I would have been thinking about social norms and categorical imperatives in Kohlberg's system -- or about the social value of self-sacrifice in Gilligan's.
Instead I made a moral choice that reflects moral maturity: a level of caring that Gilligan would define as postconventional. Whether consciously or not, I was determined to preserve the dignity and promote the well-being of both my friends. I took myself out of the picture. I knew that I was dealing with sensitive emotional issues and bonds of friendship that could be severed with one wrong word. Whether or not Julie and John were having problems was none of my business. I did not pry; I did not ask John what his possible role in Julie's behavior was either.
Kohlberg would claim that I had internalized a set of agreed-upon social values and my actions reflected the norms that underwrite morality in our culture. I…… [Read More]
students who planned to cheat on their schoolwork, or have cheated, especially in high school. To me, this meets the criteria for a moral dilemma, in particular in instances where I have had the opportunity to join in on this. Now, one would think that this maybe is not a moral issue because it is clearly against the rules, but the reality is that true moral dilemmas, where no choice is a good choice, are harder to come by. Maybe in a combat situation or something. So this will have to do.
The text notes that many people are governed by their own moral codes, and that there might be times when these codes are challenged. This, to me, is part of the growth of the person, and such situations help you do define what your moral code really is. For instance, I would say there are three reasonable responses…… [Read More]
Earlier this month an Italian research team jointly authored a research article titled "Affective asis of Judgment-ehavior Discrepancy in Virtual Experiences of Moral Dilemmas," with the results of their findings published in the scholarly journal Social Neuroscience. Lead by cognitive neuroscience specialist Indrajeet Patel, the research team sought to explore how an individual's response to hypothetical value judgments and moral dilemmas may be altered when presented with a virtual reality experience simulating the same moral dilemma. According to the research team's explanation of their experiment provided in the Abstract, "although research in moral psychology in the last decade has relied heavily on hypothetical moral dilemmas and has been effective in understanding moral judgment, how these judgments translate into behaviors remains a largely unexplored issue due to the harmful nature of the acts involved,"1 but by using a virtual reality desktop computing platform, this divide can be adequately addressed. In the…… [Read More]
referents that you use to distinguish what is right from wrong in your daily life?
It is common for every individual to experience ethical dilemmas. On a daily basis, we are forced to make decisions and choose the right instead of the wrong ones, in spite of multivariate pressures. In my everyday life, there are key referents that I use to distinguish what is right from wrong. For starters, one of the referents is the law and regulation set by the authorities. For instance, a number of aspects can be right to a certain extent, and thereafter be considered wrong, as proclaimed by the law. For instance, the law can permit drinking up until 10 pm and thereafter consider it illegal. Therefore, one has to refer to the allowances and restrictions set to determine what is right and wrong. One other key referent that I make use of is justice,…… [Read More]
He is not depriving the pharmacist of his livelihood. He is not depriving another sick individual from having access to the same medication. Harvey only risks getting caught stealing and even if he were caught would be unlikely to spend any time in jail given the extenuating circumstances. Therefore, Harvey should steal the medication from a utilitarian perspective.
Although a duty-based system of ethics would propose that the immorality of stealing can never be justified, it is impossible to prove why Harvey should let his wife die instead. If Harvey did let his wife die, he would have committed a far more insipid act than if he stole.
Knowing that the medication will save his wife's life, Harvey commits a petty crime only. The act of stealing is clearly immoral. However, under the circumstances only an inhumane individual could censure him. Given the tremendous good that would come from Harvey's…… [Read More]
Seeing how the Prime Directive should no longer apply, Picard was free to do whatever was necessary in order to save his crewman. However, the advanced technology employed by the aliens forced Picard to argue for the life of Wesley Crusher. His argument centers around the idea that this conflict is over whether or not moral universalism, or moral relativism would apply in the case of Wesley Crusher. Picard argues that the Federation does not interfere with other cultures because they believe that all cultures have equally value and the capacity for development. However, they are dealing with an alien race that is violating that principle. The aliens have decided that their moral universalism is correct for the Edo, and by extension, anyone who visits their planet. But Picard argues, correctly, that each culture must respect the rights of other cultures to develop in their own way. And the Prime…… [Read More]
She paid good money for tuition and didn't take advantage of her opportunities to learn. She also lost out on increasing her self-esteem in a natural way by rising to meet challenges and doing her best. Instead of feeling proud, she felt guilty. If she confesses to her school, she will probably be kicked out and it will be on her record forever. She is not likely to do that. However, because she is going to be a teacher, herself, she can talk to her students about her experience honestly and have meaningful discussions in her classrooms. She can tell her students that if they get sick, they can call her, and she will make arrangements to postpone the deadline. Jane wishes now that she had got caught the first time she did it -- then, she never would have done it again. So, she can purchase TurnItIn, software designed…… [Read More]
Any objective set of moral criteria must include: (1) the obligation not to cause pain unnecessarily to another; (2) the consideration of fetal survivability; and (3) recognition that a fetus undoubtedly becomes a living person at some point prior to full-term birth. On the other hand, even with the benefit of modern medical technology, there may be no way of identifying precisely at what point of gestation those moral concerns first materialize. For that reason alone, definitions of the relevant stages of development (and their corresponding fetal capabilities) must err on the safe side so that any inaccuracy unnecessarily protects the moral rights of the fetus prematurely, rather than protecting the moral rights of the fetus too late.
A comprehensive analytical system designed to respect every conceivable moral concern arising in connection with abortion must also incorporate the autonomous rights of the mother, the comparative consequences to the fetus…… [Read More]
Moral and Medical Dilemma
As the progression of medical technology has expanded humanity's ability to heal one another directly -- through the process of organ transplants, blood transfusions, and bone marrow exchanges -- several ethical dilemmas have surfaced which impact physicians, patients, and politicians alike. An individual's voluntary decision to donate his or her organs in the event of an unexpected death, and the government's methods for devising an equitable system of distribution for blood and organ transplants are just a few of the increasingly rancorous debates to become associated with cutting-edge medical techniques. Today, with the concept of stem-cell research offering a vast array of seemingly miraculous medical advances, the moral discussion has shifted to cases like that experienced by the Whitaker family, which has been forced to confront an agonizing choice involving their seriously ill son Charlie. In the end, although the Whitakers were able to develop a…… [Read More]
Like Midgley, Bailey would expect the company to conduct its opeations and make the same decisions that would be equied in its native society. Moe impotantly, Bailey would likely also ague that the company has a moal duty to espond to the situation even if it wee the case that its native society ecognized no such moal obligation.
Both Bailey and Midgley would pobably equie the company to conside the natue of the hams caused by its poduct and to take easonable measues to pevent those hams completely iespective of any obligation o expectation in that egad by any society. Thei view would be that moality is a matte of objective pinciple and not subjective values and that allowing the types of hams descibed as a esult of pofit-making entepises is always immoal and always imposes a moal obligation, by objective pinciple, on the manufactue to take appopiate measues to…… [Read More]
Taps is a movie about a private military high school, where the school is facing closure. To prevent this the adolescents attending the campus take over the school; in terms of adolescent moral reasoning, the boys involved impulsively react instead of thinking things through. They arm themselves, feeling like they are taking initiative and working together as a team to accomplish a common goal. They react just as they are taught, to be a team and to foster group dependence and unity.
The conflict involves actor Timothy Hutton, a sort of commandant of the cadets, who wanted to barricade the school long enough to talk to their leader to stop them from closing to school. He wanted to wait until his leader could tell them or order them to stand down. Tom Cruises character was an aggressor, and opened fire on the national guard and ended up being…… [Read More]
The pro-life arguments state that a fetus is in fact a real-life person in the making. Is true there's no supporting scientific evidence for the beginning of personhood, but what if an unborn child has a soul and can actually feel pain? Isn't then artificial abortion a crime? Just because we are not sure, we should take the most radical solution that we can and are allowed to by law?
This is the first solid argument to sustain the moral impermissibility of induced abortion. Because having an abortion equals the death of a life growing inside, as a natural result of unprotected sexual intercourse. It is therefore considered that the new life, the fetus, did not have a choice. And having an artificial abortion furthermore deprives him/her of the right to chose (whether to live or not). So, if it's about the right to chose and the freedom to decide…… [Read More]
Moral and Emotional Responses to the Challenge of Thrasymachus
Might makes right. So suggests the character of Thrasymachus in Plato's "Republic." In other words, justice and morality is merely defined by who is stronger. The proper role of morality in both reason and the emotions is dependant simply upon what one wants to do, at that point in time, and how one can best achieve one's objective. In politics, the strongest person defines what is just and moral, because the strongest person will always rule according to the real world laws of the political jungle. Socrates, of course, offers the opposing view, that only the wisest should rule, the philosopher kings of the ideal state, who put subjective emotion aside and rule purely by objective reason. While Thrasymachus suggests that 'the world,' that is the material existence around us (including our emotions) should be the ultimate proving-ground of any moral…… [Read More]
Moreover, caring for her mother, the other option, would surely: a) create a feeling of being "unfulfilled" which brings with it depression and resentfulness; b) leave her with nothing to look forward to but the dark day when her mother actually passes away; and c) realize after a short time that she is not "a Mother Teresa" and that her live would be diminished (Stuart, 25).
hat does Stuart believe is the right choice for Alice? Stuart asserts that the virtue that carries the most weight in this instance is having Alice care for her mother. Giving up her career for her mother would outweigh the "…virtues of perseverance, love of truth…and self-knowledge" should she decide to go forward with her dissertation (26).
hat Stuart also mentions -- and this is a prime reason for this writer to believe Alice should find a competent person to be a caregiver for…… [Read More]
Ethics & Morality
The author of this response is to be answering several questions as it relates to ethics and morality. There are three major questions that will be answered as part of this assignment. The first is to define and pontificate about what it means to engage in moral reflection. The second questions asks about moral conflicts that center on authority, interest and roles as it relates to moral and ethical dilemmas. Finally, the author of this report will apply Cooper's ethical decision-making model to ethical dilemmas in general. While some ethical and moral questions are quite tough to answer and navigate, there is usually a path forward with such moral quandaries.
The Cortland University website has a good definition and summary of ethical reflection. They generally define ethical reflection as a "means of helping students develop the cognitive side of character" (Cortland, 2015). Further, they say that ethical…… [Read More]
Charlotte's eb: Field Research, Psycho-Social Research, and a Textual Summary and Analysis
Introduction and Field Research Background
My niece Ariel, age 11, agreed to read Charlotte's eb by E.B. hite with me, and to be my informant on this project (Shapiro, "Personal Interview"). Ariel is extremely bright (IQ over 140), and has already finished the 7th grade, having skipped second grade in elementary school (I bring this up not so much to brag about her, but because she may in fact be more advanced in her thinking and vocabulary skills than some of the other 9-11-year-old informants: arguably somewhere between Piaget's third (ages 7-11) and fourth (ages 11-15) concrete operational and formal operational stages of development). Ariel told me this was actually her second exposure to Charlotte's eb, though her first time reading the book on her own. Her third grade teacher had read it to her class, but Ariel…… [Read More]
Moral Community: A group in America that is clearly being marginalized politically and socially is the community of undocumented immigrants. An estimated 11.1 million immigrants are living and working in the United States, and notwithstanding that the U.S. Senate and the executive branch have passed a bill allowing undocumented immigrants a path to citizenship, the Republicans resist supporting this legislation. Cultural relativism helps to understand why 11.1 million people are being denied the right to work towards citizenship. Cultural relativism: the beliefs of one culture (in this case, those immigrants that are not yet citizens) should also be understood by others (in this case conservatives don't relate to the cultural beliefs of immigrants and vice-versa). A conservative "moral argument" is that there are a limited amount of goods and jobs in the U.S. And immigrants take these away from citizens here legally, but cultural bias and racism also certainly play…… [Read More]
Sir Thomas More's decision to refuse to sign the oath naming King Henry VIII the Supreme Head of the English Church
It is difficult to determine whether or not Thomas More was right in refusing to sign the oath declaring King Henry VIII as the Supreme Head of the English Church. When regarding matters from a perspective involving his allegiance to the Church, it would have been unlawful for him to perform this act. However, when regarding matters from a perspective involving reason, he should have accepted to sign the oath. More was right in refusing to sign the oath because he stood by his principles and demonstrated that a member of the Church needed to guide himself in accordance with these respective principles rather than to be influenced by the promise of material gains.
More's decision to refuse to sign the oath is likely to be considered by many…… [Read More]
At the same time, optimized care is mandated by the medical code of ethics. If older people are therefore sufficiently able to function independently, access to care should be available to them, because this is their preference, and professionals have an obligation to honor these preferences.
In the medical profession, there are no simple solutions to the discrepancy between the fiscal limitations of health care and the ethical obligations of professionals to their clients. The best ideal is to use specific codes of ethics in order to find an acceptable solution that satisfies both the drive to remain financially viable and the obligation to provide all clients with the optimal care.
As mentioned, above, the dilemma involves Mrs. DN, an elderly woman who suffered from a debilitating stroke that left her in a wheel chair. Because she was generally at home, she had the right to home care according…… [Read More]
Moral Criticisms of the Market
Moral Criticisms Market This assignment requires read article Ken S. Ewert (found eading & Study folder). Note article, Ewert defending free market "Christian Socialists." He states position a rebuttal
Moral criticisms of the market: A critique of Ewert's analysis
It is interesting to read Ken S. Ewert's 1989 criticisms of 'Christian socialists' in light of current debates on other types of economic policies today. Ewert portrays Christian, leftist defenders of socialism as impervious to logic, in contrast to other former critics of capitalism, who grew more acclimated to capitalist principles in light of the failure of the Soviet Union Similar criticisms are made of 21st century religious fundamentalists, who stress the need for private enterprise to address societal problems 'on principle,' even when public regulation might be helpful and who try to define science, including science education, in religious terms rather than in terms of…… [Read More]
The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to maintain social order and to protect human rights against encroachment. A society subscribing to infinite morality which condemns all use of force as immoral is doomed no less than a society accepting the absolute pragmatism of tyrants. "
As Oleg Zinam proposes, these two extreme social attitudes to morality are equally unprofitable to the societies that adopt them. The attitude of absolute pragmatism can easily lead to the acceptance of political assassinations, as long as such acts may help the final political purpose. An example of absolute pragmatism can be the regime initiated by Hitler, who ordered the extermination of all Jews in an attempt to "purify" the human race by excluding anyone who did not fill in the Arian ideal.…… [Read More]
I have a clear written mandate that guides this decision. The other alternatives do not have the same clear, written mandate as the one that I made. hile a utilitarian approach may have yielded a different decision, in my position as a safeguard of public safety I am not obligated to undertake a utilitarian position unless I can do so without compromising my primary mandate. This is something I was able to do with generic drugs that I cannot do with biosimilars, even though it would be expedient for me to ignore the differences between the two products.
There are certainly those who would object with this decision. A utilitarian in particular would have a strong argument that total health outcomes depend not only on drug safety but on availability as well. I would argue, however, that this objection is invalid for a couple of reasons. The most important of…… [Read More]
The objective of this study is to review the work entitled "What Should We Mean 'Military Ethics?" And the work entitled "Strengthening Moral Competence: A Train the Trainer Course on Military Ethics."
Cook and Syse (2010)
The work of Cook and Syse (2010) entitled "What Should We Mean by Military Ethics?"states that when it comes to military ethics that there is a "great diversity of activities normally gathered under that rubric." (p.119) Military ethics is reported to be a "species of the genus 'professional ethics'. (Cook & Syse, 2010, p. 119) In other words, ethics is a service to professionals who are not actually ethics specialists but "who have to carry out the tasks entrusted to the profession as honorably and correctly as possible." (Cook & Syse, 2010, p.119) While philosophy on military ethics may be developed quite logically and be clear in conceptual terms and even debated…… [Read More]
An ethical dilemma is defined as a situation where "an agent has moral reasons for doing two different actions, but where doing both of those two actions in not possible" (McConnell, 2014). Businesses often find themselves in what they believe to be moral dilemmas, if only because of the way that they are framing the issue. In the first scenario, there is no ethical dilemma for James. He perceives that he could jeopardize his security, yet ethics hotlines are intended to be anonymous. Further, accounting fraud is a criminal activity, and the company stands to lose substantially if that fraud was discovered. James' fears are therefore irrational -- as in the Enron case once the fraud is discovered, James will lose his job anyway. His only choice to preserve his future is to utilize the hotline, or to otherwise report the irregularities.
In the second scenario, the company…… [Read More]
esolving Moral Dilemmas Philosophically
In actuality, all of the five ways of resolving moral dilemmas utilize some aspect of the philosophical method. The five ways include obtaining objective information, providing definition clarity, adopting a code, using examples and counterexamples, and analyzing arguments. However, when determining which of those five ways actually embodies the philosophical method, one can successfully posit that all of them do except for adopting a code. There is a degree of subjectivity in this way of resolving a moral dilemma that is much less concrete (and more mutable) than the other four.
Of those four, the one that best embodies the philosophical method is analyzing arguments. Analyzing arguments actually reflects the crux of the philosophical method, which is generally based on analysis and formulating arguments to help resolve a moral dilemma. In fact, one can argue that most aspects of the other three methods (not including adopting…… [Read More]
An office worker had a record of frequent absence. He used all his vacation and sick leave days and frequently requested additional leave without pay. His supervisor and co-workers expressed great frustration because his absenteeism caused bottlenecks in paperwork, created low morale in the office, and required others to do his work in addition to their own. On the other hand, he felt he was entitled to take his earned time and additional time off without pay. Was he right?
While the office worker has a legitimate reason to make use of his allotted vacation time, as this stipulation was likely agreed upon in his employment contract, choosing to request additional time off without pay presents a more complicated moral dilemma. In this case, the worker is technically entitled to take time off if he is not being compensated, but doing so necessarily affects his coworkers and…… [Read More]
ethical dilemmas surround surrogacy and the donation of egg and/or sperm? Because surrogates are paid, is this a practice that exploits the poor, such as surrogate mothers in ndia? Why or Why not?
Egg donation and surrogacy raises ethical dilemmas on all four basic principles of medical ethics: autonomy, justice, beneficence, and non-maleficence.
Autonomy -- .
Consent has to be given freely and with full volition of the surrogate mother. Yet, most times, intense pressure is involved aside from the fact that poor women in ndia may capitulate to the need for money and be taken in by the huge sums offered. The emotional and medical pressures are immense, but these women are often grossly misinformed about the situation that they are bound to undergo. Their poverty hampers them from making the clear, informed decisions that they would otherwise need to in order to undergo the procedure. Whilst most egg…… [Read More]
ethical dilemmas. The main ones described are the utilitarian, the deontologist, and the prudent pragmatic. Out of the above mentioned methods for solving and discussing ethical dilemmas prudent pragmatic appears to be the most effective and superior. This is due to composition of the prudent pragmatic method. The deontologist method calls for the analyst judging the situation to use abstract means instead of carefully weighing the merits of a particular case; they will instead focus on the ideals and values of an individual and allow those to influence their judgment. The utilitarian approach will call for the analyst in the case to value and prioritize the effect that the decision will have on the majority of the population in the case. This Chapter clearly presents the prudent pragmatic method as being superior in dealing with ethical dilemmas when being compared to the above mentioned methods. The author presents several convincing…… [Read More]
Jody Smith: Application of the Moral Model…
Applying Ethical Decision Making Model
"Jody Smith Case Study: Application of Thiroux's Moral Model"
The decision making model that will be applied in this work is the Moral Model (Thiroux 1977) and the case it will be applied to is the Jody Smith case. The reason this model was chosen is because the model lends itself best to a situation, such as Smith's where an impasse has been reached between the patients values and desires and that of family and the health care team. In this case the ethical dilemma is one clearly of informed consent as Smith has been excluded from conversations associated with her prognosis and care and this is contrary to her values and her identity. Without inclusion of this communication standard Smith has very little to go on regarding her prognosis and may be seeing her situation as insurmountable…… [Read More]
Ethical Dilemma: AIDS and Needles Case
Ethical dilemmas, also considered as moral dilemmas, are circumstances that require a decision to be made between two choices, a moral and an immoral act. According to ethical dilemmas' assumption, the chooser will follow the societal norms i.e. the procedures of law or religious teachings, while making his choice that is ethically impossible (Your Dictionary 1996-2016). Employees have to choose between the company's success, as they have strong pressures to perform and their personal attractions for an easy way out. Thus, as employees face many dilemmas throughout their career, the company should arrange for their training and should assist them in taking the right decision. (Mann n.d.) People can take ethical decisions only when they recognize an issue or situation as ethical, therefore developing this ethical issue awareness should be the first step in the direction of business ethics. (Ferrell, Fraedrich & Ferrell 2011,…… [Read More]
sex, power, alcohol and money on moral and ethical acts
Ethics, Sex, and Morality
Sex is still a subject that is a victim of human irrational treatment of an otherwise clear functional human phenomenon. Such incidents as homicide, and insanity gold and gems have also been subjected to such irrational treatment but, luckily, the mysteries around these have been dispelled over time. Sex has not been so lucky though as there is still a cloud of mystery and deliberate misrepresentation, perception and near-superstitious handling of the phenomenon. Sex is the most emotionally involving aspect of human existence. It is not a wonder then, that there is so much confusion directed at it. Lately, though, it seems that the wind of change is sweeping fast to affect people's view of sex. Some forces in operation around the subject of sex are clearly defined now. It is increasingly impossible to have a…… [Read More]
Ethical dilemma in nursing takes place when the experiences of the registered nurse are conflicting with personal values as well as beliefs and some element of patient care. One of the key moral dilemmas that a nurse can face while providing care is the treatment of a patient at the end of life. Towards the patient’s end of life, there is usually a problem as to which course of treatment ought to be rendered to the patient. The nurse is expected to provide palliative care with the main objective of relieving the suffering of the patients through the extensive examination and treatment of bodily, spiritual, as well as psychosomatic symptoms faced by patients. However, the nurse may face conflict from the family who necessitate aggressive patient care during this time rather than palliative care (Rome et al., 2011).
The illustration above is a concept map that delineates an…… [Read More]
a) Sonderholm (2010) describes intellectual property rights as "a socio-economic tool that creates a temporary monopoly", specifically as a means to allow creators to earn profit, which in theory will incentivize more creation.
On the issue of digital rights management versus the public's right to fair use, there are several issues to unpack. First is that a person who creates intellectual property has no obligation to do anything with it. In fact, there are vast reservoirs of unpublished novels, unfilmed screenplays, photographs, drawings…a vast amount of the intellectual property that is created is never brought to the public at all, and still more would be if there were means to do so provided to the creator.
But should a creator decide to bring their work to the public sphere, they and only they should have the right to determine how that work is delivered to the public. It…… [Read More]
Janet should not really have a moral dilemma here -- she already knows she can't take the job. The dilemma is presented in a couple of ways. The first is the argument that Janet needs employment, and this job can give her the employment that she needs, and she must weigh this against her own convictions. In fact, that is not quite accurate in terms of framing. First, there are strict laws regarding the marketing of tobacco products to youth. The FDA is tasked with developing and enforcing these laws, as of 2009 in the Tobacco Control Act (NIH, 2015), and that includes a minimum legal age of 18 for the purchase of tobacco products, and a variety of restrictions on the promotion of tobacco products, including smokeless tobacco, to youth (NIH, 2015). If the company is marketing to 12-year-olds, then it is violating both the letter and…… [Read More]
In "Crime's" conclusion, set at Ben's daughter's wedding, Ben, who is the film's true just and loving man, copes with inevitable blindness, dancing sightless with his daughter the bride, as self-important Judah justifies the "crime" he has committed -- albeit told to Stern at the wedding, in a folkloric way). Judah has literally gotten away with murder. It is bleak, grim and evil triumphs. It is Allen at his darkest and yet, as a film, "Crimes" succeeds. It is entertaining and thought-provoking, yet the audience ultimately identifies with a killer.
And here is where the aforementioned "mis-step" has relevance. Where he so clearly was successful in telling the "Crimes & Misdemeanors'" tale, Allen is less so in "Match." "Match's" Jonathan Rys-Myers' Chris, a social-climbing tennis instructor, is, right from the start, less sympathetic than Landau's Judah. Judah is a healer, he has saved sight, he has done some good; in…… [Read More]
The answer that he found the most interesting and the most likely to start a research on the degree of integrity society is showing today and the means of correcting it was: "You don't know if he was breaking the rules, until you know what rules are about following the rules."(Carter, 188) Carter's reason to begin by explaining the concept of Integrity and distinguishing it from honesty, for example, is setting a step further in comprehending his motifs. Everyone must have encountered at some point or another, an ethical dilemma. Adults are able to discern between the basic rules of "playing by the rules," but most of us are sometimes confused about the final destination of a real life situation or just a game. A certain example from my life comes to mind when discussing about how aware people usually are when it comes to the real goal of their…… [Read More]
reasoning that moral reasoning is determining what is right or wrong in a situation is acceptable but confusion arise from understanding what is wrong and what is right. Though universal with intercultural variations, it cannot be argued that it is only based on the perception of right or wrong. As a support to this, it is correct that cultures have varying beliefs and opinions and view moral reasoning differently. In China for example, bowing down to elders is a moral act but in America nobody bows to the elders. Besides, Chinese focus on group welfare which is the opposite for American culture which favors individualism.
It is generally acceptable that moral reasoning varies based on people's reasoning and beliefs; this response upholds that morality depends on whether a person's act will harm the other or not which is a rational ideology. This belief is awkward since it is…… [Read More]
cell phone technology in Japan. Specifically it will discuss the moral and ethical issues brought about by Japanese cell phones. In Japan, cell phones are as ubiquitous as they are in the United States. However, the ethics and morals of cell phone usage in Japan are very different from usage in the United States, largely because of moral and ethical issues of how the Japanese view cell phones and their usage.
In Japan, everyone from schoolchildren to the elderly carry cell phones. A group of writers note, "The Japanese term for mobile phone, keitai (roughly translated as 'something you carry with you'), evokes not technical capability or freedom of movement but intimacy and portability, defining a personal accessory that allows constant social connection" (Ito, et al., 2005). This very definition shows that the Japanese view cell phones differently than many other parts of the world, and because of this, they…… [Read More]
Assisted Suicide & Euthanasia
The dilemma in the case of John H. is the disagreement between the two specialists handling his case. Because of John's immediate condition (internal bleeding), the doctors disagree as to whether they should obey John's wishes from earlier or whether they should follow his immediate request for assistance. Perhaps the real dilemma is John's lack of specificity regarding his wishes. In the case that his condition continue to deteriorate at the present rate, he wants the do not resuscitate. Yet in the case of a spontaneous and unforeseen complication, he wants the former order suspended for immediate care. Whether or not the doctors decide to take immediate action on John H., it is still quite likely he will die from pancreatic cancer. Whether or not John is fully coherent at the time he makes his request for immediate emergency care is somewhat irrelevant because…… [Read More]
corrections officer subcultural norms identified by Kelsey Kauffman and the 6 stressors identified by Elizabeth Grossi and Bruce Berg?
It just makes good sense that people who spend their time and lives together fighting crime and surviving dangerous working conditions will experience some type of significant bonding and that is what happened here. When enough people do something a certain way, it makes it seem acceptable -- witness the holocaust. Grossi and Berg make the point that this type of bonding is not only reasonably expected, it is a natural outcome of forcing mere humans to exert their authority over others. In truth, there are few alternatives available to the corrections officers described in this case study, and making the decision to thwart the mainstream practices may not be in anyone's best interests -- except Justice.
What are your views on the idea of an unwritten code of conduct governing…… [Read More]
The ideas of Thomas Hobbes, the influential English philosopher who lived in the late 1500s to middle 1600s, are still considered important today. Hobbes is best remembered for his ideas on political philosophy. While Hobbes throughout his life championed the idea of absolutism for the sovereign he also is responsible for many of the fundamentals of Western political thought such as equality of men, individual rights, and the idea that all justifiable political power must be representative of the people (Edwards, 2002).
Hobbes also believed that human nature was such that people acted out of selfish-interests and if left to their own devices would do anything to get what they wanted or to acquire more power at the expense of others. Governments are then formed to shield people from their own selfishness; however he understood that even a King left unchecked would also act in a selfish manner…… [Read More]
Fichte separate right from morality and is it a good thing? Should they be separated?
Fichte's Philosophy of ight and Ethics
Why does Fichte separate right from morality and is it a good thing? Should they be separated?
Moral and political anxieties animate Fichte's entire philosophy and his perceptions to these issues that are innovative and at times tied together. His responses to Kant's vital philosophy in 1790 was a retaliation to the Kantian moral perception and its outset of human self-esteem as embedded in freedom and the moral outlook of human beings as normal agents. Fichte's perception on Wissenschaftslehre principle was a far from the conceptions developed in 1974 by the philosophers of Foundations of the entire Wissenschaftslehre. Fichte's major works in the principle of right and morality are extensively covered in these two areas; Fichte's Foundation of Natural ight (Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy) And the…… [Read More]
Before I embarked upon my study at the University of Phoenix, I found myself embroiled in a rather uncomfortable, albeit unspoken workplace conflict of professional ethics and personalities. A member of my office, who I will call a Ms. X, often used the workspace and place time to conduct her personal business. Frequently, my own nearby work was interrupted by her loud comments, as she discussed her various personal affairs and her out-of-work part time business dealings (she frequently sold products through the Internet, as well as worked in my place of employment, I gathered) and made it very clear, to me, as well as to other members of company staff that often her life outside the office took up a great deal of her paid work time.
As I was not her immediate supervisor, at first I thought this was none of my business. I tried to…… [Read More]
The foster parents showed their own moral character as well, by raising the child in a loving and safe environment.
End-Based Ethics- Also known as utilitarianism, end-based ethics has one deciding to do whatever provides the greatest good for the greatest number by predicting the consequences of different actions. If utilitarianism holds that the most ethical thing that can happen is the action that maximizes the happiness or good for society then actions have quantitative outcomes and the decisions that go into "the greatest good for the greatest number" are appropriate, even if that means reducing the rights or happiness of some (Troyer, 2003).
Using the utilitarian principle, who benefits from giving the child back to the original parents? We are not even sure that they benefit, not knowing the specifics, but we do know that the foster parents and the child are traumatized, and that the good works done…… [Read More]
If piety is capable of different definitions depending on which God's love is sought, that is not a definition of piety in principle; rather it is the same thing as saying that the definition of piety is determined by which God provides the definition.
Euthyphro's Third Definition of Piety
"Yes, I should say that what all the gods love is pious and holy, and the opposite which they all hate, impious."
While this last attempt by Euthyphro to define piety resolves the problem of different opinions of different Gods introduced by his second attempt, it raises two other fundamental problems that are the two main aspects or "horns" of Euthyphro's dilemma. First, if pious is merely whatever all the Gods consider pious, then piety is purely an arbitrary concept and not one capable of understanding in principle, but only through memorization of the will of the Gods. Had the Gods…… [Read More]
Business Organization Be Made Moral?
Ethical and Moral Issues
This work will operate under the assumption of being a staff member under one of Enron's Senior Vice Presidents during 1997, a year characterized by the first major accounting misrepresentation and/or financial manipulation uncovered. The misrepresentation and/or manipulation was the use of "market-to-market" accounting with the objective being the adjustment of the value recorded in company purchases for the purpose of covering up a shortfall in the expected earning of the energy trading division of the colossal amount of $180 billion, quiet a shortfall as compared to the earliest mis-accounting. This makes a further assumption that the senior vice president or the higher-up one is under supervision of had perchance heard something of this transaction and its accompanying facade and then stated quiet clearly in a staff meeting called for the express purpose of addressing the fact that if:
"This sort…… [Read More]
This is what leadership is all about since it demands followership (Fox & Marine Corps Association, 2011).
Anyone with the basics can learn how to become a leader. However, an entire leadership lot cannot be taught or learnt. This is primarily because leadership proves to be an apprentice trade. Leaders tend to learn about eighty percent of their craft on the actual job (Kets, & Engellau, 2008). Through watching and emulating other leaders, they learn leadership behaviors. They seek mentors, choose role models, and advice from other leaders on how to address the situation. Leaders improve their skills by seeking feedback and using it to benefit their subjects. The best leaders request for feedback from their subordinates, bosses, and peers. However, they adjust their behaviors to get the best results. From the competitive nature of the current globalized business environment, hard work is crucial for a leader to develop his/her…… [Read More]
This exposes another weakness of the deontological approach: it provides no guidance for determining which of two contradictory rules must be respected. If the supervisor respects the company rule prohibiting disclosing the information to the employee, he must violate the general moral rule prohibiting lying. Conversely, if the supervisor respects the general moral rule about lying, he must violate the company policy about non-disclosure.
In this particular scenario, the supervisor would have little help from deontological principles to decide which rule to follow and which rule to violate. Therefore, his only option might be to respond that he is simply not at liberty to respond to the question, although most of the time, that response would already suggest to the employee that the supervisor is aware that layoffs in the department are anticipated.
Other ethical systems are far preferable because they might allow the supervisor to decide what to do…… [Read More]
Unethical 'Best Practices'
Corporate Governance Case Study: Enron
Enron, the seventh-largest American corporation, collapsed in December 2001 in what most people refer to as the 'New Economy's first major failure'. Following its collapse, Congressional committees immediately embarked on inquiries to determine the cause(s) of its bankruptcy. Once investigations were complete, it was evident that the corporate governance mechanisms employed by the company had contributed to its downfall. The company employed the Anglo-American model of corporate governance, which places substantial emphasis on shareholder rights as opposed to stakeholder rights, and which, in addition, is management-dominated and has a unitary board structure with a single powerful leader. Driven by an urge to keep shareholders appeased by paying them more even when the company's resources were strained, Enron's managers employed off-balance sheet transactions with SPEs, and were able to hide huge amounts of debt that was often collaterized with the company's stock. The…… [Read More]
Ethical Dilemmas: Pornography
Biblically, God requires Christians to please Him in everything they do. Whether it is in secret or overtly, in thoughts or behaviour, Christians have a duty to portray Christ-like behaviour every moment of their life (Hiles & Smith, n.d.). Nonetheless, compliance with biblical teachings is not always as easy as portrayed by the Bible. In the course of their Christian walk, Christians often encounter situations of dilemma. These are basically situations in which it is not exactly clear whether doing something is right or wrong. Such situations especially arise when the Bible does not offer a straightforward solution or when the act in question appears to harm no one. Pornography is one of the issues that may present a dilemma for a Christian. Does the Bible allow pornography? Is engaging in pornography morally right given that it does not harm others? This essay discusses the ethical dilemmas…… [Read More]
Most of us have experienced a few common workplace dilemmas in our careers. I work for a Defense Contractor in the IT security field, and I state that my experience is no different. These dilemmas can range from personal value dilemmas to substantial dilemmas, such as legal issues. Most of these internal conflicts center on issues such as office gossip, negativity, or bullying. Ones that are more serious involve violence or sexual assault. In my experience, I have seen colleagues experience some of these dilemmas, and they have affected their careers very much. However, in this discussion I would like to focus on a specific dilemma that few speak about but that many think about daily: the boss who sabotages your career.
This dilemma simply means that even though a boss may not appear to be "out to get you," so to speak, he or she…… [Read More]
Morgan, Edmund S. The Puritan Dilemma: The Story of John Winthrop. USA: Pearson
H]e which would have suer peace and joye in Christianitye, must not ayme at a condition retyred from the world and free from temptations, but to knowe that the life which is most exercised with tryalls and temptations is the sweetest, and will prove the safeste. For such tryalls as fall within compasse of our callinges, it is better to arme and withstande them than to avoide and shunne them.
What Mr. Morgan manages in this book is to show us that even 370 years ago, John Winthrop was already confronting many of what would be enduring themes and challenges of the American experiment. The struggle over how democratic America should be has been at the very core of our politics. Separationism would eventually lead to revolution and the split with…… [Read More]
But "few states with mandatory insurance for IVF still require couples to undergo three cycles of ovulation induction and artificial insemination before IVF" thus encouraging the use of a technology more likely to result in multiple births (Roan, 2007, p.4).
hen contemplating the use of fertility drugs or IVF, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology advocates discussing the possibility of selective reduction and the patient's comfort level with this practice before any procedures are performed. However, its guidelines, are not binding. For example, "the U.S. fertility industry has guidelines on how many embryos doctors can implant, with the number varying by age and other factors. The guidelines call for no more than one or two for a generally healthy woman under 35, and no more than three to five, depending on the embryos' maturity, for women over 40" (atkins & Neergaard 2008). Eight embryos would be "well beyond" these…… [Read More]
Collaborative Learning Community -- Analysis of an Ethical Dilemma
Collaborative Learning Community: Analysis of an Ethical Dilemma
Euthanasia and related ethical implications
Euthanasia, referred to as "mercy killing" in common parlance, is the action of ending the life of an individual suffering from painful and extended injury or illness (Center for Health Ethics, 2011). Euthanasia implies that another individual, excluding the patient carries out an action with the intention of ending the patient's life, for instance, a lethal dose of medicine being injected into the patient. It might be voluntary if the patient approves of it, involuntary if the patient says no to it, or even non-voluntary if the patient is unable to approve of it. In euthanasia, an individual makes the means of death available in addition to acting as death's direct agent (American Nurses Association, 2013).
Euthanasia is the act of putting the life of a patient to…… [Read More]
Search Engines and Online Libraries
There are several people who might fall into the class of people who create intellectual property. First, there are creatives, for example writers, visual artists, or even project managers such as directors or the team who write code for software. All of these are actively involved in the creative process. When they are doing as employees or contractors of a company, then typically the rights flow to the company, as the financier of the project. But someone creating on their own should have full right to distribute as they please, whether or not this involves active digital rights management. There are examples of star acts that have sought to exert greater control over their work, using digital distribution models to bypass record companies. This is an example of a content creator exerting their natural control over how they distribute and control their work…… [Read More]
Lead Return Material Authorization Technician I am responsible for failure investigations of defective products. I must determine if, how and why particular products are failures according to specified quality standards, and prescribe remedies, if at all possible -- if not, then the manufacturer must engage in further modifications. This is a process requiring careful attention to detail and protocol, and thus, quite often, egos can become frayed when a particular product is found not to be up to standard.
What were ethical issues you experienced?
In one ethical conflict, my finding regarding a particular product was in dispute. I felt that it was still not up to standard, despite modifications, and that the entire product needed to be overhauled. It was alleged that I was biased because, although the product in question was very close to code regulations, I still found it to be faulty because the necessary modifications were…… [Read More]
Urban air pollution is one of the biggest environmental concerns for my community. And not just my community; air quality has seriously deteriorated in many cities around the globe over the last 60 or so years. The increasingly poor urban air quality has been largely caused by industrialization. Vehicles exhaust has also contributed to the poor air quality. In most urban areas, air pollution is a mixture of gas-phase and particle pollutants. Air pollution has serious negative effects on the quality of life especially in terms of health. In my community, the pollution sometimes gets so bad that it is visible. In other cities and mega cities around the world industrial smog is so bad it affects visibility on the road (Liu et al., 2016).
Ethical Dilemmas Concerning Urban Air Pollution
Accidently making things worse
One of the ethical dilemmas is the fear that in dealing with certain sources of…… [Read More]
Part of the evolution of toddlerhood is the establishment of an independent identity for the child. Physically, the child becomes more independent and capable of physical exploration. The child can walk, crawl, jump, and inspect the world around him or her. However, in addition to this new freedom there is also new awareness of the need for attachment. The child will engage in hugging, clinging, and other behaviors which reflect the child's need for the parent (Liberman 1991: 6). The parent must simultaneously engage in 'letting go' behaviors (encouraging the child to explore) and protective behaviors (allowing the child to explore) (Liberman 1991:6-7).
The parent must allow for the child to experience the surrounding world in a safe fashion. The child is not yet able to cognitively evaluate threats in an accurate way. For example, a toddler may be afraid of the dark but not a stranger offering…… [Read More]
Ethical Theory & Moral Practice
Debates about theory and practice are ancient. Each generation considers the dynamics that surround issues about the interdependency of theory and praxis to be uniquely challenging. Complexity is a variable closely linked with knowledge. As science has added layer upon layer of knowledge, decision-making dilemmas have been confounded by new and staggering concomitant factors. In concert, theoretical frameworks for social science disciplines have been adapted to accept newly identified moral imperatives and ethical considerations.
This paper offers a discussion about the nexus of epistemology, ethics / morality, and praxis. An examination of the historical development of the paradigm and the assumptions of post-positivism is presented as an introductory foundation for the discussion. Next, is a discussion about ethical theory, followed by an exploration of the increasing division between philosophical frameworks and evolving modern science. Particular note is made of the theory-practice gap in healthcare, which…… [Read More]
This is troubling, because if one of these two elements is taking place, it could cause the study to lose its accuracy. (Lofland, 2006)
What problems might you face with qualitative research?
There are several different problems that could be faced when conducting qualitative research the most notable would include: a limited sample size and the possibility of identify various anomalies as the underlying trend. This is problematic, because all qualitative research will involve selecting a certain sample and then corroborating it with other findings. In cases where, the sample size could be millions or billions of people, the results could be different from the views of the majority. This is because the population sample would normally focus, on a few hundred to tens of thousands of participants. This is a small portion of the population demographic, as their views could represent the minority. The fact that the sample was…… [Read More]