Mixed Methods Study
The comparison of the administrative procedures of five traditional and five non-traditional colleges of Education in religious studies. All institutions have to be accredited via a national agency and be part of interactive online courses in conjunction with computer-based technologies.
This study will compare the differing forms of administrative procedures and their impact and manifestation on training, instructional support, additional compensation, teaching loads and the beneficial and negative influences on promotion and tenure with these ten traditional and non-traditional institutions that offer online learning, a hallmark of distance education. Distance education is becoming more and more ubiquitous and is marked by the utilization of technology as a means of providing education, training, experiences and more evolved forms of communication to people across vast distances. Thus, examining the effectiveness of the administrative processes with these institutions and their various influences on a range of issues, serves the purpose…… [Read More]
Variables that could increase the likelihood of insider threat can be certain personality traits or satisfaction levels revealed by employee questionnaires. If an employee, for example, believes that he or she is not receiving the full benefits merited by his or her service level or skill set within the company, it can be determined as more likely for this type of employee to act less ethically than those with a higher satisfaction level regarding their work and skill set match. These data can then be compared to historic quantitative data from companies that have suffered from cloud computing insider crimes. This comparison can then finally lead to a somewhat accurate determination of potential threat within the company being investigated, and appropriate steps for its mitigation recommended.
A quantitative focus, on the other hand, can begin with an investigation of historical data, analyzing the average loss of specific revenue amounts to…… [Read More]
The author used open and then axial coding so that a larger image of the environmental issues would emerge from the data. Secondly, Torres analyzed the quantitative data by developing a model that reconfigured Nora et al.'s previously used scales. The data was tested by using "latent variable structural equation modeling (SEM) to assess the data-model fit" (302) to examine the causal influences on why students stayed or did not stay in college.
The sixth step is to assess the author's reason for using mixed methods research. Torres used a mixed method design because the study was part of a customized longitudinal research project, and the use of both quantitative and qualitative data offered more insight into the choices of Latino/a college students. The seventh step is to determine how the two types of data were mixed. In this case, the qualitative data was collected and analyzed. By using the…… [Read More]
Mixed Methods Study Design
What's Wrong with Mixed Methodology
Morris and Burkett (2011) witnessed the relatively recent emergence of what has been called "mixed methods" research. A study using a mixed methods design would meet both quantitative and qualitative evaluative criteria. From the author's perspective and that of others cited in their publication, quantitative and qualitative research designs are effectively mutually exclusive. The only concession that Morris and Burkett (2011) seemed to allow was a study design where qualitative and quantitative were used in a complimentary fashion, essentially conducted side-by-side.
The two competing perspectives discussed by Morris and Burkett (2011) in their publication were (1) both study designs could be combined effectively if the appropriate research methods were used and (2) the controversy is overblown and getting in the way of research. The authors, however, did not see any value in these positions and instead tried to support their perspective…… [Read More]
Said factors certainly do nothing to discredit the relevance of this tool's use in qualitative research, but they do suggest that such research methodology may well be complimented by the implementation of additional data-gathering methods that is driven by quantitative measure.
Namely, it should be seen as a primary benefit of the questionnaire that its ergonometry of inquiries should serve in a degree as a means to internal variable control. However, it is this very same quality that may prevent researchers from yielding potentially pertinent, even crucial information and data from subjects. y failing to engage subjects with nuance or the capacity for inquisitive diversion, researchers may lose the opportunity to better understand the data gathered in questionnaires or, worse, may not be given the opportunity to spot probable mitigating factors within subjects or the framework of their research methodology.
This speaks well to the potential gains to be made…… [Read More]
Benefits and challenges of Qualitative, Quantitative and mixed methods approaches to research
Benefits and Challenges of Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approach to esearch
In any type of research, it is possible to characterize a research's study methodology as qualitative, quantitative, or one that involves the two methods, in which case it becomes a mixed method approach. Moreover, the term research design is popular in research, but it takes varied meanings in various studies. For instance, the term might refer to the entire research process in a given study, whereas in another study, it may refer to the applied methodology (Mary, Hanne and Frank, 2011). It is crucial for one to recognize a study's research design because the design communicates information, which is relevant to the study, and can vary for qualitative (Pop and Mays, 2000), quantitative and mixed methods. In addition, a key element, which is common…… [Read More]
mixed methods research study. Each of the three studies must have been published in a peer-reviewed journal.
Analysis of a Qualitative Research Report: Problem statement:
What is the problem the study was conducted to address?
Many schools have not adopted new electronic-era media literacies into their core curricula, but understanding these new, evolving literacies is critical to understanding how students learn today, especially with regard to low-income students, for several reasons (urner, 2011, p. 614).
Why is the problem an important one for someone in your discipline to study?
he ability to use multi-media communication technologies will increase in importance the more those technologies are deployed in education. he more technology proliferates in education, the more students will need skills to critically analyze such texts for validity and applicability. If those students will be the workforce of the next generation, the workers we manage will need critical multi-media literacy skills…… [Read More]
Mixed Methods Approaches
Although some researchers may believe that only one method of research is valid when studying human behavior, in general it is more useful to view different research approaches as part of the varied 'instruments' in a researcher's toolbox, rather than denigrate one type of research at the expense of other kinds. Whether quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods approaches are selected determines on the nature of the research; its purpose; and above all the types of questions that are being asked. No format is inherently better.
The strength of quantitative research lies in its ability to deploy the scientific method or a quasi-scientific method in an effective fashion to answer a highly specific question -- usually in terms of a numerical value. For example, in the case of my research on female juvenile delinquency, the research question I chose to focus upon was the correlation between female delinquent…… [Read More]
Generally, research may be quantitative or qualitative. Nonetheless, the usage of the two methods at the same time is common -- the mixed methods approach. Indeed, using both qualitative and quantitative approaches overcomes the limitations inherent in each approach, resulting in a better understanding of the research problem (Creswell & Clark, 2011). This paper identifies the major components of mixed methods research design and the strengths and weaknesses of the design. The paper also examines the relevance of the design to criminal justice agencies.
The mixed methods design has a number of components. The first step is to define the design (Creswell, 2014). This is particularly important as the design is quite new in research revolving around social and human disciplines. Defining the design gives the reader a comprehensive understanding of the core attributes associated with the design. This entails describing the collection, analysis, and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative…… [Read More]
Although more time consuming and costly, mixed-methods research can also be more fruitful than either qualitative or quantitative methods alone. Mixed methods combine qualitative and quantitative in ways that are suitable for answering a complex set of research questions. Because the researcher can use more than one research design in the same study, mixed methods can “answer a broader range of research questions,” (Center for Innovation for Research and Teaching, n.d., p. 1). However, mixed methods can be like performing two separate studies at once, which does require more resources and time. Commonly used in the social sciences and in public health research, mixed methods should be employed when it is feasible and warranted (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2013). Researchers should always endeavor to approach a problem from as many angles as possible, and consider the way their choice research methods might impact interpretation of a problem and…… [Read More]
Quantitative research uses survey, and questionnaires to collect data. Through quantitative analysis, a researcher is able to correlate mass data to the research findings. Despite the benefits identified in both quantitative and qualitative research, the paper identifies some shortcomings in both research methods. To address these shortcomings, the paper proposes mixed methods that involve combining both quantitative and qualitative research.
Bryman, A. (1984). The Debate about Quantitative and Qualitative esearch: A Question of Method or Epistemology? The British Journal of Sociology, 35,(1): 75-92.
Burney, S.M.A (2008). Inductive and Deductive esearch Approach. Department of Computer Science. University of Karachi.
Hanson, J.L. (2011). Qualitative esearch Methods for Medical Educators. Academic Pediatric Association.11(5):375 -- 38.
Henderson, J. (2011). Primary and secondary sources, IthaCha College Library.
Firestone, W.A. (1987).Meaning in Method: The hetoric Quantitative and Qualitative esearch. Educational esearcher.19(7):16-21.
Goodwin, W.L. Goodwin, L.D. (1996). Understanding qualitative & quantitative research in early childhood education.…… [Read More]
Qualitative, quantitative, mixed methodologies
Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodology research
Quantitative methodologies tend to be data-driven in nature. The presumption of the correct 'way of knowing' in quantitative research is positivistic in nature. It is assumed there is an objective, concrete truth that can be learned through empirical observation and the careful construction of an experiment. Quantitative methods of research often use the scientific method or quasi-scientific methods of study design. The researcher has a clear idea of the phenomenon he or she is attempting to study. The researcher's primary tools include questionnaires, objective measurements and other methods of gathering statistical results. Often there is a control group to see if the results are statistically significant in nature. The study is carefully designed before the research takes place to isolate specific variables of inquiry and its focus of study is narrow, rather than broad. The types of knowledge…… [Read More]
Thus, it is implied, it was in the best interests of the school districts to 'shed' such unwanted students.
Purpose of study
The purpose of the study was to build upon existing research upon the effects of introducing high-stakes testing into a state on the students themselves.
Method for collecting data
271,000 students were studied 1995-2002 in the state of Texas, to examine the effects of the first wave of high-stakes testing upon retention rates. School district performance ratings and student performance were both compared. Qualitative analysis was also collected, including interviews with students who had dropped out of school.
Results, conclusions and recommendations
It was found from these interviews that, to meet the demands of the accountability system, students were often required to repeat ninth grade, to ensure they would be prepared for the exam, even if they had passed their courses. To meet attendance mandates, students with as…… [Read More]
mixed methods research simply taking half a quantitative plan and half of a qualitative plan and putting them together?" And an articulation of the challenges to using a mixed methods strategy of inquiry.
To what extent is mixed methods research simply taking half a quantitative plan and half of a qualitative plan and putting them together?
Mixed methods approaches blend aspects of both quantitative and qualitative research designs in their construction. For example, a study of the responses of incarcerated juveniles to a new program designed to reintegrate the adolescents back into society might use quantitative data regarding the recidivism rates of the participating vs. non-participating teens but would also contextualize the data with qualitative interviews with the teens themselves. A mixed methods approach would be justified given the need to determine the efficacy of the program in an objective fashion, particularly to justify its continued funding. However, to better…… [Read More]
As mentioned above, a mixed-methods research approach is used to conduct the study. Qualitative data will be collected from research report that concern topics such as official policy documents, institutional policy documents, research reports, as well as by means of approaching individuals and representatives of institutions by means of questionnaires and/or interviews. Schools and tertiary institutions will for example be approached to determine their approach to mitigating the transition of students from secondary to tertiary level, as well as to determine the general opinion regarding the appropriateness of current policies and procedures in this regard.
Specifically, students and teachers from various secondary and tertiary institutions will be interviewed and/or receive questionnaire with open-ended questions to collect qualitative data. The responses will then be compared to identify any similarities or significant differences among the various respondents.
Quantitative data will be collected by means of official state statistics regarding a…… [Read More]
The researchers triangulated the data sources by interviewing over 60 organizational members, including CCI staff, managers from diverse hierarchical positions, staff members, and employees. Each interview lasted between 45 and 120 min and was transcribed in full for coding purposes. The researchers also collected more than 2,000 pages of relevant documents, including minutes from CCI staff meetings, annual reports, intranet postings, and several drafts on a strategic communication plan. This sample size appears to be adequate and appropriate for the study being undertaken.
The article Are Consumers ational? Experimental Evidence? By Shugan (2006) looks at the different tests that can be used to try and predict consumer behavior. The difference between experimental and statistical controls explains the divergence in conclusions. Experimental controls test rationality based on whether previously absent variables exhibit significant explanatory power holding known explanatory variables constant. Statistical controls test rationality based on the incremental explanatory power of…… [Read More]
Fielding, N. (2010). Mixed Methods esearch. International Journal of Social esearch, 13 (2), 127 -- 138.
In the field of criminal justice and security management, there are a wide variety of techniques used to understand the best approaches for interacting with stakeholders. Fielding (2010) determined that the mixed method approach is the most effective. This is because it is examining different aspects of the problem and conducting a separate study to corroborate key ideas. These insights were used to show the underlying trends inside the U.S. And UK criminal justice systems. As Fielding determined, that both countries are wrestling with similar challenges including: rising criminal / gang related violence, juvenile delinquency and gun related crimes. This is illustrating the challenges impacting the two systems. In the future, these ideas can help to identify the root causes of these problems and the best approach for addressing them. The fact that similarities…… [Read More]
Prediction and Theory
There are several important components to a research study. First, a hypothesis examines a question or an idea before beginning a study. Next, a prediction suggests an outcome for a study. Finally, after the study has been carefully examined and has been tested multiple times using a wide variety of hypotheses, the results can be defined as a theory.
According to Cozby (2009), a hypothesis is "a type of idea or question: it makes a statement about something that may be true" (17). A hypothesis can be described as a speculative idea or query about why certain behaviors or situations occur. This question can then be either proven or disproven by collecting scientific evidence. Formulating a hypothesis is one of the first steps in developing a research study.
Before beginning an experiment or conducting a study, a researcher will generate a prediction that suggests the most…… [Read More]
Mixed Methods Research
Two important aspects of qualitative research relates to the role of the researcher and the manner in which knowledge is viewed. These two aspects fundamentally distinguish qualitative research from quantitative research (Creswell, 2014). In qualitative research, the researcher seeks to cultivate a closer relationship with the subject(s). This means that the researcher focuses on a single or a small number of subjects, and utilises designs that allow closer interaction with the subjects such as in-depth interviews, observations, and focus group discussions. Cultivating a closer relationship with the subjects is informed by the need to gain a deeper understanding of the research phenomenon (Denscombe, 2010). This arises from the assertion that knowledge is subjective (Bryman, 2008). In other words, different individuals tend to have different meanings and worldviews about a given phenomenon. The role of the researcher, therefore, is to understand the unique interpretation a subject holds about…… [Read More]
oles of Theory in Qualitative esearch & Application
Write a two page Journal entry on how well you are understanding the roles of theory in qualitative research and how this applies to your Final Project and to your Dissertation.
Thinking About Qualitative esearch Theory. Qualitative research approaches are grounded in theoretical frameworks that make certain assumptions about the world, about how qualitative research is best conducted, and about the type of research questions and solutions are acceptable for the research approach, and about the criteria that appropriate for trustworthiness (which is the equivalent proof in quantitative research approaches). When researchers take a qualitative approach, they consider the world to be socially constructed by people's individual perceptions. Qualitative researchers depend on respondents' accounts to provide explanations for observed behaviors and shared thoughts. The qualitative research approach does not begin with a hypothesis to be proven or disproved -- a…… [Read More]
Discussion: Designing Mixed Methods Research
Mixed methods research is more than simply taking a quantitative design and a qualitative design and putting them together. The methods should complement one another and be relevant to the subject that is being studied. For example, a researcher who wants to conduct exploratory research would benefit more from using a qualitative design than a mixed methods design, as the latter could potentially drain resources that could be better used conducting the exploratory part of the investigation. However, using the mixed methods approach is useful when both qualitative data and quantitative data can be easily combined to enhance a study (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004). For example, in a health care study, interviews could be conducted with patients about their care and a survey could also be given. The interviews would provide qualitative data and the surveys would provide quantitative data. Both would complement one another:…… [Read More]
social sciences: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. However, there is another classification of research -- evaluation research -- frequently deployed in organizations. Evaluation research may make use of all of these different methodologies, even though it has a different goal than academic research. "The generic goal of most evaluations is to provide 'useful feedback' to a variety of audiences including sponsors, donors, client-groups, administrators, staff, and other relevant constituencies" (Trochim 2006).
In contrast to the use of the scientific method as in quantitative research, evaluation research is more intent upon offering practical data that can be used to maximize organizational resources and is specifically devoted to program evaluation. Some evaluation research does use standard qualitative methods in the tradition of the scientific method. However, an equally common approach is that of "management-oriented systems models. Two of the most common of these are PET, the Program Evaluation and eview Technique, and…… [Read More]
This was a mixed methods study that was applied to the topic of school psychology
The purpose of Powell et al.'s (2008) journal article was to show the benefits of mixed method study using the field of school psychology as an example.
Theoretical Framework: (Identify the theoretical/conceptual framework)
The article is a discussion/ / review of evidence of the efficacy of mixed methodology to psychology.
Specific Research Questions / Philosophical Underpinnings:
The overall research question was whether mixed methods is more beneficial than qualitative or quantitative methodology alone in addressing scientific research. The specific example that the authors gave was reliance on two different studies (one qualitative, the other quantitative) that used bullying as their topic
MAKE SURE THESE QUESTIO OR ASWERED WITH HEADIG SEE BELOW
Mixed method design: (present the elements of quantitative and qualitative and describe how these complement each other and why it was important…… [Read More]
Both projects -- and aspects of the study (qualitative and quantitative) had their advantages and disadvantages. In the first, researchers could hit for objective method and, via use of Likert scale, guidelines in creating the survey, guidelines in facilitators and in how the facilitators should approach the respondents, and other details that included statistical tools, could structure the survey in as objective a manner possible. On the other hand, we are dealing with a human population that may have misunderstood various questions, may retract some of their responses later, and may, amongst many other variables that creep into surveys, have found a one-line question, however open-ended it may be, insufficient in dealing with their particular situation. The qualitative aspect, therefore, provides the opportunity for both scenarios -- a scientific treatment and a more empathetic, flexible approach (that provides a 'richer' analysis) (Creswell, 2003). It was for this reason that the…… [Read More]
Experimental esearch Methods in Business
Experimental esearch Methods
The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.
The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…… [Read More]
Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:
(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?
(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;
(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)
ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:
(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…… [Read More]
gender discrepancies in regards to African-American education. There has been a noticeable, growing increase of the presence of African-American women in undergraduate and graduate education while the gap between African-American males and females has widened. The dissertation will use a mixed methods, grounded theory perspective to determine why this is the case. The overall theoretical perspective of the work will be rooted in critical race theory and poststructuralist concepts.
Quantitatively assessed questionnaires and coded qualitative interviews will attempt to answer the question of why African-American male participation in higher education lags behind that of African-American females. These trends will be contextualized in the overall, larger trend of increased female participation as a whole on the undergraduate and graduate levels, to the point that women are now graduating in greater numbers than their male colleagues.
As well as research questions specific to the dissertation, the relative merits of qualitative and quantitative…… [Read More]
Indeed, as Muntaner (2003) posited in her research, qualitative methods can be included in a dominantly quantitative research design "in situations where qualitative research adds knowledge that would not be available via quantitative methods" (p. 55). Through a mixed-methods design, the researcher can provide better analyses and stronger interpretations and recommendations through balanced strengths of data reliability and validity -- that is, the achievement of "triangulation" in the research study.
IIA. ased on your reading of books such as eaglehole (1993), describe what you know about observational epidemiology as a research approach and compare it to experimental studies. Describe some of the designs within each, e.g., RCT, case-control studies, etc.
Observational and analytical/relational studies provide different results and answer different research questions and hypotheses when compared to the experimental approach. In observation and analytical/relational studies, the highest kind of analysis that can be done is correlational and not causal.
This…… [Read More]
Consider how qualitative and quantitative research methods complement one another, and consider the role of mixed methods designs.
Quantitative and qualitative social science study techniques have, for long, remained discrete, barely overlapping, spheres. But, of late, innovations have shed light on quantitative and qualitative techniques’ complementarity (Maxwell, 1998). Complementarily employing both methods offers broader understandings besides facilitating research findings’ confirmation or triangulation using different techniques, thus improving overall result validity and making the research more useful for targeted entities. However, the quest for genuinely complementary research techniques is also a greatly challenging task as it implies extra expenses, in terms of human as well as monetary resources, in addition to the development of ethical quandaries pertaining to follow- up and a need for collaboration and respecting diverse epistemological and methodological stands (Maxwell, 1998).
Using a qualitative process prior to engaging in survey work is, without a doubt, the most widely…… [Read More]
Ethics comprises of an intricate set of principles, morals and institutional outlines that standardize scientific activity. Educational and social researchers face complex challenges occasionally, when they encounter the conflict of their legal and moral responsibility towards protection of their participants on one hand, and maintaining the standards, criteria of quality and significance of research on the other hand. Although, the research design or findings does not always restrained or deteriorated by ethical principles. At times, ethics are supportive in enhancing the quality of research, while some other times it's not. Additionally, researchers "bear a special responsibility for protecting the interests of vulnerable groups throughout the research process" (Tangen, 2014, p. 678).
At all times, educational practitioners have realized the weighed down value of education and that the quality of education rests on ethical standards. The consciousness of educational researchers regarding the ethical dimensions of their research is increasing day by…… [Read More]
Data Collection in Leadership
As a social science, leadership research may involve any type of quantitative or qualitative data collection method. Qualitative research data collection methods include observation, participant-observation, interview, and document or content analysis (“Data Collection Methods,” n.d.). Quantitative data collection methods used in leadership research may include surveys and experiments, which allow for statistical analysis, the establishment of causality between independent and dependent variables, and the tracking of results over time. Whereas quantitative data collection methods had once been the most commonly used in the social sciences, recent trends in leadership research have shifted towards qualitative methods (Antonakis, Schriescheim, Donovan, et al., 2003). Qualitative methods often reveal nuances, patterns, and ideas that quantitative methods overlook or take for granted, making mixed-methods approaches extremely attractive in emerging literature on leadership and organizational behavior.
Methods of data collection and research design trends eventually feed the formation of new theories in…… [Read More]
data collection and the sources to be utilized for this project. The highlighted gaps in knowledge will be investigated with the help of two research methods. The research methods have been chosen on the basis that they have the best chance of answering the research questions. Lastly, the procedures that will be utilized to analyse the results and also the limitations of the methods will be highlighted. Ethical considerations will also be given (Frandsen & Johansen, 2010).
There is a need for a comprehensive evaluation in order to capture the sophisticated processes of public relations crisis communication and also to provide a broader perspective on the matter in addition to helping with the investigation of the related issues. A mixed-method study approach (a mix of quantitative and qualitative study methodologies) will be employed for the purposes of providing an overview of the subject matter and also to help provide data…… [Read More]
Administration which relates to issues such as security, rules during work, holidays and vacations, office layout and services and personal record. Lastly human resources section is shouldered with the responsibility of industrial and labour relations which looks in to issues such as collective bargaining, grievance procedures and presentation of elections.
2.2 Challenges facing Human esources
According to Duncan (2005), "The identification close to eight areas which pose great challenge to the hotel industry including the five star hotels"; these are employment which includes increase in minimum wage, increasing flexibility of working hours, over dependence of foreign expatriates, employee training. As mentioned by Kim and Oh (2994), the issue of taxation that is in some cases high increases the rates of value added tax on the industry thus discouraging tourism. Environmental factors do also pose a challenge in the hotel sector for instance the banning of smoking in public places as…… [Read More]
proponents of evidence based instruction represent one end of the methods of teaching continuum where practices that have been tested empirically using rigorous research designs are considered to be the only valid method of instruction (Odom et al., 2005). On the other end of the spectrum are methods that may be have some basis for use such an intuition, theory, etc. But have not been subject to empirical scrutiny are considered valid to use. Evidence based instruction or scientific research-based instruction consists of instructional practices or programs for which empirical data have been collected to determine the effectiveness of the program (Odom et al., 2005). In these types of practices/programs rigorous research designs have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the practices. Such research designs can include randomized, controlled trials; quasi-experiments; single subject designs; correlational methods, and/or qualitative research. The most empirically sound designs, randomized controlled experiments, are used…… [Read More]
The multigenerational workforce in the United States presents a critical challenge for managers because each generation requires different expectations. Over the last few decades, the U.S. workforce has become so unique and diverse involving the mix of generation, gender, and ethnicity for the first time in the history of United States, workplace demographic spans four generations. The 2008 and 2009 U.S. economic crisis makes many older workers delaying retirement leading to a rich mixture of generation across different sectors. Consequently, this shift affects the workplace culture since values, attitudes as well as workplace style differ across a different generation. Moreover, each generation brings their work behaviors, values, motivation and relationship styles to the workplace assisting in enhancing the organizational development. Despite the benefits associated with the multi-generation work environment, a present of diverse generation can bring a challenge to managers with respect to communication, respect and work styles. Organizations can…… [Read More]
Identity theft is a kind of theft that involves someone stealing the identity of someone else by assuming that person's identity (Lai, Li, & Hsieh, 2012). This is usually a method of gaining access to the person's resources like credit cards and other things in the person's name. This is considered a white-collar crime and it has gained popularity amongst criminals. Identity theft does not involve any physical theft. Therefore, the victim might not realize the theft until significant damage has occurred. Identity thieves make use of a variety of methods, and not all of them are computer based. Thieves can go through the person's trash or mail searching for bank and credit card information, statements, and tax information. The information stolen can then be used to commit crimes like accessing credit under the person's name and using their details. Another method used to steal information is stealing the person's…… [Read More]
Primary… [Read More]
Tuning a database is a series of activities that are carried out to optimize and standardize the performance of a database. The main goal of database tuning is to maximize the efficiency and performance of a database through promoting the effective use of system resources. While most systems are developed in a manner that they manage their use of system resources, there is room for enhancing their efficiency and performance. The process of database tuning involves customizing the settings and configuration of a database and its system resources. Database tuning is carried out because of various reasons including data changes, changes in codes such as releases and upgrades, and changes in usage patterns. In addition, database tuning is sometimes carried out because query optimization is imprecise and the inefficiency of underlying technologies. There are several methodologies that are utilize for tuning a database including SQL tuning, query tuning, physical tuning,…… [Read More]
Marketing Mix in Marketing
Importance of Marketing Mix
Discussing Four P's
Importance of Marketing Mix in Marketing
Need of Marketing Mix in a Business
Need of Marketing Mix in Marketing
Organizations are driven by customers who are the basic revenue generators and give the organizations an opportunity to launch the products and services. Marketing mix is a plan that enables the organizations to convey their presence and offers to the customers. It is to attract customers so that the objective of profit maximization can be fulfilled and businesses can sustain in the market.
Importance of Marketing Mix in Marketing
An important part of the external stimuli, which formulates the perception of the buyer, is the marketing mix part of the marketing plan (Botha, Strydom, Bothma, & Brink, 2006). These are the inputs launched by the marketers to attract the target market. They are commonly known as 4Ps.…… [Read More]
Mixed methods research design is popular in many research settings because it offers a set of advantages as well as a flexibility that cannot be matched by other available methods. This method combines some of the features from both quantitative and qualitative research methods to create unique methods that can integrate many theoretical or conceptual frameworks. This analysis will use a case study form of a mixed methods approach from studies that were performed in different academic fields to illustrate this form of research. The case study approach is popular in various environments due to the fact that it has more flexibility to explore and explain complex social phenomenon that are difficult to account for in strict quantitative approaches. Furthermore, it also allows room for the social constructivist approach that allows participants some freedom to add information that is relevant to their particular perspective to be added to the data.…… [Read More]
The marketing mix has many variables that can be changed and adapted in every company, but in this process it is important to keep in mind the position the company wants on the market and its objectives.
The marketing mix planning is the process of developing long-term strategic plans that can help the company to achieve its goals. Each element in the marketing mix - product, price, promotion, and place -should be very well used in the attempt to satisfy the needs of consumers.
Ford Parts (n.d.). Retrieved March 6, 2007 at http://www.innerauto.com/Ford_Parts/
FW15-MARKETING MIX (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2007, at http://www.freeworldacademy.com/newbizzadviser/fw15.htm
Marketing mix (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2007 at http://www.answers.com/topic/marketing-mix
Marketing mix (Price, Place, Promotion, Product) (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2007, at http://www.thetimes100.co.uk/theory/theory.php?tID=243
Overview (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2007, at http://www.ford.com/en/company/about/overview.htm
The marketing mix (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2007, at http://www.thetimes100.co.uk/theory/theory.php?tID=185
Volker Mike, MARKETING & 4Ps of MARKETING…… [Read More]
he development organizations of Microsoft and Salesforce.com are very comparable in this regard. Microsoft is like AMD specifically with their Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems. hey are methodical, deliberate and will take years to eventually get all the integration with their own operating systems complete. Yet when Microsoft fulfills its product development vision for CRM, every other Microsoft application including Microsoft Outlook, Instant Messenger and all other personal productivity applications will work directly with CRM.
Salesforce.com, the upstart hosted applications vendor also in the CRM arena, has a much more rapid product development cycle. he philosophy at Salesforce.com is to quickly get new applications out and see what the reaction is from customers, and then quickly fine-tune the applications until they align as best as possible with customers' needs. Microsoft deliberately does its revisions internally with slow changes seen from the outside. Salesforce.com's mercurial approach to product development, in conjunction…… [Read More]
Marketing Channels and Methods -- the New Svelte Shape of McDonald's
Objectives & Mission Statement
Although McDonald's latest advertising slogan, as proclaimed on its 2005 website, is "I'm lovin' it," (McDonald's Official ebsite, 2005), shareholders in the fast food company have not be equally enamored of its current stock performance and plummeting sales. (The Rogue Investor, 2005) Thus, the objectives of the new McDonald's marketing campaign must be to undo some of the economic and public relations damage done to the company by the negative press generated by the success of Morgan Spurlock's film 'Supersize Me.' Over the course of the year, McDonald's wishes to gain a greater percentage of the revenue of the current fast food market than its most prominent burger-oriented competitors endy's and Burger King. McDonald's also wishes to gain some of the type of positive media as generated by the sandwich chain Subway. The Subway Diet…… [Read More]
Visual observations were recorded.
4.4 Identification of Macromolecules in Household Substances
Nine test tubes were labeled in sets of three: "B1," "B2," "B3"; "S1," "S2," "S3"; and "L1," "L2," "L3." Two ml of baby formula solution was added to ach of the "B" tubes, tow ml of sports drink solution to each of the "S" tubes, and two ml of lemon-lime soda solution to each of the "L" tubes. The procedures used for the positive tubes (those labeled with a "+") in the experiment above, section 4.3, were then applied to these tubes -- tubes "B1" "S1" and "L1" all received two ml of Benedict's reagent, were heated at 100 degrees Celsius for three minutes and placed in test tube racks; tubes "B2" "S2" and "L2" all received a dropper full of iodine and were gently shaken before being placed in the test tube rack; and tubes "B3" "S3" and…… [Read More]
Principles of Marketing
Anthony L. Hamilton Sr.
Dr. Kay Green
Establishing a New Business
The business name will be "Bird Wise" and provides a pet-related service. It will be located in Florida with the plan to expand services to new markets in the regional area as well as to develop a national online presence.
The mission statement of the company is: "To help people improve their relationship with their companion birds by providing the people the skills to reduce unwanted behaviors and increase wanted behaviors in their birds."
The primary objectives of the business are as follows. First, develop a professional network of referrals through vets, pet shops, bird breeders, humane societies, and bird clubs. The second objective will be to develop a web presence using direct promotion and social media. A third objective will be to generate an effective price structure for the various services…… [Read More]
SCM as a Method of Inventory Control
SCM and Inventory Control
This paper examines the use of supply chain management (SCM) as a tool for inventory control. SCM, which coordinates and integrates the activities of supply chain members, plays an increasingly important role in companies' reducing their costs and making better informed decisions. Companies benefit from SCM and inventory control by better meeting customer demands for product availability and pricing, and by competing more effectively and efficiently through more profitable operations.
Inventory is important to profitability. The faster a company turns its inventory, the greater the company's profitability. Inventory is a significant component of SCM success. Customers demand that their orders be completed on time and accurately, which requires that companies have the right inventory at the right price at the right time. Therein lies the challenge for SCM, being able to successfully manage inventory. These challenges apply to all…… [Read More]
231) Yet, research recently has stated findings that "non-mnemonic semantic elaboration methods" are more effective that the mnemonic keyword technique on lexical retention for L2.
VIII. Differentiation of Mnemonic and Non-mnemonic Elaboration Techniques
Mnemonic and non-mnemonic elaboration techniques are differentiated by the manner of association of new words with previous knowledge in that: "mnemonic elaboration techniques establish this connection through verbal and visual imagery" however, the elaboration of non-mnemonic techniques makes this connection through use of semantic characteristics and may be through the organization of a list of scrambled words known as the 'ordering method' or through generation of sentences with the target word in a manner that the inference of the word can be made by the sentence or the 'sentence writing method'. (Sagarra and Alba, 2006, p. 231)
Furthermore, the connection can be made through construction of a diagram displaying the target word's semantic association known as the…… [Read More]
Total Compensation Methods and Benefits Programs
Impact on employees and organizations
Salary and benefit administration strategies
elationship with organizational culture and performance
Total compensation methods used by the organizations are different in terms of their design and approach. The main objective of the compensation programs developed in organizations is to facilitate employee motivation and provide a cost effective reward system that is beneficial for both employees as well as the business. The business objectives, values, and goals are the basic element of compensation methods adopted in an organization. The total compensation strategy adopted by a business also elaborates the approach adopted by the business to offer benefits for its employees in return to their services. The following sections provide a detailed understanding of total compensation methods and benefits programs and their impacts on employees and organizations. The second most important element addressed in the research is concerning the administration of…… [Read More]
Marketing Mix in Successful usiness
According to the Oxford Dictionary of usiness, marketing is defined as "the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, products, and services to create exchanges that will satisfy the needs of individuals and organizations." (Dictionary of usiness) The marketing of a product concerns itself with such responsibilities as foreseeing changes in the demand for the product, promotion of the product, quality assurance, accessibility, and the price of the product must also accommodate the needs of the market. (Dictionary of usiness)
Marketing is a quintessential part of the business world and crucial to the success of any firm.
For the purposes of this discussion we will explore the four parameters of the marketing mix. We will also investigate the various methodologies of marketing. Finally we will provide the results and conclusions drawn from the research.
The Marketing Mix
The marketing…… [Read More]
Brand equity of trusted advisor for CM application delivery.
Source: Framework based on the concepts presented in (Yoo, Donthu, Lee, 2000)
Aaker, D.A. (2012). Win the brand relevance battle and then build competitor barriers. California Management eview, 54(2), 43-57.
Aremu, M.A., & Bamiduro, J.A. (2012). Marketing mix practice as a determinant of entrepreneurial business performance. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(1), 205-213.
Friedman, H.H., & Friedman, L.W. (1987). Marketing methods for software. The Journal of Systems and Software, 7(3), 207-207.
Ghose, K. (2009). Internal brand equity defines customer experience. Direct Marketing, 3(3), 177-185. D
Katzmarzik, a. (2011). Product differentiation for software-as-a-service providers. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 3(1), 1-31.
Joseph, J.V. (2009). econciling marketing vs. branding return on investment. ochester, ochester, NY.
Yoo, B.,…… [Read More]
Safi Rania Diamond Cell Youth Booster is a new skincare product for women aged 40 years and above who are seeking to prevent and lessen signs of aging. The paper provides a strategic marketing mix analysis that is geared towards successful marketing and advertising the product. This marketing mix analysis is to be presented to the Board of Directors of Graffiti Group, Inc., which has just purchased an operating facility in Malaysia that manufactures the product. The analysis is geared towards influencing the decision of the board in an attempt to have them approve investment and marketing of this product in Canada. Upon approval, the company will market this product to target market of women aged 40 years and above, especially those who want to prevent and lessen signs of aging, under the brand name PureBeauty Diamond Cell Youth Booster. The analysis includes an overview of the product,…… [Read More]
The tests found that major differences, especially in dynamic modulus, exist in the different mixtures of asphalt, and even among samples of the same mixture. The results suggest that that the constitutive makeup of paving materials interact to have a greater effect on the performance of the material than might otherwise be suspected. In addition, it was found that certain results of the dynamic modulus tests were not accurately predicted by the current models, reflecting a need for greater accuracy in these models.
The amount of difference in performance of paving material that can be created by relatively small differences in the makeup of that material was fairly surprising. Equally surprising -- and more dismaying -- is the fact that the current models missed so much about the dynamic modulus. The MEPDG was certainly a necessary implementation; one wonders what other states are as behind in their testing…… [Read More]
Coca Cola uses the equity method of accounting and, inherent in that and similar to it the SABC (activity-based costing) method.
There are three cost accounting techniques:
The Cost method -- the company records all income as received and gains or losses are only realized when the item is actually sold or destructed. When a company owns 20% or less of another company, the Cost method is the preferred method.
Consolidation -- here financial statements of the parents and its subsidiaries are combined so that the net assets of both are reported together.
The Equity Method -- used when a company owns more than 20% but less than 50% of another company. The income from these products is recorded as a single line item on the financial statements. Coca-Cola owns less than 50% of its bottlers so it uses the Equity method. This method of accounting is usually applied…… [Read More]
Here, it would be possible to establish a range of categories and subcategories relating to student socialization, academic performance, emotional development, improvement and a host of other crucial learning and developmental areas. The great value in the observational checklist is that it essentially creates a context in which all students are assessed according to the same standards of consideration. This improves the objective veracity of the yielded findings.
Finally, portfolio logs will become possible over the course of a later school year, with the larger sample of completed work allowing for the observation of certain longterm patterns or periods of transition. By taking the time to assess the formulation of these patterns over the course of the school year, the teacher can begin to create a valuable data set through which to observe any number of importance issues relating to strengths, weaknesses, needs and areas of excellence for each student.…… [Read More]
The next section discusses how you can limit what media local network users can access.
Media Streaming Options
After you've enabled any type of streaming feature, you should look over the general media streaming options of Windows: click Stream > More streaming options.
Here you can give your media player a name. You'll also see a list of detected media devices and players. You can allow or block each player from accessing your media. Plus you can click the Customize link to limit access of files based upon the star ratings you give them.
Last, we see the patented file sharing method product from Wei-hsiang and Shih-hua. This final File Sharing Method we will explore is a patented product with the United States Patent Office; came about from two gentlemen from Taipei City, Chi Wei-hsiang and Yu Shih-hua.
FILE SHARING METHOD and FILE SHARING SYSTEM for GETTING an ACCESSIBLE ADDRESS…… [Read More]
How would you suggest that unions and employers improve their ability to correctly interpret the collective agreement?
From the perspective of employees, one of the principal benefits of collective bargaining and union representation is assuring a reasonable balance of power between labor and management in workplace decision-making. Many collective bargaining agreements attempt to achieve such a balance by, among other things, giving employees the right to participate in certain decisions about how work will be assigned, how jobs will be classified, and how workers will be paid. The collective bargaining agreement at issue in Case Study 11-1 attempts to strike a balance between giving employees a role in important decision-making while reserving traditional management prerogatives to control fundamental decisions about profit and loss.
The problem in Case Study 11-1 arises because the terms of the collective bargaining agreement are somewhat ambiguous about how certain decisions are classified and about…… [Read More]
A second major facto in the growing trend for a new greener industry is that these measures also represent a more efficient operation from a financial perspective as well. For instance, recycling aluminum cans on the job is an example of a sustainable practice that contributes in a positive way to the bottom line (Shepherd, 2009). ecycling aluminum cans on the jobsite help to feed the local economy as well. These new cost-cutting measures are necessary, as green construction typically drives up the price of a new home by 10% (Shepherd, 2009). Companies must take measures to reduce costs in as many areas as possible.
How Can These New Innovations Affect a Career in the Construction Industry?
Changes within the construction industry will have an impact on those involved in the industry of the future. These new innovations represent changes in attitude toward the job site, project flow and project…… [Read More]
Practicing Ethnographic Methods
JFK (John F. Kennedy) International Airport is one of the busiest international airports in the United States and serves as a gateway for the New York City and other Tri-State within the metropolitan regions. Apart from enjoying services from the Jet Blue, and Virgin America, the JFK airport is the major destination for visitors from various continents such as Europe, South America, Asia, Middle East and Africa. The JFK airport receives over 41 million visitors yearly making the airport the busiest international gateway in the New York. However, airports are the social-based organization where the visitors and employees come from various social and cultural backgrounds, which influence the airport decision making.
Objective of this paper is to carry out the ethnographic research by presenting the results of the observation of the social and cultural settings at the John F. Kenney International Airport.
I use the ethnographic…… [Read More]
obtained from this course, there are several different ways for conducting research that a researcher can choose from. While the research question is the major factor that drives the research methodology, the selection of a research method for a specific study also requires consideration of other factors. This is a major issue in the research field because researchers continue to struggle in identifying the most suitable methodology for a study. In essence, one of the major questions when conducting a research is, "What is the most suitable research methodology for the study?" This question is significant because of the role research methodology plays in generating credible and accurate results. According to Holden (2004), research methodology affects the study results and how conclusions are derived from the research findings.
When making decisions regarding the most suitable methodology for the study, one of the most important considerations for the research is the…… [Read More]
Yet, that is arguably why the characters act as they do (Mcilliams 197). Mcilliams further notes that human incompetence is comedy (197). Since the characters are not real people but Twain's creations, students should feel free to laugh at the ignorance and misfortunes of Huck and Jim in the same way that they are free to laugh when someone deliberately falls down in an attempt at comedy.
Comedy may not be immediately obvious in Twain's portrayal of Pap Finn. Yet he is one of Twain's strongest examples of satire and irony. Carter argues that Pap Finn establishes himself as an example of all that is wrong with the Southern social system; in becoming that example, readers can look to him to see what needs to change in order for people to become better and society to improve (137). In younger classrooms, this may at first be difficult to grasp. However,…… [Read More]