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Neonatal Developmental to Memory Loss Stage
The centrality of memory to normal human functioning has long been the focus of ongoing research, and a great deal of understanding has been gained concerning the organic processes that are involved in retaining and recalling information during different stages of life. To determine what has been learned about learning and memory across the lifespan, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
Cognition of Learning and Memory
Humans begin to learn before they are even born, and the learning process continues throughout the lifespan, a process that is made possible by their short- and long-term memories. In this regard, Pressley and Schneider (1999) report that, "In contrast to short-term memory is a long-term store that contains virtually everything that the person knows. This long-term store contains…
Baddeley, A.D., Kopelman, M.D. & Wilson, B.A. (2002). The handbook of memory disorders. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons.
Eichenbaum, H. (1997). Declarative memory: Insights from cognitive neurobiology. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 547-549.
Handy, R.C., Turnbull, J.M., Edwards, J. & Lancaster, M.M. (1998). Alzheimer's disease: A
handbook for caregivers. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
National Patient Safety Goals -- the Joint Commission
National Patient Safety Goals
N224 Fundamentals -- Skills
The brochure from The Joint Commission entitled What You Should Know About Memory Problems and Dementia was published online on November 13, 2013. Eight professional associations collaborated with The Joint Commission to produce this brochure that is intended to be a reference for people who suspect that they may have a memory problem and are concerned that they may develop dementia. The target audience of the brochure is individuals who are experiencing symptoms of memory loss: this is apparent because the language used throughout the brochure text includes use of the pronouns "you" and "your."
Summary of Brochure
Two primary topics are discussed in the brochure: Memory problems and dementia. In addition to the fundamental explanations of the topic, the brochure addresses the decision to see a doctor about perceived memory problems,…
____. (2013, November 13). Speak up: What you should know about memory problems and dementia. The Joint Commission. Retreived from http://www.jointcommission.org/topics/speakup_brochures.aspx
____. (2015, January 22). Primary care physicians assessing cognitive impairment in older patients: A quick guide for primary care physicians. NIH Alzehimer's Disease Education and Referral Center. http://nia.nih.gov/alzheimers
____. (2015, January 27). Elder Care Locator. Retrieved from http://eldercare.gov/Eldercare.NET/Public/Index.aspx
Memory has been separated into three categories on the basis of the "amount of time the memory lasts." (Zhang, 2004, p.1) The three categories are stated to include the following: (1) sensory memory; (2) short-term memory; and (3) long-term memory. (Zhang, 2004, p.1) The focus of this brief study is to describe each of these memory storage processes.
Sensory Memory & Short-Term Memory
Sensory memory is reported to act as "a buffer for stimuli received from the senses. A sensory memory exists for each sensory channel." (Zhang, 2004, p.1) Sensory memory is the shortest-lived of all types of memory and lasts only milliseconds to a few seconds. (Zhang, 2004, paraphrased) Iconic store is where visual images within sensory memory are stored for only a very short period and serves to integrate our visual experience. It is reported that in a presentation of three rows of four letters to subjects for…
Clark, Don (nd) Learning and Memory. Retrieved from: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/learning/memory.html
Memory Loss & The Brain (2010) Rutger's University Memory Disorders Project. Winter 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.memorylossonline.com/glossary/memory.html
Sensory Memory (nd) Changing Minds. Retrieved from: http://changingminds.org/explanations/memory/sensory_memory.htm
Sperling, G. (1960) The information available in brief visual presentations, Psychological Monographs, 74, 1-29
267266 correct context of schema, 2.016461 correct no context of schema, 2.12909 correct context to List . And 2.353001 correct no context.
Free recall refers to remembering unrelated items in any order immediately following presentation. Delayed recall occurs between hearing the words and writing them down. Recognition is the identification of items previously learned. Primacy effect occurs after the enhanced recall of items presented at the beginning of the list, while the recency effect is greater for those at the end of the list. On the other hand, the serial position is highest at 90% for the first word recalled and lowest for the 6th, 9th and 10th words recalled. Symbols are viewed along with cues and altered by schema-activating labels.
Findings of the experiment showed that the majority of the subjects tested had correct call of the words list, correct delayed recall, correct recognition, correct recall of the scheme…
Bode, N. (2001). Blocking Out a Painful Past. Psychology Today: Sussex Publishers, Inc. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1175/is_4_34/ai_76577443
Bower, B. (2003). Restoring Recall: Memories May Form and Reform with Sleep. Science News Online, vol 164 (15) p 228. http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20031011/fob4.asp
Cromie, W. (2002). Long-Term Memory Not fixed Until Age One. Harvard University Gazette: the President and Fellows of Harvard College. http://www.news .harvard.edu/gazette/2002/11.07/01-memory.html
Walker, M. (2003). Stages of Memory. Nature Journal: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School. http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_release/2003-10/bidm-som100703.php
Loss of Function on the Quality of life and Independence, and Quality of life for the elderly Population
Although living longer comes with a price, having a good social relationship, support system, social relationships, and residing in their own abode is what could give seniors independence, happiness, and quality of life. Before discussing how a given loss of function influences the quality of life and the independence of an aging person, it is crucial to define some concepts. These concepts are the quality of life, independence, and activities of daily living, as they will be used in this discussion. Quality of life has varying meanings for different individuals particularly to the elderly population. Quality of life could mean good pension or income, family and friends, being active, being independent, good and safe living conditions, opportunity to learn latest concepts, developing new things, religion, and social relationships among others. Quality of…
Brunner, L.S., & Day, R.A. (2009). Brunner & Suddarth's textbook of Canadian medical-surgical nursing. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Dawson, D.R., & Stern, B. (2007). Reflections on facilitating older adult's participation in valued occupations. Occupational Therapy Now, 9(5), 3-5. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/229614344?accountid=35812
Loue, S. (2008). Encyclopedia of aging and public health: With 19 tables. New York, NY: Springer.
Whitbourne, S.K., & Whitbourne, S.B. (2011). Adult development and aging: Biopsychosocial perspectives. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Learning and Cognitive Psychology Related to Memory
Memory has control over everything that an individual does and is a part of cognitive psychology that deals with all the human behavior and mental processes. It is divided into different categories with each of them performing their particular functions. The paper investigates the different types of memories and their purpose as each one plays its part in keeping the memory part of the brain functioning. The nature, maintenance, retrieval and capacity of memory are also discussed along with the different factors that influence it. The paper also discusses the application of TRS model on the working memory, which leads to the prediction that maintenance activities should postpone concurrent processing.
Memory is what drives our everyday life, makes us relate to or recollect things from the past and in many ways defines our behavior. We take it for granted as the effort…
Baddeley, A.D., Thomson, N., & Buchanan, M. (1975).World length and the structure of short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, 575-589.
Blankenship, A.B. (1938). Memory span: A review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 35, 1-25.
Brener, R. (1940). An experimental investigation of memory span. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 26, 467-482
Bousfield, W.A. (1953). The occurrence of clustering in the recall of randomly arranged associates. Journal of General Psychology, 49, 229 -- 240. doi:10.1080/00221309.1953.9710088
Wang, Q., & Brockmeier, J. (2002). Autobiographical remembering and cultural practice:
Understanding the interplay between memory, self and culture. Culture and Memory, 8(1), 45-64.
Autobiographical memory is a critical component of how an individual defines his or her sense of self in Western culture: the stories we remember and tell ourselves define how we see ourselves as human beings. According to Wang & Brockmeier (2002), not all cultures conceive of memory in such a personal and individualistic fashion: when asked to recollect a memory from childhood, Chinese undergraduates were more inclined to talk about collective experiences (Wang & Brockmeier 2002: 49). A more dependent and less individualistic concept of the self within a culture conspires to create different memories. Memories are not absolute and static, even highly personal ones; they are culturally contextual. Chinese residents even have later recollected memories than their American counterparts. "Personal remembering in these cultures evokes…
Film review: Memento (2000)
Director Christopher Nolan's film Memento (2000) chronicles the struggle of the main protagonist to find the killer of his wife, even though he suffers from a condition which makes it impossible to allow him to form new long-term memories. Over the course of the narrative it becomes clear that he was her killer. But when the private investigator (Teddy) Lenny hired to help him get to the bottom of his wife's death tries to convince him of the truth, Lenny effectively sets a trap for his future self, writing not to trust Teddy on a Polaroid. After forgetting what Teddy told him, Lenny kills Teddy, thus giving him a sense of closure, even though he knows (or at least his past self knew) that this was not the truth.
On one hand, Memento profoundly challenges the notion of memory as something static and real. It takes the genre of a typical mystery movie where the ending usually involves unmasking the true killer and circumvents this, given that the main character is incapable of really knowing the truth because of his condition. Yet there is also the suggestion that despite the absence of a coherent memory, Lenny is still the same person as he was before he lost his memory. His relationship with his wife, at least as recounted by Teddy, seems contentious and broken (the real way his wife died was that she did not believe he had memory loss and asked him to repeatedly inject her with insulin, as she was testing him to see if he would remember that he had done so only a short while ago). Although Lenny may have lost his ability to form new memories, his actions towards both his wife and Teddy indicate a deceitful and self-serving character that is consistent, even though his memories are not.
Memory and Forgetting: A Comprehensive Analysis
Memory loss is a huge problem in an aging population.
No substantive cure for memory loss.
Forgetfulness does not always accompany aging.
Different types of memory loss:
The memory impairment that comes with aging may be due to confusion as well as memory loss.
Memory loss and forgetfulness may be preventable.
There are a number of different approaches to reducing forgetfulness
Daily behavioral changes
The goal of the paper began as a meta-analysis of efforts aimed to reduce forgetfulness
Too many promising approaches to aiding memory impairment to engage in a traditional meta-analysis
Look at the theoretical overlap of different known approaches that may enhance or impair memory
F. Not engaging in a meta-analysis of a single therapy because single therapies do not have therapeutic efficacy.
G. Examine the hypothetical overlap between various treatment modalities
Bottiroli, S., Rosi, A., Russo, R., Vecchi, T. & Cavallini, E. 2014. 'The cognitive effects of listening to background music on older adults: processing speed improves with upbeat music, while memory seems to benefit from both upbeat and downbeat music.' Front Aging Neurosci, vol.6. pp. 284-. Available from: [November 11, 2014].
Cairney, S.A., Durrant, S.J., Jackson, R., & Lewis, P.A. 2014. 'Sleep spindles provide indirect support to the consolidation of emotional encoding contexts.' Neuropsychologia, vol. 63, pp. 285-92.
Cowan, N. (2008). What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory? Prog Brain Res, 169, pp.323-338. doi: 10.1016/S0079-6123(07)00020-9
Lo, J.C., Dijk, D.J., & Groeger, J.A. 2014. 'Comparing the effects of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping on declarative memory consolidation. PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 9, e108100. Available from: . [4 November 2014].
A learning culture is an organizational practice, system and values that encourage and support individuals and organizations to increase performance levels, competence and knowledge. It promotes continuous support and improvement for an achievement of goals. Adjustment of current strategies can be done by adjusting to a trend, business model, capital model, launch strategy and making a great plan.
There are several ethical principles and professional standards of learning and cognition in the workplace. Some of them are; encouraging contact between faculty and student, developing cooperation between students, encouraging active learning and respecting adverse talents and learning techniques. Some implications that should be considered when working with others are; demonstrating respect at work, providing feedback with an impact, showing appreciation and overcoming fear of conflict.
WEEK 3 DISCUSSION
Memory Suppression in Alzheimer’s disease
Alzheimer’s diseases is chronic degenerative disease of the neurons. It causes about 60-70% of dementia cases. The…
Memories of Cyprus
A View of Greek & Turkish- Cypriots
Memories of the past play an important role in deciding our present and future. They even have a potential of molding the course of our life. Different people sharing the same history may have a different perspective of looking at it; therefore they develop their own different set of memories based on their individual events. This is exactly what happened to the Greeks and Turks as a result of political and military events in Cyprus. Where the centre of this memory is same: Cyprus, how two sides of the same story vary greatly, is quite amusing. Memories about Cyprus affected the lives of Greeks and Turks greatly however they both chose to respond to it differently and that is what changed the course of their lives.
The Turkish invasion of Cyprus, launched on 20 July 1974, was a…
Anderson, B. (1983) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of Nationalism
Bourdieu, P.and Jean C.P. (1996), Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture
Bowman, J., "Seeing what's missing in memories of Cyprus," Peace review: A journal of Social Justice 18, 119-127.
Bryant, R. (2005), "Writing the catastrophe, Nostalgia and its Histories in Cyprus." Journal of Modern Greek Studies 25, 399-422.
Its a good idea to leave behind information that is not necessary for us any more like past phone numbers and names of strangers whom we may not meet again.
Episodic memories are the autobiographical events of a person's life based on his or her experiences, relationships, learning and ideas. In a loss of episodic memory, the links that exist in the temporal and frontal lobes of the brain are broken. This happens when the patient has suffered a head injury or has been in any form of trauma. Also, episodic memory failure happens when the frontal lobes are damaged and as a result, the patient is able to remember some information though not in the order in which it happened. Further more, this leads to false recollection of events that could not have happened.
Implicit memories are those that do not require intentional remembering or…
Gibb, Barry. (2007). The Rough Guide to the Brain. New York: Penguin
Squire. L; Kandel. E. (2000). Memory: From Mind to Molecules. New York: Scientific American Library
Schacter, Daniel. (2001). The Seven Sins of Memory. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
This stream-of-consciousness writing is in a secret journal, for the writer will get into trouble if what she writes is found by Sister Theo, who "checks our letters home. e're not allowed to say anything about the school" (Sterling 12). If the journal is discovered, the girl may suffer abuse at the hands of the teachers. riting is an act of defiance that the girl sees to be worth the risk.
The time of the story was a disturbing part of Canada's history. The use of Residential Schools actually predates Canada's existence as a country (meaning before Confederation in 1867, and the system served as a means of containment and control if the Indian population. As the Europeans acted out the myth of the New orld as an undiscovered and undeveloped land, the existence of the Aboriginal peoples complicated the myth and challenged the government that was instituted. Policies were…
Ricci, Nino. The Lives of the Saints. Toronto: Cormorant Books, 2003.
Sterling, Shirley. My Name Is Seepeetza. Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre, 1992.
He hypothesized that certain parts within the brain could map with certain areas of cognitive functioning, such as social, cognitive, or creative functions. To prove this, Gardner cites cases of brain damage that leads to the loss of some, but not all, cognitive functions. On this basis, one could also say that pearman's test findings, while all located in the brain, relate to different parts of the brain and nervous system rather than a single location, as originally assumed.
Comparisons between the two models include the fact that both theorists believe that intelligence relates to more than one human function. pearman for example used a variety of different tasks to test intelligence, as does the IQ test he uses to base his assumptions on. Gardner agrees with pearman on the fact that intelligence does indeed relate to different tasks, but simply adds more to the already existing ones in order…
Armstrong, Thomas (1998-2002). Multiple Intelligences. http://www.thomasarmstrong.com/multiple_intelligences.htm
Paik, Han S. (1998). One Intelligence or Many? Alternative Approaches to Cognitive Abilities. Washington University. http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/paik.html
RiCharde, Stephen. (2007). The Learning Thinking Styles Inventory. VMI. http://admin.vmi.edu/ir/ltsi.htm#Overview
When you clicked to move on it then asked you to fill in the boxes with as many words as you could remember, spelled correctly. You then had to pick your age group, your gender and what country you were from. Upon hitting the check my memory button it told you how you compared with similar people to you who also took this test (How good is your memory- Memory Test, n.d.).
Of the twelve words I could recall 7 of them. The explanation of the test results explained that on average our short-term memory can hold an average of 7 chunks of information (names, numbers, etc.) + or - 2. So if someone scores between 5 and 9 of the words on the list, their short-term memory is working at an average capacity (How good is your memory- Memory Test, n.d.).
The more that one repeats something the more…
How good is your memory- Memory Test. (n.d.). Retrieved June 3, 2009, from Psychologist
World Web site: http://psychologistworld.com/memory/test1.php
Human Memory. (n.d.). Retrieved June 3, 2009, from NASA.gob Web site: http://human-
Windy McNernev and obert West (2007), both with the University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, India, explain that returning the DVD while running errands depicts an illustration of effective prospective memory. Substantial documentation signifies that in various instances, the accessibility of one's effective memory ability or attentional resources can be vital for the comprehension of deferred intentions.
ichard L. Marsh, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, Jason L. Hicks, Louisiana State University, Baton ouge, Louisiana and Gabriel I. Cook (2006), University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, examine whether ask interference, having an intention, creates a cost to other ongoing activities. In the journal article, "Task interference from prospective memories covaries with contextual associations of fulfilling them," Marsh, Hicks and Cook report contemporary research indicates that particular intentions held over the shorter term interfere with other tasks. As the collective effect of such costs would prove prohibitively costly in everyday life, Marsh, Hicks…
Breneiser, J.E., & McDaniel, M.A. (2006). Discrepancy Processes in Prospective Memory Retrieval. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13(5), 837+. Retrieved December 9, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035215935
Brewer, G.A., Knight, J.B., Marsh, R.L. & Unsworth, N. (2010). Individual differences in event
based prospective memory: Evidence for multiple processes supporting cue detection.
Memory & Cognition. Psychonomic Society, Inc. Retrieved December 10, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com /doc/1P3-2018212151.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The responses will be tabulated into data sheet that exhibit the participants ease of remembering that facts. The coding will produce levels which showing the proportionate ability to remember.
The data will then be input in a statistical program to give distributions and this will be subjected to a T-test to assess their significance level at 5%. The decision rule will be such that reject the null hypotheses if probability of occurrence of the distribution observed is less than 5%.
Implication of the esults
If the expected that the results show higher probability that the stress among older women it implies that, older women are susceptible forget and thus have a higher likelihood of encountering Alzheimer's condition. On the centrally if we reject the Null hypothesis -- failure to support the hypothesis -- it will imply that age and stress have nothing to do with memory lose and that it…
Kloet E.R., Joels M., & F., H. (2005). Stress and the Brain: from adaptation to disease. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(6), 463-475.
Nelson, C.A., & Carver, L.J. (2008). The effects of stress and trauma on brain and memory: A view from developmental cognitive neuroscience. Development and Psychopathology, 10(04), 793-809. doi: doi:null
Sauro, M.D., Jorgensen, R.S., & Pedlow, C.T. (2003). Stress, glucocorticoids, and memory: A meta-analytic review. Stress, 6(4), 235-245.
Selye, H. (1998). A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 10(2), 230-231.
This will help to eliminate the possibility of psychological effects on the results. Group a will receive the caffeinated coffee and Group B. will receive the Decaf. Group a will serve as the test group. Group B. will serve as the control group. The independent variable will be caffeine and the dependent variable will be short-term memory. This study will measure the effect of caffeine on short-term memory.
Both groups would be instructed to refrain from consuming any food containing caffeine for one week before the test. The test would be administered first thing in the morning. Both groups would be instructed to fast after midnight on the night before the test. They would be instructed to consume nothing prior to taking the test. This procedure was designed to eliminate as many confounding variables as possible. For instance, the consumption of protein or sugars might affect the test and…
Anderson, K., Revelle, W., & Lynch, M. (2004). Caffeine, impulsivity, and memory scanning: A comparison of two explanations for the Yerkes-Dodson Effect. Neuroscience Letters.
367 (3), 327-331.
Bichler, a.; Swenson, a.; & Harris, M. (2006). A combination of caffeine and taurine has no effect on short-term memory but induces changes in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure. Amino Acids. 31-940, 471-476.
Moo-Puc, R., Villanueva-Toledo, J., Arankowsky-Sandoval, G., Cercera, F., and Gongora-
Stress on Human Memory and Cognitive Capabilities
Types of Stresses on Short-Term Memory
Symptoms of Short-Term Memory
Stress weakens a human's ability to be able to pass proper chemicals through the blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier is an assemblage of blood vessels that defends the brain from toxins that circulate through one's body (Franklin Institute, 2004).
Evidence of stress on the short-term memory includes difficulty to learn new things, dizziness, headaches, and nausea (Franklin Institute, 2004).
Effects of Stress on Short-Term Memory
When stress takes place in the human body, hormones are released that divert blood glucose from the brain's hippocampus (Franklin Institute, 2004).
The lack of energy that is provided by the lost glucose creates the hippocampus to become concerned about the lack of energy. This fright causes an inability to create accurate new memories (Franklin Institute, 2004).
This can be a result o a onetime traumatic event in…
Bower, B. (2005). Early stress in rats bites memory later on. Science News, 186(17), Retrieved
from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=11&did=918673191&SrchMode=1&sid=4&Fmt =3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1294957038&clientI d=77774
Franklin Institute. (2004). The human brain-stress. Retrieved January 13,2011 from http://www.fi.edu/learn/brain/stress.html
HelpGuide.org. (2010). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Symptoms, treatment, and self- help. Retrieved January 13, 2011 from http://helpguide.org/mental/post_traumatic_stress_disorder_symptoms_treatment.htm
epressed and recovered memory has been the topic of much debate for the past ten years. Many feel that these psychological issues have been used to create chaos in the legal system and to destroy families. Professional organizations all over the world have commented on the controversy surrounding repressed and recovered memory.
The purpose of this discussion is to examine the issues and controversies that the psychiatric community is currently facing. We will also explore the research involving repressed and recovered memory. Let's begin by defining repressed memory and recovered memory.
Definition of epressed Memory and ecovered Memory
According to the Psychology Dictionary repression is a, "Psychoanalytic Theory, the defense mechanism whereby our thoughts are pulled out of our conscious and into our unconscious." (Psychology Dictionary) Many psychologists have concluded that the act of repressing memory is usually caused by a traumatic event. (Carroll 2002) These psychologists also contend that…
Memories: true or false. (2002, Fall). Issues in Science and Technology, 19, 7+..
Psychology Dictionary (2003). Retrieved May 19, 2003, at http://allpsych.com/dictionary/r.html www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000917406
Alessi, H.D., & Ballard, M.B. (2001). Memory development in children: implications for children as witnesses in situations of possible abuse. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79(4), 398+.
Carroll, (2002). Repressed Memory. Retrieved May 20, 2003, at http://skepdic.com/repressedmemory.html
The researchers hypothesized that the participants would be less likely to use the operand retrieval strategy in solving difficult problems than with simple problems. It is easier to use the operand retrieval strategy with simple problems because solving them requires no computation. The opposite holds true for difficult multiplication problems. Use of the operand retrieval strategy is expected to be associated with a greater generation effect.
The second experiment in the study examined whether an increased generation effect was possible due to better memory for the operands involved in the problem, what is known as the operand memory hypothesis. The hypothesis for this experiment, which took into consideration the principles of procedural account, was that the generation effect observed for difficult and simple problems should be similar when the operands are recalled, but should be different when recall of answers is required.
The final experiment in the study, experiment 3,…
McNamara, D., Healy, a. "A procedural explanation of the generation effect for simple and difficult multiplication problems and answers." Journal of Memory and Language 43 (2000): 652-79.
There is also a similarity in the portrayal of women in both films. For example, Natalie in "Memento" manipulates Leonard, because of his faulty memory. Leonard is driven to avenge a wife whom he seems to regard in extremely idealistic terms. This suggests that a kind of virgin/whore complex attitude towards women is harbored by the main character. Although Fellini's film seems slightly more positive in the way that it views women, it also tends to portray women as either pristine, highly virginal women or mothers, or sexual, earthy goddesses. omen exist less as characters than as metaphorical or visual embodiments for how men see women, and how men remember the influence of women in their lives, as either children, or even in the short-term past.
Fellini's film ultimately suggests that looking backward with perhaps an overly idealized view of women and childhood is not necessarily a bad thing. Memory…
Amarcord." Directed by Federico Fellini. 1973.
Memento." Directed by Christopher Nolan. 2000.
population of seniors grows in number, an understanding of how age affects memory becomes increasingly important. Yet the awareness of age-related memory loss can itself be a problem, causing a type of self-fulfilling prophecy known as stereotype threat. Stereotype threat refers to the sense of threat a person experiences when identifying with a stereotype. In the case of aging, a person who has been continually reminded of age-related memory loss might therefore perform worse on memory recall tests. Stereotype threat can be triggered directly, as when people are told that aging reduces memory performance, or indirectly, such as simply being shown the word "senile."
Stereotype bias can further enhance age-related memory loss by causing a self-fulfilling prophecy. However, there are different types of memory functions. Memory functions can be loosely grouped into two categories: implicit and explicit memory. Explicit memory refers to the active and purposeful recollection of people, places,…
Eich, T.S., Murayama, K., Castel, A.D. & Knowlton, B.J. (2014). The dynamic effects of age related stereotype threat on explicit and implicit memory performance in older adults. Social Cognition 32(6): 559-570.
Music on Emotions and Behavior
Music and education
The effect of music on word recall
Several studies have been dedicated to the study of the effect of music on the memory. Most of the studies have been dedicated to the analysis of the way the human mind processes information. The brain has been indicated to be made up of a very complex system of neurons that is actively involved with the transfer of information from one part to the other. A study of the neural networks .The study of the effects of music on the human memory is still ongoing (Kirkweg 2001). Several factors have been found to affect the memory of a person. The most common ones being music, attention, emotion, stress as well as aging.
The mechanism involved
The human memory has been pointed out to be a mental system that is involved with the reception,…
Ashcraft, Mark H. Learning and Remembering. In J. Mosher, & M. Richardson (Eds.), Cognition (pp.211-257). New Jersey:Pearson Prentice Hall,2006
Carruth, Ellen K., "The Effects of Singing and the Spaced Retrieval Technique on Improving Face-Name Recognition in Nursing Home Residents with Memory Loss, Journal of Music Therapy, 34 (3), 165-186,1997
Coon, Dennis. Essentials of Psychology. New York: Brooks/Cole Publishing,1997
Krumhans, Carol.L. Music: A link between cognition and emotion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(2) 45-50,2002
Misattribution Creation of New Memories
Primary source: single paragraph on source misattribution
The 1989 article "Misinformation and memory: The creation of new memories" by Elizabeth F. Loftus and Hunter G. Hoffman discusses a commonly-observed phenomenon in memory research, namely that new, erroneous memories can be created with misinformation. This misinformation can impair or replace the original, accurate memory as well as be accepted as a 'real' memory when no such memory exists. One theory to explain this is source misattribution when there is confusion over the source of origin of a memory. Talking about a screwdriver leads us to think we saw the screwdriver with our own eyes. However, biologically-oriented psychologists note that the mechanism of synaptic changes related to memory is poorly understood. It is uncertain if misremembering involves actual memory loss and replacement (Loftus & Hoffman 102). One further question related to source misattribution, not specifically discussed in…
Eyewitness identification. (2011). Kentucky: Department of Public Advocacy.
Retrieved December 8, 2011 athttp://dpa.ky.gov/kip/mew.htm
Loftus, Elizabeth F. & Hunter G. Hoffman. (1989). Misinformation and memory: The creation of new memories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118 (1): 100-104
.....bereavement research has focused primarily on heterosexual, married couples, frequently within the later years of life. The latest research has taken a step towards understanding bereavement among members of the LGBTQ community, particularly, lesbians (Fenge, 2013). By understanding main themes in relation to same-sex bereavement, one can better draw a clear plan of assessment to help someone like Emily deal with the grief of losing a loved one. Some main themes seen in recent research in this area is disconnection from family, internalizing homophobia as well as seeking a place for sincerity and acceptance, benefits of friendships displaying cross-sexual orientation, and intimacy of relationships among women (Ingham, Eccles, Armitage, & Murray, 2016). With this information in mind, the questions asked center on depression, PTSD, available support, and desire to perform daily activities.
The first question would be: "How many times do you shower, eat, and sleep each week?" This is…
loss are common concepts in poetry that have been explored by men and women alike, across time and across cultural boundaries. Two such poets are Louise Labe, a French, Renaissance poet and Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, a New Spanish nun and Baroque poet. In Sonnet 23 by Labe and Sonnet 165 by Cruz, issues of love, loss, and impermanence are explored through imagery and tone.
In Sonnet 23, Labe attempts to understand why her lover no longer finds her attractive or no longer wants to have a relationship with her. Labe asks, "What good is it to me if long ago you/eloquently praised my golden hair, compared to my eyes and beauty to the flare/of two suns where, you say, love bent the bow, sending the darts that needled you with grief?" In the sonnet, the narrator claims that she was once compared to the sun, which is…
Loss of Life
A recent disaster event that occurred in this region has apparently contributed to significant loss of life. A review of the organization's response plan demonstrates the lack of a plan to deal with significant loss of life though the plan is ready for implementation. Actually, the plan does not provide any details regarding any treatment of how the response team should address the psychological challenges of dealing with significant loss of life. In light of the impact of the recent disaster, it is increasingly important for responders to have specific instructions and guidance on how to deal with the psychological challenges associated with handling significant loss of life.
The inclusion of this element in the disaster response plan is crucial towards developing and implementing a coordinated response to emergency situations that have the capability of resulting in significant loss of life. Without the inclusion of these guidelines…
Miskel, J.F. (2008). Hurricane Katrina. In Disaster response and homeland security: what works, what doesn't (chap. 6). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Srivastava, K. (2010, June). Disaster: Challenges and Perspectives. Indian Psychiatry Journal,
The reader can really feel the sense of despair felt when the author's sister left her alone, and when the former attempted to flee the school only to be trapped by the bars of the gate. Furthermore, the author did a fairly credible job of slowly displaying her signs of relief at first finding similar Spanish speakers, and then eventually finding comfort and ease in the new school.
The beginning of the narrative seemed to be a little prolonged, and did not appear to be as necessary as the anecdote about being at the school for the first time. Of course, the author was simply describing the beginning of her first day of school. However, the fighting for the bathroom and the changing of clothes, although detailed, actually seemed to detract a little from the shock of the author being at a new school in a new country. Ideally, this…
Memory refers to a mental process where information is encoded, stored, and retrieved for use (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). The process of memory is not, contrary to what many believe, like a tape recorder that accurately records events. Instead, our recollection of events is pliable and subject to a number of influences (Loftus, 1979). For instance Buckley-Zistel (2006) discussed how the recollection of the past of horrific events such as the 1990's genocide in wanda is influenced by variables such as the roles of the people during the event or their current living situation. Connerton (2008) attempted to disentangle the notions that remembering is usually considered a virtue and forgetting is necessarily a failing of a person or people. He noted that forgetting is not necessarily a unitary phenomena and that forgetting might have a purpose. Even though wandans claim that remembering the genocide is important to avoiding reoccurrences in…
Atkinson, R.C. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K.W. Spence & J.T. Spence, The psychology of learning and motivation Volume 2 (pp. 89-195). New York: Academic Press.
Buckley-Zistel, S. (2006). Remembering to forget: Chosen amnesia as a strategy for local coexistence in post-genocide Rwanda. Africa, 76(2), 131-150.
Connerton, P. (2008). Seven types of forgetting. Memory Studies, 1, 59-71.
Loftus, E.F. (1979). The malleability of human memory. American Scientist, 67, 312-320.
These factors, however, can contribute to bias opinion. Legal professionals also consider occupation in relation to memory accuracy. For example, law enforcement officers tend to be better witnesses as they practice paying attention to detail, and are required to recall details on a regular basis. This overall category pertaining to the attributes of the witness have an effect on encoding and storing information, which are the first two stages of information processing. When these factors influence information processing, any information filtered to long-term memory can be significantly distorted.
The second category considered when establishing the accuracy of an eyewitness's memory is the attributes of the perpetrator. When questioning an eyewitness, legal professionals must inquire if the perpetrator was wearing a disguise, has a distinctive face, or if they were an acquaintance, friend, or family member. Each of these scenarios contributes to the accuracy of the individual's memory. The third general…
Baddeley, A. (2004), 'The Psychology of Memory', The Handbook of Memory Disorders for Clinicians.
Kensinger, E. (2007), 'Negative emotion enhances memory accuracy behavioral and neuroimaging evidence', Current Directions in Psychological Science, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 213-218.
Malpass, R. (2005), 'Eyewitness memory and identification', The San Antonio Defender,
Available at: http://eyewitness.utep.edu/Documents/Malpass&05EyewitMem&ID.SAD.pdf
Emotions affect how memories are processed, stored, and retrieved, which also impacts how learning takes place. Perhaps more importantly, emotions impact cognitive processes and learning. Neuroscience shows the ways thoughts are processed depends on one's cultural context and also emotional states. Thinking styles may be also linked to the learning process, as Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, and thinking styles are themselves related to cultural variables. The ways people process information therefore has to do with social learning as well as emotional learning and memory. Certain types of emotions may be more conducive to specific types of learning styles or learning behaviors. Emotions can also promote synchronized or chaotic neurological responses. These findings have implications for classroom design and pedagogy.
Wealth means far more than just possession of material goods. As Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, capital refers not only to assets in the traditional sense but also…
Know the predominant features of each personality disorder = Such knowledge will help the therapist to identify assistance strategies ahead of time, which can be modified as necessary.
Know about the link between borderline personality disorder and suicide attempts = an awareness of this link will help the therapist to identify warning signs and provide assistance in a timely way.
Know that group therapy is useful for treatment of avoidant personality disorder = Knowing this avoids the intuitive tendency to reinforce the patient's avoidance.
Patients with which disorder are most likely to seek treatment on their own? Depression sufferers are most likely to seek treatment for their condition.
Problems in using the DSM-IV-TR to diagnose personality disorders = the main concern is that some guidelines are very specific. Some personality disorders may overlap or display atypical symptoms.
Are boys or girls more likely to have a diagnosable psychological…
Traumatic Long-Term Memory and related issues of forgetfulness. The differentiation of current competing theories under review regarding Traumatic Long-Term Memory are explored and critiqued. This research paper also explains the differences between the theories and their positive / negative contributions toward improving human memory.
Long-Term Memory is memory that has been consolidated or stored so that it is available after distraction (Long, 1996). It represents the storehouse of information that has been consolidated and made relatively permanent. Although the limbic system is the essential structure initiating consolidation, the actual memory stores are throughout the nervous system. Their location is a function of the brain structures involved in processing the information (Long, 1996).
Receptors to projection cortex have very little storage capability as they are used to process all information for that modality and thus are subject to interference. The sensory association cortex is more important for, at this level, patterns…
Anderson. (1995). In Pettijohn, T. (1998). Psychology: A Connectext. (4th Ed.). USA:
Dushkin / McGraw-Hill.
Bjork & Bjork. (1992). In Pettijohn, T. (1998). Psychology: A Connectext. (4th Ed.). USA:
Dushkin / McGraw-Hill.
In other words, "the acquisition and transmission of imaginations of the past follows patterns that are specific to the respective generation." (Welzer, 2010, p.5) This is exemplified by the experience of the Sabbateans during the transition of Turkey into a modern nation after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in 1920. Traditionally the Sabbateans had followed their religious beliefs in private while maintaining a Moslem facade in public. But after the fall of the Ottomans, and the modernization programs enacted by its new leader Mustafa Kemal, there was enormous social pressure for the Sabbateans to conform to the new ideals of the modern Turkish state by discarding their Sabbatean religious traditions. In other words, the Turks were creating a new social memory that was based on abandoning traditional activities, like practicing Sabbateanism, and embracing the new, progressive activities of the modern Turkish state: exemplified by citizenship. But this new social…
Allan, Diana (2007). "Chapter 10: The Politics of Witness: Remembering and Forgetting 1948 in Shatila Camp," in Nakba: Palestine, 2948, and the Claims of Memory. Eds. Ahmad E. Sa'di and Lila Abu-Lughod.
New York: Columbia UP: 254-282. Print.
Cenarro, Angelo. (2002). "Memory Beyond the Public Sphere: The Francoist
Repression Remembered in Aragon." History and Memory 14(1/2): 165-176
Small usiness' Need for a CPA
One of the critical investments a small business can make to mitigate loss and risk is hiring a CPA and putting that CPA on the 'management team.' As Wells notes in his groundbreaking research, "Denise, a bookkeeper for a small trucking firm in irmingham, Alabama, wishes she had never heard of Ralph Summerford, CPA. ecause of his thoroughness, Denise is facing several years in prison for embezzling $550,000 from her employer. At least she will look good standing before the sentencing judge: Denise spent a great deal of her illegal loot on head-to-toe cosmetic surgery. She blew the rest on a shiny new Lexus, luxury vacations, clothing and jewelry. And, of course, Denise had to have a big house to store all of her finery." (Wells, 2003)
Surprisingly, it was not at all the fancy standard of living that made her employer suspicious. "The…
Wells, Joseph. 2003. Protect small business: small companies without adequate internal controls need CPAs to help them minimize fraud risk. Journal of Accountancy.
Small Business Administration. 2005. www.sba.gov.
Federal Reserve Bank. 2004. www.federalreserve.gov.
AICPA. 2005. At www.aicpa.org/antifraud/training/homepage/htm.
Armstrong's findings additionally relate that due to previous research and the influence of perinatal loss on postpartum depression on partnered relationships. Armstrong states that differences in continued psychological stress between mothers and fathers after a subsequent birth is another area requiring further evaluation. Specifically stated is that it is necessary to evaluate "...the strength of partnered relationships during future childbearing experiences is important to identify any potential influence of the loss on couple, as well as family, outcomes. Understanding possible gender differences may help neonatal nurses and other healthcare providers to recognize couples at risk for discord." (2007)
Neonatal nurses are those who work closely with infants and parents and in the best position to make identification of depression and to pose questions about the individuals symptoms including:
3) energy or fatigue levels;
4) ability to concentrate; and 5) as well the neonatal nurse is in…
Gold, K.J., Dalton, V.K. And Schwenk, T.L. (2007) Hospital Care for Parents After Perinatal Death. Obstetrics and Gynecology Vol. 109. No. 5 May 2007.
Hughes, P., Turton, P., Hopper, E. And Evans, CDH (2002) Assessment of Guidelines for Good Practice in Psychosocial Care of Mothers After Stillbirth: A Cohort Study. The Lancet 2002;360:114-18.
Alexander, K.V. (2001) the One Thing You Can Never Take Away": Perinatal Bereavement Photographs. The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing Vol. 26(3) May/June 2001. 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
There are certainly different approaches to the theory of anticipatory mourning. Clearly, one of the major issues within the literature surrounds the communication between the dying person and the caregiver, and both caregiver and patient and those who will be most affected or will mourn their loss. Conventional theory finds that preparing for loss involves experiencing most of the features of grief prior to the demise of the patient; numbness, anger or blame, fear, desperation, and even despair. However, an important difference is that the period of mourning begins before death occurs, and while contact and communication with the dying person is still a viable option. Because of this, there are additional emotions involved; hope, nostalgia, kindness, tenderness, and opportunity for closure (Fulton, 2003). It is this sense of hope, this feeling that there may still be something that can be done for the patient that is the focus of…
Caregiving Statistics. (2010, February). Retrieved from National Family Caregivers Association: http://www.thefamilycaregiver.org/who_are_family_caregivers/care_giving_statstics.cfm
Aliiance, F.C. (2010, September). Selected Caregiver Statistics. Retrieved from:Circlecenterads.info: http://www.circlecenterads.info/documents/FCAPrint_SelectedCaregiv...pdf
Boerner, Schulz and Horowitz. (2004). Positive Aspects of Caregiving and Adaptation to Bereavement. Psychology and Aging, 19(4), 668-75.
Davidson, F. (2002). The Caregiver's Sourcebook. New York: McGraw Hill.
Everyman must lose this false confidence, and lose his life, to truly understand the higher purpose of the human soul and existence, as Everyman prepares himself for the final passage -- and so must we all, good and bad.
But in "Peter Pan" there is a lack of moral apportioning to children along the lines of the laws of adult life. endy, who seems to be the most thoughtful and responsible of all the Peter Pan characters, pays with her youth and takes on adult responsibility unlike the title protagonist, who also transgresses but never feels remorse and never pays for any hurt he does to the girl. Thus, loss, both plays suggest, is an inevitable part of human life, but Barrie is far less positive about what this loss leaves. Loss for Barrie means the loss of carefree and amoral youth and the loves of youth, while loss in…
Abrams, M.H., a Glossary of Literary Terms: Fourth Edition Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1981.
Barrie, J.M. Peter Pan. Online Literature Library. Updated 29-Jun-1999. www.literature.org/authors/barrie-james-matthew/the-adventures-of-peterpan/chapter-01.html
Barrie, J.M. "Peter Pan." London: Routledge, 1950.
Desmet, D. "The Parable of the Talents in Everyman." Winter 1997 Everyman and the Parable of the Talents at http://virtual.park.uga.edu/~cdesmet/talents.htm
Living Memory Disappears
Having read the second slide in the Power point presentation concerning the deaths of the last French veterans of World War I, what difference do you think it makes to our appreciation of history when those that actually experienced it die?
The appreciation of history is intensified when the living connection to the event is extinguished. That particular time in history cannot be revisited through the stories and tales from the people who actually lived through it, but can only be accessed via books, magazines, newspapers and photos. For this reason, the event actually becomes more significant because it is historical and there is no way to retrieve details of it anymore through the people who experienced it firsthand. The difference in appreciation of history comes from the knowledge that a closure to an event has arrived.
Belle Epoque and World War I
Sensitive Issues in Nursing -- Loss of Pregnancy
At least 2.5 single spaced pages. Do not double space. Put answers in boxes. Each answer at least one solid paragraph, make boxes longer if necessary.
Format for Research Article Critique Name:
Directions: The purpose of this assignment is to review a research article and determine how it impacts nursing practice. Use this form to analyze the relevance of the research to nursing practice. APA format for the research critiques are required only for the citation for the article. The answers to the questions do not have to be written in APA format, but do need to be in complete sentences.
Caelli, PhD, K., Downie, PhD, J., & Letendre, A. (2002). Parent's experiences of midwife-managed care following the loss of a baby in a previous pregnancy. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 39(2), 127 -- 136.
Read the article. Write a one paragraph…
people learn about the world is through reading. eading a well written book can provide the reader with a window into a life, or world that he or she might otherwise never encounter. The well written manuscript can provide a foundational understanding of a lifestyle, class or tradition to those who have never experienced and will never have the chance to experience. While a reader can gather a lot of information by reading a book, it is difficult to determine whether the information in that book is completely accurate. Even in a biography the information is only as accurate as the perception and interviews of the person who writes the text. For the most accurate and insightful information about a person or a lifestyle one usually turns to an autobiography. An autobiography usually provides an accurate picture not only of the events that occur in the subject's life, but also…
BOB EDWARDS, Profile: Writings of Vladimir Nabokov on what would be his 100th birthday., Morning Edition (NPR), 04-23-1999.
Nina Khrushcheva, These memoirs, like their author, openly defy father time., The Washington Times, 05-02-1999, pp B8.
Nabokov, Vladimir. SPEAK, MEMORY
Next, estwood explains how educators must compartmentalize lesson plans as to minimize the amount of information the student must cognitively digest. The smaller the lesson plans, the greater chance that child has at retaining that information. It is large lesson plans filled with complex amounts of information which provides an environment which the memory challenged child will undoubtedly fail.
Another key method for improving learning abilities in children with memory issues is the use of visual material to help aid recall. Visual cues are one of the most efficient ways to improve recall in children with memory loss. By relating necessary information to a picture or object which is less likely to be forgotten, the child will be able to associate the two and therefore remember one with the other. Teachers must also encourage their students to associate information with visual cues which are most familiar with each individual student,…
Westwood, Peter. (2003). Students with physical disabilities and sensory impairments.
Commonsense Methodology for Children with Special Needs: Strategies for Regular Classrooms. RoutledgeFalmer. New York. Pp. 36-54.
In stage five, the affected person will begin to experience "major gaps in memory and deficits in cognitive function" and may require some type of assistance with "day-to-day activities like preparing meals, taking a bath or putting on clothing. The affected person will also lack the ability to recall very simple, ordinary things like his/her address, telephone number or even the name of his/her spouse or close friend and will be unable to recall where they are in a physical setting, such as in a shopping mall or even their own home, and will not be able to recall what day of the week it is or the exact date (2009, "The Warning Signs of Alzheimer's," Internet).
In stage six, the affected person will experience severe cognitive decline in the form of a change in his/her personality and will not be able to "recollect their personal history, such as where…
The Warning Signs of Alzheimer's." Alzheimer's Association. 2009. Internet. Retrieved January 23, 2009 at http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_symptoms_of_alzheimers.asp?gclid=CJfdgdv5o5gCFQrFGgodwnf7mQ .
However, through a review of the clinical history and the semantic debate over the relationship between trauma -- especially sexual abuse -- during childhood and the surfacing of psychologically distressing consequences in adulthood, it is evident that the diagnosis of repression is often misapplied. "The term 'dissociative." As applied to these disorders, is better construed as a descriptive label (referring to loss of conscious access to memory) than any pathological process instigated by trauma." (Kilstrom, 36) This means that the 'amnesia' triggered by such events can accurately be regarded as the involuntary mode of memory loss rather than the intentional psychological conditioning to 'block out' negative experiences. To an extent, this verifies the claim that amnesia may be caused by emotional trauma, even though this is empirically elusive in a case by case basis.
Barrett, J. (2002). Amnesia. Health, a to Z. Online at http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/amnesia.jsp
Gleaves, DH, Smith,…
Barrett, J. (2002). Amnesia. Health, a to Z. Online at http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/amnesia.jsp
Gleaves, DH, Smith, S.M.,Butler, L.D., & Spiegel, D. (2004). False and recovered memories in the laboratory and clinical: A review of experimental evidence. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 3-28.
Kilstrom, J.F. (2004). An unbalanced balancing act: Blocked, recovered and false memories in the laboratory and clinic. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 34-41.
LEF. (2003). Amnesia: Online Reference. Life Extension. Online at
The chronological order of these studies, having started with most recent ones, also proves that constant advancements have been made in this particular arena. Thus, some important conclusions can be drawn for a further study.
First, in order to properly study long-term memory in fruit flies, it is essential to have both qualified individuals and qualified equipment. This will necessitate some funds, or at least the inclusion of the experimenter in a laboratory which can furnish him or her with these particulars. In other words, this is not an easy experiment. This is, in part, due to the nature of studying long-term memory, which cannot easily be observed, especially in animals, but also to the fact that the behaviours that demonstrate long-term memory in this particular species are quite hard to observe with the naked eye. However, the species does prove the best possible for such studies, for its behaviour…
Baker, M. "Long-term memory controlled by molecular pathway at synapses." (2007). Ground Report. Retrieved July 22, 2011, .
Ulman, Neil. "Fruit-fly gene: Clue to human memory." (1996). Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 22, 2011, < http://ezproxy.library.nyu.edu:34344/docview/398487618/fulltext?source=fedsrch&accountid=12768>.
"Fruit Fly Definition." (2011). The Free Dictionary. Retrieved July 22, 2011, .
Even a person not living near the poles can suffer from this condition because in many areas of the world, winter time means a decrease in sunlight. Thus, someone with SAD might blame the end of the hustle and bustle of the holiday season as the reason for their depression, but it might actually be a manifestation of the lack of sunlight. The holiday season might have simply been an ample distraction from the lack of sunlight.
3. On average, people who use much marijuana are more likely than others to develop schizophrenia. However, over the last several decades, the use of marijuana has increased substantially while the prevalence of schizophrenia has remained steady or decreased. What would be a reasonable conclusion about the relationship between marijuana use and schizophrenia?
One could conclude that people suffering from schizophrenia are using marijuana as a means of self-medicating. Marijuana can have a…
Kalat, J.W. (2012). Biological psychology. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage.
Evidence has been cited suggesting that ECT is particularly efficacious with psychotic depression. Experimental research and reviews of the literature tend to conclude that ECT is either equal or superior to antidepressant medication in the treatment of severe depression. In one study both depressed men and women were helped by ECT, but women tended to improve more with ECT than with imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant. Men tended to improve more with imipramine. Both men and women improved more with ECT than with phenalzine, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It has been suggested that MAOIs and serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSIs) may be less clinically effective than heterocyclic antidepressants for severe depression. Thus, ECT's favorable comparison with imipramine is a strong endorsement.
The side effect of ECT that has received the most attention is memory loss. ECT results in two kinds of memory loss. The first involves quick forgetting of…
Breggin, P.R. (n.d.). Electroshock: Scientific, ethical, and political issues. Retrieved from http://www.sntp.net/ect/breggin1.htm
Electroconvulsive therapy. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.minddisorders.com/Del-
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). (2011). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/electroconvulsive-therapy/MY00129
therapy is usually applied in cases such as the one exhibited by Kong, following the loss of a loved one. The procedure is outlined below:
The Semi-Structured Clinical Interview
The informal assessment of individuals faced with the effects of the loss of a loved one such as Kong's case is the semi structured interview. This approach allows the therapist to classify victims according to the symptoms that they exhibit. The approach allows for the recording of changes in profile symptoms demonstrated over time. The information below should be collected from a client.
The mental illness history of the family
Ones medical history
Any past visits or interactions with a psychiatrist
One's social history
Varying aspects of one's specific information should be collected regarding the loss of a loved one
There is need to focus the interview details on the secondary and primary…
, and otjak, C. (2006). Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Mediates Fear Extinction via Habituation-Like Processes. The Journal of Neuroscience 26(25): 6677-6686.
Kim, S., on, S., Mao, X., Ledent, C., Jin, K. And Greenberg, D. (2006). Role for Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Cannabinoid-Induced Neurogenesis. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., October 1, 2006; 319(1): 150-154
Kogan, N., Blazquez, C., Alvarex, L., Gallily, R., Schlesinger, M., Guzman, A., and Mechoulam, R. (2006). A Cannabinoid Quinone Inhibits Angiogenesis by Targeting Vascular Endothelial Cells. Mol Pharmacol 70:51-59.
Lundqvist, T. (2005). Cognitive Consequences of Cannabis Use: Comparison with use of Stimulants and heroin with regard to attention, memory and executive functions. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 81: 319-330.
Maccarrone, M., Lorenzon, T., Bari, M., Melino, G., and Finazzi-Agro, A. (2000). Anandamide Induces Apoptosis in Human Cells via Vanilloid Receptors
Evidence For A Protective Role Of Cannabinoid Receptors. J. Biol. Chem., 275 (41): 31938-31945.
Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Ceruti, S.,…
Bolla, K., Brown, K., Eldreth, D., Tate, B., and Cadet, J. (2002). Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Neurology 59:1337-1343.
Farthing, G. (1992) The Psychology of Consciousness. Prentice Hall
Gazzaniga, M., Ivry R., and Mangun, G. (1998) Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind W.W. Norton & Company.
Grant, I., Gonzalez, R., Carey, C., Natatajan, L., and Wolfson, T. (2003). Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis use: A meta-analytic study.
person creative? In what ways do you think creativity can be supported and enhanced by the environment?
What makes a person creative is the combination of imagination and will and exercising of that interaction. A creative person is one who can do things in a unique way -- one who is imaginative and likes to take part in the creative process by developing ideas and utilizing latent skills within the individual that all concepts and expressions to be manifested in any number of ways. Creativity stems from a desire to produce works, whether art or writing or sewing or knitting or architecture -- anything that one can put the mind to accomplishing -- in a manner that is pleasing. It does not even have to be something that is aesthetically pleasing to all. For some creative people, what they make is only admired by a few or maybe even by…
Abel, V. (2013). Insight into Psychology of Aging. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q-31glZYYr8
Carstensen, L. (2012). Emotion and Aging: Exploding the Misery Myth. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BXhrrbQCElw
Cavanaugh, J. C. & Blanchard-Fields, F. (2015). Adult development and aging. (7th
Edition). Stanford, CT: Thompson Learning.
etirees Attending College
The latest retirement planning book entitled 'Boomers: Visons of the New etirement', written by a person who is about thirty years old, Dr. Maria Maylater, PhD., states the author's opinion that it is not what an individual, or in other words, a retiree 'has' when he retires that is important; it is the ways in which he plans out this important phase in his life in which he would be able to actually're-invent' himself totally. She states that today, all the Baby Boomers of yesterday are looking forward to another twenty years of a full and productive life, and an extremely rewarding one, what with all the technological and scientific advances that have taken place in recent years, an average individual can hope to love a longer life than his father or his grandfathers before him. (3 etirement Challenges that you were Never Told)
The idea is…
Fact-sheet on older Americans. Retrieved From
http://www.civicventures.org/261.98.html Accessed on 21 January, 2005
Falcon, Michael. Sharing your Vision of Retirement. Retrieved From
http://askmerrill.ml.com/publish/marketing_centers/articles/ret_article_r058 / Accessed on 21 January, 2005
Hitler is an easy enemy; Saddam was an apt nemesis. Drawing attention away from slavery allows Americans to feel smugly superior. Nothing like that could happen in the land of the free, home of the brave. Americans are deluded into thinking that nothing evil has happened on our time. A slavery museum will force Americans to take responsibility for a slave trade it perpetuated and for a plantation economy it profited from. Remembering slavery is therefore a frightening and controversial prospect for many Americans. It is easier to point the fingers where others went wrong than it is to face the darkness within our own past.
The memory museum reminds visitors that slavery was not limited to the plantation; it was a way of thinking that in many ways persists till this day. For instance, exploiting human beings for economic expediency appears to be a capitalistic norm in our country.…
Threat or perception of threat is best described by protection motivation theory:
This theory states that the extent to which people show preventive behavior in light of a threat depends on their protection motivation (. W. ogers, 1975, 1983). According to this theory, the level of protection motivation depends on the seriousness of the threat, the probability that the threat will manifest itself, the judged efficacy of the recommended behavior (called response or outcome efficacy), and the self-efficacy expectation relating to that behavior. (Wiegman & Gutteling, 1995, p. 235)
In a practical sense what this theory says about the perceived threat is that as incidences of observation occur in the lives of individuals, be they real or imagined they will likely become more protective and therefore attempt to engage in avoidance of behaviors that have been identified with the production of environmental threat. By doing so this the individual, and…
Agnew, R. (1985). A Revised Strain Theory of Delinquency. Social Forces, 64(1), 151-167.
Lesko, Wayne a (2006). Readings in Social Psychology (6th ed).
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Lyddon, W.J., & Sherry, a. (2001). Developmental Personality Styles: An Attachment Theory Conceptualization of Personality Disorders. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79(4), 405.
Did Leonard Shelby Kill His ife?
Memento is the 2000 film by Christopher Nolan that follows Leonard Shelby (Guy Pierce) as he attempts to piece together fragmented memories and facts in an attempt to get revenge on a man that raped and killed his wife. Throughout the film, Shelby is seen interacting with numerous people who grow to become unreliable influences on Shelby and manipulate him to further their own agendas. Given Shelby's anterograde amnesia, much of what he claims to remember, and his subsequent notes, can lead the viewer to question Shelby's memory. hile it can be argued that Shelby killed his wife and simply cannot remember, there is evidence to support the argument that Shelby did not kill his wife.
There is evidence provided in the film that supports the argument that Shelby did not murder his own wife. One of the first pieces of evidence…
Memento. Dir. Christopher Nolan. United States: Summit Entertainment, 2000. Netflix Instant
Nolan, Christopher. Memento. Web. 26 October 2012. Screenplay.
Waller, Bruce N. "Eyewitness Testimony."
psychological effects of drugs. Specifically it will discuss the psychological effects of marijuana on the brain. Many factors of marijuana use can affect the brain, and these affects can be long-term and very harmful. Using marijuana may seem harmless, and less harmful than other types of drugs, such as alcohol, but it is very harmful, and can have long-term affects on people who use it regularly.
Marijuana has many chemicals that are harmful. Doctors Bell and Hall note that THC is the most well-known and harmful of these chemicals. They write, "Among them, THC is the most psychoactive in humans, producing euphoria, relaxation, intensification of ordinary sensory experiences, perceptual alterations, diminished pain, and difficulties with memory and concentration" (Bell & Hall, 2005). These affects do not typically last longer than a few hours, depending on how much of the drug the subject ingests, but the affects on the brain can…
One of the reasons marijuana can be so harmful to the brain is because people tend to start to use it at a young age, like adolescence, when the brain is not fully formed and is still maturing (Agosti, Nunes & Levin, 2002). This early drug use can lead to the abuse of other drugs, but it can also have lasting affects on the brain and the way it functions, because it hits the brain before the brain is ready for drug use. Because marijuana and other illegal drugs are also usually very addicting, they create an urge in the user to continue using them, and so dependence on them can grow, adding to the problem of long-term damage.
There is another problem associated with brain function and marijuana use. Authors Agosti et al. note, "Longitudinal studies have also found a significant association between chronic cannabis use, mental disorders, and social morbidity" (Agosti et al., 2002). Therefore, use of marijuana, especially early use, can ultimately lead to the use of more dangerous drugs, and chronic use can lead to many mental problems. Unfortunately, studies show that marijuana is the most popular illegal drug in use in America today, and that 81% of illegal drug users use marijuana (Trevino & Richard, 2002). What this means for the brains of these users is that they will show additional memory loss, confusion, and other signs of brain damage as their life progresses, especially if they continue to use the drug throughout their lives. It can even lead to mental disorders and death as previously noted. Thus, marijuana is more dangerous than many people believe.
Many proponents of marijuana believe that it should be legalized, but about 55% of the American population is against legalizing the drug (Trevino & Richard, 2002). Proponents of the drug cite many studies that have not shown any damaging affects of the drug, but these studies have consistently been disproved by more effective studies such as those cited here. There will always be a segment of the population that wants to legalize marijuana, especially those who use it for its claimed medicinal affects. However, scientific studies show that marijuana use is harmful to the brain and to the overall health of the user,
Alzheimer's disease has developed into a major health concern for the elderly population throughout the world. This degenerative brain disorder was first described by Alois Alzheimer in 1907. Today Alzheimer's is one of the most prevalent forms of brain disorders contributing to as much as 50 to 70% of all reported cases of dementia. Over the years the study of early onset Alzheimer's disease (pre-senile AD) has kind of overshadowed the study of late onset Alzheimer in elderly group. However the disease statistics indicate an increasing susceptibility of the older population. Approximately 5% of the population above 65 years of age and around 20% of the people above 85 years of age are affected by Alzheimer's disease. Hence what was previously ignored as an inevitable old age symptom (senile dementia) is now being properly recognized as an illness. This new perspective of AD has resulted in a drastically altered understanding…
Simon Lovestone and Martin Dunitz, " Early diagnosis and Treatment of Alzheimer's
Disease," Published by Martin Dunitz Ltd., 1998
Gerry Bennett and DR Mark Jones, "The Alzheimer's Handbook," Vermilion
Functional Assessment eport
Summarization of Case
Luther, 80 years of age, was admitted to a nursing hospital due to Alzheimer's disease complications. As a farmer, Luther spent most of his life moving freely unlike what he was experiencing in the nursing home. However, he had to adapt to the new life. Despite his impairment memory problem, Luther was psychically fit as he managed to walk around the nursing premises. Later, he started experienced a problem in that he walked alone. For safety reasons, he was not allowed to go outside alone. Despite the warnings, he managed to walk go outside alone, even during cold periods without a coat. Each time he went out, the nursing staff had to bring him back. The architecture of the nursing home depicts one main door at the station, another one near the business office, and three fire doors at the sides and back of…
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis (second Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. ISBN: 9780131421134.
Lu, L. & Bludau, J. (2011). Alzheimer's Disease. New York: ABC-CLIO
Miltenberger, R. G. (2015). Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures (Sixth Ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. ISBN: 9781305109391.
Identify Distinctions Among MCU, Dementia, and Alzheimer's
· Distinctions Among MCU, Dementia, and Alzheimer's
2. Information about medical conditions you are addressing
Dementia: Dementia is a syndrome characterized by diminished cognitive abilities, memory loss, and reduced thinking capacity. Dementia-related symptoms affect the day-to-day activities of the victim. Alzheimer's, a condition that causes brain cells to degenerate, is the leading cause of dementia. A slow decline of memory destroys thinking skills, and it translates into disrupted daily life. Inability to live an independent life affects the relationships, and as a result, the victims feel neglected by close family members or friends. Dementia can also occur due to other diseases such as thyroid or lack of essential vitamins in the body, but the good thing is this kind of condition can be reversed (AA, 2017).
Dementia can manifest different signs, but common ones include: Patients Being forgetful, losing track of…
AA. (2017). What is Dementia. Retrieved from Alzheimer\\\\'s Association: https://www.alz.org/alzheimers-dementia/what-is-dementia
AA. (2018). Why Get Checked? Retrieved from Alzheimer\\\\'s Association: Why Get Checked?
AS. (n.d.). Normal aging vs. dementia. Retrieved from Alzheimer\\\\'s Society: https://www.alzheimers.org.uk/about-dementia/symptoms-and-diagnosis/how-dementia-progresses/normal-ageing-vs-dementia
BPS. (2007). Dementia: A NICE-SCIE Guideline on Supporting People with Dementia and Their Carers in Health and Social Care. Leicester: British Psychological Society.
Burns, B. (2020, May 12). Researchers link high calcium levels in mitochondria to neuronal death in Alzheimer\\\\'s disease. Retrieved from Media Press: https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-05-link-high-calcium-mitochondria-neuronal.html
Harada, C., Love, M. N., & Triebel, K. (2014). Normal Cognitive Aging. Clin Geriatr Med., 737–752.
Larson, E., Kukull, W., & Katzman, R. (1992). Cognitive impairment: dementia and Alzheimer\\\\'s disease. Annu Rev Public Health.
Liao, Y., Dong, Y., & Cheng, J. (2017). The Function of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter in Neurodegenerative Disorders. Int J Mol Sci, 248.
As human beings we have an "idea" or concept of who we are and what we really should be, hence we create an Ideal Self that we constantly strive for, often in vain. If the perceived self, our own self-image, is not aligned with the actual self, how we really are, there will always be personality problems and dysfunction as one relates to one's self and the rest of the world. (Kail & Wicks 1993) In Carl's case this is certainly exacerbated by his TBI.
In some sense if a human being grows in a very healthy and psychological and socially secure and protected environment, congruence should naturally be achieved. If he or she has felt the unconditional positive reinforcement that ogers advocates, than congruence should be an outcome of certainty. (Vander Zanden 2003) However, even with the best of growth comes change and the self you are today may…
Demorest, Amy. 2005. Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped Professional Ideas. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kail, RV, & Wicks-Nelson, R. 1993. Developmental Psychology. 5th ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Vander Zanden, James W. 2003. Human Development. Crandell, L.T. & C.H. Crandell & Thomas L., Eds.. New York: McGraw Hill.
Not only that, the results of eating badly is harmful. Holland and Barrett magazine reports: "If your diet isn't as balanced as you'd hope for, there's a chance you could be missing out on L. Trytophan - an important amino acid that plays a vital role in the production of brain chemicals." If one's diet is lacking it, the safest way to get this supplement is in the form of 5-HTP - a natural compound that the body produces from L-Trytophan. 5-HTP is believed to help the body produce serotonin, a chemical that regulates mood, sleep and other brain-related functions. (Pearce, 1999)
In aging people who seem to have no appetite, there actually may be a sensory dysfunction, which keeps that person from enjoying food and other things that are sensed through taste and smell. Susan S. Schiffman, Ph.D. pointed out that in the elderly these senses are not entirely…
About Dementia. http://www.about-dementia.com/.2006.
Davis, Alison. "Stress -- it might be even worse than you think," a Summary of the Conference "Biology of Stress" co-sponsored by the OBSSR and NIGMS, April 12, 2006.
Huang, Cindy S., et al. "Common Molecular Pathways Mediate Long-Term Potentiation of Synaptic Excitation and Slow Synaptic Inhibition." Cell (Journal), Volume 123, Issue 1, 7 October 2005, Pages 105-118.
Pearce, Gillian. Depression Antidotes Newsletter. Thu, 15 Jul 1999-18:35:21 -0400.