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Preventing Dropouts Among Minority Middle School Students
The dropout rate of minority middle school students is rising. This can be contributed to a number of factors that cultivate frustration and develop low self-esteem among minority adolescent students. Middle school students already struggle with self-image issues, but when the added pressure of factors such as low literacy skills, poverty within the home, early pregnancy and low regard for education are also introduced, these students become lost in the system and develop the desire to give up or dropout thus eliminating their opportunity to break the cycle of poverty by becoming educated and obtaining higher level paying employment.
Statement of Significance
The educational sector is under pressure to meet the new federally mandated guidelines of the "No Child Left Behind" legislation. Early childhood education has previously been the focus of the national goal that every child will read by the time they…
Adam, M. (2003). Fighting the latino dropout rate. Education Digest, 6, 23-28.
Banfield, K., Johnson, P, Thomas, P., Thieroff, A. (2002). Defying latino statistics. New York
Amsterdam News, 10, 18.
Benz, M.R., Lindstrom, L., & Yovanoff, P. (2000). "Improving graduation and employment outcomes of students with disabilities: Predictive factors and student perspectives. Exceptional Children, 66(4), 509-529.
Working with young people in an educational setting can be an enlightening experience, and one can quickly discover that most young students will do almost anything possible to please their teacher. This can be especially true in the elementary grades, but oftentimes the enthusiasm shown by these youngsters begins to wane by the time they reach the middle school groups.
Teachers of middle school students are therefore faced with instructing students who may or may not be motivated to be instructed, and this can be a very difficult situation, specifically when regarding a basic skill such as reading. Experts agree that "reading is a fundamental and necessary skill in order to successfully participate in society, yet employers lament that high school graduates lack the necessary literacy skills to be productive employees" (Kelley, Decker, 2009, p. 467). Many times the lack of reading skills can be traced directly to the lack…
Aarnoutse, C. And Schellings, G.; (2003) 'Learning reading strategies by triggering reading motivation, Educational Studies, Vol. 29, Issue 4, pp. 387-409
Fawson, P.C. & Moore, S.A.; (1999) Reading incentive programs: Beliefs and practices, Reading Psychology, Vol. 20, Issue 4, pp. 325-340
Gambrell, L.B.; Palmer, B.M.; Codling, R.M.; Mazzoni, S.A.; (1996) Assessing motivation to read, the Reading Teacher, Vol. 49, No. 7, pp. 518 -- 533
Guthrie, J.T.; Mcrae, a.; Klauda, S.L.; (2007) Contributions of concept-oriented reading instruction to knowledge about interventions for motivations in reading, Educational Psychologist, Vol. 42, Issue 4, pp. 237 -- 250
A Practical Comprehensive Career Counseling Plan for Middle School Students
Thankfully, dreams can change. If we'd all stuck with our first dream, the world would be overrun with cowboys and princesses. – Stephen Colbert
Many young people have a general idea about what they “want to be when they grow up,” but as the epigraph above makes clear, these ideas tend to change over time as they learn more about the world and what types of occupations are available to them. To this end, career counselors can facilitate this process by helping students learn more about their viable career choices depending on their individual preferences and aptitudes. This paper describes a proposed “career day/fair” for middle school students to help them become more knowledgeable concerning their career choices followed by a summary of relevant career counseling contributions by other researchers. Finally, an explanation concerning the importance of addressing career education…
In short, there are numerous reasons to state the need for intervention of school counselor during the middle years, all of which can be summed up under the discovery that middle school students perform better academically, consider more intensively their future, and possess more achievement -- styled goals when they are in touch with a mentor (Zirkel, 2002). Students, at all ages, make choices, but middle school students are likely, for the first time, to make autonomous and independent choices that may significantly effect the rest of their life. Students seek differentiation from parents, responsibility, and independence, and it is the role of the counselor to assist students with decision-making skills and to help them select choices that are healthy and growth promoting.
Other areas that students need assistance in dealing with are class electorates as well as negotiating their way between multiple teachers and new peer groups. This complex…
Akos, R, Konold, T., & Niles, S. (2004). A career readiness typology and typal membership in middle school. The Career Development Quarterly, 53, 53-66.
Cobb, N. (2001). Adolescence: Continuity, change, and diversity (4th ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
Eccles, J., & Templeton, J. (2002). Extracurricular and other after-school activities for youth. Review of Research in Education, 26, 113-180.
Mahoney, J., Cairns, B., & Farmer, T. (2003). Promoting interpersonal competence and educational success through extracurricular participation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 409-418.
In the future, this can hurt the conclusions and findings. (Hill, 2009)
Key Elements: Select one or two key ideas from the article and consider how you can effectively connect them to your research question.
The two most important ideas from the article are: increased parental involvement and improved academic socialization strategies. These ideas will help to promote diversity by having the student learn in a format and background they are comfortable with. Then, these concepts are reinforced using socialization to help the individual understand them from contrasting perspectives. This is the point that diversification is improving inside the classroom. The way that these ideas relate to the research question, is they are highlighting specific tools that are used to achieve these objectives. (Hill, 2009)
eflection: Explain various ways that you could incorporate the learning theory expressed in the article into your teaching methods. Also, explain how the theory demonstrates…
Holly Bible New International Version. (1983). Lebanon, TN: The Gideon's.
Hill, N. (2009). Parental Involvement in the Middle School. Developmental Psychology, 45 (3), 740 -- 763.
These exams would also tap teaching performance and other capabilities unlikely to be adequately assessed using conventional paper along with pencil instruments." (Shulman, 1986, pp. 4 -- 14)
These different elements are important, because they are providing a foundation for helping the schools to become more competitive in mathematics. As, they are working together to create a basic standard for: improving learning comprehension and provide the ability to solve more complex issues. Over the course of time, this will help to increase the student's ability to understand a wide variety of concepts. This is the point that they will be more prepared to deal with the various challenges that they are facing in the 21 century. Once this occurs, it will help them to establish a foundation for adapting to the changes that they will have to deal with from: shifts in technology and through these transformations because of globalization.…
Content Knowledge for Teaching. (2010). Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Diagnostic Mathematics Assessment. (2011). University of Louisville. Retrieved from: http://louisville.edu/education/research/centers/crmstd/diag_math_assess_middle_teachers.html
Elementary and Secondary Education. (2004). NSF. Retrieved from: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind04/c1/c1s1.htm#c1s1l3a
Frequently Asked Questions. (2011). Core Standards. Retrieved from: http://www.corestandards.org/frequently-asked-questions
The Grace A. Dunn Middle School (grades 6, 7, and 8) in Trenton, New Jersey, has a demographic that reflects the ethnic diversity of the community. The Dunn Middle School is composed of: 5% Asian; 28.88% African-American; 60.93% Hispanic / Latino; 3% Native American; and 5% Caucasian (www.movoto.com).
There are approximately 289 females at Dunn Middle School (48% of the student population) and 310 males (52%).
How do the school's demographics match up with Trenton's demographics in Dunn Middle School's 08610 Zip Code? The neighborhood is composed of: 10% African-American; 2% Asian or Pacific Islander; 2% "mixed races"; 3% "others"; and 83% Caucasian. In the 089610 Zip Code, 48% of the population is male and 52% is female, the reverse of the population at Dunn Middle School.
As to the comparison between the Dunn Middle School and the reported ethnicities in the neighborhood, nearly 29% of Dunn School is…
Grace A. Dunn Middle School. (2012). Movoto School Rank for Grace A. Dunn Middle School.
Retrieved October 23, 2013, from http://www.movoto.com .
Jersey Journal. (2012). Crime in Trenton still a hot topic at council meeting. Retrieved October 23, 2013, from http://www/nj.com.
Neighborhood Scout. (2012). Crime Rates for Trenton, NJ. Retrieved October 23, 2013, from http://www.neighborhoodscout.com .
Apex Middle School, part of the wake county public school system in aleigh, NC has implemented a rigorous curriculum for grades 6, 7 and 8. The curriculum for Apex Middle School includes the following: Language Arts, Math, Science, Social Studies, Computer Education, Health and Physical Education (Wake, 2003). The objectives of each of these programs are stated below. The Apex Middle School curriculum and objectives outlined in this paper are similar to the curriculum and objectives for most public middle schools in NC. How does this differ from the middle school curriculum typically seen in New York middle schools?
According to the New York State Education Department, the objective or mission of educators is "That all students will meet or exceed high learning standards at the elementary, middle, secondary and continuing education levels" (NYSED, 2003). Major reform is currently occurring in New York. These reforms will have the potential…
Wake County Public Schools/Middle School Curriculum/Raleigh, NC/
New York State Education
These include: question/answer, lecture, demonstration, discussion, individual student projects, laboratory, technological activities, and supervised practice. Previous research has demonstrated that the use of informal knowledge, real world settings and opportunities to apply mathematical thinking are effective instruction methods for introductory algebra. For this reason, instructional factors are related to achievement in algebra (p. 102).
When comparing the test scores from Japan and the United States, House and Telese (2008) found a correlations between positive beliefs in the student's mathematical ability and their test scores. Those who believed they could do well in math performed better than those who expressed a negative opinion about their skills, when compared to their peers. In addition, students who worked problems on their own had higher test scores. This supports Silver's (1998) analysis that much of the reason why American students have poorer test scores than their international peers is due to the classroom instructional…
Falco, L., Crethar, H. & Bauman, S. (Apr 2008). "Skill-builders: Improving middle school students' self-beliefs for learning mathematics." Professional School Counseling, 11(4). p. 229-235.
House, D. & Telese, J. (Feb 2008). "Relationships between student and instructional factors and algebra achievement of students in the United States and Japan: An analysis of TIMSS 2003 data." Educational Research & Evaluation, 14(1). p. 101-112.
Silver, E. (Mar 1998). Improving mathematics in middle school. Lessons from TIMSS and related research. Retrieved December 14, 2010, from http://www2.ed.gov/inits/Math/silver.html .
eading is a fundamental part of a child's education. Many techniques have been utilized in an effort to make learning to read and reading comprehension easier for students (McCray 2001). One such technique is Sustained Silent eading (SS). The purpose of this discussion is to investigate Sustained Silent eading as it relates to reluctant middle school aged children. Let us begin our investigation by discussing the theoretical framework of Sustained Silent eading.
Sustained Silent eading (SS)
Jenson & Jenson (2002) report that The Uninterrupted Sustained Silent eading program (USS) was first implemented by Lyman Hunt at the University of Vermont during the 1960's (Jensen & Jensen 2002). By the 1970's the program was implemented into the American public school system (Jensen & Jensen 2002). Forty years after its initial inception this same program has an array of aliases including: Motivation in Middle Schools (MIMS), High Intensity Practice (HIP), Free Voluntary…
Broughton, M.A., & Fairbanks, C.M. (2003). In the Middle of the Middle: Seventh-Grade Girls' Literacy and Identity Development Here Is a Look at the Ways in Which a Group of Girls Perceived Themselves and How Their Perceptions and Behaviors Changed as They Moved from the Sixth Grade to the Seventh Grade: The Middle of Middle School. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46(5), 426
Brozo, W.G., & Hargis, C.H. (2003). Taking Seriously the Idea of Reform: One High School's Efforts to Make Reading More Responsive to All Students. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 47(1), 14
Crawford P.C.2004. Using Graphic Novels to Attract Reluctant Readers. Library Media Connection
Graham, S., & Taylor, A.Z. (1998). Exploring Achievement Values Among Ethnic Minority Early Adolescents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(4), 606-620.
Mark Horton: A Nevada Middle School Teacher Who Compromised His Duty to Teach
ecently, a Las Vegas, a Nevada middle school teacher, Mark Horton, has been accused, by several students and their parents, of compromising his duty to teach, by engaging in lewd and lascivious behavior with young adolescent girls from his classes. According to Curreri and Planas:
Students in Marc Horton's physical education classes at Garside Middle
School called him "Mr. Horton." Other students, however, knew the 27-year-old teacher as "Softball Stud" or by one of his online computer identities,
"sleepiweasel77." Horton's apparent popularity with a handful of 13- and 14-
year-old girls, however, has resulted in his gaining another title: accused sex offender. (Las Vegas eview Journal, June 7, 2005, 1B)
Allegations of improper professional conduct by Horton include improper comments to and touching of these students, both inside and outside the classroom, as well as inappropriate e-mails…
Currieri, A, & Planas, J. Middle school teacher suspended for sexual misconduct. Las Vegas review journal. 7 Jun 2005. 1B.
Stein, N.D. (Summer 1995). Sexual harassment in school: The public performance of gendered violence. Harvard educational review,65(2). 145-
"What is sexual harassment?" The guidelines of the preventing from [sic] sexual harassment.Kokugakuin University. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from: http://www
In conclusion, atkins draws an important link between teen childbearing and poverty, which takes this discussion past morals and values and moves it into socioeconomic territory. Half of all mothers currently on welfare assistance "were teenagers when they had their first child," atkins writes. Also, a) less than a third of teen mothers "ever finish high school"; b) the children born to teenage mothers "are twice as likely to raise their children in poverty"; c) the children of teen mothers "...are more likely to do poorly in school, more likely to drop out of school, and less likely to attend college"; and d) girls whose mothers were teenagers at the time of their birth are "...22% more likely to become mothers as teens themselves," thus completing the cycle and perpetuating the problem into future generations.
An article by Jennifer a. Hurley ("Promoting the Use of Birth Control Reduces Teen Pregnancy")…
Bakalar, Nicholas. "Adolescence: Abstinence-Only Programs Not found to Prevent HIV." The New York Times 14 August 2007: Retrieved Dec. 3, 2007, at http://www.nytimes.com .
Garrett, Robert T. "Texas teens lead nation in birth rate." The Dallas Morning News 5 November 2007: Retrieved Dec. 2, 2007, at http://www.dallasnews.com .
Green, Tanya L. "Parents Have the Right to Know when their Children Receive Family
Planning Services at School." Opposing Viewpoints: Students' rights. Greenhaven Press,
This could hurt the ability of educators to evolve with new difficulties. At the same time, it is illustrating the benefits that this can provide inside the classroom. (Lee, 2008)
Key Elements: Select 2 key ideas from the article and consider how you can effectively connect them to your research question.
Two key ideas from the article include: using technology to speak to students in a format they understand and utilizing key phrases / words during the discussion. The way these insights are connected to the research question is they provide tools and techniques for improving diversity on the middle school level. This helps these institutions to more effectively accommodate a wide variety of students from contrasting backgrounds. (Lee, 2008)
eflection: Explain various ways that you could incorporate the learning theory expressed in the article into your teaching methods. Also, explain how the theory demonstrates Christian principles in teaching.
Lee, O. (2008). Science Curriculum and Student Diversity. The Elementary School Journal, 109 (2), 123 -- 137.
middle school, high school, and now college, is my ability to focus on an academic task when I really need to buckle down and concentrate. I get decent grades because I can give enough focus at the last minute, some call it "cramming," to get through the test, or get the paper done in time. But because I can't bring a consistent sense of concentration in a regular pattern, I become stressed when time comes to be tested, or to turn in a research paper or essay.
When I am assigned to read a book, I have a problem concentrating on the text, and very often I have to go back and read the whole previous page over again because I have no idea what I just read. Even very interesting fiction, my mind drifts off while I'm reading. But I have come to grips with my reading problem and…
They predict age and gender variations relate to bullying concerns. Of the 25 cartoons implemented in the study, two depict characters with different shades of skin color where skin color appeared to be an issue. One cartoon relating to sexual orientation was not used in several countries. Smith et al. report Olweus to assert bullying to be characterized by the following three criteria:
1. It is aggressive behavior or intentional "harmdoing"
2. which carried out repeatedly and over time
3. In an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power. (Smith et al., 2002, p. 1120)
In their study, Smith et al. (2002), participating researchers in the 14 countries to completed the following
1. Listed and selected bullying terms as well as social exclusion in the applicable language.
2. Used fundamental focus groups with participating children to confirm usage and extensive comprehensive of terms.
3. Using cartoons, sorted tasks to…
Anti-Bullying programs for schools. (2009). NoBully.com. Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://www.nobully.com/index.html
Beaty, L.A., & Alexeyev, E.B. (2008). The Problem of School Bullies: What the Research Tells Us. Adolescence, 43(169), 1+. Retrieved March 3, 2010, from Questia database:
Activity Description and Summary
The community involvement activity I participated in was supervising a my middle school's fall dance. This activity required me, along with several other peers, to monitor and regulate the dance activities. The dance lasted 3 hours and was held in the school gymnasium where I teach.
Program Outcome ationale
The Program Outcome that most reflects this activity is School and Community Leadership. The outcome objectives are as follows for this selection:
Build strong community relations by modeling and promoting equity, fairness, and respect among faculty, staff, students, parents and community leaders.
Provide opportunities for stakeholders to develop and use skills in collaboration, shared decision making and responsibility for the purpose of maintaining a comprehensive program of positive home/school relationships.
Acknowledge and respect the goals, values, and aspirations of diverse family and community groups by engaging the support of business, philanthropic, political, social, and civic…
American College of Education. November 2013 Graduate Catalog.
Elias, M.J., Zins, J.E., Graczyk, P.A., & Weissberg, R.P. (2003). Implementation, sustainability, and scaling up of social-emotional and academic innovations in public schools. School Psychology Review, 32(3), 303-319.
, 1999). In many areas of the country this may be very accurate.
Another problem that comes into the picture where obesity in children is concerned is that many parents must work very long hours today to pay bills and have money for what their family needs (Mokdad, et al., 1999). ecause of this, many children are latchkey kids and are not watched as closely by their parents as they used to be (Mokdad, et al., 1999). Children used to come home from school and go and play with others, but many now live in neighborhoods where this is unsafe or where there are no children their age so they remain inside watching TV or playing video games and snacking on whatever is available (Mokdad, et al., 1999).
If there is healthy food in the house this is often not a problem, but many households are full of potato chips,…
Anderson, J.G. (1987). Structural equation models in the social and behavioral sciences: Model building. Child Development, 58, 49-64.
Arlin, M. (1976). Causal priority of social desirability over self-concept: A cross-lagged correlation analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 267-272.
Averill, P. (1987). The role of parents in the sport socialization of children. Unpublished senior thesis, University of Houston.
Bandura, a. (1969). A social-learning theory of identificatory processes. In D.A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 213-262). Chicago: Rand McNally.
Students who are bussed to a larger school can use the time to be productive; reading, homework, etc.
1.5-2 hours per day of commuting is unacceptable for students and will eat into their family and work time.
A larger school will provide greater opportunity for social networks, sports, music, drama, and more extracurricular activities.
Loss of community will make the younger students uncomfortable as well.
A larger school will provide greater academic opportunities for the HS students in preparation for university; there are more resources available.
The student to teach ratio will change and the students will be part of just another large classroom.
Thus, the question really comes down to potential. Neither side can equivocally state that the future of the students will be better or worse; there are arguments for both as well as the possibility that the solution will be quite positive for some,…
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). Research Design. New York: Sage.
Groves, R. a. (2003). Introducing Political Philosophy. New York: Icon Books.
Hatton, J. (1996). Science and Its Ways of Knowing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Benjamin Cummings Publishers.
hat is the most appropriate way to assess student achievement? The commission of the National Middle School Assessment of student achievement suggests "authentic assessment refers to evaluation that makes use of real life tasks instead of contrived test items." (NMSA, 2000) In other words, rather than focus on testing students more, a greater interest and study of effective teaching practices are better employed in further research regarding education. The National Middle School Assessment Authentic assessment also suggests that while standardized testing may occasionally function as a rough means of evaluating all children, such as identifying children with possible special needs, assessment in a truly learner-centered classroom will vary. "Examples of types of assessment are performance tasks, portfolios, student self-assessment surveys and probes, peer assessments, journals, logs, products, and projects. Successful assessment improves learning, instruction and program effectiveness." (NMS 2000, citing Donald, 1997) In my own school district, located…
Ellis, Edwin & Lou Anne Worthington, Martha J. Larkin. (2005) "Executive Summary of the Research Synthesis on Effective Teaching Principles and the Design of Quality Tools for Educators." Area of Teacher Education, Programs in Special Education University of Alabama Report. Retrieved 23 Oct 2005
'Executive Summary." (2001) Child Left Behind Act' of 2001. Summary of research retrieved 23 Oct 2005
The use of the Cognitive Tutor not only enriches students' experience at the academic task-level but also impacts the teachers' instructional practices and relationship with her students (Level 3) A district-wide survey of high school teachers using the program reveals that the Cognitive Tutor allows them more time to provide individual assistance to students; gives them the opportunity to adjust their instructional practices as a result of students progressing in problem solving; and makes Algebra more interesting and relevant to students (Schneyderman, 2001). These views imply that the use of the program makes teaching less burdensome in the sense that the teacher acts as facilitator of learning rather than instructor, which is one of the arguments for educational technology in general.
Due perhaps to the wide acceptance of the use of Cognitive Tutor and other instructional software in American classrooms, the "No Child Left Behind" Act called for…
Research evidence on implementation factors may suggest some explanations for the above findings. First, there are teacher-related issues. Technology products places demands on teachers' time and skills as they have to prepare the product, transfer the students to computer labs, maintain the technology, and monitor and help students as they use the software (Dynarski et al., 2007). Many teachers also feel that they have a significant need for professional development on how to manage classroom activities that integrate computer technology (Adelman et al. 2002 in Dynarski et al., 2007). In the ED study, although teachers underwent training and were confident at the end to use the products in their classes, their confidence dropped to some degree after they began using the products in the classroom (Dynarski et al., 2007). This may have been due in part to technical difficulties, which is another implementation factor issue. For instance, computer access may be limited, hardware can be unreliable, computer networks unstable, and technical support inadequate (Cuban, 2000 and Culp et al., 2003, in Dynarski et al., 2007). In the ED study, however, technical difficulties were considered "minor" as they were easily corrected or worked around (Dynarski et al., 2007).
These observations show how the other levels of school organization may affect the success of novel learning tasks and instructional design. Specifically, the teacher's belief about her efficacy and classroom management practices (Level 3) can send implicit and explicit messages to her students, that in turn may influence their academic performance (Eccles and Roeser, 1998). Hence, one of the recommendations of the ED study is to evaluate a second batch of students with the same teachers' implementing the products in their classroom. They hope to see the effect of teachers having prior experience and improved skills in using the products on students' performance (Dynarski et al., 2007). School resources (Level 5) in terms of adequate materials and technical capacity are also thought to be important for children's learning (Eccles and Roeser, 1998). Hence, it would be worthwhile to include recommending the upgrade of school computer networks and labs for Phase 2 of the ED study.
In summary, computer software such as the Cognitive Tutor can be beneficial for middle school and older students to improve their academic outcomes in challenging subjects like Math. For younger students such as those in grade school, the effectiveness of some computer software seems to be influenced by teacher and school factors. Although there is conclusive evidence from an ED study that reading and mathematics software don't significantly impact the performance of grade school and some middle school students, it could be worth addressing these contextual factors in a sequel study to re-evaluate the findings.
The components can be ranked by level of importance or relevance to the subject.
Sequential Graphic Organizers: Sequential organizers allow the educator to assess the ability of the student to logically link ideas and concepts together. Cause/effect and problem/solution are common types of sequential organizers.
Cyclical Graphic Organizers: According to Struble, cyclical graphic organizers help educators evaluate the ability of students to comprehend natural cycles.
In reviewing the application of graphic organizers to the science classroom, Struble (2007) further reports that these tools can provide a clear understanding of student learning at any given point in time. In addition, these tools can be used to assess student learning over the course of a lesson or unit. Because graphic organizers allow individual assessment of student learning, Struble also argues that these tools can be effective for "assessing student with limited English skills or with learning disabilities" (p. 71). Because these tools…
Craig, D.V. (2007). Alternative, dynamic assessment for second language learners. ERIC Database, (ED453691), 1-17.
Barlow, L., & Coombe, C. (2000). Alternative assessment Acquisition in the United Arab Emirates. ERIC Database, (ED448599), 1-8.
Bybee, R.W., & Van Scotter, P. (2007). Reinventing the science curriculum. Educational Leadership, 64(4), 43-47.
Fitch, G.K. (2007). A rubric for assessing a student's ability to use the light microscope. American Biology Teacher, 69(4), 211-214.
Another area that can be discussed in this section is the evidence of improvement in other after-school programs throughout the country. According to a study conducted by the University of California,
A two-year longitudinal Study of Promising After-School Programs examined the effects of participation in quality after school programs among almost 3,000 youth in 35 elementary and middle school after school programs located in 14 cities and 8 states. New findings from that study indicate that elementary and middle school students who participated in high-quality after school programs, alone or in combination with other activities, across two years demonstrated significant gains in standardized math test scores, when compared to their peers who were regularly unsupervised after school. Further, regular participation in after school programs was associated with improvements in work habits and task persistence. (Vandell, 2007)
The final area that investors are particularly interested in is whether their funds are…
Gardener, M., Roth, J., Brooks-Gunn, J. (2009). Can After-school Programs Help Level the Academic Playing Field for Disadvantaged Youth? Columbia University: Campaign for Educational Equity. Available at http://cms.tc.columbia.edu/i/a/document/11242_After-school_report_10-7-09_web.pdf
Vandell, D., Reisner, E., & Pierce, K. (2007). Outcomes linked to high-quality afterschool programs: Longitudinal findings from the study of promising practices. Irvine, CA:
University of California and Washington, DC: Policy Studies Associates. Available at http://www.gse.uci.edu/docs/PASP%20Final%20Report.pdf
Middle school officials have been reporting a rash of mysterious absences recently. Upon examining information given by those officials and corellated by health department staff there appears to be a pattern to the absences. In the month of April there were only minor similarities in time and occurence of these absences in two schools. In contrast, in the month of May there were quite a few absences in two of the schools, Jackson and Truman, but not in the others.
The similarities first appear in the period of late April to early May, but those are few in number. The spike in absences occurs in May, from the 19th to 25th. There are two hypotheses for these occurences. The first hypotheses is that the absences are due to something as simple as the common cold. The second hypotheses for the spike in absenses is food poisoning or a…
Community Health dept. Intranet Kaplan.edu
Food Poisoning. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from: http://www.livestrong.com/article/17793-common-causes-poisoning/#ixzz1E6UcQg57
West Nile Virus. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/index.htm
This is an area that receives little attention, but it promises to be fruitful if attention is given to it. The health practitioner will combine attempts to reach this group with administrative policy and in combination; there will be a moderation of the problem at school.
The popular kids at school set the norms of the schools and influence the values within the school. The popular kids are generally not the ones who are obese they may make fun at obese children. An awareness program that allows popular children to observe the impact of their taunts and other unkind comments on their peers may strike within their hearts a desire to become part of the solution rather than the problem. When combined with an administrative approach that encourages more exercise that is physical and coupled with a school climate of support for eating healthy food. This strategy will create changes…
Anderson, Patricia M. And Butcher Kristin F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential
Causes the Future of Children, 16: (1): 19-45.
CDC Fact Sheet: Foods and Beverages Sold Outside of the School Meal Programs.
Crosnoe Robert & Muller Chandra (2004) Body Mass Index, Academic Achievement, and School Context: Examining the Educational Experiences of Adolescents at Risk of Obesity. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45 (4):393-407.
Fluency and Literacy in a Middle-School Math Classroom
Eyes roll at the sight of dreaded word problems. "I hate word problems," says the student. A familiar scenario for a middle school math teacher. Initially, such a math teacher might assume that the complaining student has difficulty translating words into mathematical concepts -- in other words, that the student does not understand the concept behind the math, but merely how to manipulate numbers, in imitation of the teacher, on sigh. hile this may be the case, Richard Allington also raises the provocative concept of reading fluency as an additional problem in the math classroom -- the student may understand the math, but feel so uncomfortable with the concepts he or she finds the additional manipulations required by the word problem to be tedious and time consuming. In other words, he or she has a low level of fluency, even though he…
Allington, Richard. What Really Matters for Struggling Readers. New York: Longman, 2001.
attitudes and values of high school students. eforms to the high school system in the United States are also explained. Additionally, the reason why students need not be involved in the planning of reforms is elucidated.
High School Students: their Attitudes and Values
Of a crucial age, climbing a milestone, conscious to their fullest with no fear of prospects, high school students have interested researchers and policy makers for centuries. They have quite a few common traits -- they behave as individuals of their own age group in a rather full-fledged way. They are go-getting to achieve their independence, they are show-offs, impressionable persons desiring to be their best (something to be learned) and to suit the times they live in. Their self-esteem is fragile and they are pretty sensitive to criticism, attention, and dilemmas, for instance, within their families.
Students from different socioeconomic backgrounds behave differently as has been…
Barber, A. (1997. March). Rough language plagues schools, educators say. USA Today, pp 06D.
Committee for increasing high school students' engagement and motivation to learn. National Academies. Internet. http://www4.nas.edu/cp.nsf/Projects+_by+_PIN/BCYF-I-01-01-A?OpenDocument.Available on August 25, 2003.
Doyle, M. Failing to connect: Schools face increased pressure when students flunk classes. The Columbian, March 16, 2003, pp Front Page.
Educational reforms and students at risk: A review of the current state of the art. (1994. January). Internet. http://www.ed.gov/pubs/EdReformStudies/EdReforms/.Available on August 25, 2003.
School Choice Program
This study aimed to determine the impact of school choice through a comparative study of two private schools, which serve primarily, or exclusively African-American students, and a public school.
Data in student achievement in math and reading and data on student attendance were used to determine the impact of choosing a school. Qualitative data derived from interviews with administrators and faculty as well as classroom observation were used to provide additional insight regarding the intellectual climate of the two private schools and the public school.
The focus of this study was on mathematics and reading in middle school students in both public and private schools in Milwaukee, as well as the focus of reform in the state -- reading in Michigan, writing in Vermont and California. This approach enabled me to adequately address my research questions and prove or disprove my hypotheses.
To begin, I conducted structured…
Brown, Andrew (1995). Organizational Culture. London: Pitman Publishing.
Dianda, Marcella. Corwin, Ronald. (February 1993). What a Voucher Could Buy: A Survey of California's Private Schools. Far West Lab for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, California and Southwest Regional Lab Survey Results.
Fuller, Bruce. (1995). Who Gains, Who Loses from School Choice: A Research Summary. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED385928.
Greene, Jay. Peterson, Paul. Du, Jiangtao. (1997). Effectiveness of School Choice: The Milwaukee Experiment. Occasional Paper 97, Program in Education Policy and Governance Center for American Political Studies, Department of Government, Harvard University.
SCHOOL ADVISORY PROGRAMS: Annotated Bibliography
Van Ryzin, M. (2010). Secondary school advisors as mentors and secondary attachment figures. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(2), 131-154.
his study assessed if students in two tiny secondary schools would actually nominate their advisor as part of their attachment hierarchy. he forty percent which nominated their advisor to be a secondary figure of attachment testified even more involvement in school and showed better gains in terms of adjustment and achievement in than those that did not. In accordance to the author, this particular finding could help in the development and refining of new theories regarding the factors which contribute to the success of mentoring relationships, together with the processes that aid in the growth and development of these relationships.
Johnson, B. (2013.) Linchpins or lost time: Creating effective advisories. Horace, 25 (2-3)
his study tested the theory that secondary school advisories are somewhat insidious around…
This article investigates the effect of a universal social-emotional program of learning, the Fast Track PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) program and teacher consultation, incorporated within the Fast Track selective prevention model. Measures examined educator and peer reports of violence, hyperactive-disruptive conducts, as well as social skills. Starting in the first grade and all through three consecutive years, teachers acquired training and support, and incorporated the PATHS program in their classrooms. The study investigated the major impacts of intervention and ways in which the child's traits and the environment in the school influenced results. The study concluded that properly-implemented multiyear social-emotional programs of learning could actually have important preventive impacts on the population-level aggression rates, social competency, as well as academic involvement in the elementary school years.
10. Durlak, J.A., Weissberg, R.P., Dymnicki, A.B., Taylor, R.D. & Schellinger, K.B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students' social and emotional learning: a meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Dev. 82(1): 405-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01564.x.
This particular article presents results from a meta-analysis of 213 school-based, worldwide social and economic learning (SEL) programs entailing 270,034 kindergartens through high school learners. In comparison to controls, social and economic learning participants illustrated considerably better social and emotional skills, outlooks, manners, as well as academic performance which reflected an eleven percent point gain in success. School teaching personnel successfully carried out SEL programs. The utilization of four suggested practices for developing skills together with the presence of execution issues moderated the outcomes of the program. The findings of this study actually add to the growing experimental evidence-based outcome on the positive impact of social and emotional learning programs. Teachers, policy makers, and the general public are capable of contributing to healthy development of kids by encouraging the integration of evidence-based social and economic learning (SEL) programming into the standard educational practice.
Internet Privacy for High School Students
The unrestrained stream of information is conceived necessary for democracies and market-based economies. The capability of the Internet to make available the vast quantity of information to practically everyone, irrespective of their locations thus entails large benefits. The Internet provides access to the greatest libraries of the world to the students even in the smallest towns and permit the medical specialists to analyze the patients situated about thousands of miles away. The attribute of interactivity of the Internet fosters communication and personal and political expression. The Internet also assists to make the economies progress as it enhances the ease, speed and cost effectiveness with regard to the collection, compilation and delivery around the world to the multiple extent. The electronic commerce will decline the business costs as companies are able to take the benefits of enhanced access to customers, products and suppliers worldwide along…
Baskin, Joy Surratt; Surratt, Jim. "Student Privacy Rights and Wrongs on the Web" School Administrator. Vol: 35; No: 2; pp: 102, 114-116
Beth Givens, (February 2000) "Privacy Expectations in a High Tech World" Computer and High Technology Law Journal. Retrieved from http://www.privacyrights.org/ar/expect.htm Accessed on 14 April, 2005
'Board Policy with Guidelines Date Subject: Student Technology Acceptable Use Policy" (17 July, 2001) North Sanpete School District Policy. Number V-30. Retrieved from http://www.nsanpete.k12.ut.us/~nshs/nslibrary/accuse.html Accessed on 14 April, 2005
Brooks-Young, Susan. (November-December, 2000) "Internet usage update" Today's Catholic Teacher. Vol: 17: No: 2; pp: 53-56
Internet: Privacy for High School Students
An Analysis of Privacy Issues and High School Students in the United States Today
In the Age of Information, the issue of invasion of privacy continues to dominate the headlines. More and more people, it seems, are becoming victims of identity theft, one of the major forms of privacy invasion, and personal information on just about everyone in the world is available at the click of a mouse. In this environment, can anyone, especially high school students, reasonably expect to have any degree of privacy? High school students, after all, are not protected by many of the same constitutional guarantees as adults, but their needs for privacy may be as great, or greater, than their adult counterparts. To determine what measure of privacy, if any, high schools students can expect at home and school today, this paper provides an overview of the issue of…
Alarming Number of Teens Addicted to the Internet. (2001, February 1). Korea Times, 3.
Albanes, R., Armitay, O., Fischer, B., & Warner, J. (1998). Marijuana, Juveniles, and the Police: What High-School Students Believe about Detection and Enforcement.
Canadian Journal of Criminology, 40(4), 401-20.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Introduction to the Characteristics and Extent of Alcohol, Tobacco or Other Drug Use.
Addiction means physical dependence on a drug, with withdrawal symptoms when its use ceases, and in this sense, alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hashish, opiates and amphetamines are all addictive drugs. In addition, these drugs also cause psychological dependency since they enhance a person's sense of pleasure, sociability, sexuality and emotional satisfaction, and also mask pain, low self-esteem and anxiety (Wilson and Kolander, 2011, p. 6). Student surveys are "likely to underreport the overall level of substance use and abuse by young people," and since black and Hispanic students have higher dropout and absenteeism rates, this affects survey results as well (Mosher and Akins, 2007, p. 136). Hard drug users and addicts are also more likely to be homeless, which means that their true numbers are always unknown.
All studies and surveys confirm that marijuana…
Goldberg, R. (2010). Drugs across the Spectrum, 6th Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Maisto, S.A. et al. (eds). (2010). Drug Use and Abuse, 6th Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Mosher, C.M. And S. Akins. (2007). Drugs and Drug Policy: The Control of Consciousness Alteration. Sage Publications.
Wilson, R. And C.A. Kolander. (2011). Drug Abuse Prevention: A School and Community Partnership. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
As Kleiner & Movo*****z-Hadar show, the burden of proof lies with the mathematician eager to uncover some unknown universal law or theorem. His or her colleagues will, as the authors point out, be harangued and criticized because of a general resistance to new ways of thinking or profound revelations. Because of the difficulty in obtaining proof and subsequently communicating those proofs to the academic community, math remains one of the last bastions of reason in our society. Mathematics stimulates analysis and critical thinking, essential components of a good life. Philosophers use proofs too, such as to illustrate the existence or non-existence of God. Perhaps the most salient issue brought out by Kleiner & Movo*****z-Hadar in their article and the one most relevant to modern classrooms is their celebration of diversity of thought. While mathematics may occasionally manifest as speculation or even intuition, ultimately mathematicians demand proof: evidence, firmness, and rigorous…
Kleiner, Israel & Movo*****z-Hadar, Nitsa. "Proof: A Many-Splendored Thing." The Mathematical Intelligencer. 1997. 19(3).
Day Seven Class -- History: The only materials recommended are a copy of Howard Zinn's a People's History of the United States.
Day Eight -- Writing Day: No additional materials are recommended because participants already have pencils and notebooks for other classes.
Day Nine -- Reading Day: No additional materials are recommended because participants already have a copy of a book they have always wanted to read.
Day Ten -- Open Mind Day: No additional materials are recommended. Participants are encouraged to trade their books recommended for Days Six and Nine with other participants whose books they would never have chosen to read and would never have read otherwise.
The New York City Metropolitan Area has an extensive public transportation system. Subways travel from all four outer-boroughs into Manhattan and from other areas of Manhattan to the Union Square Area. Every subway station and bus stop maintains posted maps…
Utilization of the data and collection of the data should be one of the main aims of the policy makers. The data can be used by the policymakers in order to develop the policies and implement these in order to make sure that improvement can be ensured (Basch, 2011, p. 9).
3. One of the main roles that can be played by the policy makers includes reviewing the policies that have already been designed for the schools. How these previous policies have played roles in an improvement of academics of the children, their environments and their health are important parts of the review by the policymakers. It is important that funding is collected for the issues that affect health and academics of children.
4. The policymakers should make sure that the importance of school-based health clinics that can play roles in looking after the needs of the students.
Basch, C. (2011). Executive Summary: Healthier Students Are Better Learners. Journal of School Health 81, pp. 4-107.
Bruzzese, J., Sheares, B.J., Vincent, E.J., Du, Y., Sadeghi, H., Levison, M.J., Mellins, B.R., and Evans, D. (2011). Effects of a School-based Intervention for Urban Adolescents with Asthma: A Controlled Trial. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. April 15, 2011 183, pp. 998-1006.
Gall, G., Pagano, M.E., Desmond, S., Perrin, J.M., and Murphy, J.M. (2000). Utility of Psychosocial Screening at a School-based Health Center. Journal of School Health 70, pages 292 -- 298.
Geierstanger, P.S., Amaral, G., Mansour, M., and Walters, R.S. (2004). School-Based Health Centers and Academic Performance: Research, Challenges, and Recommendations. Journal of School Health 74, pages 347 -- 352.
Moal chaacte, that is, having couage, being pesistent, dismissing distactions and so on in pusuit of the goal.
These ae attempts to define ethics by descibing actions, and faily specific constellations of actions at that. Fedeich Paulson, a 19th centuy philosophe of ethics, defined ethics as a science of moal duty (1899).
Almost 100 yeas late, Swenson also used the concept of study in defining ethics, saying that it included the systematic study of concepts such as ight and wong. Othe eseaches note that the idea of systematic study is common in dictionay definitions of ethics, with the Ameican Heitage Dictionay focusing on thee elements: " the study of moal philosophy, the ules of a pofession (o moe boadly the chaacte of a community), and moal self-examination (Soukhanov, 1992).
Hill (2004) offes a 'definition' that is mainly pactical but also incopoates some theoetical content. They believe that ethical…
references for confidentiality of records. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 34, 62-67.
Welfel, E.R. (1992). Psychologist as ethics educator: Successes, failures, and unanswered questions. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 182-189.
Welfel, E.R. (1998). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Standards, research, and emerging issues. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Welfel, E.R. (2002). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Standards, research, and emerging issues (2nd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Schools and Education
Over the last several years, the field of education has been facing tremendous challenges. This is because of shifts in how they address a host of issues and there are changing demographics of students. These are all signs of broader social implications which are having an effect on individual performance and their ability to adapt with a variety of situations. (Rury, 2013)
Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Rury (2013) who said, "e live in a time of considerable social and political turmoil, marked by economic uncertainty that has directly touched the lives of millions of Americans. Deep divisions and critical problems, as a range of issues are debated fervently, extending from economic policy, to poverty and inequality. If there is anything everyone seems to agree upon it the growing importance of education for the future. ithout expanding our present knowledge and abilities, it…
Ballantine, Jeanne. 2012. Schools and Society. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Hendrix, L. (2013). Education and Society. (Educational Autobiography).
Morris, Edward. 2012. Learning the Hard Way. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Rury, John. 2013. Education and Social Change. New York: Routledge.
Every school board now offers school-to-work (STW) programs, which are designed to meet the needs of a large portion of today's students - those who are work-bound as soon as they graduate high school. Many of these programs allow students to enroll as apprentices and accumulate hours and experience towards a qualifying certificate in a specific profession while earning credits towards their high school graduation diploma, as well.
While advocates of such programs argue that they give additional relevance and meaning to the educational process as a whole and give students real opportunities to make connections between theory and actual practice, opponents believe that these types of programs are pervasive and prevent students from receiving a thorough and valuable education.
This paper supports the opposing viewpoint of school-to-work programs, arguing that education that concentrates on job training results in graduates who are less adaptable and less able to…
Brandeis University. (1992). Future options education: Careers and middle school youth. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University.
Cook, Mary. (June, 2001). Do School-to-work Programs Help or Hinder Education? Ingram's Education Edition.
Starr, Linda. (1998). STW Programs. Education World. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.education-world.com/a_admin/admin081.shtml.
The 21st Century Education Foundation, (2001). U.S. Department of Education. School to Work Initiative. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.buildbridges.net/businesses/schooltowork.htm.
There are, for example, many ways for a student to present an understanding of the causes of the U.S. Civil War" (1999, p. 35).
The research showed high stakes standardized testing approaches are becoming increasingly commonplace in the nation's schools, and the outcome of these testing regimens has enormous implications for the students involved, as well as for their teachers and schools. The research also showed that by formulating standards to match these standardized tests, teachers run the risk of "teaching to the test" rather than providing their students with the type of education that is needed in the 21st century. While they are more complex and difficult to administer, the research also showed that portfolios and other assessment techniques such as capstone projects provide a more comprehensive and accurate way to determine how well students are learning and where they may need help.
Blasi, M. (2005). Standardized…
Blasi, M. (2005). Standardized tests: A teacher's perspective. Childhood Education, 81(4), 242-
Garcia, N. & Fleming, J. (1999). Are standardized tests fair to African-Americans? Journal of Higher Education, 69(5), 471-472.
Neill, D.M. (1999). Transforming student assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 78(1), 34-35.
Sacks, P. (2000). Standardized minds: The high price of America's testing culture and what we can do to change it. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.
School Legal Entanglement Plan
This Legal Entanglement Plan seeks to examine the policies, programs, strategies, and practices of a particular school with respect to its moral, legal, and ethical implications. The plan is developed based on a three-step process that will help in addressing the issue that could potentially become a liability or legal entanglement if left unaddressed. The plan will help in addressing the issue since it will be communicated to appropriate stakeholders.
Step 1 – Analysis
Moral and Legal Issues in School Strategies
One of the moral, ethical or legal issue facing Carson Elementary School in West Price and could escalate into a legal entanglement is school bullying, which poses significant threats on the welfare and well-being of students. Bullying is a broad concept that involves intentional aggression, power imbalance between the perpetrator and victim, and repetitive aggressive behavior (Cornell & Limber, 2015). Carson Elementary School recognizes that…
And when the parent comes to an event held in the classroom, it makes good sense to have interpreters available, and "invite the extended family," which of course is a very welcoming act of kindness and good judgment. The other parent in this list of "types" is the "Busy Parent," who is a person with a work schedule that is hard to get a hold of, or plan meetings for. Get the cell phone number of parents like this, and the email addresses, and "continue to send home their children's work on a regular basis, including writing samples, artwork, and test copies" - and even consider taking digital photos of class activities and attaching those pictures to emails that go to parents.
On a more serious note, the literature on school administration duties as far as training staff to be parent-active and family-friendly offers an article called "here's the Ministry…
Beaudoin, Nelson. (2006). Giving Stakeholders a Voice. Educational Leadership, 63(8), 74-75.
Flannery, Mary Ellen. (2005). A field guide to parents: famed for its vast appetite for information
And ability to protect its offspring, the parent genus has nonetheless eluded scientific study.
Until now. NEA Today, 24(2), 36-38.
Prestigious Leadership Program School
Every individual is influenced by core values that enable him or her to successfully extract meaning and significance from life. A number of my own specific achievements are directly related to attributes I have cultivated in response to the values that are important to me. These attributes are the defining points of my character and have consistently influenced my approach to and success in dealing with life itself. By nature I am analytical, disciplined and responsible, and these strengths have consistently allowed me to overcome obstacles and achieve my goals.
My ability to utilize logic and reason to analyze situations has played a significant part in my academic achievement, and allowed me to succeed in subjects in which others might necessarily not. I have always had the propensity to search for causes in relationship to determine the effects they produce. More importantly, I learned at a…
Realty therapy, which was developed by psychiatrist illiam Glasser during the 1960's, requires those working with a student with emotional disturbance to develop a positive, friendly relationship, especially with those particular students who do not want such a relationship (ong 2004). Realty therapy differs from other psychological models because it urges everyone who works with the student to enter into a counseling relationship with them, not simply the psychologist (ong 2004).
Research on the use of reality therapy for students with emotional disturbance has demonstrated a positive effect on student behavior. According to Glasser, "Counseling is just one human being helping another with a problem. This is not hard to do, if the person with the problem wants to be counseled" (ong 2004). However, students with emotional disturbance may be defensive and resistant to counseling, thus the school psychologist's job is to motivate them to participate in counseling and to…
Harris, Karen M. (2002, June 22). A school, family, and community collaborative program for children who have emotional disturbances. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Retrieved November 11, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Nelson, Ron J. (2003, September 01). Status of and trends in academic intervention research for students with emotional disturbance. Remedial and Special Education. Retrieved November 11, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Sabornie, Edward J. (2004, September 22). Characteristics of emotional disturbance in middle and high school students. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Retrieved November 11, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Sugai, George. (2000, September 22). A Self-Management Functional Assessment-
According to the available literature, if at-risk students don't receive the academic support they need while in middle school, the chances are very good that they will drop out by the time they are in high school. hile the high school dropout rate has gone down in recent years, it is still far too high, which indicates that at-risk students (in middle school and high school) are not receiving the special academic help they may need to finish their basic education.
This paper reviews a program that was put into place in the Arkansas Delta, involving 53 at-risk middle school students. The intervention with these students was designed to get them interested in business and in entrepreneurship, according to the authors. The success of this intervention is seen as a potentially positive tool for use in other schools, because when young people from low-income families, who are considered…
Bevill, Sandra Hrabovsky, and Glasgow, Susan. (2009). Motivating At-Risk Students in the Arkansas Delta: An Entrepreneurship Simulation. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education,
Vol. 12, 35-42.
Bridgeland, John M., Dilulio, John J., and Morison, Karen Burke. (2006). The Silent Epidemic:
Perspectives of High School Dropouts. A Report by Civic Enterprises & the Peter D.
Food Served in Public Schools
he school nutrition environment, consisting of school meals and competitive meals, has actually properly gotten terrific attention due to the fact that kids eat, usually, one-third of their everyday calorie consumption at school (Briefel et al., 2009).
Improving the dietary consumption of our country's kids is of crucial value given that one-third of school-age kids are obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Paper's Scope and significant areas:.
his research will clarify Kid Nutrition Reauthorization from FRAC. he research addresses school meal quality and gain access to (Hartline-Grafton, 2010). Moreover, the present research concentrates on competitive meals, which are extensively readily available in schools, mostly exempt from federal nutrition criteria, and have an unfavourable influence on the wellness and health of all pupils, particularly pupils from low-income households.
he semi-structured type of interview is utilized in the research in addition to the standardized…
Terry-McElrath, Y.M., O'Malley, P.M., Delva, J., & Johnston, L.D. (2009). The school food environment and student body mass index and food consumption: 2004 to 2007 national data. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45(3 Supplement), S45-S56.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and U.S. Department of Education. (2005). Making It Happen! School Nutrition Success Stories. FNS-374. Available at: http://www.fns.usda.gov/TN/Resources/makingithappen.html . Accessed April 20, 2013.
Wharton, C.M., Long, M., & Schwartz, M.B. (2008). Changing nutrition standards in schools: the emerging impact on school revenue. Journal of School Health, 78(5), 245-251.
assist students with literacy difficulties. The studies all used the academic classroom as the center of education and tested different learning methods.
Factors that influence the book selection process of students with special needs" is a study to learn how students with special needs react to choosing their own reading material. The results show that these children use a similar process as that of other students. The students with special needs do use more factors then typical children but it is clear that they want to read the same stories as typical children.
Many studies have concluded that choice is a necessary motivator to children and has a positive impact on their education. The most natural forum for self-selection is learning to read. Every child has different interests, unique needs and backgrounds and therefore tends to choose different books to read. There are different factors that affect children's book selection.…
Factors That Influence The Book Selection Process of Students With Special Needs" by Swartz and Hendricks.
Journal of Adolescents Adult Literacy 43:7 April 2000 pages 608-617
Writing Instruction For Struggling Adolescent Readers: A Gradual Release Model" by Fisher and Frey.
Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 46:5 February 2003 pages 396-404
Expectations of Advisory Program
Foundation supporting this study design
Explain How Statement Meets the Criteria
Greenlee, B. J. (2010). School advisory council demography: Birds of a feather. Planning and changing, 41(1/2), 3-17
Adolescence is believed to be a stage in which people form their identity as well as develop the skills required for one to be academically successful. Benson &Poliner (2013) state that the failure of schools in involving most students due to their failure to meet 4 fundamental students needs: to love and belong, to enjoy themselves, have freedom and gain power. Thus, advisory programs are important for ensuring every student has a close relationship with a trustworthy adult that they can run to when they are having personal and academic issues (Knowles & Brown, 2000). This research is about advisory programs, how they enhance and analyze the association with academic improvement as well as the positive…
Arnold, J. (1991). The revolution in middle school organization.Momentum, 22(2), 20-25.
Barker, H. B., Basile, C. G., & Olson, F. J. (2005). Teachers as advisors: Fostering active citizens in schools. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 41(4), 167-171.
Beane, J., &Lipka, R. (1987).When kids come first: Enhancing self-esteem. Columbus, OH: National Middle School Association.
Benson, J., &Poliner, R. E. (2013).Designing advisories.Educational Leardership, 50-55. Retrieved from http://www.educationalleadership
Vocabulary Acquisition in ESOL Students
English as foreign/second language (EFL/ESL) classrooms widely neglected the area of vocabulary, until lately. Grammar lessons are founded on a collection of rules having coherent structure, expected to be remembered or followed by students. However, the same doesn't hold true when it comes to vocabulary (Jeff, 2010). In the past few years, this area of English learning has gained importance as a necessary component to be learned by ESL students. It is believed by many to be just as crucial as reading, speaking, writing, and listening (Jeff, 2010). Work of different researchers state that knowledge of vocabulary aids language use, which in turn helps expand vocabulary knowledge, while knowledge about the world leads to increased language use and vocabulary knowledge (p. 6). The above contextualized outlook towards vocabulary learning will aid students in expanding their vocabulary by means of authentic communication (Jeff, 2010).
Adel M. Alharbi. (2015). Building Vocabulary for Language Learning: Approach for ESL Learners to Study New Vocabulary. Journal of International Students. ISSN: 2162-3104 Print / ISSN: 2166-3750 Online Volume 5, Issue 4, pp. 501-511
August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. (1992). Myths and misconceptions about second language learning. ERIC Digest. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved May 22, 2007, from http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2/content_storage_01/0000000b/80/2a/1d/2b.pdf
Francis, D. J., Rivera, M., Lesaux, N., Keiffer, M., & Rivera, H. (2006). Practical guidelines for the education of English language learners: Research-based recommendations for instruction and academic interventions. Portsmouth, NH: Center on Instruction. Retrieved February 21, 2007, from http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/ELL1 - Interventions.pdf
This would help a victim open up to the teacher and thus seek help. School is an important period in a child's life and should be free of stress. It is the responsibility of school authorities to ensure child' safety. In the schools, where bullying incidents are non-existent have some active form of intervention in place. Bullying is a more serious problem in public schools compared to private school mainly due to the quality of education, teacher training and level of accountability. Higher level of accountability can result in fewer cases of bullying in public schools too. Concerted effort is required to reduce prevalence of bullying in schools across the country.
Atlas, .S., & Pepler, D.J. (1998). Observations of bullying in the classroom. Journal of Educational esearch, 92(2), 86-99.
Espelage, D.L., Bosworth, K., & Simon, T.. (2000). Examining the social context of bullying behaviors in early adolescence. Journal of…
Atlas, R.S., & Pepler, D.J. (1998). Observations of bullying in the classroom. Journal of Educational Research, 92(2), 86-99.
Espelage, D.L., Bosworth, K., & Simon, T.R. (2000). Examining the social context of bullying behaviors in early adolescence. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78, 326-333.
Hoover, J.H., Oliver, R., & Hazier, R.J. (1992). Bullying: Perceptions of adolescent victims in the Midwestern USA. School Psychology International, 13, 5-16.
Horne, a.M., & Newman-Carlson, D. (2004). Bully Busters: A Psycho-educational Intervention for Reducing Bullying Behavior in Middle School Students. Journal of Counseling and Development. Volume: 82. Issue: 3.
Program Attendance Policy Proposal and Analysis
As we are nearing the end of the third school year of the P.A.S.S. program it is beneficial to evaluate the standards and practices which have been set forth through the past three years and determine the efficacy of them. In accordance with the Pennsylvania Standards for Elementary and secondary education school principals (January 2001), data driven assessment of the policies is due. The need for implementation of best practices, be they new or accepted older models is especially great given the proven success of the P.A.S.S. program which has resulted in the proposal for expansion of enrolment and services to meet a greater demand within the local district.
The establishment of best practices for the future is the goal of the current assessment. Since its inception the P.A.S.S. program has used a program completion option strategy with at-risk students attending classes at Howell…
ERIC Raising School Attendance. Education Digest, Feb2002, 67.6, pgs.54-57.
ERIC Urban Policies and Programs To Reduce Truancy. ERIC/CUE Digest 129.
ERIC Jay DeKalb Student Truancy. ERIC/CUE Digest 125.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management and Linn-Benton Education Service
0. Literature review on Differentiation and engagement in computer science classrooms
Computer science offers educators aiming towards differentiated teaching within the secondary schoolroom setting a distinctive series of challenges. In particular, coding may prove to be a rigorous, exacting field that calls for a demonstration of organization and precision on the part of students before they can effectively create even the simplest programs. Computer science classes will probably witness learners utterly unfamiliar with coding and fluent pupils, in addition to those who cannot even type or need other personalized academic plans (Gregory and Chapman 2012; Shah et al. 2014). Thus, how will an educator teach a particular topic in computer science to such a diversity of learners, providing additional help to certain learners and more challenging activities to others while ensuring all learners’ engagement and motivation for smooth movement together in one single class?
This discussion assumes differentiation forms the basis…
Baumgartner, T., Lipowski, M.B. and Rush, C., 2003. Increasing Reading Achievement of Primary and Middle School Students through Differentiated Instruction.
Benjamin, A. (2002). Differentiated instruction: a guide for middle and high school teachers. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.
Capel, S. and Blair, R., 2013. Why do physical education teachers adopt a particular way of teaching. Debates in physical education, pp.120-139.
Delisle, J.R., 2015. Differentiation doesn’t work. Education Week, 34(15), pp.28-36.
Gregory, G.H. and Chapman, C., 2012. Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn?t Fit All. Corwin Press.
Gustiani, S., 2019. Challenges and Strategies in Teaching English to Heterogeneous Classes: A Case Study. Edukasi: Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pengajaran, 6(2), pp.301-310.
Heacox, D. 2002. Differentiating instruction in the regular classroom: how to reach and teach all learners. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing.
Hess, K., 2006. Exploring cognitive demand in instruction and assessment. National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment, Dover NH. Retrieved from http://qualityassessment.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/45823115/DOK_ApplyingWebb_KH08.pdf .
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation in Schools
"Do students Care About Learning?"
"What Engages Underachieving Middle School Students in Learning?"
"Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation in Schools: A Reconciliation"
In "Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation in Schools: A Reconciliation," Martin V. Covington argues that both approaches can be effective if done well, and do not necessarily have to be incompatible. In his evaluation of the literature, he found that other factors, such as how interested the student is in the work, how successful they feel, affect student effort. He also found that the extrinsic reward of a good grade increased intrinsic motivation. He recommended a grading practice that compared each student's performance to a set standard, rather than grading on a curve, can increase intrinsic motivation.
In "Do students Care About Learning?" Marge Scherer interviewed author Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi regarding his book about youth and the world of work. The participants reported eight times…
The students will test you during these first few days. Without steadfast rules and well outlined disciplinary procedures, the students will not respect you.
In order to create a positive atmosphere of expectations, procedures and routines, it is also important to clearly outline to the class what is expected of them. However, in order to empower the classroom students, one beneficial strategy is to allow the students to help develop the classroom rules, procedures and expectations. y bringing the group together and making the classroom environment one in which they assisted in creating, the students will be more likely to both respect it and work with it.
Although there are numerous steps a teacher must take to create a successful learning environment in a full-inclusion classroom, taking firm and clear actions the first days of school are the most important. The purpose is to let the students know what the…
Gore, M.C. (2003): Successful Inclusion Strategies for Secondary and Middle School Teachers: Keys to Help Struggling Learners Access the Curriculum. SAGE Publications.
Hardmand, Michael L. (2007): Human Exceptionality: School, Community and Family. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Male, Mary. (2002): Technology for Inclusion: Meeting the Special Needs of All Students. Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Nowicki, Stephen and Marshall P. Duke. (1992): Helping the Child Who Doesn't Fit in. Peachtree Publishers.
"Failure of any district to budget funds to meet statutory requirements is a very serious matter and will result in the executive county superintendent rejection of the budget. The district will be advised of any lack of budget approval with specific recommendations on necessary corrective revisions." (New Jersey Department of Education 2013, P 14).
3. Key Budget Terminology
There are numerous terminologies with regard to the school district budget. The most important budget terminologies are
The revenue is the money received by the school district within an accounting year. A fund is part of the revenue and there are four sources of revenue for the school district and this include:
Intermediate source, state, and Federal sources.
Expenditures are the expenses that the school district must fulfill within an accounting year. Part of the school district expenditures are the payment of teachers' salary, and travel expenses for…
Ernest & Young (2012).U.S. GAAP vs. IFRS the basics. Ernst&Young LLP.
State of New Jersey (2008).The Uniform Minimum Chart of Accounts for New Jersey Public Schools. Department of Education, Division of Finance.
New Jersey Department of Education (2013).Budget Guidelines Fiscal Year 2013-2014.Office of School Finance.
The author of the article, "Achieving the Challenge: Meeting Standards in the Continuation High School" (Stits, 2001) related that "prior to 1983, many continuation high schools existed in districts where expectations were limited to keeping the students in school as much as possible," and also the ideas was to keep those continuation students "away from the traditional high school campus." The implication was clear: there was a stigma that students in continuation school were bad seeds, and the idea was to keep them away from the mainstream lest they have a negative effect on the "good students" in the regular high school.
But eventually, the image of continuations schools in California changed, as communities more and more were trying to prevent school dropouts, and the need for a high school diploma became more important, as well, Stits writes.
HO DO CONTINUATION SCHOOLS OPERATE?
In an article in the journal Thrust…
Arlington Public Schools. (2005). Alternative Education: Purpose, Mission, Beliefs. Retrieved Nov. 10, 2007, at http://www.apsva.us/hsc .
Community College Week. (2004). R.I. Plan Would Help at-risk Students.
Hardy, Lawrence. (2007). Children at Risk: Graduation Day. American School Board Journal,
No. 37907. Retrieved Nov. 11, 2007, at http://www.asbj.com .
This is discussed at length by Fusick and ordeau (2004) "...school-based counselors need to be aware of the disturbing inequities that exist in predominantly Afro-American urban school districts, where nearly 40% of Afro-American students attend school in the United States" (Fusick and ordeau, 2004) This again places emphasis on the need for mental health programs in these areas of concern. This is also related to findings from a study by McDavis et al. (1995) Counseling African-Americans, which refers to research that stresses the "...widening achievement gap between Afro-American and Euro-American students." (McDavis, et al. 1995)
An important study Laura a. Nabors, Evaluation of Outcomes for Adolescents Receiving School-ased Mental Health Services (2002) refers to the particular issue and problems experience at inner-city schools. The author states that, "School mental health (SMH) programs are an important setting for providing mental health services to adolescents, especially urban youth who typically face in-…
Smith, P.B., Buzi, R.S., & Weinman, M.L. (2001). Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic. Adolescence, 36(142), 323. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database:
Several areas, if poorly designed, can lead to violent and criminal behavior, including parking lots, isolated spots on campus, locker rooms, and corridors. Often, violent behavior occurs in these areas when adults are not present (Astor, Meyer, and Behre, 1999, p. 3). Designing schools with more open areas, more planned classrooms, and a more defined perimeter can create a safer, less violent campus by creating a more functional and enjoyable educational experience. Thus, older, poorly designed schools often attract more violent behavior.
Location can also be a risk factor in certain schools, although that is not always the case. Another researcher notes, "Some urban schools are located [...] in slum neighborhoods where drug sellers routinely kill one another, as well as innocent bystanders, on the streets surrounding the school" (Toby, 1994, p.169). Children growing up in violence prone neighborhoods such as these may simply accept violence as a way of…
Astor, R.A. Meyer, H.A. And Behre, W.J. (1999). Unowned places and times: Maps and interviews about violence in high schools. American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 36, No. 1, 3-42.
Crowe, T.D. (1990). Designing safer schools. School Safety. 43-47.
Jenkins, P.H.(1997). School delinquency and the school social bond. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 34 No. 3, 337-367.
May, D.C. (September 1999). Scared kids, unattached kids, or peer pressure: Why do students carry firearms to school? Youth & Society, Vol. 31 No. 1, 100-127.
eluctance of Parents to Visit the School
ole of Parents in Children's Education
Education has always been a very important part of human existence and has been an inseparable part of human civilization. There has been a lot of development on the education portal and mankind has learned great deal from the education function (Jeynes, 2005). Every milestone which is achieved and every development which is made in any direction is due to the knowledge provided through education. This function has been researched and is very much detailed in terms of style and method. Several researchers and experts have proposed and devised methods which can make education and knowledge imparting more effective and efficient (Hill & Tyson, 2009). Talking about a student at elementary level, it is all the more important to understand the needs of such young individuals and analyze the education function accordingly (Tschannen-Moran and Hoy, 2007). This…
Jeynes, W.H. (2005).A metaanalysis of the relation of parental involvement to urban elementary school student academic achievement. Urban Education. 40(3), 237-269.
Stewart, E.B. (2008). School structural characteristics, student effort, peer associations, and parental involvement: The influence of school and individual level factors on academic achievement. Education and Urban Society, 40(2), 179-204.
Hill, N.E. & Tyson, D.F. (2009). Parental involvement in middle school: a met analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Developmental Psychology, 49(3), 740-763.
Hill, N., and Taylor, L. (2004). Parental school involvement and children's academic achievement: Pragmatics and issues. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(4) 161-164.
student motivation in the learning environment and what motivates students to study. The evaluation begins with a theoretical background on the issue of student motivation based on existing literature and studies on the issue. This is followed by a literature review of 10 studies that have been carried out on the student motivation in various classroom settings and learning environments. Through this review the author has identified various factors that motivate students to study including creation of a supportive learning environment, use of suitable teaching practices, and use of multi-level strategies. The article also includes a discussion regarding the significance of student motivation in the learning process.
One of the most important goals of an educational environment is to motivate students toward environmentally friendly behavior change. The need for student motivation in the high school setting is attributed to the fact that motivation creates positive experience, which helps in improving…
Daniels, E. (2011, November). Creating Motivating Learning Environments: Teachers Matter.
Middle School Journal, 32-37.
Darner, R. (2012, August). An Empirical Test of Self-determination Theory As A Guide to Fostering Environmental Motivation. Environmental Education Research 18(4), 463-472.
Hardre, P.L. (2012). Standing in the Gap: Research that Informs Strategies for Motivating and Retaining Rural High School Students. Rural Educator, 12-18.
The study used student projects as the main vehicle for integrating active learning methods into the lecture. The study took place during a 10-week class, with four projects being assigned to groups of size four to six. Projects centered on (1) statistical tests of goodness-of-fit; (2) design of a simple experiment and analysis of variance using two factors; (3) factorial design experiment and analysis; and (4) regression analysis. In each project, there was emphasis placed on the purposefulness of the experiment, the design, and the ensuing collection of data. Each project lasted about two weeks, including around 90 minutes of in-class work used for project instruction, questions, and discussion. A primary weakness of the research was insufficient time in which to conduct classroom presentations by the students themselves concerning their projects and the learning processes that took place.
Extent to Which Findings Can Be Generalized to Student Population. While the…
Heron, Alison H. (2003). A Study of Agency: Multiple Constructions of Choice and Decision
Making in an Inquiry-Based Summer School Program for Struggling Readers. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46(7), 568.
Kvam, P.H. (2000). The Effect of Active Learning Methods on Student Retention in Engineering Statistics. The American Statistician, 54(2), 136.
Lewis, V.K. & Shaha, S.H. (Spring 2003). Maximizing learning and attitudinal gains through integrated curricula. Education, 123(3), 537.
Teaching at the university level and at the grade school level can be vastly different. Institutional differences account for the largest part of the disparities between these ostensibly similar careers, but methodological differences also exist. Teaching is considered the primary focus of the grade school teacher's career, whereas university professors are often academic scholars rather than educators and teaching for such people is far less important than academic research.
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, one in four Americans are enrolled in educational institutions. Education is the largest industry in the country, accounting for nearly 12 million jobs. Most of these people teach at the grade school level. Teaching is considered a trade rather than a profession: teachers are usually unionized. Teaching positions constitute almost half of all educational services jobs and require at least a bachelor's degree. Most school districts give their employees incentives to pursue further education;…
Howard Gardner; Reflections on multiple intelligences: myths and messages. Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 77, 1995 help students delve more deeply into subjects introduced in elementary school. Middle and secondary school teachers specialize in a specific academic subject, such as English, mathematics, or history, or a vocational area, such as automobile mechanics, business education, or computer repair. Some supervise extracurricular activities after school and help students deal with academic problems and choose courses, colleges, and careers.
Special education teachers work with students - from toddlers to those in their early 20s - who have a variety of learning and physical disabilities. Most special education teachers are found at the elementary school level. Using the general education curriculum, special education teachers modify instruction to meet a student's special needs. They also help special education students develop emotionally, be comfortable in social situations, and be aware of socially acceptable behavior.
Postsecondary teachers, or faculty as they are usually called, generally are organized into departments or divisions, based on subject or field. They teach and advise college students and perform a significant part of our Nation's research. They also consult with government, business, nonprofit, and community organizations. They prepare lectures, exercises, and laboratory experiments; grade exams and papers; and advise and work with students individually. Postsecondary teachers keep abreast of developments in their field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues and businesses, and participating in professional conferences. They also do their own research to expand knowledge in their field, often publishing their findings in scholarly journals, books, and electronic media..