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hile careful not to sound tolerant of sex crimes or harassment, critics declare that placing young men and women together during the first weeks of training, and particularly placing seemingly all-powerful male drill sergeants in charge of young female recruits, is simply a recipe for trouble (Berg pp).
Elaine Donnelly, president of the Center for Military Readiness, a policy institute that studies defense issues, states, "Sexuality is a powerful force that doesn't always respond to commands and rules," and believes that the Army has put its young men and women into emotionally combustible situation, and that a policy of zero tolerance is unrealistic (Berg pp). Donnelly suggests that the broader issue is about human nature, "e have to live life as it is, not as we imagine it to be. The feminist philosophy that men and women are interchangeable in all roles is a risky idea in the military" (Berg…
Berg, Steve. "Military's move to mix sexes gets mixed results; Sex scandals raise questions about coed training, gender equity and the mission of the armed services." Star Tribune. 11/24/1996.
De Pasquale, Lisa. "Sacrificing Safety and Military Readiness in the Name of Safety" August 17, 1999. Clare Boothe Luce Policy Institute. http://www.cblpolicyinstitute.org/coed.htm
Hart, Betsy. "COED TRAINING STAYS EVEN if ITS BAD IDEA."
Denver Rocky Mountain News. 3/20/1998.
Off-Duty Education, as mentioned above, includes broader, more academic subjects. oldiers can for example be exposed to courses on political science, which is of great importance in today's environment. Arts such as languages in countries where soldiers are expected to travel can also form an important part of such a curriculum. Other relevant subjects could include electronic engineering and other technical skills.
Because of the changing social and political environment, many have held that Professional and Off-Duty Military Education should be integrated and streamlined, and that the current education system is no longer adequate to need the future needs of the Defense Force.
Carafano, James Jay & Kochems, Alane. Rethinking Professional Military Education. The Heritage Foundation, July 28, 2005. http://www.heritage.org/Research/Nationalecurity/em976.cfm
Klinger, Janeen. Academics and Professional Military Education. Academic Exchange Quarterly, ummer 2004. http://rapidintellect.com/AEQweb/mo2567l4.htm
Carafano, James Jay & Kochems, Alane. Rethinking Professional Military Education. The Heritage Foundation, July 28, 2005. http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/em976.cfm
Klinger, Janeen. Academics and Professional Military Education. Academic Exchange Quarterly, Summer 2004. http://rapidintellect.com/AEQweb/mo2567l4.htm
He goes on to insist that "professional military education alone is not sufficient" to develop a real NCO leader. The ability to make decisions in a split second, the ability to make the best use of technologies, and the ability to train others, to be able to evaluate the men around you -- these are the components of leadership that Maxwell emphasizes. I like the fact that Maxwell emphasizes versatility, creativity and good coordination skills for the NCO, because today's Army is isn't just about giving orders and expecting everything and every soldier to follow without question. It's about leadership, and yes a civilian education is important, and military training is pivotal to success; but, Maxwell concludes, the NCO must also be able to "apply new, innovative techniques to lead and influence soldiers." That includes encouraging those in the NCO's unit to use the Internet, to engage in distance education,…
Crozier, David. (2009). Leadership / Ethics / The Larger Moral Issues. Fort Bliss, Texas
Reading M. 1 Leadership
Leadership Assessment and Development. Reading A: FM 6-22.
Maxwell, Frederick J. (2009). Preparing the NCO Corps for the 21st century. American Civil-Military Relations Reading C161RE.
Likewise, according to Anderson (2004), "War, if good for anything, is great for business. It means more than just the production of weapons and equipment -- sometimes faulty and overpriced. It promises billions in government revenues for increasingly privatized military training, recruiting, laundry and even KP services" (p. 155). These privatized military services all provided courtesy of the friendly folks at Kellogg, Brown & oot - and all at a hefty profit, of course. To be fair, though, the vice president is not the only one involved in this unholy conspiracy to bilk the American taxpayer while bleeding the armed forces dry. In this regard, Achcar (2004) emphasizes that the president is also implicated by virtue of his close ties with the oil and gas industry and the enormous political contributions they have provided to support his administration's prosecution of the war in Iraq. "Besides his own personal and family…
Achcar, G. (2004, February). U.S. imperial strategy in the Middle East. Monthly Review, 55(9), 23.
Anderson, R. (2004). Home front: The government's war on soldiers. Atlanta: Clarity Press.
Cobe, C. (2004, July 4). Fence post. Daily Herald, 17.
Goodman, a., & Goodman, D. (2004). The exception to the rulers: Exposing America's war profiteers, the media that love them and the crackdown on our rights. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Military personnel must achieve and maintain the best physical conditioning of they are reasonably able to reach for the duration of their enlistment as a fundamental obligation of being fit for duty. Smoking makes that impossible. Likewise, the American taxpayer has a justifiable interest in reducing the costs of fielding a military by eliminating unnecessary costs. Smoking invariably adds to the already substantial costs of providing medical care to armed services personnel, both during their active service as well as throughout their lives afterwards to the extent they rely on veteran's services for medical care.
Military personnel already understand that the privilege and benefits associated with military service entail various restrictions on rights enjoyed by civilians. In this case, military justice must catch up to the manner in which civilian society has already incorporated the understanding of the risks of smoking into American life.
Dershowitz, Alan. (2002). Shouting Fire:…
Dershowitz, Alan. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
O'Neill, Xana and Lite, Jordan. "Real Estate Companies Making it Tougher for Smokers
in Their Homes" The New York Daily News, March 30, 2008. Retrieved February
military readiness intrinsically declines the longer a military encounter is prolonged due to the wear and tear exacted by war. As such, it is important to gauge a country's level of military preparedness at the outset of any martial encounter to truly assess its readiness for protracted combat situations. There are a number of sources that attest to the fact that at the end of the 20th century, the United States' military preparedness -- which would soon be tested in the new millennium by a number of martial engagements, the most eminent of which include Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, were insufficient. A thorough examination of the results of the former operation (which is still ongoing) and certain key factors relating to military size, personnel availability and training, equipment, and most saliently funding, as compared to those near the end of the 20th century in Operation Desert Storm…
Kaufmann, W. (1994). "Hollow forces': Current issues of U.S. military readiness and effectiveness." The Brookings Institution. 12 (4): 24-29.
Kreisher, O. (2013). "U.S. military funding cuts are eroding readiness to a level that may be difficult to overcome." Naval Forces. 34 (3): 4. Retrieved from Paige, S. (2001). "Under siege one reason our military's readiness is down: We won't let them train." American Enterprise. 12 (7). Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/detail?sid=3ccf5fe4-0b95-48eb-90aa-de33c85a6438%40sessionmgr111&vid=2&hid=101&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=5151435
Ray, D. (2000). "Is the U.S. military prepared to fight?" Insight on the News. 16 (41): 18. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/detail?sid=c1e995c8-da05-4b40-bcc4-1f5c7bb02e7c%40sessionmgr114&vid=1&hid=101&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=bwh&AN=3740770
Spencer, J. (2000). "The facts about military readiness." www.heritage.org. Retrieved from http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2000/09/bg1394-the-facts-about-military-readiness
military imparts in an individual many important qualities that they carry out into the real world. These qualities are leadership, versatility, character, among others. The military is an excellent place to learn, to grow, and to better one's self. Many people have had long and successful careers that they earned only through being in the military. It teaches a person the importance of hard work, communication, and bravery.
The military allows for transition into a multitude of careers, especially career in the government. And in sectors where leadership skills are rare and sought after, the military prepares one to establish a secure foothold in these areas. Non-for-profits, volunteer organizations, and businesses all require strong and fearless leaders with clear direction and focus. The military offers exactly what a person needs early on to achieve anything they set out for. Six sections will be examined to show just how military lessons…
Ambrose, S.E. (1983). Eisenhower. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Burns, J.M., & Dunn, S. (2004). George Washington. New York: Times Books.
Cunningham, J.B., & Lischeron, J. (1991). Defining Entrepreneurship. Journal of Small Business Management, 29(1), 45. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8691.1993.tb00073.x
Gowel, D. (2012, March 1). 5 reasons the military is the best training for entrepreneurs | SmartBlogs [Web blog post]. Retrieved from https://smartblogs.com/leadership/2012/03/01/5-reasons-the-military-is-the-best-training-for-entrepreneurs/
In those days prior to 2003, TADOC gave recruits nut-and-bolt basics, then sent the new Soldiers to their units where the real training started....nTo achieve "Soldier" status, recruits now spend 21 days in the field during basic training. The training focus has changed dramatically from what was primarily a standards, discipline and soldierization process to one of intensive combat skills. (Leipold, 2009)nHowever, such changes have tended to come about without any sort controlled, rigorous study. There is nothing wrong about changes that come from within and that grow organically out of the requirements of an organization. However, a controlled experiment offers certain key advantages because it can cast off old attitudes and biases.nI have already described the control group in this experiment. The three experimental groups add different elements to the equation. The first of these experimental groups is actually one that I predict will reduce the overall fitness of…
References\nEvans, M. (2005). Women pay painful price for equal military training. The Times, retrieved 9 February 2010 from http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article434024.ece .\nhttp://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100121052640AAZ1xPL \nhttp://www.military.com/military-fitness/fitness-test-prep/physical-fitness-test-anxiety \nLeipold, J. (2009). Not your father\'s basic, anymore, retrieved 8 February 2010 from \nhttp://usmilitary.about.com/od/armyjoin/a/newarmybasic.-u5p.htm.\nO\'Reilly, K. (1981). Dick and Jane in basic training. Newsweek. \nhttp://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,953209-\n2,00.html#ixzz0fYEyTybe \nRichards, T. (n.d.) What is comprehensive cognitive-behavioral therapy? \nRetrieved 10 \nFebruary 2010 from \nhttp://www.socialanxietyinstitute.org/ccbtherapy.html.\nSegura, L. (2009). Veterans Decry Institutional Sexism in Military, retrieved 11 February 2010 \nfrom http://www.alternet.org/reproductivejustice/79877/ .
military experience relates to HR concepts
Most of the organizations that adopt a classic approach in their management tend to follow a comprehensible, coherent, planned and premeditated strategy in their running. This is the case of a Military camp. Most of the lessons and trainings involved illustrate a close link with Human Resource concepts. This is in terms of employment skills, leadership qualities and the connection between power and politics. Having worked in a military camp for a couple of years, I can strongly link my military experience with the Hr concepts. In terms of Leadership and followership, the military has played a larger role in improving my leadership skills, since; currently I have confidence in making crucial decisions and offering potential solutions (Armstrong, 2008, P.11)
Furthermore, through motivation and engagement, I experience a new personality in my career path and I am capable of improving my relation with others…
Billsberry, J. (Ed.) (2008) Discovering Leadership. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Boxall, P. & Purcell, J. (2011) Strategy and Human Resource Management (3rd ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Jackson, B. & Parry, K. (2011) a Very Short, Fairly Interesting and Reasonably Cheap Book about Studying Leadership (2nd ed.)London: Sage.
Berrone, P. & Gomez-Mejia, L.R. (2009) the pros and cons of rewarding social responsibility at the top. Human Resource Management, 48(6), 959-971.
Salas, E., Tannenbaum, S.I., Kraiger, K., & Smith-Jentsch, K.A. (2012). The Science of Training and Development in Organizations: What Matters in Practice. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 13(2), 74-101. etrieved from http://bayareaacademy.org/wp-content/uploads/Salas-Tannenbaum-kraiger-Smith-Jentsch-2012-best-practice-in-training.pdf
The article by Salas, Tannenbaum, Kraiger, & Smith-Jentsch, 2012, deals with training and development within the context of organizations. The introduction begins with information on spending habits of organizations within the United States in relation to training. They also highlight the importance of such training as it allows for better risk management and reduction in errors. After all, the goals of an organization are to promote competition by giving employees a chance at self-improvement and augmented management skills. Continual education promotes independence and proper run-through in any organization setting from emergency rooms, aviation, to even the military. "Training has successfully been used to reduce errors in such high-risk setting as emergency rooms, aviation, and the…
Ford, J.K., & Kozlowski, S.W. (1997). Improving training effectiveness in work organizations. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Salas, E., Tannenbaum, S.I., Kraiger, K., & Smith-Jentsch, K.A. (2012). The Science of Training and Development in Organizations: What Matters in Practice. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 13(2), 74-101. Retrieved from http://bayareaacademy.org/wp-content/uploads/Salas-Tannenbaum-kraiger-Smith-Jentsch-2012-best-practice-in-training.pdf
The colonists' most revered military institution was the militia, a model inherited from their forebears in England. The philosophical underpinnings of the militia model are easy to understand: "fear of a standing army," (Millet and Maslowski 1). A standing army can turn against its people, staging what now would be called military coups one after the other. During and especially after Independence, the validity, effectiveness, efficiency, and relevance of the militia model was called into question. This is why the United States Constitution eventually included the provisions for federalized systems of national security. Naturally, the existence of a standing army to "provide for the common defense" would be required. Independence required an organized military strategy against a powerful Empire; to protect the new nation, it was certain that the military would be necessary to preserve all that hard work. The Constitution therefore enabled the creation and maintenance of standing…
Boot, Max. "The New American Way of War." Foreign Affairs. 2003.
Jay, John. "The Federalist 2." Independent Journal. Oct 31, 1787.
Madison, James. "Federalist 41." Independent Journal. Jan 19, 1788.
Millet, Allen R. And Maslowski, Peter. For the Common Defense. Free Press, 1994.
Despite the high operational tempo though of the U.S. military, it is still an organization that undergoes constant transformation in not only to meet the various missions thereof but in keeping with the changing times. The changes that the American defense forces are contained in policy changes that originate with the National Command Authority and executed by the Joint Chiefs of Staff down the chain of command. Of late, two policies will pave the way for major paradigm shifts in the very fabric of the U.S. military. These policy changes are the repeal of the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy banning acknowledgement of gays in the service and the gradual pull-out of troops in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Late in July 2011, President Obama along with Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Admiral ichael ullen signed the certification for the implementation of the…
For the last few years following the 9-11 terrorist attacks on the American homeland, the United States military has been overstretched with two major wars involved in (Iraq and Afghanistan) and several other missions ranging from low-intensity conflicts, humanitarian efforts to continuous training and exercises on its own or with allies and partners across the globe. As the only remaining superpower and acknowledged "police" or the world, the United States uses its military to project its might and ensure that intransigent nations or entities are made to abide by international laws. Despite the high operational tempo though of the U.S. military, it is still an organization that undergoes constant transformation in not only to meet the various missions thereof but in keeping with the changing times. The changes that the American defense forces are contained in policy changes that originate with the National Command Authority and executed by the Joint Chiefs of Staff down the chain of command. Of late, two policies will pave the way for major paradigm shifts in the very fabric of the U.S. military. These policy changes are the repeal of the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy banning acknowledgement of gays in the service and the gradual pull-out of troops in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Late in July 2011, President Obama along with Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Admiral Michael Mullen signed the certification for the implementation of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell (DADT) Repeal Act of 2010. The final paragraph of the document states that "the Act is consistent with standards of military readiness, military effectiveness, unit cohesion, and recruiting and retention of the Armed Forces (DADT Repeal Act of 2010)." The policy or law prior to its development has faced several hurdles especially from those who are bent on not allowing gays and lesbians in the U.S. Armed Forces. At the end of it all, what prevailed is the rationale and logical decision that fighting for one's country is not dependent on one's gender or sexual orientation but the desire to be of service without any reservations whatsoever. Although there are still several days
-29 and -26 bombers were used by U.S. forces to decimate Korean cities through round-the-clock air war using incendiary bombs, delayed demolition explosives and an "infernal jelly" called napalm.[footnoteRef:38] Created secretly during World War II, napalm was basically a mixture of petroleum and a thickening agent, designed to fiercely adhere to the target and severely burn it. Though first used against enemy structures and humans in World War II, napalm was used in the Korean War to devastating effect.[footnoteRef:39] the results of the U.S. air war against North Korea were intentionally catastrophic: at the commencement of the War, North Korea had 22 major cities, 18 of which suffered at least 50% obliteration.[footnoteRef:40] Furthermore, the U.S. government seriously considered using the atomic bombs that had so decisively ended World War II in the Pacific Theater. Particularly in September and October of 1951, -29 bombers were used for multiple runs to drop…
Bizony, Piers. The Space Shuttle: Celebrating Thirty Years of NASA's First Space Plane. Minneapolis, MN: Zenith Press, 2011.
Blight, James G., and Janet M. Lang. The Fog of War: Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.
Boyne, Walter J. Beyond the Wild and Blue: A History of the United States Air Force, 1947-2007, Second Edition. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 2007.
Chant, Christopher. The World's Greatest Aircraft. New York, NY: Crescent Publishing, 1991.
That is why I became Treasurer of the ives Club, out of gratefulness for this extended family. I know many people of my generation struggle to find 'who they are' but the structure of the military offers a potent and compelling answer to that question. To serve means always to be at home amongst people who understand exactly what you are going through: "Home is the place where, when you have to go there, they have to take you in" (Frost 118-119).
Being in the military does not mean, contrary to conventional wisdom, that one must obey an unthinking policy of 'my country right or wrong.' The men and women in the military must obey because soldiers cannot afford to question every order and live, however, this does not make them unthinking automatons -- far from it. In fact, soldiers think more about the great questions of life and death,…
Frost, R. (2009). The death of the hired man. In G. Perkins, & B. Perkins (Eds.), The
American Tradition in Literature (12 ed., Vol. 2, pp. 888-891). New York City:
McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Iyer, P. (2000). The empire. In The global soul: Jet lag, shopping malls, and the search for home. (pp. 234-265). New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
ithout the integrity to understand the importance of proper maintenance, a soldier may well be risking the health and safety environment for himself and others, not to mention risking the success of a task or mission (Army 2-33).
A leader of integrity is well aware of the Army Values and how important they are in defining character traits that aid in the development of discipline and the ability to maintain that discipline (Army 1-50). These values breed integrity which in turn results in the type of discipline necessary for a soldier to recognize the right course of action and to continue that course, no matter the difficulty encountered (Army 1-50). For leaders, these qualities are even more important because soldiers follow their leaders' examples, thus a leader must demonstrate the values and integrity that encourage his soldiers to excel in every task they attempt and within every aspect of their…
The Army Noncommissioned Officer Guide. Field Manual No. 7-22.7.
Headquarters Department of the Army. Washington, DC. December 23, 2002; pp. 1-60, 2-6, 2-7, 2-8, 2-14, 2-15, 2-23, 2-31- 2-33, 5-2, 5-6.
Living the Army Values. http://www.goarmy.com/life/living_the_army_values.jsp?fl=false
Military-Led econstruction and Fiedler's Contingency Theory
In light of the unfolding instability, violence and difficulty that characterized the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the United States military must reexamine its approach to the strategic invasion, occupation, reconstruction and power-handover that have evolved into a war-making template for the nation. Accordingly, the research conducted hereafter considers the need for a change in leadership orientation, using Fiedler's Contingency Theory as the lens for the literature review thereafter. The Findings drawn from the review of literature are presented in this account and, generally, provided confirmation of the pertinence of Fiedler's contingency theory to modern military strategy as well as the pertinence of Fiedler's Least-Preferred Coworker checklist to defining ideal military leadership. The reported findings connecting Fiedler's ideas with strategic and empirical documentation on applied military policy contribute to a number of policy recommendations. In particular, these policy recommendations revolve around two…
Conner, Maj. W.D. (2005). Understanding First in the Contemporary Operational
Environment. School of Advanced Military Studies; For Leavenworth Kansas.
Ellyson, L.M.; Gibson, J.H.; Nichols, M. & Doerr, A. (2012). A Study of Fiedler's
Contingency Theory Among Military Leaders. Allied Academies International
The author states that, over the course of workshops designed to elicit preferences, tastes, and feelings, he "remained the odd man out. I'm pursuing my dream career already, while everyone else (aside perhaps from the publicist) had come searching for answers to a particular set of problems and concerns. Skepticism may be the proper mind-set with which to enter into a coaching relationship, but you have to want to be coached. I didn't. I was just some jerk trying to play along. The group felt it. I felt it. So after one lost weekend, I didn't need any coaching to decide not to return for a second one." (Underwood, 2005, 85)
This desire on the part of the participant to want coaching thus is vital -- individauls must be motivated to seek advice and to execute that advice, whether motivated by the prospect of a promotion or orgaizational loyalty. But…
Underwood, Ryan. (February 2005) "Are you being coached?" Fast Company. Feb 2005 Issue 91: p.83. Retrieved 8 Feb 2005 at http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/91/open_playbook.html
Underwood, Ryan. (February 2005) "Coaching School Dropout." Fast Company. Feb 2005 Issue 91: p.85. Retrieved 8 Feb 2005 at http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/91/guinea-pig.html
Military Aircraft and Their Effect on Commercial Aviation
Civil aviation deals with the organization and use of aircraft as a means of commercial transportation. The principal interest is the use of aircraft on scheduled and chartered flights to carry passengers and cargo, but the subject also covers the use of aircraft for pleasure, business, and medical services. ecause of the international character of civil aviation, governments play a major role in its conduct and regulation, through both national legislation and international agreements. This governmental influence was a major factor in commercial airline operation until the early 1980s, when the U.S. domestic market was deregulated. The result was a massive increase in competition, which led in turn to a reorganization of the airlines into larger groupings. It seems likely that this process will continue in the international market, which will lead to an increase in air travel, and increased pressure on…
(1963)Aeroflot, Flight International, Vol. 84, No. 2856, December 5,
Harrison (2000)Mastering the sky: a history of aviation from ancient times to the present.
Shulman, S (2003).Unlocking the Sky: Glenn Hammond Curtiss and the Race to Invent the Airplane
Taylor, J & Munson, K (1973)History of aviation
Attendance will be required for all group members to optimize the effect of the sessions. Group members will be allowed to leave the group as long as the intention to leave is provided in writing. No reasons will be required.
Because of the nature of the group, a mutual confidentiality agreement will be signed by all group members, including leaders, at the first meeting of the group. There will generally not be homework, apart from the requirement to apply what has been learned to the work and home environment. Group members may report on results if they feel they want to.
There is no need for a formalized institution to determine the ground rules and structure of the meetings. This will be a collaborative process between me and the group members.
IX. Group essions
Group dynamics generally consist of four stages: forming, storming, norming, and performing (Group Dynamics, Unit 10).…
Adams, B.D. And Webb, R.D.G. Trust in Small Military Teams. Retrieved from http://www.dodccrp.org/events/7th_ICCRTS/Tracks/pdf/006.PDF
Armstrong, R. (2005) Requirements of a Self-Managed Team Leader. Leader Values. Retrieved from http://www.leader-values.com/Content/detail.asp?ContentDetailID=1004
Borchers, T. (1999). Small Group Communication. Retrieved from http://www.abacon.com/commstudies/groups/leader.html
Castano, E. Leidner B, and Slawuta, P. (2008, Jun). Social identification processes, group dynamics and the behaviour of combatants. International Review of the Red Cross, Vol 90, No. 870. Retrieved from http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/htmlall/review-870-p259/$File/irrc-870_Castano.pdf
Military Draw-Down from Afghanistan
hen terrorists attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, there was very little hesitation on the part of then President George . Bush -- and the United States Congress -- to mount a retaliatory military campaign in Afghanistan, the place where bin Laden was training terrorists to kill Americans. The Taliban militants were control of Afghanistan at that time and they had provided training camps for bin Laden and al Qaeda to plan their terrorist activities against the United States. Bush gave the Taliban time to either hand over bin Laden (which they were not about to do) or prepare for a bombardment by U.S. military. The American public was fully behind the 2001 military engagement in Afghanistan, but few citizens at that time imagined that more than ten years later American soldiers would still be in Afghanistan, fighting the resurgent Taliban militants.
Aymeen Jawad, al-Tamimi. 2012. Rethinking U.S. Strategy in Afghanistan. Middle East
Quarterly 19 (Winter) 1-15.
Jones, Jeffrey M. 2011. Americans More Positive on Afghanistan After Bin Laden Death.
Gallup Poll. Retrieved January 29, 2012, from http://www.gallup.com .
In addition, the Marines have a much smaller force than the army.
On the other hand, the army cannot be as selective as the marines because it needs to maintain a much higher number of troops. The article explains that the army "needs 80,000 new soldiers this year and must find them in a populace that is in many ways less willing and less able to serve than earlier generations were (Mockenhaupt, 2007, pg.86)." The article explains that teenagers and young adults are overweight and less fit than any previous generation. In addition, this generation of young Americans eats more unhealthy foods, watches more television, and engages in less physical activity than previous generations. The article further asserts that this generation is "more individualistic and less inclined to join the military. And with the unemployment rate hovering near historic lows, they have other choices (Mockenhaupt, 2007, pg.86)."
Overall it is…
Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19+.
Body Mass Index. http://www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/
Belkin D. (February 20, 2006) Struggling for recruits, Army relaxes its rules: Fitness, education, age criteria change. The Boston Globe Retrieved March 16, 2008 from; http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2006/02/20/struggling_for_recruits_army_relaxes_its_rules/?page=1
Daniels, S.R. (2006). The Consequences of Childhood Overweight and Obesity. The Future of Children, 16(1), 47+.
The importance of ritual objects to the Shaolin is shown in how they react to the supernatural appearance of an incense burner. hen the survivors of the massacre woke up the next day, they saw on the surface of the water a white incense burner made of greenstone, which had two ears and three feet and weighed 52 "catties, thirteen ounces"; on the bottom of the incense burner, the four words Fan-Qing fu-Ming had been inscribed. The brothers immediately secured the incense burner and placed it in the third field in front of the temple gate (Baoqi & Murray 206). In this regard, the Shaolin monks of the day embraced the popular belief that Heaven could manifest its support of claimants to the Chinese throne or of founders of religious cults through the bestowal of precious objects, such as these incense burners, swords, or books. "The incense burner, as it…
Anderson, Mary M.
Hidden Power: The Palace Eunuchs of Imperial China. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1990.
Baoqi, Qin and Dian H. Murray. The Origins of the Tiandihui: The Chinese Triads in Legend and History. Stanford, CA: Stanford University, 1994.
Campany, Robert Ford. (October-December 2001). The Eminent Monk (Book review). Journal of the American Oriental Society, 121(4):656.
Tuition Assistance Cutback esponse
Military Tuition Assistance Cut: A Personal esponse
An effort to kill the Tuition Assistance program in 2011 sparked off a furor in the lines, and the remunerations were swiftly restored. This time though, there has been almost no outcry; with Navy carrier groups not capable to install because of a lack of money -- and the services dropping their ranks by in excess of 250,00p recruits, it's not easy to justify a $600 million expense for off-duty learning. However, in the past week we are not starting to see a lot of protests both online and offline.
This specific cut is extremely short-sighted. In fact, Tuition Assistance delivers outstanding defense fund value, compared to other military education curriculums. With service members attending classes while in uniform (characteristically online, during their off-duty times), the military payback from the information and expertise they achieve. Many recruits have reported…
Patton, Mark; Svan Jennifer H. And Robson, Seth. Military students left scrambling after services halt tuition assistance programs. Stars and Stripes. April 5, 2013.
Sisk, Richard. Marines Halt Tuition Assistance Program. Military.com Mar 05, 2013
Gore, Leada. Air Force, Coast Guard are latest service branches to end Tuition Assistance Programs. Alabama. March 12, 2013
Gura, David. Military tuition cuts: A tangible sequester impact. Marketplace. March 11, 2013
The Navy also established institutions to particularly cater for women wishing to enter the service. It recruited women into the Navy Women's eserve, which was known as
Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES), in 1942. More than 80,000 such women served the military in occupations relating to communications, intelligence, supply, medicine and administration. The Marine Corps Women's eserve was created in 1943. Women in this establishment held jobs such as clerks, cooks, mechanics, and drivers. An increasing number of women served in these positions, among others in nursing and the Coast Guard -- there were more than 400,000 American military women serving both in the United States and overseas during the Second World War. Although many of these women served close to combat stations, the work of the majority involved non-combat duties.
After the World Wars
The Korean War
When the Korean Conflict broke out in 1950, President…
Norris, Michelle. Roles for Women in U.S. Army Expand. NPR, Oct. 1, 2007. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14869648
Women in Military Service for America Memorial Foundation, Inc. Highlights of Military Women. 2010. Retrieved from http://www.womensmemorial.org/Education/timeline.html
Women in the U.S. Army. Generations of Women Moving History Forward. 2010. Retrieved from http://www.army.mil/women/index.html
Military training means more than the physical rigors of boot camp; new recruits also learn about the state-of-the-art developments in weaponry, surveillance, and information technology. A potential political career and professional military career are other potential outcomes of early military service and training.
Because of the vast educational and professional development opportunities available to the new and youthful recruit, military service also entails valuable personal and social skills development. The basic training endured by all new recruits taxes both body and mind. Getting into physical shape is one of the possible benefits of military duty. Military training is also notoriously rigorous and highly demanding. Senior officers require continuous respect and obedience and therefore the young recruits learn about deference to authority. Consequently, the new officer develops admirable self-restraint and self-discipline, traits that come in handy throughout the rest of their lives. Troubled teens or at-risk youth may therefore benefit most…
Media With the Military in Battle
There must be a cost-benefit analysis performed before formally agreeing to attach reporters to military units during active engagements. There are pros and cons for the side of the press and on the side of the military. It has become practice or tradition since the Vietnam War for journalists to be permitted to accompany and document the activities of various military units. Therefore, there is a fairly substantial precedent set for this form of cooperation. When considering this situation, imagining the outcome can assist in adequately preparing both sides for the accompaniment.
The military units that would have journalists should be provided as much notice as possible. This would give the commanding officers a chance to prepare assignments that would both satisfy the journalists and provide a respectable amount of operational secrecy. The journalists should receive some kind of basic military training and…
Constitutional Rights Foundation. (2012). Press Freedom vs. Military Censorship. Web, Available from: http://www.crf-usa.org/america-responds-to-terrorism/press-freedom-versus-military-censorship.html . 2012 November 09.
Ricchiardi, S. (2006). Dangerous Assignment. American Journalism Review, Web, Available from: http://www.ajr.org/article.asp?id=4003 . 2012 November 10.
Stimuli are the bases for cues, but a stimulus is not a cue by itself" (Weiner & Nagel, 1988, p. 239). Just as pilots need simulation devices to provide them with realistic cue which signal that they need to adjust the aircraft, the crew within the cabin of the commercial plane also need cues that they can respond to in training with actions that they are supposed to execute.
Cues need to be part of the crew member training programs. "Crewmember initial training must include instruction on general subjects as well as subjects pertaining to the airplane type to be operated. The subjects for whom crewmembers are to receive instruction must be applicable to their assigned duties. Initial training is based on equipment and crewmembers not qualified in an aircraft group should complete initial training on the aircraft in that group. Crewmember initial training programs should include drills and actual…
Baron, R. (n.d.). The Cockpit, the Cabin, and Social Psychology. Retrieved from gofir.com: http://www.gofir.com/general/crm/index.htm
Burki-Cohen, J., Sparko, a., & Bellman, M. (2011, August). Flight Simulator Motion Literature Pertinent to Airline-Pilot Recurrent Training and Evaluation. Retrieved from Volpe.dot.gov: http://www.volpe.dot.gov/coi/hfrsa/docs/aiaafinal811.pdf
Estegassy, R. (n.d.). Improving Cabin Crew Training for Emergency Evacuations. Retrieved from fire.tc.faa.gov: http://www.fire.tc.faa.gov/1998Conference/presentations/RobertEstegassy.pdf
Liu, a. (2010, October 14). The Role of Cabin Crew in Aircraft Safety Procedures. Retrieved from Aviation Knowledge: http://aviationknowledge.wikidot.com/aviation:the-responsibility-of-cabin-crew-in-aircraft-safety
Call for backup before attempting pursuit into unsecured potential gang situations
5.. Examples of gangs deploying military weapons and tactics against law enforcement:
2005: Contract assassination attempt against corrections officer in Lakewood, Wash. By United Blood Nation gang member in active service from Bremerton Navy Station (10)
2005: Ceres, California: Active-duty, U.S. Marine Iraq combat veteran gang member shoots two police, killing one, using military tactics (11)
2006: Verbal testimony by several gang members suggests veterans training gangs for combat (12)
2010: U.S.Marine Corps veterans charged with selling assault weapons to gangs (13)
2011: Twenty-seven AK-47s stolen from California's Fort Irwin Army base (14)
2011: National Gang Threat Assessment report: "Gang members are acquiring high-powered, military-style weapons and equipment, which poses a significant threat because of the potential to engage in lethal encounters with law enforcement and citizens alike" (15)
6. ACTION: If you believe you may encounter military-level threat…
References: All sources peer-reviewed, government or considered reliable.
Blankenstein, A. "Marines sold military assault weapons to L.A. gang members, authorities allege." Los Angeles Times L.A. Now, 9 Nov. 2010. 26 Dec. 2011 (4, 13)
Cooley, S. "Findings and proposals from the District Attorney's Office." L.A. County District Attorney. April 2008. 26 Dec. 2011 < da.co.la.ca.us/pdf/LADA_Gang_Crime_&_Violence_APR_2008.pdf > (9)
Federal Bureau of Investigation. "The Continuing Gang Threat." National Gang Threat Assessment 2011 Key Findings, National Gang Intelligence Center. 21 Oct. 2011 (15)
L.A. County District Attorney's Office. "Gang Crimes." Hardcore Gang Division, 1 Nov. 2011. 26 Dec. 2011 (16)
On November 8, 2001, the U.S. Senate passed several new conditions before direct 'military-to-military relations can be restored with Indonesia including the punishment of the individuals who murdered three humanitarian aid workers in West Timor, establishing a civilian audit of armed forces expenditures, and granting humanitarian workers access to Aceh, West Timor, West Papua, and the Moluccas."
Following are two very recent bills and rulings by the U.S. Congress concerning the Indonesian presence, changes, and sanctions.
In the House resolution, number 666, urton (R-IN), Wexler (D-FL), and lumenauer (D-OR) congratulate the Indonesian people and government for a successful election process, supported Indonesia in political and economic transformations, expresses gratitude to Indonesian leadership for arresting 109 terrorists, supports the emerging legal framework, commends Indonesia for "discovering new ways of working with regional law enforcement and intelligence communities in a sincere effort to root out domestic radicalism, and urged Indonesia to conduct…
(2001). U.S. And Indonesia Pledge Cooperation, Joint Statement Between the United States of America and the Republic of Indonesia.
(2001, October 1). U.S. To Send Team to Indonesia To Discuss Combating Terrorism. Xinhua News Agency.
(2001, November 27). U.S. Admiral Urges Indonesian Military To Account for East Timor Mayhem. Agence France-Presse.
Baker, P. (1997, April 22). U.S. To Impose Sanctions on Burma for Repression. Washington Post.
The instructor does sit with the student when he or she is training with the devices the FAA approves for the educational computer training. Sometimes a separate computer is used during this process, but the teacher is able to monitor and control the student's flight as well as plan out every detail for him or her at that particular time (United States Gernal Accounting Office, 1999).
For those that are educators, they too have noticed trends with computer-based training. The convenience of learning on the Web has stretched all the possible barriers that occur locally and globally. When it comes to distance learning, the Internet is used to deliver material to the learner, such as Word documents or PowerPoints. However, in other online environments, this is provided through hypertext, which allows the learner more opportunities to explore the information provided as well as to have much interactivity (Khalifa & Lam,…
Bowman, W.R., Crawford, A.M., & Mehay, S. (2009). An assessment of the effectiveness of computer-based training for newly commissioned surface warfare division officers. Naval Postgraduate School, 119.
Information Design, Inc. (2004). Issues in web-based training. 5.
Khalifa, M., & Lam, R. (2002). Web-based learning: Effects on learning process and outcome. IEEE Transactions on Education, 7.
Kulik, C.-L. C., & Kulik, J.A. (1991). Effectiveness of computer-based: An updated analysis. Computers in human behavior, 20.
United States Military Performance Against the British in the War of 1812
In June 1812, the U.S. declared a war against the British and their North American allies. The war, according to Smith, was motivated by America's quest to take control of Britain's North American territories, Britain's punitive trade policy, Britain's support for Native Americans, and the forced enrolment of American sailors into the British navy. As a young nation, the U.S. was eager to safeguard its newly acquired independence. Commonly known as the forgotten war (Hickey 1), the war had important lessons for the U.S. This paper briefly evaluates the performance of the U.S. military in the war.
As depicted in the film The War of 1812, the U.S. initially employed an offensive strategy against the British (Public Broadcasting Service). Since the British navy was the strongest worldwide, the U.S. paid attention to land campaigns, especially in Upper and…
According to online polls, whether and how women should serve in combat is one of the top social issues of 2017 (“The Most Popular Social Issues of 2017”). One of the reasons why this social issue is currently trending is that as of January 1, 2016, the military began phasing in a new policy that opens ground combat positions for women. Over 200,000 new combat positions have been open since January 2016, but “relatively few women have been trained or deployed for these jobs yet,” revealing important structural, human resources, and leadership impediments to gender equality in the military (Patterson 1).
Historically, women have not served in the military other than in medical and support roles (Barry). Women have, however, served in combat roles globally within the past several generations. In fact, the list of countries in which women serve in official military combat roles now is astonishingly long…
Drugs and Alcohol Abuse
The United States military faces considerable difficulty related to substance abuse amongst its personnel. It is critical to denote that its substance abuse issues pertain to both active personnel on duty, as well as to veterans. Of the myriad issues that the military faces, one is the evolving nature of substance abuse in the 21st century. Whereas such abuse has traditionally focused on alcohol and illegal narcotics, there is a stronger emphasis on the abuse of prescription medication. This abuse, in addition to binge drinking, (Institute of Medicine, 2015, p. 243) has considerable ramifications for the aforementioned military personnel. Active personnel face situations in which their readiness and ability to engage in combat is impaired by over-consumption of drugs and alcohol, whereas veterans must reckon with decreased quality of life and ability to successfully reintegrate into society because of the same problems.
Consequence of War ?…
American Psychological Association. (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. American Psychologist. 58(5), 377-402.
Bohart, A.C., Tallman, K. (1999). How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process of Active Self-Healing. New York: American Psychological Association.
Furuya, S., Slobodzien, J. (2015). ASAP Triage (brief screen note) for:.
Furuya, S., Slobodzien, J. (2015). Confidential treatment program. ASAP Triage.
military topic; exclude civil war. (I chose Special Forces) • All Research Papers 8 1/2 x
white paper, margins 1" x 1." • The Research Papers a minimum 4 pages typed information exceed 6 pages
There is much controversy concerning the U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF) and the missions that they perform on a daily basis because the mass-media tends to distort people's understanding about the military organization. Some might be inclined to consider that the Special Forces take most of the good men in the army and put them in a community that typically performs actions that most military groups would be capable of doing. Moreover, many believe that these people basically take advantage of the government's determination to keep the Special Forces in operation. However, most people fail to understand the training that these people go through on a daily basis, the fact that they have the ability…
Hamilton, John, "Special Forces," (ABDO, 10.01.2007)
North, Robert, "American Heroes: In Special Operations," (B&H Publishing Group, 01.11.2010)
Olson, Eric T., "U.S. Special Operations: Context and Capabilities in Irregular Warfare," Retrieved November 16, 2012, from the National Defense University Website: http://www.ndu.edu/press/lib/images/jfq-56/8.pdf
Pushies, Fred J., "United States Army Special Forces," (Zenith Imprint, 01.10.2001)
One of the great challenges the military faces is remaining current and preparing the current and future generations of soldiers for inevitable shifts to the geopolitical environment, technological changes, and shifts in both domestic and foreign policies. The importance of preparing officers for the new realities of unpredictable environments and non-state actors cannot be underestimated.[footnoteef:1] The roles and goals of the AMSP and SAMS have not changed. These educational programs provide the requisite advanced and specialized knowledge to foster critical thinking and strategic analysis among military leaders. What must be remembered, however, is the need for organizational awareness and the willingness to change. [1: Edward B. Bankston, Boards vs. Bureaucracies: Field Grade Officer Education in the United States Army, 1946-1985. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2013.]
This analysis points out the importance of analyzing post-Cold War realities and adapting AMSP and SAMS programs accordingly to include such things…
Bankston, Edward B., Boards vs. Bureaucracies: Field Grade Officer Education in the United States Army, 1946-1985. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2013.
Beck, William T., Developing Army Leaders Through CGSOC/AMSP and BCTP. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2005.
Goble, Jeffrey J., Wants and Needs: SMAS' Relationship with the Army. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2008.
McKinley, Matthew R., An Assessment of the Army Officer Education System from an Adult Learning Perspective. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2005.
Sports-elated Military ecruiting Initiatives Today
armed forces have traditionally had a lot to offer for new entrants into the job market, but in recent months, these benefits have increasingly been insufficient to sell the idea of military service to young people during a time of war. In response to this shortfall in recruiting levels, military recruiters have resorted to a number of alternative approaches to marketing military service as a viable option to qualified candidates. To determine the current initiatives being used by military recruiters today, this paper will provide a review of the military's use of sports, specifically racing such as NASCA and NHA for recruiting purposes. An examination of the effectiveness, associated costs, and the history of these sports-related initiatives will be followed by a summary of the research and an assessment of current and future trends in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Background and Overview.
Air Force Sports program. (2005). Official Site of the U.S. Air Force Sports Program.
Retrieved July 16, 2005 from http://usmilitary.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?
zi=1/XJ& sdn=usmilitary& zu=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.usafsports.com%2F.
About Us. (2005). The National Association for Stock Car Racing. Retrieved July 16, 2005
First of all only a scant few of these Veterans groups will acknowledge the "promise" of free health care; for the most part these groups will tout the benefits already promised by the Veterans Administration and assert that cuts in these benefits are the same a broken promise-or contractual breach in legal terms. The idea of the United States military making a "promise" or forging a legally binding agreement between individual veterans or groups of veterans is barred by the United States Constitution. As will be demonstrated in the Literature eview, specific Constitutional language from Article I give Congress and only Congress the express authority to make laws and regulations pertaining to the armed forces. Therefore, the idea the military breached a contract with service members is, ultimately, inherently inaccurate. Combining the lack of specific language within the materials provided by any governmental agency with the clear language of the…
.... (n.d.). The RETIRED MILITARY ADVOCATE. The RETIRED MILITARY ADVOCATE. Retrieved November 29, 2010, from http://mrgrg-ms.org/
Best, R. (2003, August 7). Military Medical Care Services: Questions and Answers. Congressional Research Service, 1, 1-17.
Birkey, a. (2010, July 21). Fraudulent vets charity raised big money in Minnesota. The Minnesota Independent, p. 3.
Burrelli, D. (2008, August 12). Military Health Care: The Issue of Promised Benefits. Congressional Research Service, 1, 1-14.
military philosophies of von Clausewitz, Vegetius, and Machiavelli reveal common threads of pragmatism and political realism. Vegetius focuses less on philosophy and theory, and more on the practical details and logistics of military campaigns. Yet in so doing, Vegetius does evolve a foundational political strategy that remains relevant almost two thousand years later, even as technology and the dictums of foreign affairs have changed. Likewise, the tenets embodied by Italian political philosopher Niccolo Machiavelli are still studied in the 21st century, long after they were written. Machiavelli is not as focused on the minutia of military formations on the battlefield as his predecessor Vegetius, but he is far more focused on the ways political leaders need to comport themselves in times of war and peace. Machiavelli is likewise concerned with the ramifications of political power and how leaders can retain and wield their power to achieve self-serving ends. Just as…
Gilbert, Felix. "Machiavelli: The Renaissance of the Art of War." In Makers of Modern Strategy. Oxford University Press, 1986.
Vegetius. Epitome of Military Science. Trans. N.P. Milner. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1996.
Von Clausewitz, Carl. On War. Trans. Col. J.J. Graham.
President Obama recently raised military salaries by 1.6%, effective next year. Although the raise is welcome, service members were "supposed to receive" a pay raise commensurate with private sector wage increases, which would have amounted to a 2.1% increase instead (Garofalo, 2016). While the raise is still proportionally larger than that given to civilian government employees, military personnel are among the most valuable public servants in the nation and yet they remain poorly compensated for their selfless service. One reason military personnel should get paid more is that their work is indispensible; national security depends on a well-trained, dedicated military. A second reason military personnel should get paid more is actually national security itself. The military labor force needs financial incentives to remain motivated, attentive, and positive in outlook. Military officers do work most civilians cannot or will not do. Third, military personnel are supposed to receive veterans' benefits but…
Akerlof, G.A. & Kranton, R. (2010). Identity economics. The Economists' Voice 7(2).
Garofalo, A. (2016). How much do soldiers make? IBT. Sept 1, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.ibtimes.com/how-much-do-soldiers-make-military-pay-raise-16-percent-ordered-obama-2017-2410259
Hegseth, P. (2016). The VA scandal: two years on. Retrieved online: http://www.nationalreview.com/article/433760/va-still-unreformed
Hosek, J. & Sharp, J. (2001). Keeping military pay competitive. Rand. Retrieved online: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/Gettrdoc?Location=U2&doc=Gettrdoc.pdf&AD=ADA388165
Military Emergency Management/Terrorism Preparedness
It is reported in the work of Prelas, et al. (2009) entitled "Science and Technology of Terrorism and Counterterrorism" that the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) became part of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security on March 1, 2003, and is charged with the reduction of the "loss of life and property and protect the national from all hazards" including acts of terrorism. FEMA is to accomplish this through providing leadership and support to the national in a "risk-based, comprehensive emergency management system of preparedness, protection, response, recovery, and mitigation." (Prelas, et al., 2009, p.539) DHA/FEMA is reported to be under the leadership of the secretary and to coordinate "with the Commandment of the Coast Guard, the Commissioner of Customs, and Border Protection, the Assistant Secretary of Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the NOC and other agencies and offices in the department to take full advantage of…
Department of Defense Report to Congress Volume I: Preparedness Program in the Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction (nd) DOD Retrieved from: http://www.fas.org/spp/starwars/program/domestic/toc.html
Keefer, Philip and Loayza, Norman (2008) Terrorism, Economic Development and Political Openness. Cambridge University Press. 2008.
Prelas, Mark A., et al. (2009) Science and Technology of Terrorism and Counterterrorism. CRC Press 2009.
Stopa, Peter J., et al. (2004) Technology for Combating WMD Terrorism. Springer 2004.
growth and development of the United States military from its origination to its present status in the 21st century. It will specifically examine the fostering of both the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Air Force. Moreover, these two branches -- which will serve as case studies for the overall development tendencies of the military in general -- will get deconstructed in the context of the martial encounters that were most seminal for them: The evolutionary War and the War of 1812, and World War I and World War II, respectively.
this paper will delineate the history of the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Air Force to indicate how military sophistication has paralleled the developments in technology and applications knowledge of America itself.
B.U.S. Naval History
The American evolutionary War
The War of 1812 and the establishment of the U.S. Naval Academy
C.U.S. Air Force History
1947 Third branch of the…
Deeben, J.P. (2012). Stoking the fires: The impressments of Seaman Charles Davis by the U.S. Navy. Prologue Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2012/summer/1812-impressment.html This is an excellent source which helps to contextualize the sentiment that contributed to the War of 1812, It not only covers the events of that time period at a macro level, but also includes a number of salient personal details as well. This source emphasizes the importance of the Navy in this war.
Dzurec, D. (2013). Prisoners of war and American self-image during the American Revolution. War in History. 20(4), 430-451. This source provides an explanation for much of the anti-British sentiment during the Revolutionary War. It principle does so by discussing the experience of those captured by the British in this encounter.
National Archives. (2010). Teaching with documents." www.archives.gov. Retrieved from http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/369th-infantry / This source provisions a decent overview of World War I. It does so largely through a consideration of the involvement of African-American troops. These troops were necessary to implement in combat situations for the simple fact that the U.S. did not have enough men without their addition. It illustrates some of the wider social implications of this war and its effect both within and outside of the military.
United States Naval Academy (2015). A brief history of USNA. www.usna.edu Retrieved from http://www.usna.edu/USNAHistory / This source provides a fairly detailed history of the development of the United States Naval Academy. As such, it provides an overview of the history of the navy as well. By emphasizing the level of development that the academy underwent since its inception, this source indicates the sort of improvement that characterizes the military in general through the years.
The following chart illustrates the orientation and where the dog's social, sexual and micturition behaviors should be oriented.
Source: Tieken (1999)
The appropriate socialization of the dog is also important. Guidelines for socialization of the dog is shown for the age appropriate socialization in the following table.
Dog needs nurturing from the dam and to be protected from environmental extremes.
Some human contact is advisable
Continue nurturing, but allow some mild stress such as cold or short-term social isolation. Also increase human contact with some interaction. Studies have revealed that pups that experience mild stress grow up to handle stress better than littermates who were protected from all stress.
This is a fear imprinting period. Avoid negative forceful reinforcements; minimize all stress; be careful to avoid threatening situations (e.g., close proximity to large strange dogs, manwork,…
Hubble, Bert (nd) a Brief History of War Dogs in the U.S. Military: A Historical Perspective. 47th Scout Dog Platoon. Online available at http://www.47ipsd.us/47k9hist.htm
K-9 History: The Dogs of War!
History of Police Dogs (2007) K9 Global Training Academy Working Dogs. Online available at http://www.k9gta.com/History-of-Police-Dogs.html
Particularly, many democrats and republicans expressed their dismay about the fact that the ush administration did not notify or seek congressional input while the policy was being developed. However, as the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs, Roberta Jacobson, who actually drafted the 'Merida initiative' says, "Although it [Merida] was proposed by a Republican administration, it was passed by a Democratic [party-controlled] Congress." [Jim Fischer, 2009]
Some policy analysts from Mexico have expressed their concern that controlling drug trafficking in Mexico would be better achieved if the U.S. takes active measures to control the arms trafficking from across its borders into Mexico. Gen. Javier del Real Magallanes, who is in command of the northeastern states such as Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, and San Luis Potosi says, "If there are no weapons, there's no violence. These arms aren't from Mexico; they're from the other side." [Laura Starr, 2007]. Sharing…
1) Colleen W. Cook, Oct 2007, 'CRS Report for Congress: Mexico's Drug Cartels', retrieved Apr 22nd, 2010, from, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34215.pdf
2) Bernd Debussman, 'Latin America: Mexico Drug War Update', retrieved Apr 22nd 2010, from, http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle/604/mexico_drug_war_update
3) Manuel Roig-Franzia, 'U.S. Guns Behind Cartel Killings In Mexico', retrieved Apr 22nd 2010, from,
Based on the foregoing considerations, it is suggested that the DCMP restructure their existing training programs and administration so that a more unified and centralized plan is in place, as well as providing for better instructor qualifications, evaluation, learning retention and more efficient and effective use of resources which are by definition scarce.
These broad general issues were refined for the purposes of this study into the research questions stated below.
What is the background of the District of Columbia area policy and community relations since World War II?
What are some major problems preventing positive relations between communities and the District of Columbia Metropolitan area police?
Can training programs of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department enhance community relations?
What training modules can be used to enhance relations between surrounding communities in the District of Columbia Metropolitan area law enforcement?
Significance of the Study
Aben, E.L. (2004, September 13) Local police institution cites linkages with foreign law enforcement agencies. Manila Bulletin, 3.
About OPC. (2008). District of Columbia Office of Police Complaints. [Online]. Available: http://occr.dc.gov/occr/cwp/view , a,3,q,495435,occrNav_GID,1469,occrNav,|31085|,.asp.
Bedi, K. & Agrawal, R.K. (2001). Transforming values through Vipassana for principle- centered living: Evidence from Delhi police personnel. Journal of Power and Ethics, 2(2), 103.
Billington, J. (2008, March 7). Officers get crash course. Tulsa World, 1, 3.
Navajo Code Talkers
The technology and tools of war and for communication therein have developed and changed greatly over the years. However, prior to the times of encryptions and very intricate ciphers, many communications had to occur over the air via radio and the like and this made it quite easy for unintended targets, including the enemy and their sympathizers, to hear everything that was being said as it was being said. As such, it was important to speak in a language or cipher that was not something that could easily be interpreted or cracked even by the unintended target. One such language that ended up paying huge dividends for the United States during World War II and beyond was the Navajo language. While it was eventually scuttled as a war communication cipher in the earlier stages of the Vietnam War, the use of the Navajo language was never broken…
Erickson, M. (2012, November 7). Navajo Code Talker to receive degree from KU 60 years after departure / LJWorld.com. Navajo Code Talker to receive degree from KU 60 years after departure / LJWorld.com. Retrieved July 2, 2014, from http://www2.ljworld.com/news
/2012/nov/07 / navajo-code-talker-recieve-honorary-degree-ku/
IMDb. (2014, July 2). Windtalkers. IMDb. Retrieved July 2, 2014, from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0245562/
NCT. (2014, July 2). Navajo Code Talkers | Interviews, Videos & More. Navajo Code Talkers.
How the Military Changes
Organizational change is a complex process in most cases, with those at the top of the hierarchy having the authority and power to institute changes while those in the trenches generally lack both the power and the authority but often having the expertise needed to guide needed shifts. In well-functioning organizations, change travels both up and down the hierarchy, with the final authorization for any shift in policy coming from the top echelon. However, in the most hierarchical organizations, all changes must be conceptualized and initiated from the top. Such is the case in the military.
Because of the strictures of its hierarchy, the military is famously resistant to changes. However, the military has also been able to accommodate significant changes over the course of the last half century, from racial integration to a far greater inclusion of women in the armed services to…
Nielson, S. (2010). An Army Transformed: The U.S. Army's Post-Vietnam Recovery and the Dynamics of Change in Military Organizations. Retrieved from http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=1020.
Pierce, J.G. (2010). Is the Organizational Culture of the U.S. Army Congruent with the Professional Development of Its Senior Level Officer Corps? Retrieved from http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=1015.
Authored by Dr. James G. Pierce.
Military Needs to Step Down
General Creighton Abrams said, "There must be within our Army, a sense of purpose. There must be a willingness to march a little farther, to carry a heavier load, to step out into the dark and the unknown for the safety and well-being of others (United States)." U.S. military troops are indeed marching farther and farther, expanding into different nations at this very moment: Afghanistan, Egypt, Indonesia, Columbia, Japan, and 58 other countries. However, this isn't what Abrams had in mind. In total, there are 255,065 U.S. military personnel deployed worldwide (Sivitz). But who assigned the U.S. military the task of serving as an international police force? For years, U.S. political and military strategists have conceived a fraudulent justification for increased military deployment that they call "The Global War on Terrorism." Did someone call them for immediate help? Did someone give them the right to…
Military Veteran Hiring Situation -- My Testimony
A military veteran entering into civilian life can face tough challenges, especially when it comes to finding a suitable, well-paying job in today's American economy. But I have been blessed to find a good job, and I am extremely grateful to ITA International for the opportunity they have provided for me.
After serving my country for ten years in the United States Army, it was very important for me to find a civilian job in Virginia. Not just any job, but a job that would allow me to use my career training as a project manager.
Indeed, it was my good fortune to come into contact with ITA International in February 2016, an equal opportunity company in Virginia that reaches out to military veterans. Through online sources (Linked-In), I located the ITA International recruiter, and supplied my resume.
The ITA International recruiter contacted…
The focus on team leadership within the Military employs behavior-oriented techniques as derived within the scope of works. Team leadership approaches employ behavior-oriented approaches that are derived from the respective analytic methods. Team leaders have distinct functions and roles, which are often evident when practiced on people under them. Leaders undertake diagnostic functions through the monitoring of team performance and comparing the accepted standards coupled with remedial functions of taking necessary actions towards improving group performance. Leadership performs forecasting functions through watching environmental conditions coupled with their respective effects to team performance. For a military leader, the focus also has a preventive function especially by averting negative effects in a volatile combat environment.
I deserve to take over the leadership function for the team leadership as I have the practices and skills shared by successful team leaders. Team leadership involves building trust as well as inspiration of teamwork.…
Canadian Forces, small group military relationships
Within the Canadian Forces, how are small group military relationships on operational deployments in Kabul, Afghanistan?
A group is mostly defined to be two or more people interacting together so they can achieve a common specific goal. The main purpose of the group would be towards a shared and desired outcome. With this in mind, Military groupings are formed to achieve a common interest like defeating a common foe, or lobbying for a specific cause. The group will have some form of leadership structure to ensure it is not mistaken for a crowd. The leadership for military groups is formal. Military groups report to one leader, and follow the orders or instructions given by their leader. For the effectiveness of the military groups, the group members should work together. Working closely together, and for long periods, the group members will form certain bonds, and…
Cox, D.R., & Snell, E.J. (1974). The Choice of Variables in Observational Studies. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C (Applied Statistics), 23(1), 51-59.
Jiroutek, M.R., Muller, K.E., Kupper, L.L., & Stewart, P.W. (2003). A New Method for Choosing Sample Size for Confidence Interval-Based Inferences. Biometrics, 59(3), 580-590.
Johnson, B.A., & Tsiatis, A.A. (2004). Estimating Mean Response as a Function of Treatment Duration in an Observational Study, Where Duration May Be Informatively Censored. Biometrics, 60(2), 315-323.
Morgan, D.L. (1996). Focus Groups. Annual Review of Sociology, 22(ArticleType: research-article / Full publication date: 1996 / Copyright © 1996 Annual Reviews), 129-152.
Females in Military
Should females in military be allowed to lead combat units?
Gender discrimination is a wide exercised practice that is witnessed in the military organization as well. Women in the current times are equally challenging and capable of being a significant part of combat units. However, this subject matter has come under numerous arguments and disagreements with controversial results. In this regard, this study aims and intends to carry out a profound study that can determine whether females in military should be allowed to lead in combat unit or not. The study is a synthesis of both primary and secondary research that can aid the researcher to conclude with meaningful information.
Table of Contents
Participants of the Study
Data Collection Techniques
Since time immemorial, the element of discrimination and biasness, especially based on gender have existed in many…
Kotzur, G.P. (1997). Let Us Tell It: How It Was, How It Is and How It Will Be in the Future. USA: Turner Publishing Company.
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Pallant, J. (2010). SPSS Survival Manual. 4th Edition. China: McGraw-Hill International.
Vartanian, T.P. (2010). Secondary Data Analysis. USA: Oxford University Press
Control of Borrowed Military Equipment
The military equipments that may be technical like guns, warships radar and so on need to be maintained in a different process than civil equipment. The military equipment can be defined as material issued by the army or belonging to the army, be it a pencil or a battle tank. The accounting is must because of the allotment factor of resources and also because of the necessity of finding the appropriate tools at the appropriate time. Since no person can predict when a solider or a division will be called upon to act immediately it is necessary to maintain all equipments in perfect working order and be able to source all materials and locate them as and when needed. Therefore all personnel must know that it is necessary to be aware of U.S. military property in their possession and to maintain and guard it because…
APD. (2007) "Army Materiel Maintenance Policy" Army Regulation 750 -- 1 Maintenance of Supplies and Equipment. Headquarters, Department of the Army Washington, DC 20. Retrieved 22 September, 2012 from http://www.apd.army.mil/pdffiles/r750_1.pdf
APD. (2005) "Property Accountability: Policies and Procedures for Property
Accountability" Army Regulation 735-5. Retrieved 22 September, 2012 from http://www.apd.army.mil/jw2/xmldemo/r735_5/main.asp
Coll, Blanche D; Keith, Jean E; Rosenthal, Herbert H. (1958) "The Corps of Engineers:
U.S. Military Institute Quarantine?
Law and Policy:
Can the U.S. Military Institute Quarantine Without Legal Issues?
Instituting a quarantine of large numbers of people within the United States would be complicated and difficult, but is it legal? More clearly, is it legal for the military to do such a thing without any kind of legislative or legal issue. If it is legal for the military to do this, there must be various requirements that have to be met in order to ensure that issues are handled properly. If it is not legal for the military to undertake such action, why not? And is there legislation being considered that would make this type of action legal? The question comes about in light of recent issues with the H1N1 "swine flu" scare, where many people thought the U.S. was going to be overtaken by this new strain of flu that would kill…
18 U.S.C. § 1385 - Use of Army and Air Force as Posse Comitatus
Ahrcanum. (2009). H1N1 swine flu quarantine legal in USA. Retrieved from http://ahrcanum.wordpress.com/2009/09/28/h1n1-swine-flu-quarantine-usa/
Hendell, G.B. (2011). Domestic use of the armed forces to maintain law and order -- posse comitatus pitfalls at the inauguration of the 44th president" Publius (2011) 41(2): 336-348
Lindorff, D. (1988). Could It Happen Here? Mother Jones Magazine.
Likewise, a similar study by Desai et al. (2000) that compared traditional lecture format training with CBT found that, "The CBT subjects' overall end-of-training and one-month-after-training performance was significantly better than [the traditional lecture method] subjects' performance" (p. 239).
By sharp contrast, the analysis of the effectiveness of CBT by Bowman et al. (2009) found that the effectiveness of this alternative can be adversely affected by a number of Navy-specific factors, including the pace of operations in some settings, an enormously diverse population that often requires more individualized instruction, and that self-paced formats can actually serve to increase student failure rates. Nevertheless, Dye (2004) emphasizes that the Navy has taken steps to integrate lessons learned and best practices into newly developed CBT curricular offerings, and notes that improvements in the support technologies continue to provide better ways of individualizing computer-based training opportunities in the future. In fact, one of the…
Bowman, W.R., Crawford, a.M. & Mehay, S. (2009, August 24). An assessment of the effectiveness of computer-based training for newly commissioned surface warfare division officers. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School.
Computer-based training. (2009, March). Navy Inspector General report to the Secretary of the Navy. NAVINSGEN computer-based training study.
Desai, M.S., Richards, T. & Eddy, J.P. (2000). A field experiment: Instructor-based training vs.
computer-based training. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 27(4), 239.
private military companies Iraq illustrate a trend warfare? -No, Historical reasons great empires employed a large number mercenaries.-What reasons, -Type firms, divided types- type spear
Private military companies
Today's society is more challenging and dynamic than it has ever been. And this trend is manifested within the military sector as well. Here, the employees in the division have to be better motivated in order to risk their lives and this motivation has to be complex, and include both financial and non-financial incentives. While the major non-financial incentive would be the sense of fighting to protect one's country, the financial incentive has to be substantial and significantly larger than that of any other category of employees.
The modern day army then integrates technologic developments to improve the nature and outcome of its operations. It as such strives to answer the more and more complex demands of the contemporaneous society and, in…
Adebajo, A., Sriram, C.L., 2000, Messiahs or mercenaries? The future of international private military services, International Peacekeeping, Vol. 7, No. 4
Avant, D., 2006, Private military companies and the future of war, Foreign Policy Research Institute, http://www.fpri.org/enotes/200604.military.avant.privatemilitarycompanies.html last accessed on May 27, 2011
Beutel, M.D., 2005, Private military companies: their emergence, importance and a call for global regulation, Northwich University, http://princess.digitalfreaks.org/thesis/beutelmdthesis.pdf last accessed on May 27, 2011
Carafano, J.J., 2008, Private sector, public wars: contractors in combat-- Afghanistan, Iraq, and future conflicts, Greenwood Publishing, ISBN 0275994783
U.S. Military Chain of Command
The traditional wars that have followed the Europeans models developed by Napoleon basically incorporate the leadership in writing and training troops for rules of engagement. ules of Engagement (OE) is described as a management tool that help in keeping soldiers within control and aligned with the specific mission. This management tool has contributed to benefits and costs in which training OE in each leadership level down to the individual soldiers enables every participant to make responsible decisions and achieve the mission as stated by the battlefield commander. Notably, the chain of command basically consists of various levels since it links everyone in the uniformed service ranging from the senior ranks to the junior ranks as well as the United States President. An important example that correlates an understanding of rules of engagement with limited war ideology is the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War incorporates various…
Boot, M. (2011, October 4). The War Over the Vietnam War. Retrieved September 29, 2012,
Lester, R.E. (1990). Records of the U.S. Marine Corps in the Vietnam War. Retrieved September
29, 2012, from http://cisupa.proquest.com/ksc_assets/catalog/11199.pdf
Brian inston, "9 'smell the Tulips': the Internet, Neo-Liberalism and Millenarian Hype," in Access Denied in the Information Age /, ed. Stephen Lax [book online] (New York: Palgrave, 2001, accessed 10 December 2008), 166; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102376364;Internet.
Stephen Lax, ed., Access Denied in the Information Age / [book online] (New York: Palgrave, 2001, accessed 10 December 2008), 5; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102376197;Internet.
Michael H. Hoffman, "Corporate arriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry," Parameters 34, no. 3 (2004) [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007239156;Internet; accessed 10 December 2008.
Joshua Kurlantzick, "Outsourcing the Dirty ork: The Military and Its Reliance on Hired Guns," the American Prospect, May 2003 [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001916974;Internet; accessed 10 December 2008.
Works Cited www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102376181
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Hoffman, Michael H. "Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry." Parameters 34, no. 3 (2004): 153+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007239156.Internet . Accessed 10 December 2008. www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001916974
Kurlantzick, Joshua. "Outsourcing the Dirty Work: The Military and Its Reliance on Hired Guns." The American Prospect, May 2003, 17+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001916974.Internet . Accessed 10 December 2008. www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022533831
Peters, Charles. "Tilting at Windmills." Washington Monthly, September 2007, 7+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022533831.Internet . Accessed 10 December 2008. www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002396215
Weapon security in the military is of prime importance for many reasons. First of all, the issue of weapon security is not only personal but something that affects the entire group collectively. Individual weapon security is the first step in collective security. Secondly, lack of weapon security endangers those outside the military, as they could be harmed by an unsecured weapon or use it to harm themselves or others. Within the military, as it functions as a seamless unit, weapon security is crucial not only in accomplishing the goals and objectives of the unit but also as the personal responsibility of the individual to his fellow soldiers and those around him. Weapon security is a necessary component of training just as much as it is a necessary part of the individual military action and effectiveness. A unit is only as effective as its weakest component, and lack of weapon security…
Homosexuals of either gender don't really have that option. The "don't ask, don't tell" policy has been rendered impotent if not downright illegal by various Supreme Court rulings, and yet the military's stance on the subject remains ambiguous. Before the institution of the "don't ask, don't tell" policy, under which individuals were not to be asked about their homosexual desires or activities nor to discuss them with anyone, the number of people who had been discharged from the military for engaging in homosexual acts -- which is still grounds for a discharge -- had been steadily decreasing. After the policy was officially implemented, discharges for homosexuality became more regular, and were on the increase until just recently (Burelli & Feder 2009). Though the Supreme Court has rendered discrimination based on sexual orientation a violation of basic civil rights, such discrimination continues.
The various branches of the United States military claim…
Enrst, R. & Gilbeau, R. (1993). "Gender bias in the Navy." Naval postgraduate school. Accessed 24 September 2009. http://www.stormingmedia.us/42/4258/A425862.html
Burelli, D. & Feder, J. (2009). "Homosexuals and the U.S. The military: Current issues." Congressional research service. Accessed 24 September 2009. http://ftp.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL30113.pdf
Woman in the Military
Although their numbers are still disappointingly small, military women now serve with distinction in every service. The women who served in Operation Desert Storm flew planes into enemy territory, fired weapons, commanded combat support units, ferried troops in to the combat zone and carried them fuel and supplies. At the end of the war, Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney applauded the women's performance: "They did a bang up job....They were every bit as professional as their male colleagues." He also noted that he "wouldn't be at all surprised to see the role of women in combat expanded in the year ahead." Yet, more than a decade later, women are still prohibited from direct combat. Recently, Jessica Lynch's actions on the battlefield in Iraq are once again fueling the debate over the role of women in the military. Many are in favor of letting women join men…
Active Duty Servicewomen by Branch of Service and Rank, 2001." Infoplease. 23 May 2003. http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0004600.html .
Hoar, William P. "Case Against Women in Combat." The New American. 8 Feb. 1993. Vol. 9,
No. 03. 23 May 2003. http://www.thenewamerican.com/tna/1993/vo09no03/vo09no03_women_combat.htm .
Jones, Rebecca. "Women in the Face of War." Oak Park and River Forest. 23 May 2003. http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:QX4Uem6XEmsJ:oprfhs.org/division/history/inter pretations/2000interp/Jones, Rebecca.doc+military+and+%22combat+exclusion%22+and repeal&hl=en&ie=UTF-8