rodeghier, Kathy. (2001, February 4). "Day in Tokyo Offers Glimpse of Edo Culture." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL):8.
Samurai." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.
Smith, Robert J. And Richard K. Beardsley. Japanese Culture: Its Development and Characteristics. Chicago: Aldine Publishing, 1962.
Proponents of the capitalist developmental state argue, it was the bureaucratic interests that were the key to the successful industrialization of Japan and Korea in the postwar period. In particular, it was the bureaucrat's complete autonomy from self-serving interest groups and politicians that was the main factor that enabled them to define national-level strategies and then to implement them effectively." Those who are not proponents of the system believe it was a combination of other factors. Had it not been for the bureaucratic desire to succeed the motivation for capitalism would not have been put into place.
Following the Meiji era in Japan there were many economic reforms undertaken. Some of those reforms included:
unified system by way of modern currency, banking and investments. The desire and effort to establish a modern institutional framework that would be conducive to capitalist economic values was strong and was led by the bureaucrats…
Japan Modernization and Industrialization
Background to Meiji Modernization http://www.thecorner.org/hists/japan/meiji2.htm
Korea, North THE POST-WAR ECONOMY AND PATTERNS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION
Confucianism the Major Religion of Japan?
Religion is a cultural phenomenon and institution that involves specific behaviors and practices. Religion has been present for a great deal of human history. Religion is concerned with beliefs. Belief is a powerful tool in a person's life. People live their lives in conjunction with and in support of their beliefs. There are ways to interpret and pinpoint the ways in which religion and beliefs manifest in a culture. This paper will contemplate Japan and religion. The paper will consider what religions are present in Japanese history. With specific focus on Confucianism, the paper will ask if Confucianism is the major religion of Japan; whether it is or not, the paper will render an understanding as to why.
Confucius, an important figure in Chinese history, created Confucianism. Confucius was a political figure, educator, and founder of the Ru school of Chinese thought (Stanford: 2006).…
As Japan became a modern state under this period, a status system was formed, which designated specific sectors of the society into various classes and functions. he status system was composed of the samurai, the commoners (peasant farmers, merchants, and artisans), and the daimyo, the land-holding class. During the Meiji period, the samurai class had the highest position and the most favorable privilege among the classes. However, as the country moved toward modernization in the 20th century, this status system was dissolved and a new social order emerged. he commoners and daimyo became more successful than the samurai because of the former's economic wealth and capabilities, as compared to the samurai who have only status but still depend on the daimyo for money.
Modern Japan no longer subsisted to this kind of social stratification. No classes in society were created, be it in terms of religion, race, business affiliation, or…
The Liberal Democratic Party was an example of a political entity which has cultivated a corporatist nature to its politics. The LDP being the oldest and strongest political party in Japan, it dominated and controlled the Diet for many years since the emergence of 20th century. As the 20th century prepared for the coming of the 21st century, LDP had been the focus of political scandals, wherein its strong connections with businesses and corporations revealed that Japanese politics was controlled not by the LDP, but its sponsor businesses instead. In 1998-2001, it was found that LDP had been involved in the long history of corruption and bribery from businesses and corporations in exchange for a promise in deregulation in specific sectors of the business/economic society (e.g., banking and financing and manufacturing).
The social structure of Japan at present was not as hierarchical and stratified as it was during the Meiji Restoration period. As Japan became a modern state under this period, a status system was formed, which designated specific sectors of the society into various classes and functions. The status system was composed of the samurai, the commoners (peasant farmers, merchants, and artisans), and the daimyo, the land-holding class. During the Meiji period, the samurai class had the highest position and the most favorable privilege among the classes. However, as the country moved toward modernization in the 20th century, this status system was dissolved and a new social order emerged. The commoners and daimyo became more successful than the samurai because of the former's economic wealth and capabilities, as compared to the samurai who have only status but still depend on the daimyo for money.
Modern Japan no longer subsisted to this kind of social stratification. No classes in society were created, be it in terms of religion, race, business affiliation, or political affiliation. Perhaps the most evident form of class stratification was geographical in nature: there is the "burakumin" or "hamlet people," which was stratified as such because they lived in segregated villages in the country. The burakumin was the equivalent of America's ghettos, wherein most of the minority members of the society live. Not only are the burakumin segregated geographically, they are also marginalized in the sense that burakumin people are assigned jobs and activities that are considered "unclean" by the Japanese, that is, menial working such as cleaning, slaughtering animals, and disposing of the dead. This stratification in Japanese society has little influence in politics, mainly because they are not active participants and involved in Japanese politics. The burakumin, in effect, are not represented in Japanese politics.
Discuss changes in the religious culture between 1750 and present day in at least one country from each of the three regions of Asia we have studied (East Asia, South Asia, and South East Asia)
Changes in modern Asian religions: Japan, India, and Thailand
Buddhism is a religion which began on the Indian subcontinent but which has spread across East and Southwest Asia. Its portability as a religion may partially be explained by its ability to blend with other religions and folk traditions. For example, the two dominant religions of Japan have historically encompassed Buddhism and Shinto: two different religions that most citizens profess to one degree or another. A common phrase "born Shinto; die Buddhist" highlights the comfort with which both of these religions exist side-by-side. However, Buddhism in Japan has been undergoing some notable changes in recent years.
Buddhism has been practiced in Japan for 1,440…
Kapur, A. (2010). Hindu sect devoted to its environment. International Herald Tribune, 2.
Kitiarsa, P. (2005). Beyond syncretism: Hybridization of popular religion in contemporary
Thailand. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 36(3), 461-487.
McCurry, Justin T. (2008). Religion: Buddhism forced to turn trendy to attract a new generation in Japan: Priests visit bars to reach out to young sceptics amid dramatic decline. The Guardian, 31-31.
Countries are very much representative of human nature. If you were to examine a microcosm of a nation at its basic level, it would be a local community or neighborhood. The people who live in the same community usually tend to share similar economic levels and cultural attitudes. Neighbors also influence the behaviors of each other. For example, affluent neighborhoods tend to have good school systems, active kids (as in after school programs), and involved parents. To a certain degree, these things are expected. This notion is applicable to the nations of China, Korea, and Japan. This paper will examine similarities and differences between these counties in a historical context. China and Japan were traditional societies that responded differently to the external stimuli of foreign relations. Korea is also similar in this regard but their foreign invaders were Japanese not estern imperialists. All three nations also suffered under…
Cumings, Bruce. "We look at it and see ourselves." London Review of Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. .
Hedges, Frank. "Japan is Speeding Korean Education." New York Times [New York City ] 6 Aug. 1939: 12. Print.
Takaki, Ronald T.. Strangers from a different shore: a history of Asian-Americans. Boston: Little, Brown, 1989. Print.
Thomson, James Claude, Peter W. Stanley, and John Curtis Perry.Sentimental imperialists: the American experience in East Asia. New York: Harper & Row, 1981. Print.
Vincent Van Gogh, Frank Lloyd right and Madeleine Vionnet. hat did this 19th century artist, architect, and fashion designer share in common? Very simply: They all incorporated Japanese techniques into their works of genius. hen Commodore Perry opened the doors to this Eastern country in 1853, an abundance of unique and influential styles of art rushed out and captured the imaginations of artists throughout the estern world. As author Emile Zola once said,
It is certain that our students painting with black bitumen, were surprised and enhanced by these horizons, these beautiful vibrating spots of the Japanese painters in watercolours. There was a simplicity of means and an intensity of effect which struck our young artists and then influenced them with a painting filled with air and light
This flow of Japanese artistic riches and influence continues to this day. Ask any graphic designers including those at alt Disney Company…
Coburn, F.W. "Mr. Benson's Birds," The Boston Herald, November 16, 1913, 28.
Encyclopedia of Visual Art. Grolier Educational Corp., 1984 printing. Danbury, CT: 1983.
Gardiner, Debbi. Japan, Inc., January 2003. Anime in America. http://www.japaninc.net/article.php?articleID=972.Visited 8/03/03.
Japan Economic Society, November/December 2002. Impact of the Kimono on Modern Fashion. http://www.jef.or.jp/en/jti/200211_016.html . Visited 8/04/03.
Fall of the Samurai: From the Tokugawa to Early Modern Japan
Fall of The Samurai: From The Tokugawa Era to Early Modern Japan
Japanese samurai are counted among the world's most popular military forces; they emerged in pre-medieval times and were active from the seventh to late nineteenth century. The samurai were initially employed as mercenaries, but quickly evolved to become the Japanese Empire's chief military force; before long, they transformed, in effect, into Japan's ruling class. While the transition of the samurai from leading ordinary military lives to being embroiled in inter-clan intrigues and elite political events was relatively rapid, their military-influenced moral principles and core values remained intact throughout. Their improved sense of devoted spirituality and integrity were, in fact, so well-known that they became the inspiration for great stories of courage, which resound even now with readers. This odd balance of deadly effective military strength with gentlemanly,…
Gordon, A. (2008). A modern history of Japan: From Tokugawa times to the present. Princeton, NJ: Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic.
Hane, M., & Perez, L. G. (2009).Modern Japan: A historical survey. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
James, DH (2010).The rise and fall of the Japanese empire. London: Routledge.
McLaren, W. W. (2013). Political history of Japan during the Meiji era. London: Routledge.