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As the 1800s came to an end, a group of forward-looking artists, architects and designers broke away from the Victorian constraints and developed a new style that encouraged an interdisciplinary approach fostering a sharing of contemporary thought and ideology until the post-modern period in the 1970s. It was a means for the artists and artisans to express themselves about the world that was quickly becoming increasingly high tech and advanced. The object was to go beyond the status quo and emphasize freedom of expression, progressive concepts and nontraditional methodology. Some of the most influential modernist artists' work included the geometrics of Piet Mondrian, the striking furniture of Gerrit ietveld and the architecture of Alvar Aalto.
In his book, The New Art -- The New Life, Mondrian, expressed that the world of nature has kept viewers from seeing reality as it exists. Instead, he said, reality lies behind the naturalistic…
Blake, Peter. "The Aalto Alternative." Interior Design (1984), 55, 272-4.
Bonasia, J. "Painter's Canvas Was Limitless; Follow Your Vision: Mondrian's dedication to his art was no abstraction." Investor's Business Daily, (2003)
Gondo, Nancy. "Excelled By Design Focus On Form: Finnish master's eye for detail made him one of the world's premier architects." Investor's Business Daily, (2001), A04.
ole of Architecture in the Progress of Society
Architecture can be defined as "the masterly, correct and magnificent play of masses seen in light" (Conway and oenisch 9). In other words, it is an experience that is emotional and artistic. Some people agree that architecture is the amalgamation of building and art. However, many do not agree with this opinion (Conway and oenisch 9). According to Britannica Encyclopedia, architecture is "the art and technique of designing and building" ("architecture") whose practice "is employed to fulfill both practical and expressive requirements, and thus it serves both utilitarian and aesthetic ends" ("architecture"). Therefore, every society has a spatial connection to the natural world. The sort of architecture and the produced structures reflects history, culture, environment, traditions, ceremonies, customs and artistic sensibility of a society ("architecture").
Buildings keep people warm and dry and are directly involved in the reasonableness and feasibility of living.…
"architecture." Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 2012. Web. 2 Aug 2012. .
"architecture." Questia. Columbia University Press, 2012. Web. 2 Aug 2012. .
Ballantyne, A. Architecture: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Web. 1 August 2012. .
Conway, H., & Roenisch, R. Understanding Architecture: An Introduction to Architecture and Architectural History. New York: Routledge, 1994. Web. 1 August 2012. .
The men had returned from the war, Americans were buying homes and putting all their energies in to building a nest for the family filled with all sorts of creature comforts. The female form reflected these comforts: it was round and healthy. On the other hand, the 1960s and 1970s signaled the rampant winds of change; while some people attribute it primarily to the debut of Twiggy, the skinny supermodel of the era other reasons are relevant to examine as well: "popular during the 1960's because of the increasingly popularity of self-expression and women's rights movements during this time that allowed women to shed clothes and bare more body. Being thin allowed them to comfortably wear clothes like the mini-skirt, which maybe at that time stood for some sort of freedom and self-expression. Being thin and shedding weight may have given some women the ability to feel better about themselves.…
Bennett, B. (2011). it's All About Art Deco. Retrieved from galleryatlantic.com: http://www.galleryatlantic.com/Its-All-About-Art-Deco.html
Boyars, M. Gothic Fantasy: The Films of Tim Burton.
City of Ambitions.
By the early 20th century, photography had established itself as more than a means of documentary evidence. The medium had the potential to convey the artist's impressions as well as political content. Photographers like Alfred Stieglitz capitalized on the power of the medium to depict social and political realities without sacrificing aesthetics. "The City of Ambitions" is one example of Stieglitz's early work, a large portion of which uses urban life as its focus.
"The City of Ambitions" is New York, the American -- even global -- hub of capitalist enterprise. Stieglitz captures New York's industrial side. Not only does the photographer wait for the time of day during which factory smoke is at its most visible, but Stieglitz also includes in the composition multiple features of urban architecture including the river dock and the burgeoning high rises sprouting up around it…
"Bauhaus." The Art Story. Retrieved online: http://www.theartstory.org/movement-bauhaus.htm
Duchamp, Marcel. "Fountain." Sculpture. 1917.
"Early Documentary Photography." The Met. Retrieved online: https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/edph/hd_edph.htm
Gropius, Walter. "Bauhaus Building in Dessau." [Building]. 1926
Fear of the Return of Totalitarian Architecture Due to Technological Advancements
This paper examines some of the different aspects of the coming worldwide technological totalitarianism and the expanding of it influence. The argument that this is both a conscious and accidental program of influential individuals and organizations carried out through the procedure of reification of philosophical beliefs which are misshapen into institutions, services, technologies policies and in the end, culture. Some experts that have explored this topic believe that by pay no attention to the costs of new technologies, what there may be some kind of loss in the bargain and that it can lean so something that is immeasurable and potentially disastrous. It is obvious that history was not or is not all the way inevitable, however, it is likewise a question of human values in connection to changes that are looked at as being natural. Although there have…
Carpo, Mario. "Architecture in the Age of Printing." The History of Architectural Theory. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 6 March 1998.
-- . "The Alphabet and the Algorithm." Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. The MIT Press, 7 May 1995.
Giroux, Henry. Totalitarian Paranoia in the Post-Orwellian Surveillance State. 14 Feruary 2014. http://billmoyers.com/2014/02/11/totalitarian-paranoia-in-the-post-orwellian-surveillance-state/ . 18 March 2014.
Keller, Marcello Sorce. "Why is Music so Ideological, Why Do Totalitarian States Take It So Seriously: A Personal View from History, and the Social Sciences",." Journal of Musicological Research, XXVI 2.3 (2007): 91 -- 122.
Scandinavian Architecture: The Evolution of Vernacular
All types of art are normally influenced by both the social and the political factors within a geographical region. These social aspects are reflected in the designs of the time and most of the inspiration that the designers get is from history. In Scandinavia, it is easy to define the style as straightforward. The logic behind the simplicity of this was due to the limited resources which emphasized saving and proper utilization (Pile, 335). It is also democratic in the manner that its main intention was to please, the masses. Architects in Scandinavia share an inherent bond with nature and the natural landscape. hen studying the geographical locations of these nodes and, therefore, cross referencing their localities to similar cultural conditions a trend is found. It is the intention of this research to research just how the natural landscape is invited into the manmade…
Bandle, Oskar, Kurt Braunmu-ller, Lennart Elmevik, and Gun Widmark. The Nordic Languages:
An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages. Berlin: de
Gruyter, 2005. Print.
Fallan, Kjetil. Design History: Understanding Theory and Method. Oxford: Berg Publishers,
TOWARDS A NEW ARCHITECTURE
Le Corbusier is known as the father of New Architecture. His Magnus opus, Towards New Architecture, reveals the reasons why Le Corbusier was given this title. Being a well-known modernist architect, Le Corbusier was the one of the first few architects to popularize the change that modernism had brought along and suggested way in which it could be incorporated in architectural designs. His book. Towards the New Architecture ' was enthusiastically welcomed by the modernist circles, many of whom agreed with Corbusier's basic ideas for modernist living. Unlike some of his predecessors, Corbusier was of the view that the best and most important objective of architecture was to create designs that are functional in nature. While aesthetic appeal of designs was important, Le Corbusier believed it should take precedence over function, which helped in evolution of architecture. This was indeed a very interesting concept,…
This comes to only point out the fact that the role of postmodernism is essential because it offers a different perspective through which humans can understand the events taking place around them and can interpret them to provide meanings that would be useful in their own development and in the development of the social being.
One of the important aspects of postmodernism is that unlike other theories that have been advocated throughout the decades, this approach takes into account the human perception of things. The development of this trend was essential because the human individual needed a framework through which it could accept, acknowledge and deal with the changes taking place around it. More precisely, at the end of the 19th century, the issue of industrialization together with the huge developments that were taking place at the level of the political changes, economic burst, and cultural revolutions set the human…
Chorney, Harold. City of Dreams: Social Theory and the Urban Experience. . Scarborough: Nelson Canada International Thompson ltd., 1990.
Greenpeace International. The Founders of Greenpeace. 2008. 26 Oct 2012 .
Hutcheon, Linda. The Politics of Postmodernism . New York: Routledge, 2002.
-- . "The Politics of Postmodernism: Parody and History." Cultural Critique. Modernity and Modernism, Postmodernity and Postmodernism (1986-7): p179-207.
Critics of postmodern art dismiss it as fragmented, reactionary and shallow but few can deny that it has had a lasting impact on contemporary art of the Western world.
Specific Example of Post Modern Thought: The art of Andy Warhol (American painter and pop artist) is the quintessential and an early example of postmodernism. Warhol's depiction of common popular symbols such as his paintings of Campbell's soup and Coca Cola cans and silkscreen prints of famous icons such as Marilyn Monroe and Elvis Presley not only brought the previously mundane or trivial to the level of "high art," but also combined various mediums such as painting, print making, ink drawing and even cinema to produce art that related to a mass audience rather than an elite class only.
Areas such as philosophy, religion, architecture, art, literature, and culture, among others
Modernism, in arts and literature, refers to the genre emerging…
As one of the dominant types of business organization that developed in the age of modernism, corporations allowed the public and individuals to actively participate, and in part own, shares on the profits of a particular business through the corporation. The emergence of corporations reflected the increasing complexity of business organizing in the age of modernism, wherein more merchandise is produced, hence necessitating more capital to produce these merchandise, which are then generated through investments given by the public or specific business-minded individuals. Along with the development of corporations, there has also been an increase in marketing strategies wherein surplus products are produced and marketed through different strategies, among which advertising is considered as the most effective and dominant. Initially, advertising and marketing was just formulated to distribute surplus products manufactured by companies, until surplus production became the norm in the manufacturing business, and marketing and advertising imperative strategies for…
A similar pattern can be observed in Italian and Japanese societies during the same period that Germany was recovering from the world war. Japan was experiencing not only the effects of the Sino-Japanese conflict, but was also experiencing difficulties with an ongoing conflict with Russia. Because of these political conflicts, Japanese society was also in economic strife, but the political will and ambition of the Meiji leaders strengthened nationalism among the Japanese, which in effect led to a stronger nation that helped it become a dominant member of the Axis Power. Lastly, Italy was also recovering from the First World War, and the need to re-establish a stronger and economically prosperous nation became possible for the Italians under the leadership of Fascist leader Benito Mussolini. These circumstances helped these three countries establish strong nationalist movements that will eventually be the reason for the formation of the Axis Power.
" (LewAllen). The purpose was to get the viewer to see the Holocaust as a point of reference in evaluating our current society. The actual work is a collaboration between her and her husband, a world renowned photographer. It is composed of a collection of sculpture, photographs and paintings.
Judy Chicago's works encompass several post-modern ideas. First, her works often focus on feminist themes and ideals, an idea that has grown out of the post-modern era. Further, her work is primarily comprised of installation art in that it is large and not able to be hung on a wall. This being the case, Chicago's work is the essence of post modern's focus on the real and the current, making her a true and unique postmodern artist.
For More Information:
Judy Chicago's Home page: http://www.judychicago.com/
The Holocaust Project:
Chicago, Judy. The Dinner Party. New York: Penguin, 1996.
Chicago, Judy. The Dinner Party. New York: Penguin, 1996.
Judy Chicago: Holocaust Project: From Darkness into Light. LewAllen Contemporary. www.lewallencontemporary.com
Post Modernism: A Forced Impact
The objective of this work is to describe a philosophy or philosophies that the writer of this work ascribes to and to explain why specifically incorporating values and beliefs held by the writer. As well, discussed will be the personal philosophy of the writer as it relates to the purpose of education, the student's role and the role of the school in society, locally, nationally, and internationally as well as the role of students and parents as well as teachers and administrators. Also addressed in this study is where ideals are derived from and examined will be development of curriculum and instruction, classroom management issues, school management and administration issues as well as diversity of education and how education can best cope with change. Finally, this work will examine education as an integral part of lifelong learning and who should be in receipt of an…
Aronowitz, S., & Giroux, H. (1991). Postmodern education: Politics, culture and social criticism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Elkind, D. (1997). Schooling and family in the postmodern world. In A. Hargreaves (Ed.), Rethinking educational change with heart and mind (pp. 27-42). ASCD Yearbook.
Giroux, & McLaren, (1992). Media hegemony: Towards a critical pedagogy of Representation." In Schwoch, White and Reily: xv-xxxiv.
Giroux, H. (1996). Living dangerously: Multiculturalism and the politics of difference. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.
The term 'Post modernism' has emerged as a real area of academic study only from the middle of the 1980's onwards. It is a complicated and a complex term, quite difficult to define exactly, and the reason for this is the fact that the term post modernism appears not only in art but also in various other forms of functioning like for example, in architecture, sociology, in literature, in the sciences, and in fashions, and in technology as well. It can even be stated that it is not very clear when exactly post modernism begins. Some researchers opine that the best way to start thinking about post modernism is by starting with modernism, and this is the movement from which the subsequent post modernism movement has stemmed. Modernism has two important facets, both of which must be understood clearly before beginning the attempt to understand post modernism. (Postmodernism)
Art History, postmodernism. Retrieved From
http://wwar.com/masters/movements/postmodernism.html Accessed 25 October, 2005
Art: 21-Laylah Ali. Retrieved From
http://www.pbs.org/art21/slideshow/?artist=79 Accessed 26 October, 2005
The advent of modernity has wrought massive changes in human society. New forms of transportation and communication, for example, have changed the way people work, learn, conduct business and organize into communities. Technological advances in medicine have resulted in new forms of treatment for disease and longer life spans. Upheavals such as the women's movement and the civil rights movement have challenged prevailing norms and transformed social relations.
The field of architecture is no exception. The modern architecture movement is also largely a response to the availability of new technologies and the changing social needs. The first part of this paper looks at the various definitions of what constitutes "modern" architecture. The next part then looks at how the various styles sought to take advantage of new material and to address changing social needs.
In the last part, the paper examines how modern architecture is responding to new concerns,…
Cannon-Brookes, Peter. "Modern architecture, modern materials and modern technology." European Business Review. 14(3). Proquest Database.
Kuipers, Marieke. "The modern movement." The Unesco Courier. September 1997. Proquest Database.
Lacayo, Richard. "Buildings that breathe." Time Magazine. August 26, 2002. Proquest Database.
Larkin, David. Frank Lloyd Wright: The Masterworks. New York: Rizzoli, 1993.
Likewise, without the roof, the facade could just as easily been a copy of the rest of the gallery, intended to look like a straightforward expansion rather than the addition of a new, distinct yet related wing. Together, they serve to highlight and celebrate the temporal flux of the museum space itself, where contemporary visitors go to enjoy and interact with considerably older works. Once again, Venturi's work embraces the complex and contradictory nature of human experience in order to reify those contradictions into concrete forms that might serve to generalize human experience, such that anyone viewing the building might instantly find some kinship with its seamless integration of old and new, even before considering the actual formal elements of the design.
By embracing the notion that "less is a bore," obert Venturi revolutionized both the theory and practice of architecture. In his "gentle manifesto," Venturi opposed the rigid structures…
Bachman, Leonard R. 2008. Architecture and the four encounters with complexity. Architectural Engineering and Design Management 4, (1): 15-30,
Goldberger, Paul. 1982. Architecture view; robert venturi-in love with the art of building. New York Times, Sep 19, 1982.
Goldberger, Paul. 1991. ARCHITECTURE VIEW; robert venturi, gentle subverter of modernism. New York Times, Apr 14, 1991.
Lawson, Bryan. 2002. The subject that won't go away but perhaps we are ahead of the game.; design as research. Arq: Architectural Research Quarterly 6, (2): 109-114
Rem Koolhaas: A survey of his work and aesthetic philosophy
The radical Dutch architect and architectural theorist Rem Koolhaas is often called one of the world's best -- and one of the world's most controversial -- architects. Koolhaas is as much known for his aesthetic philosophy as he is for his work. "Koolhaas' most provocative -- and in many ways least understood -- contribution to the cultural landscape is as an urban thinker…he has written half a dozen books on the evolution of the contemporary metropolis and designed master plans for, among other places, suburban Paris, the Libyan desert and Hong Kong" (Ouroussoff 1). Koolhaas does not merely wish to create buildings but also change the way in which the world conceptualizes buildings and aesthetic space.
One of Koolhaas' most famous buildings is the French convention hall the Congrexpo, located in Euralille, a shopping and entertainment complex in Lille, France.…
Craven, Jackie. "Metabolism." About.com.7 Apr 2014.
"Interview with Dutch Architect Rem Koolhaas: 'The World Needs Europe'." Spiegel Online.
30 October 2008. Retrieved on 6 Apr 2014. http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/interview-with-dutch-architect-rem-koolhaas-the-world-needs-europe-a-587436.html
Architecture is rightly considered as one of the most important of the Art categories. Unlike a painting or a sculpture, it is not something passive that can be hung on the wall or kept in a museum; they do little to impact us or our environment in a manner that Architecture is able to do so. Therefore it is not surprising that Architecture and the creators of it, which is the Architect, seem to have such an important place in the world of Arts.
Architecture has been defined as the very container of space in which we act, move, sleep and live our overall life; therefore, it becomes an important epicenter of our life. e interact with a space day in and day out, and therefore it should be functional and have the necessary details that are instrumental in fulfilling human needs. Sometimes these needs can be more…
Alvar Aalto. n.d. http://www.aalto-alvar.com / (accessed October 26th, 2011).
Bowring, Jacky. "Sensory Deprivation: Globalisation and the Phenomenology of Landscape Architecture." Lincoln University. n.d. http://researcharchive.lincoln.ac.nz/dspace/bitstream/10182/61/1/sensory_deprivation.pdf (accessed October 25th, 2011).
Fascia, Flavia. "Alvar Aalto." Napoli.
Fores, Jamir J. Ferrer. "Tradition in Nordic Architecture."
One of the impressive features of the Villa Savoye is its transparency in design. You are able to observe multiple sides of the house from different positions. For instance, from the perspective of the sunroom, one gets a good view of the second story terrace and the ramp that leads out to the garden on the roof.
Overall, Le Corbusier's Villa Savoye is marked by its retro-futuristic design - a look that has become synonymous with modern architecture. elonging neither to the future nor to the past, the Villa Savoye offers us a fascinating insight into one architect's dream of fusing top-notch aesthetic sophistication with the ultimate in functionality.
Out of all of Le Corbusier's building, the Villa Savoye was the only building to have effectively captured the essence of the aesthetic the architect put forth in his famous work, Towards a New Architecture. As Le Corbusier famously…
Bhatt, Anand. "Villa Savoye." Available at http://www.ab-a.net/index.cgi-Villa_Savoye
Le Corbusier. Towards a New Architecture. New York: Dover Publications, 1985.
In contrast, English baroque has been described as being more secular, with a higher degree of classical inspiration. However, as Daniells states, this form of the Baroque style is not easy to categorize with finality (Daniells). Wellek uses the term 'restraint' to characterize English baroque (Wellek). With regard to the period of the Scientific Revolution, English Baroque drew inspiration from renaissance geometry. As in the Italian or Roman Baroque, there is a strong religious element that permeates all the designs.
The form of Baroque is exemplified by work of Sir Christopher Wren and buildings like St. Paul's Cathedral. The following summary by Soo is reiterated as it encapsulates the link between English baroque and the religious and scientific values of the period. "...as the result of a compromise between native medieval tradition and continental classicism, reconciled by creating a disunity between appearances and reality, the final design of St. Paul's…
Antonio Gaudi was born 25th June 1852 and went on to be a known Spanish Catalan architect. Antonio Gaudi was a remarkable architect whose true value only came forward a while after he created the buildings. He has also been known as the Spanish Catalan and the symbol for Catalian Modernism. Just as the people of the city were attempting to make their own mark in science and art, Gaudi's exceptional and unique style came. His work and the buildings he made were criticized by most of the people at first, yet their unique production and architecture added the true beauty of Barcelona. It has also been stated that the works of Gaudi are actually inseparable from Barcelona city. (Sola-Morales 5). The buildings that Gaudi made like Casa Mila, Parque Giell, and Sagrada Familia changed the way architecture was done in Barcelona. The buildings added to the beauty…
Chandler, W. (2002). Antonio Gaudi: Telling a Story with Brick and Mortar. School Arts, Iss. 5.
Cline, E. (2011). The Lasting Relationship between Antonio Gaudi and Barcelona, Spain. Senior Honors Theses, 24 Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.brockport.edu/honors/24 [Accessed: 2 December 2012].
Descharnes, R., Pre-vost, C., & Pujols, F. (1982). Gaudi?, the visionary. New York: Viking Press.
Duffy, J.H. (2003). Signs and designs: Art and architecture in the work of Michel Butor. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
Romantic and Modern Design Styles
Comparing the Ornate and the Natural: A Study of Two Theories of Design
History often dictates societal mentality more so than current climate, yet in times of peace, it seems that the beautiful and the artful flourish. This very concept is debatable, especially in interior design, where the fashions of the time very often have a much-felt impact upon design theories and the way in which they are carried out. Yet it is in history that one finds inspiration, or the contradiction thereof. For instance, during the mid to late 19th century, it was against history that romanticism was born. Yet in the early 20th century, immediately following this period of romanticism, it was out of a societal need for simplicity prior to the two Great ars that a more natural aesthetic was born, expressed so perfectly by the architect Frank Lloyd right. The following…
1. Customer Notes -- Provided by Customer from Academic Notes and Books
2. Britannica Encyclopedia, (2012). Interior Design: The Romantic Movement and the Battle of the Styles. Retrieved from, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/290278/interior-design/74226/The-Romantic-movement-and-the-battle-of-the-styles-1835-1925
3. Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, (2012). Wright's Life and Work. Retrieved from, http://www.franklloydwright.org/web/Home.html
4. Pile, J. (1997). Color in Interior Design. McGraw-Hill: New York.
Florence train station and its qualities. The Florence train station might be expected to be designed in the classic or even art deco style, but instead, it is a classic and well-known example of Italian modernism.
The Firenze Santa Maria Novella or the Stazione di Santa Maria Novella is the main train station in Florence. A group of Italian architects called the Gruppo Toscano (Tuscan Group) completed it in 1934. Architects Giovanni Michelucci and Italo Gamberini were two of the members of this group. Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini approved of the final design of the station after a controversial competition, and many architects believe the Tuscan Group modeled their design after Viennese modern architecture and America's Frank Lloyd Wright, known for his modern and novel architecture. The Tuscan Group only designed the front of the building, the platforms, waiting areas, and such were designed by an Italian Ministry of Communications…
The history from the Renaissance to the Machine Age was defined by major technical and stylistic advances that allowed for much larger, taller, more elegant buildings, and higher degrees of functionality and architectural expression.
In cultural and scientific matters, the Modern Era was characterized by an increasingly rationalistic trajectory of thought which was based on an ethos of the humanistic exploration of reality and truth. While in a cultural sense religion still played a significant role, the Industrial Revolution as well as the advent of the Machine Age and the predominance of empirical science and the scientific method, had overtaken the norms and values of the rural and agrarian worldview. There were many other factors that played an important role in the scientific culture of this era, including the rise of Capitalism and international trade. This in turn is linked to other concomitant factors such as the use of steam…
The second structural element used by Gaudi as a source of inspiration was the skeleton, the structure on which the entire construction relied. It is a fact that Gaudi studied both shells and animals' skeletons before proceeding to build his own structure for the construction. The Casa Milla, for example, shows previous studies of shells and a significant resemblance with them.
Perhaps one of the best examples of how Gaudi used biological elements around him as sources of inspiration comes from one his own stories, the way he created the donkey, from the "Flight into Egypt" ensemble, "carved in stone at the entrance of the big portal." Everything, including Joseph and Mary, had been inspired from people that Gaudi had met in the streets of arcelona. The donkey itself was a problem, so that the architect made an announcement seeking a donkey from which a plaster cast could be made…
1. Ragon, Michel. Histoire de l'architecture et de l'urbanisme modernes. Volume I - Ideologies et pionniers 1800-1910. Casterman. 1986
2. Bonells, Jordi. Catalogne. Barcelone. Points Planete Seuil. 1992
3. Halker Maria Anna and Fischer Thomas. Spagna. Gremese Editore. 1994
4. Permanyer, Luis. Gaudi of Barcelona. Rizzoli International Publications Inc. 1996
The interior architecture of the Querini Stampalia Foundation also provides a connection to the more historical details of Venetian and Italian architecture while at the same time not tying itself to the restrictions of an historic reproduction. Something as simple as a staircase has become, under Scarpa's careful design and guidance, something of strange geometric beauty that almost crosses the line into sculpture. The odd split in the stones that make up the stairs, and the spaces left in the faces of the stairs, look almost Moorish in their design. They could also be seen to draw from far more ancient sources, like the Romans who occupied Italy long before the Moors were ever heard of in Spain. The regular geometry of the stairs makes them appear both very strong and also simple and easy to build, which would definitely have been favored qualities of older civilizations working with other…
This specific example is also indicative of some of the general ways in which the building was modified and updated. In his restoration of Castelvecchio, Carlo Scarpa uses the basic geometric designs and patterns of the original medieval castle, but accentuates, develops, and emphasizes these geometric expressions in a very modern way. The concrete beam in the example above compliments the angularity of the room at large, but is almost an exaggeration of it. The beam itself s composed of three slabs of concrete at right angles to each other, forming three sides of a square or a sort of sideways "c," with the bottom open to the floor. Not only does the beams itself represent an intrusion of modern geometric appreciation into the castle, but even the construction of the beam itself reflects Scarpa's extreme devotion to geometry and geometric expression. This amplifies the geometry that is such an…
Frank Gehry has become a leading architect noted for his innovative structures using industrial materials in new ways and with a certain deconstructivist approach to architecture. Philip Johnson, the dean of American architecture and a power since the 1930s, more recently joined with other architects who have been shattering all the rules, leaving behind symmetry and classic geometry in favor of distorted designs, twisted beams, and skewed angles. Johnson in 1988 showcased this style in a program at the Museum of Modern Art, and he called the show "Deconstructivist Architecture." Among the designers following this approach are Frank Gehry of California or ernard Tschumi from France and Switzerland. Johnson says of this new architecture that it evokes "the pleasures of unease." These ideas have been utilized directly by Johnson in his design for the Canadian roadcasting Corporation building in Toronto. Today, Gehry is probably the foremost proponent if this approach.…
Arnold, Dana. Art History: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Ballantyne, Andrew. Architecture: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Bletter, Rosemarie Haag. "Frank Gehry's Spatial Reconstructions." In The Architecture of Frank Gehry. New York: Rizzoli, 1986.
Celant, Germano. Frank Gehry: Buildings and Projects. New York: Rizzoli, 1985.
(ibid) His ideas and design were extremely influential after the Second World War.
The rational logic of Le Corbusier's designs also led many critics to accuse his architecture of being too 'cold' and having little 'humanity' about them.
His rationalism is the aspect through which Le Corbusier has most often been introduced to the public. For a large number of his critics, 9 sympathetic or otherwise, he remains the theoretician who perfected a rigorous system and whose works are subjected to a cold, standardizing logic and an uncompromising functionalism.
However, for Corbusier there was a sense in which a revolution in the arts and architecture had began in the early years of the twentieth century. "A great age has begun, guided by a new spirit, a spirit of construction and synthesis, guided by a clear concept. So began Le Corbusier's first article. In rapid order, this new spirit…
Britain-Catlin, Timothy. "Le Corbusier and the Concept of Self: Corbusian Societies." The Architectural Review Feb. 2004: 96. Questia. 3 Jan. 2005. http://www.questia.com/ .
Brownlee, David B., and David G. De Long. Louis I. Kahn: In the Realm of Architecture. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 1991.
Chilvers, Ian. A Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Choay, Francoise. Le Corbusier. New York: G. Braziller, 1960.
Germany's high culture of the late medieval period was followed by a slow decline. In the seventeenth century the Thirty Year's War wrecked her material and political potential for more than a century. In the late eighteenth century, during a period of political importance, classic German literature was produced in the small princely courts. In the early nineteenth century, a thin layer of highly cultivated individuals began to produce omantic poetry and music, at a time when Germany as a whole was pervaded by a depressing political reaction, which expressed itself in bitter opposition to economic freedom in the development of commerce and industry.
In contrast to the rest of Europe, in Germany the period between 1816 and 1843, which saw the flowering of its omantic music and literature also witnessed an ever-increasing proportion of the population engaged in handicrafts. Not only this, but the number of employees…
Banham, Reyner 1980 Theory and Design in the First Machine Age. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Banham, Reyner 1986 A Concrete Atlantis: U.S. Industrial Building and European Modern Architecture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Bayer, Herbert, Walter Gropius, and Ise Gropius (eds.) 1975 Bauhaus, 1919-1928. New York: Museum of Modern Art,
Buddensieg, Tilmann 1984 Industriekultur: Peter Behrens and the AEG, 1907-1914. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
However, his work was not always well accepted and the there was a public outcry at the minimalist and bare design of this building.
Another aspect of his designs that should be mentioned was his fondness for the use of natural materials in his buildings. He "...skillfully manipulated classical materials including marble, onyx, wood, and mirror, into a careful composition of visual patterns" (ArtandCulture Artist: Adolf Loos). Other important constructions by this architect were, the Tzara House in Paris (1926-1927), Villa Moller in Vienna (1928), Villa Muller (1930), Villa Winternitz in Prague (1931-1932) as well as the Khuner Country House at Payerbach in lower Austria. (ArtandCulture Artist: Adolf Loos)
Conclusion: criticism, deconstruction and evaluation
There is little doubt that Adolf Loos had a profound impact on many modernist architects and artists. For example, many European architects were particularly influenced by his style and theory. This can be seen in that…
Adolf Loos. http://eng.archinform.net/arch/122.htm (Accessed April 22, 2008).
Adolf Loos -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9048917/Adolf-Loos (Accessed April 21, 2008).
Adolf Loos [Modernista]. http://www.modernista.cz/english/ma_loos.html (Accessed April 21, 2008).
Adolf Loos: architect biography. http://architect.architecture.sk/adolf-loos-architect/adolf-loos-architect.php (Accessed April 21, 2008).
It also set up a conflict between labour and capital, a variation of the old conflict between peasants and nobility. Because it was based on a competitive "free" market, capitalism inherently sought labour-saving and time-saving devices by which it might increase efficiency and productivity. In other words, manufacturing and production processes were sped up through specialisation (division), automation, mechanisation, routinisation, and other alienating forms of production in which the human being was less a personality at work and more a replaceable cog in a much larger system. This changed the way construction products were made. The concept of capitalism itself envisioned the mass production system and then made it a reality.
Furthermore, with the rise of the factory and the mechanisation of labour, farming began a decline and people flocked to the cities to find other types of work. Added to this there were advances in medicine which meant that…
O'Conner, P. (2003). Woe is I: The grammarphobe's guide to better English in plain English. New York: Riverhead Books
This new political project would come to the forefront in the auhaus's conceptualization of functionalism, particularly under the second director Hannes Myer, who believed that architecture should be low cost and fulfill the living and working needs of the common working man. This idealistic belief, as detailed in such works as Karel Teige's the Minimum Dwelling, resulted in the construction of panel housing units in cities throughout Germany - and Central and Eastern Europe - throughout the course of the following century.
The auhaus School would operate until the year 1933, when the rise of fascism put an end to its activities (the Deutscher Werkbund attempted to conform to the ideals espoused by the Nazi regime, and was thus sharply criticized by Gropius.)
The changing concerns of the auhaus as a style and pedagogical approach during this period was rooted in the shifting directorship that the school underwent - not…
Anderson, Stanford. Peter Behrens. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999.
Giedion, Siegfried. Space, Time, and Architecture: The Growth of a New Tradition, 5th ed.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967.
Huddersfield Information Project. "Deutsche Werkbund." Huddersfield University Library. http://www.hud.ac.uk/schools/library/hip/design/lecture/deuwer.html (Accessed September 24, 2007).
Live Concet Analysis
How Doing Good Makes Us Feel Poweful and Poweless at the Same Time
Design Activism vs. Design fo Social Change
The Awakening Consciousness of Designes 1960's
Thee has been lukewam inteest in public sevice design, social impact and design activism. But in most convesations, all othe designs wok to enhance the standad of living of the people; some of it must be activism. The agument is seldom boosted by the notion that achitectue has been impacted by intellectual movements and ats fo instance, modenism which fuels an idea of a evolutionay society. These movements had ideal poposals fo society's efoms. They wee elated deeply to commece and aesthetics as well (Jose et al., 2008). Conside the diffeence between modenism and activism fo that matte. The modenism idea states that people stand equals to each othe, while society became united in evey aspect fo instance uniting laboes,…
references and charitable habits of Generation Y, Generation X, Baby Boomers and Matures. Convio and Edge Research. (2010).
Boehnert, J. "In the Front Line," Creative Review, October 2008.
Borasi, G., & Zardini, M. (Eds.). Actions: What you can do with the city. Canadian Centre for Architecture. (2008).
Brown, T., Sklar, A., Speicher, S., Solomon D. And Wyatt, J. "Design For Social Impact," (New York: The Rockefeller Foundation, 2009), 80-81.
Cowan, G. "Street Protest Architecture," Bad Subjects, January 2004.
(Antonio Gaudi) it should also be noted that his works draw inspiration from many disciplines and from the input of artists, engineers and sculptors. The first commission that Gaudi was awarded was for the lampposts for the Plaza Real in Barcelona. (Antonio Gaudi)
This was followed by various commissions, which included furniture and alter pieces. An early work was the villa El Capricio at the resort area of Comillas. (Antonio Gaudi)
Initially, many of the works and his unique architectural style were criticized by some of his contemporaries. However, with the support of allies like Eusebi Guell and others, he achieved a national and then international status as an architect. A major part of his fame was based on his questioning of convention and his interrogation or deconstruction of classic architectural styles. " His deconstruction of classic architecture, refusal to use straight lines and organic shapes lent his buildings a…
Antonio Gaudi. February 15, 2008. http://architect.architecture.sk/antonio-gaudi-architect/antonio-gaudi-architect.php
BIOGRAPHY of ANTONIO GAUDI. February 15, 2008. http://studentwebs.coloradocollege.edu/~j_becker/biography.htm
Antoni Gaud' I Cornet 1852-1926. February 15, 2008. http://www.costamaresme.com/gaudi_biography.htm
Resources - Antoni Gaud' February 15, 2008. http://www.babylon-idiomas.com/eng/htm/resources-antoni-gaudi.htm
"The north half is often called a fountainhead of modern architecture because of its total absence of exterior ornament. Root evidently felt that all that was needed here was graceful form for the structure itself. The south half of the building, on the other hand, is a masterful early application of classical architectural principles to the design of a tall building" ("History," Monadnock Building, 2008).
The early death of Root was not the only problem to plague the office complex -- when the building was finally finished and built, it was "so heavy that it sank into the ground after....requiring [reinforcement]...and steps to be installed at the entrances" to support the massive weight and to enable people to enter the structure ("Monadnock Building," Archinform, 2008). There was also some contention about what style of windows to use: "Chief developer Peter Brooks originally ruled out any projecting bay windows, but he…
The Building." Monadnock Building. http://www.monadnockbuilding.com/building.htm. Accessed 21 Apr 2008.
History." Monadnock Building. http://www.monadnockbuilding.com/history.htm. Accessed 21 Apr 2008.
Monadnock Building." Archinform. http://eng.archinform.net/projekte/6406.htm . Accessed 21 Apr 2008.
Monadnock Building." Emporius.com. http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/?id=monadnockbuilding-chicago-il-usa . Accessed 21 Apr 2008.
This trust paved the way for the modern skyscraper.
Thus, when spending time with Otis, I would want us to go on an architecture and explorative tour of some of New York City's more glorious buildings, both old and new. I would like to hear Otis' thoughts on some of New York's more historic structures as well as get his take on New York's more modern buildings. For instance, I would like to visit the flatiron building with Otis and hear his thoughts and musings on the architectural details and structure. I would like to travel to the top of the Empire State building and the top of the Chrysler Building with Otis and see what he thinks about the speed and function of these modern elevators along with the view of the rapidly changed New York City.
I would like to sit in Central Park as a break with…
Modernism made its mark on Berlin's architectural trends, too. The Bauhaus style of modernism is characteristic of many of Berlin's social housing projects that sprouted up in the 1920s, and which recently became designated UNESCO orld Heritage Sites. The early twentieth century marked the birth of the eimar Republic, which gave rise to an industrial aesthetic that has become a hallmark of Berlin's look as well as symbolic of socialist ideology (Hake). For example, the Potzdammer Platz was conceived of as a symbolic collective space, a sentimental communal property made manifest in a massive public square.
Throughout Berlin's history, architectural development has paralleled social and political realities, and the Nazi years were no exception. Nazi monumentalist structures mirrored the warped dreams of the party. Hitler and his team of architects, designers, and builders helped create a network of structures in Berlin that enabled massive demonstrations and also imposed party ideology…
"Berlin's Social Housing Gets World Heritage Status." Spiegel Online. 2008. Retrieved April 22, 2009 from http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,564508,00.html
Egert-Romanowska, Joanna and Omilanowska, Malgorzata. Germany. London: Dorling-Kindersley, 2003.
Hake, Sabine. Topographies of Class. University of Michigan Press, 2008
Matthews, K. "Karl Friedrich Schinkel." Great Buildings. Retrieved April 22, 2009 from http://www.greatbuildings.com/architects/Karl_Friedrich_Schinkel.html
A Comparative Discussion of Modern Art Museums
The Modern Museum of Art (MoMA) in New York City and Tate Modern in London have a number of major features in common that help to define the visitor's experience. Perhaps most importantly, both are considered among the most important collections in the world and both institutions are highly regarded not just for their conservation of art but for the usability of their facilities and the considerable educational, informational, cultural and recreational resources contained there within. hat strikes one as most compelling about both collections is that they trace their respective origins to the efforts of extremely wealthy philanthropists but that each offers a collection rife with examples of resistance, protest and rejection of established values. Indeed, this is perhaps the most unifying condition defining modern art in evidence at both sites.
Founded and overseen by members of the Rockafeller family, the…
Modern Museum of Art. (2013). Homepage. Moma.org.
Tate Modern (2013). Homepage. http://www.tate.org.uk .
Industrial Revolution and Beyond
It is difficult for anyone now alive to appreciate the radical changes that the Industrial Revolution brought to humanity. e imagine that we know what it was like before this shift in economics, in culture, in society: e think of farmers tilling fields and of their children piling hay into stacks for winter forage, or of trappers setting their snares for the soft-pelted animals of the forests, or of fishers casting their hand-woven and hand-knotted nets into the seas from the hand-sewn decks of ships. e imagine the hard physical work that nearly every person in society once had to do in the era before machines substituted their labor for ours -- and this exchange of human (and animal) labor for machine-driven labor is indeed one of the key elements of the Industrial Revolution. But it is only one of the key elements. For with the…
Atkins, Robert. Artspeak. New York: Abbeville Press, 1990.
Atkins, Robert. Artspoke. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993.
Banham, P. Reyner. Theory and Design in the First Machine Age. Cambridge: MIT, 1980.
Benjamin, Walter. Illuminations. New York: Schocken, 1969.
women artists," feminists have reflexively responded by trying to find great women artists from the past who were undiscovered or to emphasize little-regarded female artists from past artistic movements dominated by men. However, this can create the impression of feminists being 'desperate' to find examples of female greatness and over-inflating the reputation of relatively minor artists. Other feminist art historians have criticized the notion of what constitutes 'greatness' as overly masculine in quality and tried to create a new, specifically female-centric notions of artistic greatness. Feminist critic Linda Nochlin sees this as problematic given that there is no clear feminine principle uniting women artists through the ages: in fact, women artists and writers are more apt to resemble males of their respective periods than they are of all women throughout the ages.
Instead, Nochlin asserts that the absence of great female artists is similar to the reason why there are…
Hoffman, Lewis. "Premodernism, modernism, and postmodernism." Postmodern Psychology.
2008. 24 May 2014. http://www.postmodernpsychology.com/Philosophical_Systems/Overview.htm
"Postmodernist art." Art Encyclopedia. 24 May 2014.
obert Gober - MOMA
To fully appreciate the art of obert Gover, it is necessary to have at least a rudimentary grasp of the terms modernism and post-modernism. The term modernism is cast variously by the disciplines that frame and articulate it. Generally, modernism is considered a philosophical movement spun from the Age of Enlightenment, even though modernism would come to reject the religious underpinnings of Enlightenment thinking. Tremendously influential changes in the late 19th and 20th centuries transformed cultures and societies as they absorbed and redefined new ways of thinking. Industrialization was a catalyst for the rapid and extensive growth of cities, and the subsequent horrors of the World Wars. Where once there had been certitude, nihilistic thinking eroded convention, irreversibly impacting art, architecture, literature, philosophy, religion, science, and social organization. Convention no longer seemed to fit with the emerging industrialized existences that people found themselves living, and the…
Hughes, Robert. The Shock of the New: Art and the Century of Change. London: Gardners Books. 1991.
Sheleg, Bambi Gaining clarity: After postmodernism. Eretz Acheret Magazine. 12 October 2009. 23 November 2014.
Tarsila Do Amaral
One of the most important razilian artists of the 20th century, Tarsila do Amaral, was born in Sao Paulo in 1886. She had a privileged childhood as the grandchild of a rich farmer. This brought with it various advantages, including an education that taught her to read, write, embroider and speak French (Damian, 1999). Finishing her studies in France and returning to razil, this artist left an impression on the Modernist movement in the country that remains to this day. With her husband Oswald de Andrade, Tarsila worked towards creating a unique artistic perspective for the razilian people. This perspective would not reject the European forms and images that had ruled the country's art world until the 1920s. Instead, these would be used and incorporated into traditional forms to create an entirely new and more inclusive perspective.
The Modernist movement came in the midst of a razil…
1. Amaral, Aracy. "Stages in the Formation of Brazil's Cultural Profile." The journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts 21 (1995): 8-25.
2. Amaral, Tarsila do. Brazil, Sao Paulo drawing [Semana de Arte exhibition, 1922] c.1913.
3. Amaral, Tarsila do. Drawing Study of Black Woman. 1923.
4. Amaral, Tarsila do. Madrid: Fundacion Juan March. Tarsila, 1886-1973: 2009.
French omantic painter, Eugene Delacroix, is well-known from this period. Delacroix often took his subjects from literature but added much more by using color to create an effect of pure energy and emotion that he compared to music. He also showed that paintings can be done about present-day historical events, not just those in the past (Wood, 217). He was at home with styles such as pen, watercolor, pastel, and oil. He was also skillful in lithography, a new graphic process popular with the omantics. His illustrations of a French edition of Goethe's "Faust" and Shakespeare's "Hamlet" still stand as the finest examples in that medium.
Delacroix' painting "Massacre at Chios" is precisely detailed, but the action is so violent and the composition so dynamic that the effect is very disturbing (Janson, 678). With great vividness of color and strong emotion he pictured an incident in which 20,000 Greeks were…
Art: A World History. New York: DK Publishing, 1997.
Eysteinsson, Astradur. The Concept of Modernism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1992
Gardner, Helen. Art through the Ages. New York: Harcourt, Brace: 1959.
Hoving, Thomas. Art. Foster City, CA: IDG, 1999.
Le Corbusier's Pavillon de l'Esprit Nouveaue was most essentially a statement to that effect, deliberately upsetting accepted aesthetic modes (Gronberg 1992; Gronberg 1998).
Critics and colleagues saw the "machine for living" that Le Corbusier created as an installation at the International Exhibition of Decorative Arts in Paris, 1925, as an abandonment of aesthetic principles and roundly shunned both the structure and Le Corbusier (Gronberg 1992). Seeing modern life more as an extension of the efficiency and productivity of the office rather than the personalization and decorations of a traditional home, the living space that Le Corbusier presented was very minimalist and truly belonged more to the school of modernism -- which hadn't even really solidified -- than Art Nouveau (Gronberg 1992; Gronberg 1998). As striking as this departure was, the backlash from critics is somewhat understandable.
The stance that was taken against Le Corbusier and the vehemence with which he…
Gronberg, T. Designs on Modernity: Exhibiting the City in 1920s Paris, Manchester University Press, 1998.
3) Gronberg, T. 'Speaking Volumes: The Pavillon de l' Esprit Nouveau', Oxford Art Journal, 1992, Vol.15, no. 2, pp. 58-69
ith the sole exception of a permanent exhibition room solely devoted to the work of Joseph Beuys - widely considered to be among the most important German artists of the post-war period - the Hamburger Bahnhof features a fair balance of works by contemporary artists from all over the world. As a matter of fact, many of the more important names of German art from the last few years are noticeably absent from the exhibition spaces. In the words of Forster-Hahn, writing shortly before the Museum's opening in 1996:
Amid increasingly fervent discourse on the possibility or impossibility of nationhood in the postmodern world, the vast space of the reconstructed railroad station installed with works by artists such as Joseph Beuys - but also with the flickering images of Nam June Paik - does not conjure up allusions to a static, permanent staple of art. Here, trains and railroad station…
Duncan, Carol. 1995. The Art Museum as Ritual. In the Art of Art History: A Critical
Anthology, ed. Donald Preziosi, 473-485. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Forster-Han, Francoise. Shrine of Art or Signature of a New Nation? The National
Gallery(ies) in Berlin, 1848-1968. In the Formation of National Collections of Art and Archaeology, ed. Gwendolyn Wright, 79-100. Washington: National Gallery of Art.
DYNAMICS BETWEEN AT & TECHNOLOGY
Art & Technology
From the earliest moments of human history until the present and certainly into the future, the relationship between art and technology will be a dynamic one. Technology has directly impacted art forms such as architecture, photography, sculpture, and painting. Painting, sculpture, and architecture are much older art forms than photography, whose roots come from the latter portion of the 19th century. Nonetheless, each of these forms has changed technology and has been changed by technology. In numerous cases within each art form, technological developments in other industries, not related to art, influenced developments in each art respectively. The paper will discuss and consider connections between technology and art including culture and gender.
The great industrialization at the turn of the 20th century changed the world and every industry. The 20th century made possible the further development of existing industries and made possible…
Benjamin, W. (1935) The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. Available from design.wishiewashie.com/HT5/WalterBenjaminTheWorkofArt.pdf. 2012 June 15.
National Endowment for the Arts. (2009) Audience 2.0 -- How Technology Influences Arts Participation. National Endowment for the Arts, Available from www.nea.gov/research/new-media-report/New-Media-Report.pdf. 2012 June 17.
Thakur, M.K. (2010) How technology influences arts and creativity. International Business Times, Available from http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/79404/20101107/digital-technology-art-dulwich-picture-gallery-iguides-iPod-touch-technology-austin-museum-of-digita.htm . 2012 June 16.
The beginning pages of this chapter are significant because they do a good job of explaining the relationship between the Enlightenment and modernity, which helps establish a cultural framework for works from modern times. In addition, they help demonstrate that modernity can help explain the eternal if one looks at discrete units of time and all of its qualities.
Anderson, Benedict. "Introduction." Imagined Communities. New York: Verso, 1991. 1-7.
Benedict Anderson begins his introduction by talking about the major transformation in Marxism that was occurring at the time of his writing. He believes that these transformations were self-evident because of wars occurring in Vietnam, Cambodia, and China. Furthermore, he states that these wars of historically important because the violence has been largely indefensible from a Marxist perspective, even if the world has to acknowledge the legitimacy of the original Marxist states. Post World War II revolutions have been characterized by…
inzburg and Davis
A Look into Microhistory
Thanks to notable figures like Carlo inzburg when he first emerged onto to the scene in the mid-1970's, micro-history has seen long-lasting popularity. The 1970's heralded the emergence of micro-history as it coincided with post-modernism, another historiographical development, a period that deeply challenged the profession and brought it to another intellectual level of exploration. Since micro-history relies on narrative, there are no historian-driven "Why?" questions, making it easy for post-modernists to test drive their modes of thought. While Le Roy Laduries Montaillou represents one aspect of micro-history, Davis's Return of Martin uerre helped provide new insight into a popular story by applying her own critical lens into the narrative. With inzburg own contribution, The Cheese and The Worms, creating the framework with which other microhistories were and are written, micro-history became what some would say is the middleman" of fiction and historical writing…
Ginzburg, Carlo. 1980. The Cheese And The Worms. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lyons, Andrew P. 2012. "Historical Anthropology And Anthropological History Andrewwillford And Erictagliacozzo, Eds. Clio/Anthropos: Exploring The Boundaries Between History And Anthropology. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2009, Vi + 306 Pp, Chapter Notes And Bibliographie." Anthropology And Humanism 37 (2): 256-259. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1409.2012.01135.x.
Thomas, Keith. 2015. "Historians And Storytellers." Common Knowledge 20 (1): 9-10. http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/common_knowledge/v020/20.1.thomas.html .
In many ways, the iconography left behind at the Dome of the Rock for our evaluation provides only partial insight into the events that inspired it. e are left to interpret this based on the historical knowledge and immediate evidence available to us. According to Rabbat, "Muslims around the world believe it was built to commemorate a decisive event in the Prophet Muhammad's mission, namely his Night Journey from Mecca to Jerusalem, and his subsequent Ascension from the Rock to Heaven, where he received from God the doctrinal principles of the new religion."
It is this interpretation which is largely accepted by the world, marking the rock itself as the most important element of iconography in the structure. The Khirbat al-Mafjar, by contrast, offers a highly provocative mosaic in the main bath hall reserved from the prince-son of the caliph. This is considered the most important artifact left behind…
Behrens-Abouseif, Doris. "The Lion-Gazele Mosaic at Khirbat Al-Mafjar." (20
Khoury, Nuha N.N. "The Mihrab: From Text to Form." International Journal of Middle East Studies, 30(1998): 1-27.
Rabbat, Nasser. "The Meaning of the Umayyad Dome of the Rock." (20
Ruggles, D. Fairchild. "The Mirador in Abbasid and Hisapno-Umayyad Garden Typology." (20
Fauvism in 20th-century Paintings
The medium I have selected for the time line I will be working on for the museum website is 20th-century Western painting, sharing the common theme of Fauvism.
th-century Western painting began with the weighty influence of painters like Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, Georges Seurat, Henri de Toulouse Lautrec and the like - all of whom played critical roles in shaping the modern art. At the start of the 20th-century Henri Matisse, along with a number of other young artists including Andre Derain, aoul Dufy, and Maurice de Vlaminck collectively influenced the existing Paris art scene by introducing "bold," vividly vibrant paintings of landscapes and figure. The style adopted by these young artists that have been referred to as Fauvism by critics. Fauvism is predominantly talked about as the style characteristic of the works of a seemingly loose group of Modern artists in…
Derain, A. (Painter). (1903). Self-portrait in the Studio [Painting], Retrieved September 10, 2011, from:
Derain, A. (Painter). (1906). Charing Cross Bridge [Painting], Retrieved Sep 10, 2011, from:
Mediterranean agriculture therefore turned out as extraordinarily market-oriented.
Slavery turned out to be a further key component of the Mediterranean world economy. Aristotle was among the Philosophers who came up with the justifications for requisite of slavery to a proper society, for exclusive of slaves it would have been challenging for aristocrats to learn what was required to maintain culture or have the time to nurture political virtue. Slaves were obtained as a consequence of wars, bizarrely common in the Mediterranean world. Athenians relied on slaves for household jobs as well as workers in their enormous silver mines, which accelerated the development of Athens's empire as well as money-making operations, even though working environment were awful. Slavery also assisted elaboration on why Greece was never particularly engrossed in technological modernism appropriate to either agriculture or manufacturing. The Greeks established significant advances in building ship as well as routing, which proved…
Baeck L (1994) the Mediterranean tradition in economic thought. Routledge, New York [Routledge history of economic thought series, vol 5, 1994]. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: https://www.google.com/search?q=Bibliography+on+Political+and+social++impact+of+Greek+on+the+Mediterranean+world&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-U.S.:official&client=firefox-a .
John Boardman (1999). The Greeks Overseas: Their Early Colonies and Trade, 4th edition, Thames and Hudson. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: http://suite101.com/article/greek-colonization-and-its-impact-on-the-mediterranean-world
Perrotta C (2003) the legacy of the past: ancient economic thought on wealth and development. Eur J. Hist Econ Thought 10(2):177 -- 219. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from:
Mystery of the Propylaea
The Propylaea (ca.437-432 BCE) is considered one of the mysteries of Ancient Greece. The structure was the gate to the Acropolis which was built during the Periclean building endeavor, the rebuilding program for Athens which began in 437 BCE. The Propylaea were designed as a means of creating a massive and monumental entrance to the plateau of the acropolis, particularly the complex of shrines and sanctuaries there. The gateway itself is truly stunning, as it is indeed tremendous and thundering with precise details carved in dark Elysian marble, but it was never finished. The fact that this dramatic and stunning gateway was never finished is indeed a mysterious prospect, and in the academic field of archeology, a range of theories abound as to why it was never finished. This paper will examine the most dominant theories regarding this fact, and attempt to determine why this was…
Goette, H.R. Athens, Attica and the Megarid. New York: Routledge Press, 2012.
Hurwit, J.M. The Acropolis in the Age of Pericles. London: Cambridge Press, 2004.
Leonard, J. The Erechtheion: A jewel in the Acropolis crown. 2010.
Eat, Pray, Love
Into the Wild
Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail
epresentation from Media Studies -- Culture and its elevance
Post Modernism Literature
Importance of Culture in Analysis
Theory and Methodology
Thematic Analysis -- Framework
Thematic analysis is appropriate for the following situations
Detective and inductive approaches
Analysis of two different phased of data
Analysis and Process of Comparing Literary Works of Post-Modern Period
Post Modernism Writers
Post Modern Literary Theory
A person's personal, work, and family life and how they relate to nature all define how well the person knows himself. This article will explore how one comes of age and life stages by comparing three movies and three novels. The books are Motorcycle Diaries (Che Guevara), Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail (Cheryl Strayed) and Into the Wild (John Krakauer). The…
Bhuvaneshwari. "THE THEORY OF POSTMODERNISM IN THE INTERPRETATION OF LITERATURE." Research Journal of English Language and Literature (2015): 629-637. Journal.
Clifford, Amber. "Book Review: The Motorcycle Diaries: Notes on a Latin American Journey." International Journal of Motorcycle Studies (2005).
Kaplan, Jeffrey. "Young Adult Literature in the 21st Century." The Research Connection (2005): 11-18. Review Paper.
Kim, Farah. Life Lessons to Learn from Hector and the Search for Happiness. 29 January 2015. Online Document. 17 October 2016.
New scholarship suggests that Byzantine Empire was as successful as was ome in shaping modern Europe (Angelov, 2001).
Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age (also called the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic enaissance) was a center of government and political, cultural and religious traditions that arose in the early 6th century AD from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed and reached its height between the 8th to 13th centuries (Kraemer, 1992). The Golden Age was centered around the Saudi Arabian peninsula. Its first capital was Media; at its greatest extent, the Caliphate controlled all of the present day Middle East, northern Africa and parts of Spain, and extending to the Indus Valley. It was thus one of the few empires that rules over three continents (Kennedy, 2001).
After the end of the classical empires of the Middle East (such as Egypt and Assyria) the region was politically and…
thinkquest.org. (1999). Retrieved March 27, 2010, from SPQR Online: http://library.thinkquest.org/26602/government.htm
Islam and Islamic History in Arabia and the Middle East. (2001). Retrieved March 28, 2010, from islamcity.com: http://www.islamicity.com/mosque/ihame/Sec12.htm
The European Voyages of Exploration. (2001). Retrieved April 5, 2010, from the Applied History Research Group: http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/index.html
Mummies and Mummification. (2003). Retrieved March 30, 2010, from Digital Egypt: http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/mummy/ok.html
Vincent Van Gogh, Frank Lloyd right and Madeleine Vionnet. hat did this 19th century artist, architect, and fashion designer share in common? Very simply: They all incorporated Japanese techniques into their works of genius. hen Commodore Perry opened the doors to this Eastern country in 1853, an abundance of unique and influential styles of art rushed out and captured the imaginations of artists throughout the estern world. As author Emile Zola once said,
It is certain that our students painting with black bitumen, were surprised and enhanced by these horizons, these beautiful vibrating spots of the Japanese painters in watercolours. There was a simplicity of means and an intensity of effect which struck our young artists and then influenced them with a painting filled with air and light
This flow of Japanese artistic riches and influence continues to this day. Ask any graphic designers including those at alt Disney Company…
Coburn, F.W. "Mr. Benson's Birds," The Boston Herald, November 16, 1913, 28.
Encyclopedia of Visual Art. Grolier Educational Corp., 1984 printing. Danbury, CT: 1983.
Gardiner, Debbi. Japan, Inc., January 2003. Anime in America. http://www.japaninc.net/article.php?articleID=972.Visited 8/03/03.
Japan Economic Society, November/December 2002. Impact of the Kimono on Modern Fashion. http://www.jef.or.jp/en/jti/200211_016.html . Visited 8/04/03.
The emergence of non-commercial still photography, in the form of an art is comparatively recent that may probably be dated from the 1930s. Just as poets use similar language as journalists, lawyers and curators, in the same manner, the ordinary realism of photography, including the medium of mug shots and real-estate ads, can be the material of visual poetry. In this context, the American photographer alker Evans was among the first to identify this potential (Masters of Photography).
In the 1930s, alker Evans contribution in the development of American documentary photography was significant. His each succeeding generation of photographers was greatly influenced by his precisely & comprehensive, frontal portrayal of people and artifacts of American life (Masters of Photography).
He abandoned his early ambitions of writing and painting and turned to photography, and as a result he reached at a dry, reasonable and modest style of photography that…
Masters of Photography: Walker Evans. Articles. www.masters-of-photography.com
Capa, Cornell. Walker Evans. The International Center of Photography. Encyclopedia of Photography
Cosmo Polis. Walker Evans. Biography & Exhibition.
A www.cosmopolis.ch.No. 8, July 2000.
This building gave hi exposure as a radical architect who had the urge to come up with designs that would be appropriate for the century to come.
He designed the Hill House in 1903; this was among his most famous works which was his domestic architecture style. It can be considered as second after the school of Art he had previously worked on (McKean & Mackintosh 2001). He had designed it specifically for a publisher Walter Blackie. In addition to the whole house design he also designed most of the interior rooms, its furniture and other fixings. The attention to detail he had in his work was extended by how he prescribed the color of flowers that Walter would put on the table in his living room so that it would blend in perfectly with the rest of the interior decor. He also designed a writing cabinet which was unique…
Davidson, F. (2010). Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Andover: Pitkin Guides.
McKean, J., & Mackintosh, C.R. (1998). Charles Rennie Mackintosh pocket guide. Grantown-on-Spey: Colin Baxter.
Comparing Actual Sculpture to Theory about Sculpture
Krauss begins her piece "Sculpture in the Expanded Field" by questioning what is sculpture and what is sculpture now? She recounts the ideas of other theorists and historians who claim that because anything can pass for sculpture, sculpture as a distinct artform, no longer exists. Krauss adamantly argues the opposite. She claims that the world and the artistic community is very much aware of what sculpture is explaining that sculpture has its own logic. (Krauss, 1979) She also describes sculpture as it relates to monument, as they are both commemorative representations (Krauss, 1979)
As the concept of sculpture expands, Krauss contends that most sculpture diverges between the logic and permanence of a monument and a homelessness, loss of place, or how she characterizes sculpture's entrance into modernism. (Krauss, 1979) She further describes another kind of sculpture -- sculpture that is both landscape…
Krauss, R. (1979) Sculpture in the Expanded Field. October, 8, 30 -- 44.
Caro and DeMaria
Anthony Caro and Walter DeMaria:
wo Masters of Modern Art
Modern art is a conglomeration of talented individuals and unique means of expressing oneself. Each piece of art is therefore a process of inspiration and thought provocation incomparable to any other. wo pieces that are truly unique in this movement are Anthony Caro's sculpture entitled "Midday," and Walter DeMaria's installation, "he Earth Room." hese two singular installations are perhaps not very well-known, but they are important to analyze. he paper below will thus explore the specific processes of these two works of art, but also their place in art history.
o begin, one must analyze Caro's "Midday." he sculpture was made in 1960 out of steel. he dimensions are approximately 240 x 96.5 x 366 centimeters, and the work is painted yellow. here is no easy way to describe Caro's work, which has traveled from the MoMA…
The writer here describes that one the visitor does see the Earth Room in its full glory, so to speak, the combination of the whiteness of the walls, the light bulbs, the dark earth is quite amazing and truly showcases the innovative view that the artist once had. The author also adds the surprise of entering a space, which is meant to be a modern apartment in a very expensive and exclusive area of Manhattan, but instead of wood floors to see the earth, and element which belongs in nature, but which truly enables one to have a wonderfully unique experience. In this case, the blogger states that she laughed as she imagined "real estate agents in New York outraged at 3,600 square feet of precious SoHo floor space completely covered in soil." [10: "Walter De Maria: The New York Earth Room, 1977." Contemporary Art New York. Web. 05 June 2011. . ]
Furthermore, the installation is not simply art which must be dusted, it is a living thing, that must be taken care of organically. For this reason as well it is even more unique. First, it must be watered and raked once a week. This is done so that the earth keeps its freshness, richness, and wetness. Another strange elements, however, according to the blogger, is that there is no actual plant growing out of the earth and it is, of course, not meant to be touched, which creates "a particular tension in the viewer who can look, smell, and feel the air around her, but not come into direct contact with a material suddenly made sacred as De Maria's art work." [11: "Walter De Maria: The New York Earth Room, 1977." Contemporary Art New York. Web. 05 June 2011. . ]
Indeed, these two works of art are unique in their own ways. Caro's sculpture is just as modern as DeMaria's work, but each are very different. Caro focuses on a sort of industrialism and modernism made from already existing element, while DeMaria focuses on something quite simple, organic and not at all man-made. The works are, needless, to restate, breathtaking in their own ways.