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Mixed Method Qualitative Quantitative Mixed Methodologies Quantitative
Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 50233499
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Mixed Method

Qualitative, quantitative, mixed methodologies

Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodology research

Quantitative methodologies tend to be data-driven in nature. The presumption of the correct 'way of knowing' in quantitative research is positivistic in nature. It is assumed there is an objective, concrete truth that can be learned through empirical observation and the careful construction of an experiment. Quantitative methods of research often use the scientific method or quasi-scientific methods of study design. The researcher has a clear idea of the phenomenon he or she is attempting to study. The researcher's primary tools include questionnaires, objective measurements and other methods of gathering statistical results. Often there is a control group to see if the results are statistically significant in nature. The study is carefully designed before the research takes place to isolate specific variables of inquiry and its focus of study is narrow, rather than broad. The types of knowledge…


Neill, James. (2007). Qualitative vs. quantitative research. Retrieved:

The qualitative vs. quantitative debate. (2012). Writing at CSU. Retrieved:

Mixed-Method Approach for Developing Market
Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 75030036
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The researchers triangulated the data sources by interviewing over 60 organizational members, including CCI staff, managers from diverse hierarchical positions, staff members, and employees. Each interview lasted between 45 and 120 min and was transcribed in full for coding purposes. The researchers also collected more than 2,000 pages of relevant documents, including minutes from CCI staff meetings, annual reports, intranet postings, and several drafts on a strategic communication plan. This sample size appears to be adequate and appropriate for the study being undertaken.

The article Are Consumers ational? Experimental Evidence? By Shugan (2006) looks at the different tests that can be used to try and predict consumer behavior. The difference between experimental and statistical controls explains the divergence in conclusions. Experimental controls test rationality based on whether previously absent variables exhibit significant explanatory power holding known explanatory variables constant. Statistical controls test rationality based on the incremental explanatory power of…


Rohm, a.J., Milne, G.R., & McDonald, M.A. (2006). A Mixed-Method Approach for Developing Market Segmentation Typologies in the Sports Industry. Sport Marketing

Quarterly, 15(1), 29-39.

Voort, J., Glac, K., & Meijs, L. (2009). "Managing" Corporate Community Involvement.

Journal of Business Ethics, 90(3), 311-329.

Mixed Methodology
Words: 758 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 25939178
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Mixed Method

This was a mixed methods study that was applied to the topic of school psychology

The purpose of Powell et al.'s (2008) journal article was to show the benefits of mixed method study using the field of school psychology as an example.

Theoretical Framework: (Identify the theoretical/conceptual framework)

The article is a discussion/ / review of evidence of the efficacy of mixed methodology to psychology.

Specific Research Questions / Philosophical Underpinnings:

The overall research question was whether mixed methods is more beneficial than qualitative or quantitative methodology alone in addressing scientific research. The specific example that the authors gave was reliance on two different studies (one qualitative, the other quantitative) that used bullying as their topic


Mixed method design: (present the elements of quantitative and qualitative and describe how these complement each other and why it was important…

None of the studies detail the consent procedure. Likely, the school was approached for consent by the researchers and consent given by school administrator (and perhaps by teachers) rather than by individual students.



Mixed Study and'so Here
Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35052793
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Both projects -- and aspects of the study (qualitative and quantitative) had their advantages and disadvantages. In the first, researchers could hit for objective method and, via use of Likert scale, guidelines in creating the survey, guidelines in facilitators and in how the facilitators should approach the respondents, and other details that included statistical tools, could structure the survey in as objective a manner possible. On the other hand, we are dealing with a human population that may have misunderstood various questions, may retract some of their responses later, and may, amongst many other variables that creep into surveys, have found a one-line question, however open-ended it may be, insufficient in dealing with their particular situation. The qualitative aspect, therefore, provides the opportunity for both scenarios -- a scientific treatment and a more empathetic, flexible approach (that provides a 'richer' analysis) (Creswell, 2003). It was for this reason that the…


Creswell, J. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Devlin, M., & McIlfatrick, S. (2010). Providing palliative and end-of-life care in the community: The role of the home-care worker. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 16(4), 195 -- 203. Retrieved from: 

Tashakkori, A., & Teddlie, C. (1998). Mixed methodology: combining qualitative and quantitative approaches, Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage

Experimental Research Methods in Business Experimental Research
Words: 4846 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 87946505
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Experimental esearch Methods in Business

Experimental esearch Methods

The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.


The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…


Campbell, A. (2004). A quick guide to research methods, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 25(3), 163-165.

Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Demarco, T., Hruschka, P., Lister, T., Robertson, S., Robertson, J., and McMenamin, S. (2008). Adrenaline junkies and template zombies: Understanding patterns of project behavior. New York, NY: Dorset House Publishing Co., Inc.

Elliott F.F. (1929, October). Experimental method in economic research, Journal of Farm Economics, 11 (4) 594-596. [Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association]. Retrieved

Mixing Methods Within Research Projects
Words: 1908 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 84083495
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(Niglas, 2004)

Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:

(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?

(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;

(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)

ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:

(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…


Bryman, Alan (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How Is It Done? Qualitative Research 2006. SAGE Publications, London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi Vol. 6(1). Online available at: 

Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel and Way, Niobe (2008) Mixing Qualitative and Quanitative Research in Development Science: Uses and Methodological Choices. Developmental Psychology 2008. Vol. 44 No. 3. Online available at:

Niglas, Katrin (2004) The Combined Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Educational Research. Tallinn Pedagogical University. Online available at: 

Weinreich, Nedra Kline (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Social Marketing Research. Weinreich Communications 2006. Online available at:

Proposing and Justifying a Research Method and Design
Words: 1766 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33133730
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gender discrepancies in regards to African-American education. There has been a noticeable, growing increase of the presence of African-American women in undergraduate and graduate education while the gap between African-American males and females has widened. The dissertation will use a mixed methods, grounded theory perspective to determine why this is the case. The overall theoretical perspective of the work will be rooted in critical race theory and poststructuralist concepts.

Quantitatively assessed questionnaires and coded qualitative interviews will attempt to answer the question of why African-American male participation in higher education lags behind that of African-American females. These trends will be contextualized in the overall, larger trend of increased female participation as a whole on the undergraduate and graduate levels, to the point that women are now graduating in greater numbers than their male colleagues.

As well as research questions specific to the dissertation, the relative merits of qualitative and quantitative…


Charmaz, Kathy. (2003). Grounded theory. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. Sage. Retrieved from: 

The gender gap. (2012). Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Retrieved from:

Social Epidemiology -- Methods Describe
Words: 2812 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93273090
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Indeed, as Muntaner (2003) posited in her research, qualitative methods can be included in a dominantly quantitative research design "in situations where qualitative research adds knowledge that would not be available via quantitative methods" (p. 55). Through a mixed-methods design, the researcher can provide better analyses and stronger interpretations and recommendations through balanced strengths of data reliability and validity -- that is, the achievement of "triangulation" in the research study.

IIA. ased on your reading of books such as eaglehole (1993), describe what you know about observational epidemiology as a research approach and compare it to experimental studies. Describe some of the designs within each, e.g., RCT, case-control studies, etc.

Observational and analytical/relational studies provide different results and answer different research questions and hypotheses when compared to the experimental approach. In observation and analytical/relational studies, the highest kind of analysis that can be done is correlational and not causal.



Bonita, R. And R. Beaglehole. (2006). Basic epidemiology. Geneva: WHO Press.

Muntaner, C. (2003). "Qualitative and quantitative research in social epidemiology: is complementarity the only issue?" Gac Sanit, Vol. 17, Supl. 3.

Olsen, J. And K. Christensen. (2010). An introduction to epidemiology for health professionals. NY: Springer.

Rosnow, R. And R. Rosenthal. (1996). Beginning Behavioral Research. NJ: Prentice Hall.

Quantitative and Qualitative research methods
Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91276064
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Consider how qualitative and quantitative research methods complement one another, and consider the role of mixed methods designs.
Quantitative and qualitative social science study techniques have, for long, remained discrete, barely overlapping, spheres. But, of late, innovations have shed light on quantitative and qualitative techniques’ complementarity (Maxwell, 1998). Complementarily employing both methods offers broader understandings besides facilitating research findings’ confirmation or triangulation using different techniques, thus improving overall result validity and making the research more useful for targeted entities. However, the quest for genuinely complementary research techniques is also a greatly challenging task as it implies extra expenses, in terms of human as well as monetary resources, in addition to the development of ethical quandaries pertaining to follow- up and a need for collaboration and respecting diverse epistemological and methodological stands (Maxwell, 1998).
Using a qualitative process prior to engaging in survey work is, without a doubt, the most widely…

Methodologies and Research Methods Used in School Advisory Systems
Words: 3715 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47796924
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Ethics comprises of an intricate set of principles, morals and institutional outlines that standardize scientific activity. Educational and social researchers face complex challenges occasionally, when they encounter the conflict of their legal and moral responsibility towards protection of their participants on one hand, and maintaining the standards, criteria of quality and significance of research on the other hand. Although, the research design or findings does not always restrained or deteriorated by ethical principles. At times, ethics are supportive in enhancing the quality of research, while some other times it's not. Additionally, researchers "bear a special responsibility for protecting the interests of vulnerable groups throughout the research process" (Tangen, 2014, p. 678).

At all times, educational practitioners have realized the weighed down value of education and that the quality of education rests on ethical standards. The consciousness of educational researchers regarding the ethical dimensions of their research is increasing day by…


Abed, M. G. (2014-2015). A Consideration to Two Main Ethical Issues in Educational Research, And How May These Be Addressed. i-manager's Journal on Educational Psychology, 8(3),1-14.

Comer, S. K. (2009). The Ethics of Conducting Educational Research on Your Own Students. Journal of Nursing Law, 13(4), 100-105. doi: 10.1891/1073-7472.13.4.100

Dooly, D. L. (2013). Academic Achievement in Arkansas High Schools Based on the Implementation Level of a Teacher Advisory Program. Retrieved 1 July 2016 from 

ESRC. (2015). ESRC Framework for Research Ethics. Retrieved 1 July 2016 from

research design and methods used in leadership
Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69889618
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Data Collection in Leadership
As a social science, leadership research may involve any type of quantitative or qualitative data collection method. Qualitative research data collection methods include observation, participant-observation, interview, and document or content analysis (“Data Collection Methods,” n.d.). Quantitative data collection methods used in leadership research may include surveys and experiments, which allow for statistical analysis, the establishment of causality between independent and dependent variables, and the tracking of results over time. Whereas quantitative data collection methods had once been the most commonly used in the social sciences, recent trends in leadership research have shifted towards qualitative methods (Antonakis, Schriescheim, Donovan, et al., 2003). Qualitative methods often reveal nuances, patterns, and ideas that quantitative methods overlook or take for granted, making mixed-methods approaches extremely attractive in emerging literature on leadership and organizational behavior.
Methods of data collection and research design trends eventually feed the formation of new theories in…

Analyzing the Study Method
Words: 3750 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 24146111
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data collection and the sources to be utilized for this project. The highlighted gaps in knowledge will be investigated with the help of two research methods. The research methods have been chosen on the basis that they have the best chance of answering the research questions. Lastly, the procedures that will be utilized to analyse the results and also the limitations of the methods will be highlighted. Ethical considerations will also be given (Frandsen & Johansen, 2010).

There is a need for a comprehensive evaluation in order to capture the sophisticated processes of public relations crisis communication and also to provide a broader perspective on the matter in addition to helping with the investigation of the related issues. A mixed-method study approach (a mix of quantitative and qualitative study methodologies) will be employed for the purposes of providing an overview of the subject matter and also to help provide data…


Bryman, A. (2008). Social research methods (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press

Collis, J., & Hussey, R. (2003). Business research -- a practical guide for undergraduate and postgraduate students (2nd ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Cutler, A. (2004). Methodical failure: The use of case study method by public relations researchers. Public Relations Review, 30(3), 365-375. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2004.05.008

Falkenheimer, J., & Heide, M. (2010). Crisis communicators in change: From plans to improvisations. In W. T. Coombs, & S. J. Holladay (Eds.). The handbook of crisis communication. (pp. 512-526). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

Electronically Business Research Methods Faculty
Words: 3062 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30899940
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Administration which relates to issues such as security, rules during work, holidays and vacations, office layout and services and personal record. Lastly human resources section is shouldered with the responsibility of industrial and labour relations which looks in to issues such as collective bargaining, grievance procedures and presentation of elections.

2.2 Challenges facing Human esources

According to Duncan (2005), "The identification close to eight areas which pose great challenge to the hotel industry including the five star hotels"; these are employment which includes increase in minimum wage, increasing flexibility of working hours, over dependence of foreign expatriates, employee training. As mentioned by Kim and Oh (2994), the issue of taxation that is in some cases high increases the rates of value added tax on the industry thus discouraging tourism. Environmental factors do also pose a challenge in the hotel sector for instance the banning of smoking in public places as…


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Chauhan, J. 2009. Introduction to Hotel Industry. Internet.

Methods of Instruction and Intervention
Words: 1655 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 56250778
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proponents of evidence based instruction represent one end of the methods of teaching continuum where practices that have been tested empirically using rigorous research designs are considered to be the only valid method of instruction (Odom et al., 2005). On the other end of the spectrum are methods that may be have some basis for use such an intuition, theory, etc. But have not been subject to empirical scrutiny are considered valid to use. Evidence based instruction or scientific research-based instruction consists of instructional practices or programs for which empirical data have been collected to determine the effectiveness of the program (Odom et al., 2005). In these types of practices/programs rigorous research designs have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the practices. Such research designs can include randomized, controlled trials; quasi-experiments; single subject designs; correlational methods, and/or qualitative research. The most empirically sound designs, randomized controlled experiments, are used…


August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Executive summary. Developing literacy in second- language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Condelli, L., & Wrigley, H.S. (2004). Identifying promising interventions for adult ESL literacy students: A review of the literature. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences.

Foorman, B.R., & Torgesen, J. (2001). Critical elements of classroom and small-group instruction promote reading success in all children. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16, 203 -- 213.

Odom, S.L., Brantlinger, E., Gersten, R., Homer, R.H., Thompson, B., & Harris, K.R. (2005). Research in special education: Scientific methods and evidence-based practices. Exceptional Children, 71, 137-149.

Method to Motivate Multigeneration Workforce
Words: 1295 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79336692
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The multigenerational workforce in the United States presents a critical challenge for managers because each generation requires different expectations. Over the last few decades, the U.S. workforce has become so unique and diverse involving the mix of generation, gender, and ethnicity for the first time in the history of United States, workplace demographic spans four generations. The 2008 and 2009 U.S. economic crisis makes many older workers delaying retirement leading to a rich mixture of generation across different sectors. Consequently, this shift affects the workplace culture since values, attitudes as well as workplace style differ across a different generation. Moreover, each generation brings their work behaviors, values, motivation and relationship styles to the workplace assisting in enhancing the organizational development. Despite the benefits associated with the multi-generation work environment, a present of diverse generation can bring a challenge to managers with respect to communication, respect and work styles. Organizations can…

Methods Identity Theft Takes Place
Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 74440439
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Identity theft is a kind of theft that involves someone stealing the identity of someone else by assuming that person's identity (Lai, Li, & Hsieh, 2012). This is usually a method of gaining access to the person's resources like credit cards and other things in the person's name. This is considered a white-collar crime and it has gained popularity amongst criminals. Identity theft does not involve any physical theft. Therefore, the victim might not realize the theft until significant damage has occurred. Identity thieves make use of a variety of methods, and not all of them are computer based. Thieves can go through the person's trash or mail searching for bank and credit card information, statements, and tax information. The information stolen can then be used to commit crimes like accessing credit under the person's name and using their details. Another method used to steal information is stealing the person's…


Lai, F., Li, D., & Hsieh, C.-T. (2012). Fighting identity theft: The coping perspective. Decision Support Systems, 52(2), 353-363.

Tajpour, A., Ibrahim, S., & Zamani, M. (2013). Identity Theft Methods and Fraud Types. International Journal of Information Processing & Management, 4(7).

Methods of Obtaining Data for a Classroom Study
Words: 483 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64275481
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Baxter, P., Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13(4): 544-559.

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among

Five Approaches. CA: SAGE.

Merriam, S. (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Examples for discussion and analysis. CA: Jossey-Bass.

Methods of Tuning a Database
Words: 790 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98524321
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Tuning a database is a series of activities that are carried out to optimize and standardize the performance of a database. The main goal of database tuning is to maximize the efficiency and performance of a database through promoting the effective use of system resources. While most systems are developed in a manner that they manage their use of system resources, there is room for enhancing their efficiency and performance. The process of database tuning involves customizing the settings and configuration of a database and its system resources. Database tuning is carried out because of various reasons including data changes, changes in codes such as releases and upgrades, and changes in usage patterns. In addition, database tuning is sometimes carried out because query optimization is imprecise and the inefficiency of underlying technologies. There are several methodologies that are utilize for tuning a database including SQL tuning, query tuning, physical tuning,…


Linwood, G. (n.d.). The Art of SQL Server Performance Tuning. Retrieved June 5, 2017, from

Sinha, B. (2016, February 8). SQL Performance Tuning: Query Optimization 101. Retrieved June 5, 2017, from 

Oracle Help Center. (n.d.). Database Performance Tuning Guide. Retrieved June 5, 2017, from

Marketing Mix in Marketing Importance of Marketing
Words: 1046 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76825607
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Marketing Mix in Marketing

Importance of Marketing Mix

Discussing Four P's

Importance of Marketing Mix in Marketing




Need of Marketing Mix in a Business

Need of Marketing Mix in Marketing

Organizations are driven by customers who are the basic revenue generators and give the organizations an opportunity to launch the products and services. Marketing mix is a plan that enables the organizations to convey their presence and offers to the customers. It is to attract customers so that the objective of profit maximization can be fulfilled and businesses can sustain in the market.

Importance of Marketing Mix in Marketing

An important part of the external stimuli, which formulates the perception of the buyer, is the marketing mix part of the marketing plan (Botha, Strydom, Bothma, & Brink, 2006). These are the inputs launched by the marketers to attract the target market. They are commonly known as 4Ps.…


Botha, J., Strydom, J., Bothma, C., & Brink, A. (2006). Introduction To Marketing. Cape town: Juta and Company Ltd.

Gordon, K.T. (2009, September 28). 3 Steps to the Right Marketing Mix. Retrieved from 

McDaniel, C.D., & Gates, R.H. (1998). Marketing Research Essentials (2nd ed.). Ohio: Taylor & Francis.

Talloo, T.J. (2007). Business Organisation And Management (For Delhi University B.Com Hons. Course). New Delhi: Tata Mcgraw-Hill.

research methodologies and design
Words: 1175 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 15623155
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Mixed methods research design is popular in many research settings because it offers a set of advantages as well as a flexibility that cannot be matched by other available methods. This method combines some of the features from both quantitative and qualitative research methods to create unique methods that can integrate many theoretical or conceptual frameworks. This analysis will use a case study form of a mixed methods approach from studies that were performed in different academic fields to illustrate this form of research. The case study approach is popular in various environments due to the fact that it has more flexibility to explore and explain complex social phenomenon that are difficult to account for in strict quantitative approaches. Furthermore, it also allows room for the social constructivist approach that allows participants some freedom to add information that is relevant to their particular perspective to be added to the data.…

Works Cited

Mayo, J. (2002). Case-based Instruction: A Technique for Increasing Conceptual Application in Introductory Psychology. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 65-74.

O'Connor, B., & Cordova, R. (2010). Learning: The Experiences of Adults Who Work Full-Time While Attending Graduate School Part-Time. Journal of Education for Business, 359-368.

van der Voot, J., Glac, K., & Meijs, L. (2009). ''Managing'' Corporate Community Involvement. Journal of Business Ethics, 311-329.

Successful Marketing Mix That Will
Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92190078
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he development organizations of Microsoft and are very comparable in this regard. Microsoft is like AMD specifically with their Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems. hey are methodical, deliberate and will take years to eventually get all the integration with their own operating systems complete. Yet when Microsoft fulfills its product development vision for CRM, every other Microsoft application including Microsoft Outlook, Instant Messenger and all other personal productivity applications will work directly with CRM., the upstart hosted applications vendor also in the CRM arena, has a much more rapid product development cycle. he philosophy at is to quickly get new applications out and see what the reaction is from customers, and then quickly fine-tune the applications until they align as best as possible with customers' needs. Microsoft deliberately does its revisions internally with slow changes seen from the outside.'s mercurial approach to product development, in conjunction…

The fundamental fact of the matter is that pricing cannot sustain a business model for more than several quarters, even in the most commoditized of industries, according to research completed by Marn, Roegner, and Zawada of McKinsey and Company (the Power of Pricing, Pages 27-36) in McKinsey (2003). Of the many insights from the McKinsey research regarding pricing, the following lessons learned from Marn, Roegner and Zawadas' work apply to Wal-Mart's approach to loss-leader pricing also defined by Aimi (2005) and Sarnevitz (2005).

First, the issue of the price/quality relationship needs to be evaluated. With Wal-Mart driving down the price of toys as a loss-leader, these practice forces manufacturers to permanently modify their production processes to always produce toys with lower price points, as the majority of their sales are during the holidays. This forces a permanent reduction in the eventual quality of toys, further supporting the findings of the McKinsey researchers of there indeed being a price/quality relationship emerging over time. it's forced on manufacturers over time due to price reductions draining their ability to increase quality. This is the essence of why loss-leader pricing strategies on the part of Wal-Mart are going to eventually drive down the ability of manufacturers to provide quality products. Eventually Wal-Mart's pricing policies will define the quality levels of toys, and this is already going to be visible as early as the holiday session now just beginning. Penetration pricing as defined by Thompson (2004) as being most beneficial when the conditions of a market being highly sensitive to low prices producing higher market growth, production and distribution costs fall as sales volume increases, and low prices serve as barrier to entry of competitors, all of which favor Wal-Mart's approach to sourcing and distribution.

In taking Thompson's definitions of pricing strategies (2004) into account relative to Wal-Mart, several key insights emerge. First, through the use of business analytics and the trial program in 2003 of significantly dropping prices, Wal-Mart discovered a high level of price elasticity in toys, and the fact that this specific type of merchandise was a great draw for holiday shoppers. Analysts have commented that Wal-Mart may have done too far with their pricing strategies according to Grant (2005) and that they have left money on the table with their extreme

Marketing Mix Is a Model
Words: 1928 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44511410
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The marketing mix has many variables that can be changed and adapted in every company, but in this process it is important to keep in mind the position the company wants on the market and its objectives.

The marketing mix planning is the process of developing long-term strategic plans that can help the company to achieve its goals. Each element in the marketing mix - product, price, promotion, and place -should be very well used in the attempt to satisfy the needs of consumers.


Ford Parts (n.d.). Retrieved March 6, 2007 at

FW15-MARKETING MIX (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2007, at

Marketing mix (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2007 at

Marketing mix (Price, Place, Promotion, Product) (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2007, at

Overview (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2007, at

The marketing mix (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2007, at

Volker Mike, MARKETING & 4Ps of MARKETING…


Ford Parts (n.d.). Retrieved March 6, 2007 at 

FW15-MARKETING MIX (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2007, at

Marketing mix (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2007 at 

Marketing mix (Price, Place, Promotion, Product) (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2007, at

Marketing Channels and Methods
Words: 2664 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16942492
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Marketing Channels and Methods -- the New Svelte Shape of McDonald's

Objectives & Mission Statement

Although McDonald's latest advertising slogan, as proclaimed on its 2005 website, is "I'm lovin' it," (McDonald's Official ebsite, 2005), shareholders in the fast food company have not be equally enamored of its current stock performance and plummeting sales. (The Rogue Investor, 2005) Thus, the objectives of the new McDonald's marketing campaign must be to undo some of the economic and public relations damage done to the company by the negative press generated by the success of Morgan Spurlock's film 'Supersize Me.' Over the course of the year, McDonald's wishes to gain a greater percentage of the revenue of the current fast food market than its most prominent burger-oriented competitors endy's and Burger King. McDonald's also wishes to gain some of the type of positive media as generated by the sandwich chain Subway. The Subway Diet…

Works Cited

Bauman, Valerie. (11 Aug 2005) "People try to lose weight at McDonalds." AP Wire. Accessed on AOL on 22 Aug 2005 at 

Burger King. (2005) Official Website. Retrieved 11 Sept 2005 at 

Collins, Luke. (2002) "Chips are down for Burger Giants" MCD: McDonald's Corporation News and Articles. Retrieved 27 Aug 2005 at 

Daft, R.L. (1997). Management. Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press.

Mat Meth Materials & Methods
Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Lab Report Paper #: 40319587
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Visual observations were recorded.

4.4 Identification of Macromolecules in Household Substances

Nine test tubes were labeled in sets of three: "B1," "B2," "B3"; "S1," "S2," "S3"; and "L1," "L2," "L3." Two ml of baby formula solution was added to ach of the "B" tubes, tow ml of sports drink solution to each of the "S" tubes, and two ml of lemon-lime soda solution to each of the "L" tubes. The procedures used for the positive tubes (those labeled with a "+") in the experiment above, section 4.3, were then applied to these tubes -- tubes "B1" "S1" and "L1" all received two ml of Benedict's reagent, were heated at 100 degrees Celsius for three minutes and placed in test tube racks; tubes "B2" "S2" and "L2" all received a dropper full of iodine and were gently shaken before being placed in the test tube rack; and tubes "B3" "S3" and…

Marketing Mix Principles of Marketing Summer 2012
Words: 2144 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74166083
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Marketing Mix

Principles of Marketing

Summer 2012

Anthony L. Hamilton Sr.

Dr. Kay Green

Establishing a New Business

The business name will be "Bird Wise" and provides a pet-related service. It will be located in Florida with the plan to expand services to new markets in the regional area as well as to develop a national online presence.

The mission statement of the company is: "To help people improve their relationship with their companion birds by providing the people the skills to reduce unwanted behaviors and increase wanted behaviors in their birds."

The primary objectives of the business are as follows. First, develop a professional network of referrals through vets, pet shops, bird breeders, humane societies, and bird clubs. The second objective will be to develop a web presence using direct promotion and social media. A third objective will be to generate an effective price structure for the various services…

SCM as a Method of Inventory Control
Words: 2494 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17825677
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SCM as a Method of Inventory Control

SCM and Inventory Control

This paper examines the use of supply chain management (SCM) as a tool for inventory control. SCM, which coordinates and integrates the activities of supply chain members, plays an increasingly important role in companies' reducing their costs and making better informed decisions. Companies benefit from SCM and inventory control by better meeting customer demands for product availability and pricing, and by competing more effectively and efficiently through more profitable operations.

Inventory is important to profitability. The faster a company turns its inventory, the greater the company's profitability. Inventory is a significant component of SCM success. Customers demand that their orders be completed on time and accurately, which requires that companies have the right inventory at the right price at the right time. Therein lies the challenge for SCM, being able to successfully manage inventory. These challenges apply to all…

Reference List

Alade, J.A., Sharma, D.K., and Sharma, H.P. (2004). Role of supply chain management decisions in effective inventory control. Journal of Academy of Business and Economics., (4)1. Available at

Craig, T. (2002). Inventory -- Critical issue in supply chain management. LTD Management. Available at 

Dooley, F. (2006). Logistics, inventory control, and supply chain management. Choices Magazine. Available at 

Handfield, R. (2011). Why do you need to know about supply chain management (SCM)? North Carolina State University. Available at

Vocabulary Learning Methods With Beginning
Words: 2662 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 49283405
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231) Yet, research recently has stated findings that "non-mnemonic semantic elaboration methods" are more effective that the mnemonic keyword technique on lexical retention for L2.

VIII. Differentiation of Mnemonic and Non-mnemonic Elaboration Techniques

Mnemonic and non-mnemonic elaboration techniques are differentiated by the manner of association of new words with previous knowledge in that: "mnemonic elaboration techniques establish this connection through verbal and visual imagery" however, the elaboration of non-mnemonic techniques makes this connection through use of semantic characteristics and may be through the organization of a list of scrambled words known as the 'ordering method' or through generation of sentences with the target word in a manner that the inference of the word can be made by the sentence or the 'sentence writing method'. (Sagarra and Alba, 2006, p. 231)

Furthermore, the connection can be made through construction of a diagram displaying the target word's semantic association known as the…


Sagarra, Nuria and Alba, Matthew (2006) the Key Is in the Keyword: L2 Vocabulary Learning Methods With Beginning Learners of Spanish. The Modern Language Journal

Volume 90 Issue 2, Pages 228-2431 June 2006.

Article Review

Total Compensation Methods and Benefits Programs Impact
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Total Compensation Methods and Benefits Programs

Impact on employees and organizations

Salary and benefit administration strategies

elationship with organizational culture and performance

Total compensation methods used by the organizations are different in terms of their design and approach. The main objective of the compensation programs developed in organizations is to facilitate employee motivation and provide a cost effective reward system that is beneficial for both employees as well as the business. The business objectives, values, and goals are the basic element of compensation methods adopted in an organization. The total compensation strategy adopted by a business also elaborates the approach adopted by the business to offer benefits for its employees in return to their services. The following sections provide a detailed understanding of total compensation methods and benefits programs and their impacts on employees and organizations. The second most important element addressed in the research is concerning the administration of…


Armstrong, M., & Stephens, T. (2005). A handbook of employee reward management and practice. USA:Kogan Page.

Heneman, R.L. (2002). Strategic reward management: Design, implementation, and evaluation. USA: IAP.

Mathis, R.L., & Jackson, J.H. (2011). Human resource management: Essential perspectives. USA: Cengage Learning.

Marketing Mix in Successful Business According to
Words: 2092 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41543459
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Marketing Mix in Successful usiness

According to the Oxford Dictionary of usiness, marketing is defined as "the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, products, and services to create exchanges that will satisfy the needs of individuals and organizations." (Dictionary of usiness) The marketing of a product concerns itself with such responsibilities as foreseeing changes in the demand for the product, promotion of the product, quality assurance, accessibility, and the price of the product must also accommodate the needs of the market. (Dictionary of usiness)

Marketing is a quintessential part of the business world and crucial to the success of any firm.

For the purposes of this discussion we will explore the four parameters of the marketing mix. We will also investigate the various methodologies of marketing. Finally we will provide the results and conclusions drawn from the research.

The Marketing Mix

The marketing…


Cross, Lisa. "Segmentation: When Less is More." Graphic Arts Monthly. June, 1999. 

Dictionary of Business, Oxford University Press, © Market House Books Ltd. 1996

Glaskowsky, Peter N. "Truth counts -- even in Marketing." Electronic Business. December 2001. 

New eMarketer research looks at e-mail marketing methods." Telecomworldwide. Jan. 30, 2002.

Marketing Mix Analysis of the
Words: 1730 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 14211033
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Brand equity of trusted advisor for CM application delivery.

Source: Framework based on the concepts presented in (Yoo, Donthu, Lee, 2000)


Aaker, D.A. (2012). Win the brand relevance battle and then build competitor barriers. California Management eview, 54(2), 43-57.

Aremu, M.A., & Bamiduro, J.A. (2012). Marketing mix practice as a determinant of entrepreneurial business performance. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(1), 205-213.

Friedman, H.H., & Friedman, L.W. (1987). Marketing methods for software. The Journal of Systems and Software, 7(3), 207-207.

Ghose, K. (2009). Internal brand equity defines customer experience. Direct Marketing, 3(3), 177-185. D

Katzmarzik, a. (2011). Product differentiation for software-as-a-service providers. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 3(1), 1-31.

Joseph, J.V. (2009). econciling marketing vs. branding return on investment. ochester, ochester, NY.

Yoo, B.,…


Aaker, D.A. (2012). Win the brand relevance battle and then build competitor barriers. California Management Review, 54(2), 43-57.

Aremu, M.A., & Bamiduro, J.A. (2012). Marketing mix practice as a determinant of entrepreneurial business performance. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(1), 205-213.

Friedman, H.H., & Friedman, L.W. (1987). Marketing methods for software. The Journal of Systems and Software, 7(3), 207-207.

Ghose, K. (2009). Internal brand equity defines customer experience. Direct Marketing, 3(3), 177-185. D

Strategic Marketing Mix Analysis
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86516659
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Marketing Proposal

Safi Rania Diamond Cell Youth Booster is a new skincare product for women aged 40 years and above who are seeking to prevent and lessen signs of aging. The paper provides a strategic marketing mix analysis that is geared towards successful marketing and advertising the product. This marketing mix analysis is to be presented to the Board of Directors of Graffiti Group, Inc., which has just purchased an operating facility in Malaysia that manufactures the product. The analysis is geared towards influencing the decision of the board in an attempt to have them approve investment and marketing of this product in Canada. Upon approval, the company will market this product to target market of women aged 40 years and above, especially those who want to prevent and lessen signs of aging, under the brand name PureBeauty Diamond Cell Youth Booster. The analysis includes an overview of the product,…

Economics Coca Cola Uses the Equity Method
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Coca Cola uses the equity method of accounting and, inherent in that and similar to it the SABC (activity-based costing) method.

There are three cost accounting techniques:

The Cost method -- the company records all income as received and gains or losses are only realized when the item is actually sold or destructed. When a company owns 20% or less of another company, the Cost method is the preferred method.

Consolidation -- here financial statements of the parents and its subsidiaries are combined so that the net assets of both are reported together.

The Equity Method -- used when a company owns more than 20% but less than 50% of another company. The income from these products is recorded as a single line item on the financial statements. Coca-Cola owns less than 50% of its bottlers so it uses the Equity method. This method of accounting is usually applied…

Lockhart, Julie and Taylor, Audrey, (2007). Environmental considerations in product mix decisions using ABC and TOC. Management Accounting Quarterly. 

Weiss P. (nd) Accounting at Coke

Simulation of Mixed Traffic Flow
Words: 1588 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 70446221
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The tests found that major differences, especially in dynamic modulus, exist in the different mixtures of asphalt, and even among samples of the same mixture. The results suggest that that the constitutive makeup of paving materials interact to have a greater effect on the performance of the material than might otherwise be suspected. In addition, it was found that certain results of the dynamic modulus tests were not accurately predicted by the current models, reflecting a need for greater accuracy in these models.

Personal Opinion:

The amount of difference in performance of paving material that can be created by relatively small differences in the makeup of that material was fairly surprising. Equally surprising -- and more dismaying -- is the fact that the current models missed so much about the dynamic modulus. The MEPDG was certainly a necessary implementation; one wonders what other states are as behind in their testing…

Planned Method of Student Assessment
Words: 590 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 67246225
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Here, it would be possible to establish a range of categories and subcategories relating to student socialization, academic performance, emotional development, improvement and a host of other crucial learning and developmental areas. The great value in the observational checklist is that it essentially creates a context in which all students are assessed according to the same standards of consideration. This improves the objective veracity of the yielded findings.

Finally, portfolio logs will become possible over the course of a later school year, with the larger sample of completed work allowing for the observation of certain longterm patterns or periods of transition. By taking the time to assess the formulation of these patterns over the course of the school year, the teacher can begin to create a valuable data set through which to observe any number of importance issues relating to strengths, weaknesses, needs and areas of excellence for each student.…

Sharing Methods or Networking From
Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: White Paper Paper #: 14123899
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The next section discusses how you can limit what media local network users can access.

Media Streaming Options

After you've enabled any type of streaming feature, you should look over the general media streaming options of Windows: click Stream > More streaming options.

Here you can give your media player a name. You'll also see a list of detected media devices and players. You can allow or block each player from accessing your media. Plus you can click the Customize link to limit access of files based upon the star ratings you give them.

Last, we see the patented file sharing method product from Wei-hsiang and Shih-hua. This final File Sharing Method we will explore is a patented product with the United States Patent Office; came about from two gentlemen from Taipei City, Chi Wei-hsiang and Yu Shih-hua.


New Construction Methods Materials and
Words: 2355 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 1015748
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A second major facto in the growing trend for a new greener industry is that these measures also represent a more efficient operation from a financial perspective as well. For instance, recycling aluminum cans on the job is an example of a sustainable practice that contributes in a positive way to the bottom line (Shepherd, 2009). ecycling aluminum cans on the jobsite help to feed the local economy as well. These new cost-cutting measures are necessary, as green construction typically drives up the price of a new home by 10% (Shepherd, 2009). Companies must take measures to reduce costs in as many areas as possible.

How Can These New Innovations Affect a Career in the Construction Industry?

Changes within the construction industry will have an impact on those involved in the industry of the future. These new innovations represent changes in attitude toward the job site, project flow and project…


AGC (2009). National Construction Group calls for New Federal Incentives to Encourage

Recycling of construction Materials, Purchase of More Efficient Construction

Equipment.Concrete Producer Online. March 23, 2009. Retrieved April 14, 2009 from

Baccinelli, M. (2008). New Features and Technologies Boost Refrigerator Efficiency. Building Products. March/April 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2009 from

Grievance Process an Effective Method
Words: 1299 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 21539965
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How would you suggest that unions and employers improve their ability to correctly interpret the collective agreement?

From the perspective of employees, one of the principal benefits of collective bargaining and union representation is assuring a reasonable balance of power between labor and management in workplace decision-making. Many collective bargaining agreements attempt to achieve such a balance by, among other things, giving employees the right to participate in certain decisions about how work will be assigned, how jobs will be classified, and how workers will be paid. The collective bargaining agreement at issue in Case Study 11-1 attempts to strike a balance between giving employees a role in important decision-making while reserving traditional management prerogatives to control fundamental decisions about profit and loss.

The problem in Case Study 11-1 arises because the terms of the collective bargaining agreement are somewhat ambiguous about how certain decisions are classified and about…

Works Cited

Richard S. Rosenberg, Matthew T. Wakefield and Sabrina A. Beldner. "Courts Flip-Flop on 'Weingarten' Rights for Nonunion Employees." Accessed at  (November 7, 2010).

IBM Corp., 341 NLRB No. 148 (2004).

Application of Ethnographic Methods
Words: 1584 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95222838
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Practicing Ethnographic Methods

JFK (John F. Kennedy) International Airport is one of the busiest international airports in the United States and serves as a gateway for the New York City and other Tri-State within the metropolitan regions. Apart from enjoying services from the Jet Blue, and Virgin America, the JFK airport is the major destination for visitors from various continents such as Europe, South America, Asia, Middle East and Africa. The JFK airport receives over 41 million visitors yearly making the airport the busiest international gateway in the New York. However, airports are the social-based organization where the visitors and employees come from various social and cultural backgrounds, which influence the airport decision making.

Objective of this paper is to carry out the ethnographic research by presenting the results of the observation of the social and cultural settings at the John F. Kenney International Airport.


I use the ethnographic…


Kusenbach, M. (2003). Street Phenomenology the Go-Along as Ethnographic Research Tool. Ethnography, 4: 455-485.

Conducting Research through Various Methods
Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 16978428
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obtained from this course, there are several different ways for conducting research that a researcher can choose from. While the research question is the major factor that drives the research methodology, the selection of a research method for a specific study also requires consideration of other factors. This is a major issue in the research field because researchers continue to struggle in identifying the most suitable methodology for a study. In essence, one of the major questions when conducting a research is, "What is the most suitable research methodology for the study?" This question is significant because of the role research methodology plays in generating credible and accurate results. According to Holden (2004), research methodology affects the study results and how conclusions are derived from the research findings.

When making decisions regarding the most suitable methodology for the study, one of the most important considerations for the research is the…


Holden, M.T. (2004). Choosing the Appropriate Methodology: Understanding Research Philosophy. Retrieved from Waterford Institute of Technology website: (RIKON_Group).pdf

Williams, L. (2010, January 1). 7 Research Challenges (And How to Overcome Them). Retrieved from Walden University website:

Education - Teaching Methods Teaching
Words: 3549 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56868805
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Yet, that is arguably why the characters act as they do (Mcilliams 197). Mcilliams further notes that human incompetence is comedy (197). Since the characters are not real people but Twain's creations, students should feel free to laugh at the ignorance and misfortunes of Huck and Jim in the same way that they are free to laugh when someone deliberately falls down in an attempt at comedy.

Comedy may not be immediately obvious in Twain's portrayal of Pap Finn. Yet he is one of Twain's strongest examples of satire and irony. Carter argues that Pap Finn establishes himself as an example of all that is wrong with the Southern social system; in becoming that example, readers can look to him to see what needs to change in order for people to become better and society to improve (137). In younger classrooms, this may at first be difficult to grasp. However,…

Works Cited

Bollinger, Laurel. "Say It, Jim: The Morality of Connection in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn." College Literature 29.1 (2002): 32-52.

Carter, Everett. "Huckleberry Fun." Making Mark Twain Work in the Classroom. Ed. James S. Leonard. Durham, NC: Duke Univeersity Press, 1999, 131-139.

Edgar, Christopher, and Ron Padgett. Classics in the Classroom: Using Great Literature to Teach Writing. New York: Teachers & Writers Collaborative, 1999.

Ferris, William R. "Trying to Tame Huck Finn." Humanities 21.1 (2000): 4-.

Treatment Methods for Presbyopia
Words: 3060 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37476713
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Presbyopia is a disorder, where the lens of the eye loses its capacity to focus. This incapacity makes it hard to see items up close. Some scholars have suggested that presbyopia means "age of sight." Presbyopia is not similar to farsightedness because it involves the loss of accommodation and ability for the eye to correct to enhance clarity at various distances. In this context, the young eye requires to change its interval or shape to focus on close objects. The capability of the lens to change shape gives the lens elasticity, which when lost results to presbyopia. When people grow old, they tend to lose this elasticity, and this explains why the eye gradually loses its capacity to focus on close objects (ennett, 2008).

How Presbyopia Occurs

Presbyopia happens when the cornea and lens refract light so that the light appears behind the retina

People realize they have this condition…


Adnan, A.A. et al. (2013). Prevalence of refractive errors of the eye among adults in Iraq. Journal of natural sciences research, 3(4), pp. 117-124.

Bennett, M.Q. (2008). New thoughts on the correction of presbyopia drivers.Diving and hyperbaric medicine, 38(3), pp. 163-164.

Brahma, A., & McGhee, C.N. (2000).Surgical Correction of refractive errors (Review).J Royal

Soc Medicine, 93 (3):118-23

Marketing Mixes Compared & Contrasted
Words: 2290 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67703829
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Marketing eport Summary & Approach

The author of this report has been asked to prepare a report central to some marketing concepts and questions. The first question asks the author to compare and contrast the promotional strategies that are used by two different companies for a similar product within the category that has been selected. The second question asks for there to be two recommendations via which the companies can use the marketing information to differentiate itself in the marketplace so as to gain an advantage over its competitors. There will be a rationale provided for those recommendations. The third question asks the author of this report to provide two uses for customer-oriented promotions that could assist a company in both the short- and long-term for the product group that has been selected. Fourth, there will be an analysis of the strategic manner in which a leading company in the…


BusinessWeek. (2015). Americans Should Buy U.S. Cars, Period - BusinessWeek. Retrieved 10 June 2015, from 

EERE. (2015). Clean Cities: Alternative Fuel Market Project Awards. Retrieved 10 June 2015, from

Hyundai. (2015). Retrieved 10 June 2015, from 

Ingram, D. (2015). The Advantages of Advertising on the Internet. Small Business - Retrieved 10 June 2015, from

Complementary and Alternative Pain Management Methods
Words: 1134 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 24829910
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Alternatives to Pain Medication

Given the growing concerns over opioid addictions in recent years and the potential for tolerance, clinicians continue to search for efficacious alternatives to convention pain medications (Moore & Anderson, 2016). Fortunately, a number of alternatives to conventional pan medication are readily available, including cannabis, yoga, hypnosis, mind-body meditation, therapeutic touch, herbal remedies, acupuncture, biofeedback, massage therapy, homeopathic practices (Tan & Craine, 2007) and aromatherapy (Esposito & Bystrek, 2014). To learn more about these alternatives, this paper provides an initial reference list of ten relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly sources concerning pain medication alternatives, followed by a description of clinical guidelines and an implementation plan for these alternatives. A discussion concerning the manner in which the implementation of the intervention should be tested is followed by an assessment of potential barriers and strategies intended to gain cooperation from individuals who will be implementing the change. Finally, a timeline…


Clinical practice guidelines. (2016). U.S. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Retrieved from .

Levin, R. F. & Feldman, H. R. (2006). Teaching evidence-based practice in nursing: A guide for academic and clinical settings. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Moore, B. A. & Anderson, D. (2016, Janury). Stepped care model for pain management and quality of pain care in long-term opioid therapy. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 53(1), 137-141.

Pain management guidelines. (2016). U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved from ?.

Relationship With Culture Has Been Mixed in
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relationship with culture has been mixed in terms of benefit. The word "cult" is the root word of culture and by nature, it is exclusionary. Culture provides boundaries between groups of people to set them apart, for better or for worse. Just because something is different does not mean it is better or more appropriate in terms of culture.

The culture that was impacted upon me was based in dogmatic religion. The arts, music and limited dancing all surrounded the idea of the martyrdom of Jesus Christ. In essence, my Christian background celebrated death instead of life. Much of the music that was presented at Church was depressing and spoke of great trials and tribulations. This culture was given to me by parents who in turn received it from theirs.

The culture handed to me was not sufficient as I grew older, and found that true expression was at the…


Banks, J.A. (2001). Cultural diversity and education. London: Alleyn & Bacon.

Oliveira, A. (2005). Music teaching as culture: introducing the pontes approach .International Journal of Music Education, 23(3), 205-216.

Kezar, A.J., & Eckel, P.D. (2002). The effect of institutional culture on change strategies in higher education: Universal principles or culturally responsive concepts?. The Journal of Higher Education, 73(4), 435-460.

The use of the Lean Method
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Page 1
Higher death rates at Community hospital may be cause for alarm. People often do not want to see negative statistics that may infer lower quality care. However, does higher death rates mean lower quality care or can it be something else? Something like this may be brought up because the logical conclusion would be that low quality care brought on by potential problems within the hospital such as understaffed departments or lower quality medical tools, could lead to the higher mortality rates. Still, it may be randomly attributed, and these higher rates of death could be from chance rather than quality of care.
Looking into the past, a 1990 article shows how higher rates of death may indeed be random variation along with potential area-specific chronic diseases. “Although death rates in targeted hospitals were 5.0 to 10.9 higher, 56% to 82% of the excess could result from purely…