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Taps is a movie about a private military high school, where the school is facing closure. To prevent this the adolescents attending the campus take over the school; in terms of adolescent moral reasoning, the boys involved impulsively react instead of thinking things through. They arm themselves, feeling like they are taking initiative and working together as a team to accomplish a common goal. They react just as they are taught, to be a team and to foster group dependence and unity.
The conflict involves actor Timothy Hutton, a sort of commandant of the cadets, who wanted to barricade the school long enough to talk to their leader to stop them from closing to school. He wanted to wait until his leader could tell them or order them to stand down. Tom Cruises character was an aggressor, and opened fire on the national guard and ended up being…
Diver-Stamnes.; Thomas, M. "What Wrongdoers Deserve: The Moral Reasoning behind Responses to Misconduct." Greenwood Press: Westport, 1993
Diver-Stamnes, A.; Thomas, M. "Prevent, Repent, Reform, Revenge: Study in Adolescent Moral Development." Greenwood Press, Westport: 1995.
Marcia, James; Skoe, Eva E. "Care-Oriented Moral Reasoning and Prosocial Behavior: A Question of Gender of Sex Role Orientation." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, Vol. 31, 1994
Matsuba, Kyle; Walker, Lawrence. "Moral Reasoning in the Context of Ego Functioning." Merril-Palmer Quarterly, Vol. 44, 1998
Moral reasoning: An intercultural comparison
Until recently, many Western developmental theorists tended to see morality as a transcultural phenomenon, reflecting their belief that all cultures shared certain common moral assumptions. Both Piaget and Kohlberg stressed that moral development passes through a series of stages, just like the child's ability to understand other complex subjects like mass and volume (Jensen 2008; Sunac n.d). However, this tends to assume that the individual is the primary moral decision-making unit and reflects an individualistic bias. American culture is defined by certain assumptions, such as the importance of individualism and material advancement, which are not necessarily shared by all cultures (or indeed all subcultures within America) (Humphries & Jagers 2009: 206). In America, an individual who 'stands up' to a crowd, or who goes against established ideas and makes a profit in the case of an entrepreneur like Steve Jobs or…
Bedford, Olwen & Kwang-Kuo Hwang. (2003). Guilt and shame in Chinese culture:
A cross-cultural framework from the perspective of morality and identity.
Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 33:2.
Humphries, Marisha L. & Robert J. Jagers (2009). Culture: A possible predictor of morality for African-American adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 19(2), 205 -- 215
reasoning that moral reasoning is determining what is right or wrong in a situation is acceptable but confusion arise from understanding what is wrong and what is right. Though universal with intercultural variations, it cannot be argued that it is only based on the perception of right or wrong. As a support to this, it is correct that cultures have varying beliefs and opinions and view moral reasoning differently. In China for example, bowing down to elders is a moral act but in America nobody bows to the elders. Besides, Chinese focus on group welfare which is the opposite for American culture which favors individualism.
It is generally acceptable that moral reasoning varies based on people's reasoning and beliefs; this response upholds that morality depends on whether a person's act will harm the other or not which is a rational ideology. This belief is awkward since it is…
Brannigan's Moral Reasoning Applied to a Specific Case Study
Using Brannigan's six steps to moral reasoning, the situation involving the business man, his wife, and her lover can be broken down and analyzed from a moral perspective in order to arrive at an agreed upon moral option. The first step in using Brannigan's Moral Reasoning logic is to identify the fact. Since the case went to court, the article used to relate the case to the public is adequate for identifying these facts. Here are the facts as stated by the article:
The wife was a teacher at the secondary school where the 16-year-old student attended when the affair began, the husband filed for divorce 20 years after the affair began, the divorce was filed in August, 2009, the couple had not had sex for over 10 years due to the husbands impotence and related health problems, the wife was…
Charlotte's eb: Field Research, Psycho-Social Research, and a Textual Summary and Analysis
Introduction and Field Research Background
My niece Ariel, age 11, agreed to read Charlotte's eb by E.B. hite with me, and to be my informant on this project (Shapiro, "Personal Interview"). Ariel is extremely bright (IQ over 140), and has already finished the 7th grade, having skipped second grade in elementary school (I bring this up not so much to brag about her, but because she may in fact be more advanced in her thinking and vocabulary skills than some of the other 9-11-year-old informants: arguably somewhere between Piaget's third (ages 7-11) and fourth (ages 11-15) concrete operational and formal operational stages of development). Ariel told me this was actually her second exposure to Charlotte's eb, though her first time reading the book on her own. Her third grade teacher had read it to her class, but Ariel…
Brynildssen, Shawna. "Character Education through Children's Literature."
ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading English and Communication. Bloomington,
IN: Family Learning Association Bloomington IN. March 2003. ED469929.
Hartman, Holly. "Charlotte's Web: Spotlight on a Children's Classic." Fact
Moral and Emotional Responses to the Challenge of Thrasymachus
Might makes right. So suggests the character of Thrasymachus in Plato's "Republic." In other words, justice and morality is merely defined by who is stronger. The proper role of morality in both reason and the emotions is dependant simply upon what one wants to do, at that point in time, and how one can best achieve one's objective. In politics, the strongest person defines what is just and moral, because the strongest person will always rule according to the real world laws of the political jungle. Socrates, of course, offers the opposing view, that only the wisest should rule, the philosopher kings of the ideal state, who put subjective emotion aside and rule purely by objective reason. While Thrasymachus suggests that 'the world,' that is the material existence around us (including our emotions) should be the ultimate proving-ground of any moral…
MOAL DEVELOPMENT & GENDE CAE |
Moral Development and Gender Care Theories
Moral development in humans occurs naturally together with physical, social and mental development. Individually as well as in social settings, mankind evolves a developed moral character and conscience in spite of numerous social and psychological barriers, which temporarily retard or disturb the process. In axiology, concepts of moral development give rise to feelings of being an active and developing entity. Through potential self-realization or perfection, a grand innate legacy is inherited, to be fulfilled in one's individual character and via the community, revealing one's unseen but tremendous intrinsic value (Fieser & Dowden, 2016).
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development
Crain (2015) holds that the child development scholar and moral philosopher, Lawrence Kohlberg, noted that kids progress across distinct moral development stages similar to the way they progress across cognitive development stages (defined by Piaget). Kohlberg observed…
Crain, W. C. (2015). KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT. Theories of Development, 118-136. Retrieved from http://www.cs.umb.edu/
Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Care Ethics. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/care-eth/
Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Moral Development. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/moraldev/
Hetherington, M. E., & Parke, R. D. (2003). Gender Roles and Gender Differences. In M. E. Parke, Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint. New York: Mcgraw-Hill Global Education.
By Goodman's analysis, the systematic murder of one million people motivated by the specific intention of genocide is morally worse than the systematic murder of one million and one people selected arbitrarily. The author does not explain why the motivation for unjustified murder is such an important distinction; it would seem that unjustified murder is always wrong and that the scale of victims is always a more accurate measure of that moral offense than the reason or intent behind unjustified murder of innocent people.
Polygamy, Rape, Incest, and Genital Mutilation
Professor Goodman's reasoning about polygamy, rape, incest, and genital mutilation represent his weakest line of reasoning. Specifically, his view of polygamy completely ignores the issue of gender inequality and suggests that polygamy is necessarily harmful to women. The obvious counterargument is that this is only true because of the extent to which women are already objectified and comparatively powerless in…
Moral Theory and Virtue Ethics
How is virtue ethics different from the other theories of ethics that you have studied so far?
The other theories of ethics argue that morality results from an act, thus they tend to focus on the impact. This implies that a moral act will bring the highest level of happiness for the highest number of people. In contrast, virtue ethics considers morality as the result of character or identity of a person and not a reflection of the act. It means that some characteristics are virtues. Individuals with these virtues are moral and their actions only reflect their inner morality (MacKinnon, 2012).
According to Aristotle, what is the difference between intellectual and moral virtues?
Intellectual is the first principle governing human acts. Other laws only exist to obey intellectual in various ways. Those who obey intellectual without any contradiction are body limbs because they are…
MacKinnon, B. (2012). Ethics: Theory and contemporary issues, concise edition. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning
Vaughn, L. (2013). Contemporary moral arguments: Readings in ethical issues. New York: Oxford University Press
Moral Messages in Children's Literature
I chose four children's classics: Charlotte's web (1952) by E.B. White, and other three children's fairy tales, two by Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm (Cinderella and Snow white and the seven dwarfs) and one by Charles Perrault (Sleeping Beauty). These were among my personal childhood favorites. Looking back on all four as an adult, I see many similarities, but also many differences, in these books' inherent moral messages. All have been positively reviewed (e.g., have received awards or good critical reviews, and/or have stood the test of time). Each contains many distinct moral messages, some plain, others less so. Each also deals with situations that require moral decisions.
Charlotte's web is a story about eight-year-old Fern, who, while growing up on a farm, loves and nurtures a pet pig, Wilbur. Wilbur grows up (with help from Fern and various animal friends, including a wise…
The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to maintain social order and to protect human rights against encroachment. A society subscribing to infinite morality which condemns all use of force as immoral is doomed no less than a society accepting the absolute pragmatism of tyrants. "
As Oleg Zinam proposes, these two extreme social attitudes to morality are equally unprofitable to the societies that adopt them. The attitude of absolute pragmatism can easily lead to the acceptance of political assassinations, as long as such acts may help the final political purpose. An example of absolute pragmatism can be the regime initiated by Hitler, who ordered the extermination of all Jews in an attempt to "purify" the human race by excluding anyone who did not fill in the Arian ideal.…
Ben-Yehuda, Nachman. 1997. Political Assassination Events as a Cross- Cultural form of Alternative Justice.
International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol.38: 25-30.
Feliks, Gross. 1974. The Revolutionary Party. Essays in the Sociology of Politics. Westport: Greenwood
Capital punishment, however, does reflect the retributive perspective and is the most obvious modern manifestation of Hammurabi's code. Even so, the moral righteousness of capital punishment is questionable for several reasons. First, capital punishment is illogical and hypocritical. If killing another human being is wrong, and if the state kills human beings, then the state is committing a wrongful act. Second, capital punishment can be considered cruel and unusual. Third, capital punishment precludes the state from promoting positive moral values in favor of a perceived increase in public safety. Whether public safety is increased by the use of capital punishment is also questionable. For the most part, capital punishment is used "solely for symbolic purposes," (Turow, cited by Stern, 2003). Capital punishment is the epitome of revenge-based, retributive justice. It would seem that even if revenge were morally just, that the state would have no justifiable role in exacting revenge.…
Primorac, I. (nd). Is Retributivism Analytic? The Royal Institute of Philosophy. Retrieved June 17, 2007 at http://www.royalinstitutephilosophy.org/articles/article.php?id=20
Stern, S. (2003). Discussing the morality of capital punishment. Christian Science Monitor. 12 Nov 2003. Retrieved June 17, 2007 at http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/1112/p16s01-usju.html
Townsend, C. (2005). The morality of punishment. Cambridge Papers. 31 May 2005. Retrieved June 17, 2007 at http://www.leaderu.com/humanities/moralityofpunishment.html
CEO's values influence on mission, vision, and members of an organization
Effective leadership relies on the ethics and morals of the leader. The values expressed by the leader are transposed by his or her actions and are reflected in the organization's results. The mission of the organization is constructed by the leader based on his or her values. Leaders can only run organizations whose mission is to satisfy the leader's values. In other words, the organization's values must be aligned with leaders' values. Otherwise, leaders will not have a sense of fulfillment, and they are likely to consider that the organization does not serve its best and most ethical purposes.
The vision of the organization is also strongly influenced by the leader's values. This is because the vision reflects how the organization's mission will be fulfilled. It is important that the leader constructs an organizational vision that relies…
1. Women Still Underrepresented on Corporate Boards. Stanford Graduate School of Business. Retrieved December 10, 2013 from http://www.gsb.stanford.edu/news/headlines/rhode_women_2011.html .
She paid good money for tuition and didn't take advantage of her opportunities to learn. She also lost out on increasing her self-esteem in a natural way by rising to meet challenges and doing her best. Instead of feeling proud, she felt guilty. If she confesses to her school, she will probably be kicked out and it will be on her record forever. She is not likely to do that. However, because she is going to be a teacher, herself, she can talk to her students about her experience honestly and have meaningful discussions in her classrooms. She can tell her students that if they get sick, they can call her, and she will make arrangements to postpone the deadline. Jane wishes now that she had got caught the first time she did it -- then, she never would have done it again. So, she can purchase TurnItIn, software designed…
Reasoning Behind the Title: To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird took the form of a novel before its adaptation into a film. This is a work that has a strong literal and metaphorical link to the title. To Kill a Mockingbird is an infinitive phrase that describes an action. The title is a phrase that communicates part of the main theme of the novel. By the time the reader has completed the novel, the reader should understand quite clearly what the consequences of killing a mockingbird in real life as well as within the context of the narrative. Mockingbirds, as the novel expounds upon, represent innocence and joy. Through various actions in the novel and as demonstrated through nearly all of the character arcs in the story, to kill a mockingbird is a solemn tragedy.
Characters such as Jem, Dill, Tom Robinson, Mr. Raymond, and Boo Radley are…
Moral Permissibility of Euthanasia
Voluntary Active Euthanasia
Voluntary Active Euthanasia can be described as a perfectly competent patient's appeal and request to be aided in the process of dying. This act is completely voluntary and by the choice of the patient himself due to the medical condition that he or she might be facing. It is a simplistic appeal on part of the patient to be provided with the necessary ways or assistance in putting an end to their own life. There are various methods to go ahead with this process, which may involve giving the patient a certain form of drug, putting a halt to some kind of treatment that the patient was undergoing or any other means of assistance. This form of providing an access to the person to commit suicide is referred to as assisted suicide where the doctor, physician or person in charge aids the person…
Baird, R.M. (1989). Euthanasia: The Moral Issues. Prometheus Books.
Dowbiggin, I. (2003). A Merciful End: The Euthanasia Movement in Modern America. Oxford Univeristy Press.
Gorsuch, N.M. (2006). The Future of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia. Princeton University Press.
Keown, J. (2002). Euthanasia, Ethics, and Public Policy: An Argument against Legalisation. Cambridge University Press.
The ideas of Thomas Hobbes, the influential English philosopher who lived in the late 1500s to middle 1600s, are still considered important today. Hobbes is best remembered for his ideas on political philosophy. While Hobbes throughout his life championed the idea of absolutism for the sovereign he also is responsible for many of the fundamentals of Western political thought such as equality of men, individual rights, and the idea that all justifiable political power must be representative of the people (Edwards, 2002).
Hobbes also believed that human nature was such that people acted out of selfish-interests and if left to their own devices would do anything to get what they wanted or to acquire more power at the expense of others. Governments are then formed to shield people from their own selfishness; however he understood that even a King left unchecked would also act in a selfish manner…
Action in America. (2012). Drug war cost clock updated 2011. Retrieved on February 10, 2010
from http://actionamerica.org/drugs/wodclock.shtml .
Appel, D. (2004). Why can immorality be legislated more easily than morality in America
Free Leadership Thoughts. Retrieved February 5, 2012, from http://authenticleadershipinc.com/free.html
The published codes of ethics for different professions try to make it clear that "professional" in that occupation will not misuse that power, and especially that the use will not be made for personal gain. Of course, in totality, the codes of ethics should provide guidance about the values to be upheld in the profession, specific ethical principles and specific standards. (Professional code of Ethics)
Since there is a wide variation in codes for different professions, it is required that codes from some professions be looked at to decide the ethical standards of a profession. However, studying ethical codes does not mean that the individual will be following the codes and behaving in an ethical manner. This is mentioned clearly in the code for National Association of Social Work as "a code of ethics cannot resolve all ethical issues or disputes or capture the richness and complexity involved in striving…
An Overview of Morality and ethical systems" Retrieved at http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/415/415lect01.htm. Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Dean, John. W. (26 March, 2004) "A Closer Look at the Case from Which Justice Scalia Has
Refused To Rescue Himself." Retrieved at http://writ.news.findlaw.com/dean/20040326.html . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Etzioni, Amitai. (4 August, 2004) "When It Comes to Ethics, B-Schools Get an F" Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&contentId=A38323-2002Aug2¬Found=true . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Indictment of the Moral Offense of Animal Cruelty
Animals think. Animals feel emotion. Animals experience pain. Yet there are members of our human society that find these facts irrelevant. In fact there are many people that have no problem disregarding these facts entirely as long as they are able to reap some type of personal reward or benefit from an animal. hether that benefit is in the form of food, clothing, or testing the latest new lipstick, it is always at the expense of the animal's well-being. In this paper I argue that the abuse of animals is morally wrong and therefore animals ought to be afforded rights which place the same consideration on their sentience as is placed on human beings.
Sentience is a term used to describe the fact that animals feel pain and emotions in much the same fashion as human beings. It is also used as…
Arluke, Arnold. Just a Dog: Understanding Animal Cruelty and Ourselves. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. 2006.
Cohn, Priscilla. In John M. Kistler's People Promoting and People Opposing Animal Rights: In Their Own Words. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 2002.
Kolber, Adam. "Upright: The Moral and Legal Standing of Humans and Other Apes." Stanford Law Review, 54.1 (2001): 163-204.
Abusive Supervision and Moral Exclusion Theory
Abusive Supervision through the Lens of Moral Exclusion Theory
Abusive Supervision through the Lens of Moral Exclusion Theory
Abusive supervisor practices have captured the attention of psychologists interested in understanding what factors determine workplace bias. Such practices can range from simple rudeness to outright criminal acts that violate basic human rights. In their research paper, Tepper and colleagues (2011) examine this issue through the lens of moral exclusion theory as defined by Opotow (1990, 2006). This essay will analyze their research findings and provide a critique on the value of these findings to society.
Moral Exclusion in the Workplace
The boundaries of moral exclusion in the workplace, as in other social situations, define the 'scope of justice' (Opotow, 2006). For example, Jim Crow laws instituted after the end of econstruction in the South defined an 'in' and 'out' group at the expense…
Opotow, Susan. (1990). Moral exclusion and injustice: An introduction. Journal of Social Issues, 46(1), 1-20.
Opotow, Susan. (2006). Seeking inclusion and pluralism: Two exploratory studies. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 12(4), 349-366.
Passini, Stefano. (2010). Moral reasoning in a multicultural society: Moral inclusion and moral exclusion. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 40(4), 435-451.
Tepper, Bennett J., Moss, Sherry E., and Duffy, Michelle K. (2011). Predictors of abusive supervision: Supervisor perceptions of deep-level dissimilarity, relationship conflict, and subordinate performance. Academy of Management Journal, 54(2), 279-294.
Ethics and Morals
Measures of validating morals and ethics
Comment by Sabina:
Measures of Validating Morals and Ethics
Ethics and morals are essential parts of our society. We rely on members of our society to practice and provide service with an adequate level of moral and ethical values. Ethics is the conviction within each individual that determines good or evil, it is not always a matter of legal or illegal, it is a matter of right and wrong. Morals is a set level of standard that we hold for ourselves, it helps us to make decisions about good and bad, right and wrong and helps us to differentiate the difference between right and wrong. Every different profession in today's world is governed by different ethical bodies that help to regulate professional ethics. Scholars and researches utilize different methods of validating ethics and morals in their profession. In this paper I…
Arnold, D.G., Audi, R. & Zwolinski, M. (2010). Recent work in ethical theory and its implications for business ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly. 20 (4) 559-581.
Bannigan, K., Watson, R. (2009). Reliability and validity in a nutshell. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 18 (23) 3237-3243.
Fisher, C.B. (2003). Decoding the ethics code: A practical guide for psychologists. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Shao, R., Aquino, K. & Freeman, D. (2008). Beyond moral reasoning: A review of moral identity research and its implications for business ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly. 18 (4) 513-540
Alcohol and usiness Ethics
Introduction moral society is built on the basis of a number of unspoken, but generally agreed upon social issues. A moral society generally applies the maxim "treat others in the way you would like to be treated" and this proverb, although it's heard more frequently in the school play yard than in the corporate boardroom, should affect business decisions which affect the community at large. Some would say that operating a business within legal boundaries is not an accurate measure of an ethical business. Within the past few decades, advertising has become the focus of ethical pressure. The 'Joe Camel' cartoon character developed as a spokesperson - mascot for the camel cigarette was pulled after community outrage that the furry, cute character was likely an attempt by the company to market their addictive and destructive products to children.
A tremendous pressure has been brought to bear…
Carson, S. (1995) The Nature of a Moral Business Person. Review of Business, Vol. 17.
Cappel, J., and Windsor, J. (1999) A Comparative Study of Moral Reasoning. College Student Journal, Vol. 33.
Cummings, Christian. (2001) Alcopops. Fm4.org Accessed 25 March 2004. Available from: (http://fm4.org.at)
Don't join the alcopop generation (2001, May 21) U.S. News & World Report.
Contracts Analysis Case Study
Marshall Petersen and his wife, Gloria, began visiting the Sunday school class being taught in Huntsville, Alabama, about six months ago. Marshall is not a Christian, but with the encouragement of his wife, who is a believer, he says he is beginning to explore the faith. This relationship eventually culminated in a business arrangement in which Marshall's small, local health food products business begins purchasing Muscadine grapes your family's produce company sells. This relationship results in a regular business arrangement with orders being placed every month. Despite often being late with the payment for the shipments, there was never any penalties or interest being charged and the prices and shipments were kept consistent.
However, a disruption in the agreement eventually manifested in which Marshall asked that the delivery person, an adolescent son, to sign a contract that guaranteed the same rates and availability of…
American Bar. (N.d.). Contracts and Consumer Law. Retrieved from American Bar: http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/publiced/practical/books/family/chapter_9.authcheckdam.pdf
Vinson, C. (N.d.). Basic Law of Contracts in Georgia. Retrieved from University of Georgia: http://www.georgialegalaid.org/resource/basic-law-of-contracts-in-georgia
moral and not belief in God?
Humanity encompasses all aspects about exemplification of life and the utmost being. The origin of man is detrimental to the subsequent behaviours and codes of living among these human beings. In most cases, many researchers have shown that human existence is based on the origin and existence of God. God is regarded as a supreme being who gives and takes life. Nonetheless, human behaviour and character is dictated by what takes place in the multilingual conglomerates and thoughts within the human mind. In fact, humanity is obviously inexistent without the existence and intervention of God. Nonetheless, I support the opinion that believing in God changes human characters and behaviours. The impairment of morals and sensible approaches of handling life come with assurance of living in the presence of God. With God being an assurance to a moral sustenance of human life, one can be…
Dorff, E.N. (2007). For the love of God and people: A philosophy of Jewish law.
Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.
Fuchs, J. (1983). Personal responsibility and Christian morality. Washington, D.C:
Moreland, J.P., & Craig, W.L. (2004). Philosophical foundations for a Christian worldview.
2306 Kant. Consider situation: You ill life support. You a transplant organs continue living. Your parents decided biological child specifically organ transplant child / matures a level (assume part organ child survive)
Kant's assumption on the present matter is reflected in the well-known maxim and law, "act only in accordance with that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it become a universal law." (Stanford, 2004) Most often this "law" is interpreted as being a set of questions one must ask himself before undergoing a certain action. More precisely, the first step in determining whether the course of action one is about to take is morally correct or not is to actually formulate that action and provide a reasoning for it. Secondly, it is important to consider that action and that reasoning multiplied at a universal level, thought of this action as being a universal law…
Kerstein, S. (2009) Treating Others Merely as Means in "Utilitas" Vol. 21, No. 2, June, University of Cambridge, available online at http://faculty.philosophy.umd.edu/SKerstein/Kersteinmeremeans.pdf
New York University. (n.d) Means and ends. Available at http://philosophy.fas.nyu.edu/docs/IO/1881/scanlon.pdf
Stanford Enciclopedia of Phylosophy. (2004) Kant's Moral Philosophy. Available at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-moral/#ForUniLawNat
Red Herring Argument / Petition Principi:
Heard from friend who is supporter of the ancient astronaut theory. She seemed to believe it telling me that that intelligent extraterrestrial beings had almost certainly visited Earth in antiquity and made contact with humans in certain points of our history. his she argued was indicated from certain ancient texts such as the Ramayana that, for instance, has gods and avatars who travel from place to place in flying vehicles, whilst the Book of Genesis, (chapter 6 verses 1 -- 4) mentions "sons of God [who] went to the daughters of humans and had children by them" -- which she, along with others, maintains refers to extra-terrestrials. he Book of Ezekiel too has a description of winged creatures flying in the Chariot of God who looked like humans which indicates that that Ezekiel had seen spaceships.
hese arguments -- all spurious -- not resting…
This perpetrates a number of fallacies since: (a) has nothing to do with the argument (b) is abusing the other (c) is confusing one with many (Islam is composed of many sects aside of which many Muslims have different ways of practicing their faith.
(Source: Associated Press -- Wed, Dec 5, 2012
Palestinians to UN: Stop 2 big Israeli settlements)
Moral Objectivism to Moral Skepticism
(a) According to Kant, what is the difference between "a posteriori" knowledge and "a priori" knowledge? What kind of knowledge would the statement "All triangles have three sides" be? What about the statement "The 44th U.S. President is African-American"?
A posteriori knowledge is knowledge 'after the fact' or knowledge based upon experience, versus a priori knowledge, which is knowledge which can be based upon pure, deductive reasoning (Johnson 2014). The idea that all triangles by definition have three sides can be known a priori, based upon mathematical, deductive logic. However, the statement that the 44th U.S. President is an African-American requires experience to understand, given that the president's race (regardless of what that race might be) does not logically flow from the condition of being president.
(b) Upon a Utilitarian account, would the statement "The assassination of MLK was wrong" be an example of a…
Johnson, R. (2014). Kant's moral philosophy. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Palmer, A. (2012). Arguments from queerness and relativity. Mission to Transition.
Morality of Cloning
In her book "Discovering Right and Wrong," Louis Pojman consistently makes the same point throughout her chapters: beyond all the debate and lack of consensus, and beyond all the confusion of relative morality, there should exist a true objective standard which a rational being can discover. In all her writing she seems to challenge the readers to look for objective evidence of truth, a plea which often has much in common with a more conservative position on politics and morality. When it comes to the issue of cloning, however, it seems that the search for rational objective evidence is frequently put aside in favor of often illogical "gut reactions." It is high time that a truly reasonable approach to cloning was attempted. In order to best approach this from an objectivist standpoint, it seems reasonable to backtrack to one of the founding fathers of modern objectivism, Immanual…
Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 129.
Christopher bard quoted in: Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 126.
Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 127
Moral Community: A group in America that is clearly being marginalized politically and socially is the community of undocumented immigrants. An estimated 11.1 million immigrants are living and working in the United States, and notwithstanding that the U.S. Senate and the executive branch have passed a bill allowing undocumented immigrants a path to citizenship, the Republicans resist supporting this legislation. Cultural relativism helps to understand why 11.1 million people are being denied the right to work towards citizenship. Cultural relativism: the beliefs of one culture (in this case, those immigrants that are not yet citizens) should also be understood by others (in this case conservatives don't relate to the cultural beliefs of immigrants and vice-versa). A conservative "moral argument" is that there are a limited amount of goods and jobs in the U.S. And immigrants take these away from citizens here legally, but cultural bias and racism also certainly play…
Foley, E. (2014). GOP Reveals Immigration Reform Principles. HuffPost Politics. Retrieved June 18, 2014, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com .
Social Psychology 2nd
Morality and Group elations: Possible Bias
The article entitled "Morality and intergroup relations: Threats to safety and group image predict the desire to interact with outgroup and ingroup members" as written by Brambilla et al. is comprised of three different research studies. However, each of these studies explores different facets of the same phenomena: how morality within and outside of groups varies by type of threat, and what sort of behavior these threats elicit from these same groups (Brambilla et al., 2013, p. 813). There is an extreme amount of relevance to the research conducted within this article and the principle research question of the present author, who is attempting to ascertain the meaning of relationships with moral development and reasoning in social groups.
Prior to stratifying the analysis of this paper to the three respective studies, it is necessary to mention various salient factors regarding the…
Fiske, S.T., Gilbert, D.T., Lindzey, G. (2010). Handbook of Social Psychology. New York: Wiley.
Tuffin, K. (2004). Understanding Critical Social Psychology. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Brambilla, M., Sacchi, S., Pagliaro, S., Ellemers, N. (2013). Morality and intergroup relations: Threats to safety and group image predict the desire to interact with outgroup and ingroup members. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 49: 811-821.
The purpose of this article is to extend on previous rsearch relating the issue of group morality to the perceived threat and influential behavior within an ingroup as actuated on the part of an outgroup. The researchers studided an ingroup of Italian nationals and an outgroup of Indians who were living Italy. Therefore, there ethnic differences between these groups as well as those which may have been perceived related to nationality.
Fear and Morality in Nietzsche
Nietzsche believed that there was no real ethic and that since there was no moral without fear, that there were no true morals. The problem with this is how he developed this idea. This paper first breaks down how Nietzsche theorized morality, and then gives two cases to refute his assertions.
Nietzsche's Theory of Morality
From the beginning of his diatribe, Nietzsche shows that he has had a superior intellect from the time he was very young, and he is thus, the supposition has to be, uniquely qualified to judge ethics and morality. He wrote his very first treatise on morality at the "tender" age of thirteen (Nietzsche 1). His views of ethics were shaped by his method of questioning, determining answers, and then building more questions based on these answers, until, he says, "at last I had my own country, my own…
Cline, Austin. "Fear, Morality and Crime." About Agnosticism/Atheism, 2010. Web.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. "On the Genealogy of Morals: A Polemic Tract." 2009. Web.
Pillay, Srini. "Fear and the Biological Non-Existence of Morality: Why are we Tortured by our Brains?" Psychology Today, 2010. Web.
Fichte separate right from morality and is it a good thing? Should they be separated?
Fichte's Philosophy of ight and Ethics
Why does Fichte separate right from morality and is it a good thing? Should they be separated?
Moral and political anxieties animate Fichte's entire philosophy and his perceptions to these issues that are innovative and at times tied together. His responses to Kant's vital philosophy in 1790 was a retaliation to the Kantian moral perception and its outset of human self-esteem as embedded in freedom and the moral outlook of human beings as normal agents. Fichte's perception on Wissenschaftslehre principle was a far from the conceptions developed in 1974 by the philosophers of Foundations of the entire Wissenschaftslehre. Fichte's major works in the principle of right and morality are extensively covered in these two areas; Fichte's Foundation of Natural ight (Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy) And the…
"Fichte's Philosophy of Right and Ethics," forthcoming in Gunter Zoller (2007). The
Cambridge Companion to Fichte. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ethical Reasoning," Donaldson and Werhane outline the three fundamental theories of ethics: consequentialism, deontology, and human nature ethics. Consequentialism, also known as teological ethics, can be further divided into ethical egoism and utilitarianism. Ethical egoism is based on the theory that to act out of self-interest will ultimately be the most ethical decision. Ethical egoism is rarely supported by philosophers, especially in relation to other ethical reasoning theories such as utilitarianism. Philosophers like Bentham and John Stuart Mill argued that the ethical decisions should be based on the principle of the greatest good for the greatest number. Although Mill framed the concept of "good" in terms of happiness, the "greater good" does not necessarily entail happiness and may refer to other abstract concepts like aesthetics. Utilitarianism can itself be subdivided into pluralistic utilitarianism and preference utilitarianism: the former embraces all abstract concepts that can be classified as "good" whereas the…
Philosophy and Morality
INSTRUCTIONS The exam consists essays. Please essays document. Please plagiarize. Be paraphrase verbatim language authors putting quotation marks. You document sources, -text citation ( footnotes) a reference page.
John Arthur's "Morality, Religion, and Conscience,"
A concern on the relationship between morality and religion is an ancient argument that continues in philosophy in the present times. The argument is mainly on whether morality emanates from an institution or religious background. Theologians in their numbers provide unwavering support the argument that a unifying absolute force or God provides universal moral guidance. The importance of observing morality and religion as independent on one another but related in some way has been argued by other philosophers (Lyons 479). John Arthur argues that morality and religion are not interlocking in relevant manners. Arthur argues that morality in independent from religion and religion does not influence moral action. It is his contention…
Arthur, J. "Morality, Religion, and Conscience." In Morality and Moral Controversies: Readings in Moral, Social, and Political Philosophy. Ed. edition, by John Arthur. Seventh. Upper Saddle River, N.J.:: Pearson Prentice Hall:, 2005. Print.
Hare, R.M. Moral Thinking: Its Levels, Method and Point. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981. Print.
Lyons, William. "Conscience - an Essay in Moral Psychology." Philosophy 84.330 (2009): 477-94. Print.
Merle, Jean-Christophe. "A Kantian Critique of Kant's Theory of Punishment." Law and Philosophy 19.3 (2000): 311-38. Print.
Family Affluence and Morality
Famine, Affluence, Morality by Peter Singer
Peter Singer's article has been reviewed with the intention of understanding his basic ideas about poverty and hunger alleviation. Simultaneously the many criticisms associated with his arguments have also been highlighted with a view to rebutting them and proving the feasibility of Singer's noble ideas.
"Famine, Affluence, Morality" is a famous dissertation scripted by Peter Singer in 1971. It aims to modify the standard estern culture by urging people to perform acts of charity. It articulates that more affluent individuals are morally and ethically obligated to donate as much as they can to the people who need resources the most. It is as such, an essay that is considered a humanitarian doctrine of sorts which authentically argues over the reasons as to why one ought to give more. It is based on the less than favorable conditions of Bangladesh's ar…
Coope, C.M. (2003, October). Peter Singer In Retrospect. The Philosophical Quarterly, 53. Retrieved February 2013, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3542922
Singer, P. (1972). Famine, Affluence, Morality. Philosophy and Public Affairs. Retrieved February 2013
Singer, P. (1999). The Solution to World Poverty. The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved February 2013
Famine, Affluence, and Morality" (1972) by Peter Singer introduces its readers to numerous social issues that Singer states have been vastly ignored. The issues deal with the lack of progress in the betterment of society and although the article was originally written more than four decades ago, the situation around the globe remains unchanged. Singer's goal in this article is to present a side not widely taken. To him, the social problems infesting the lives of individuals seem to be quite obvious, yet his discontent with people's attitudes is quite apparent in this article. His primary argument in the article however, is that in order to solve the issues that he sees as being obviously manageable is to give to those who need it most. Throughout the article he points out to these exact societal problems and the financial turmoil that various communities around the world were facing at the…
BBC. (2013). Ethics Guide: Argument against charity. BBC. Retrieved 22 April 2013 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/charity/against_1.shtml
Gallager, M. (2011). The world at seven billion. BBC News Magazine. Retrieved 22 April 2013 from
A d) the theoretical approach to legal reasoning that casts the most helpful light on judicial reasoning in determining whether or not evidence derived from torture should be admissible is legal positivism, as developed by H.L.A. Hart. Hart's approach to legal positivism focused strongly on the relationship between the law and morality. One would be hard pressed to describe an area where the relationship between moral behavior and the law is more at issue than in a question involving torture. The question is especially salient when a country may not have any influence over interrogation procedures, such as when the United Kingdom is relying upon interrogations performed in other countries. However, Hart's rule of recognition articulates the point-of-view that social norms should not always be legal norms. There is no question that the prohibition against torture is a widespread social norm, as reflected by the common law, informal international law,…
Consider the three purposes of morality treated in Chapter 1. Which of these would it be easier for utilitarianism to fulfill and which could well be more difficult for that system to fully meet?
Of the three purposes of morality treated in Chapter One, perhaps the easiest purpose for the ethical system of utilitarianism, as developed by the Englishman Jeremy Bentham, to meet would be to create a functional system of social ethics, or the ethical schema that holds a society together by its ethical 'glue.' Utilitarianism suggests that society, when pressed on many sides by the competition of different ethical claims, or even simply by different but equally valid claims for personal happiness, should choose the truth claim that allows for the greatest good for the greatest number of individuals within that particular society. For instance, the happiness of the many in my neighborhood to sleep late at…
On the threshold of the Civil Rights movement, Baldwin would publish
Notes of a Native Son. Though 1953's Go Tell It On The Mountain would be
perhaps Baldwin's best known work, it is this explicitly referential
dialogic follow-up to right's
Native Son that would invoke some of the most compelling insights which
Baldwin would have to offer on the subject of American racism. This is,
indeed, a most effectively lucid examination from the perspective of a
deeply self-conscious writer enduring the twin marks in a nation of
virulent prejudice of being both African American and homosexual. The
result of this vantage is a set of essays that reaches accord with right's
conception of the socially devastating impact of segregation on the psyche,
conscience and real opportunity but also one that takes issue with the
brutality of Bigger, a decidedly negative image to be invoked of the black
man in America.…
Baldwin, J. (1955). Notes of a Native Son. Beacon Press.
Gilliam, F.D. (2002). Farther to Go. University of California at Los
Wikipedia. (2009). James Baldwin. Wikimedia, Ltd. Inc.
Wright, R. (1940). Native Son. Chicago: First Perennial Classics, edition
Michael Levin contends that homosexuality should not be legitimatised, as it is both unnatural and immoral. Levin's argument against homosexuality may appear rather vague and generalized in the beginning but it does contain substance when studied carefully. The concluding part of his argument provides ample evidence that homosexuality is probably not as safe or harmless an option as we suppose it to be. When studied from deontological standpoint, we find Levin's arguments against legitimatization of homosexuality quite reasonable and practical.
While he has not cited any specific research in this connection, Levin's succeeds in establishing that legalization of homosexuality would lead to negative consequences in the long run. His arguments are based more on general knowledge and logic than empirical findings. He maintains that homosexuality is abnormal because a) it.." is a misuse of bodily parts" and b) it "is likely to cause unhappiness because it leaves unfulfilled…
For example, does one really have to think about ethics while they are grocery shopping? ell, perhaps if one is thinking of cutting in line or taking the last shopping cart when there is an elderly woman who will be stuck with a basket.
Aristotle's virtue ethics said that people have to hone their virtues and this is a nice thought. He believes that everyone is born with the inherent tendency to do good, but people have to work on it just as one might have musical ability, they still must train in order to become a professional. Just because we think that we are ethical, good people (and we probably are) doesn't mean that we don't have to work on being better. This is also quite a nice theory, however, utilitarianism is still the best way for one to lead a happy, right life, because, once again, it forces…
Callahan, Daniel. "Moral Theory: Thinking, Doing, and Living." Journal of Social
Philosophy,20(1-2), 1989, 18-24.
Smith, Steve. Ways of Wisdom. University Press of America, 1983.
When it comes to socialization, circles of friends, peer groups and so forth, it is clear that there is what is considered healthy and what is considered less than optimal. Beyond there, there will always tend to be subgroups and subcultures that emerge from within and from under a more dominant culture. This brief report shall describe the importance of peer groups, how subcultures can emerge and the significance of those subgroups emerging. Further, the way in which friendship circles are created and changed throughout the school years, how problems are associated with children that are rejected, bullying and their victims and beyond will be mentioned. Finally, there shall be the specific bits of advice offered by Kohlberg when it comes to moral development, growth of vocabulary and the seasoning of reasoning ability with kids will be part of what is discussed. While not all children and peer groups…
Kreager, D. & Moody, J. (2011). DELINQUENCY AND THE STRUCTURE OF ADOLESCENT PEER GROUPS. Pubmed Central (PMC). Retrieved 4 November 2016, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3092163/
McLeod, S. (2016). Kohlberg - Moral Development - Simply Psychology. Simplypsychology.org. Retrieved 4 November 2016, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/kohlberg.html
MV Media. (2016). Celebrating the unique Islamic-American culture of Black Muslims. Muslimvillage.com. Retrieved 4 November 2016, from https://muslimvillage.com/2015/07/21/84358/black-muslims-unique-islamic-american-culture/
NIH. (2016). How does bullying affect health & well-being?. Nichd.nih.gov. Retrieved 4 November 2016, from https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/bullying/conditioninfo/Pages/health.aspx
Bereavement counseling, for example, is very useful for some people and a waste of time for others. David has no patience for bereavement counseling, despite the fact that some people find it very helpful in times of crisis. In general, good people make an effort to understand the personal preferences and choices of others before criticizing or ridiculing them; they do not look for virtually every possible opportunity to criticize others for meaningless differences between them.
In general, good people make an effort to be positive influences in the lives of their friends and loved ones. Married people, in particular, are uniquely responsible for each other's emotional happiness and well-being. The overall tone of the entire relationship between Katie and David is miserable, even when they are not necessarily arguing. Neither comes across as remotely lovable and the reader is left with no clue as to what either sees in…
Ethics of care is one of the normative ethical theories, and examines the things that make actions perceived to be wrong or right. Developed in the second part of the 20th century by feminists, its emphasis is about the importance of a person's response to various things. Instead of considering what is just and fair, the person is asked to consider how to respond. There are generally universal standards as to how to respond to specific statements, acts, and situations. However, this is considered by those who follow ethics of care to be a morally problematic statement. The reason behind this is that it attempts to make every person and situation the same. It breeds indifference and blindness to the true person and situation, which implies a lack of caring. That lack of care is highly significant, because one has to care about themselves and others in order to work…
Please see "Stake Holder: The Taliban" for more information regarding virtue ethics.
The farmers who are growing poppy plants have a logical stake in this moral dilemma as well. If their crops are destroyed they will have no alternative but to join the Taliban to help settle their debts. They are in a precarious position where they are often forced to grow poppies because they are a very lucrative and traditional cash crop. Their history and culture will be severely affected if their livelihood is destroyed as well. If they functioned as utilitarians, the farmers would look for another alternative to growing poppies or perhaps request a government subsidy since their poppy production kills millions worldwide who abuse their drugs. The farmers likely do not have access to this information however, which makes their position even harder to justify.
The Afghan People
Utilitarianism- Principle. See "Stakeholder: The United States…
Values and Morals in the Accounting Industry
The important questions to be addressed are taken from the "…business ethics/corporate social responsibility literature, oriented towards business enterprises but also of relevance to professional bodies: whether being ethical 'pays' in financial terms; and whether formal codes are useful in promoting ethical behavior…" (Cowton, 2009, p. 177).
Accountants are charged with carrying out ethical and moral decisions in their everyday work, but judging from some of the scandals in recent years (Enron, orldCom, the Anderson Accountancy, etc.) not all accountants are up to speed with those ethical and moral decisions. This paper reviews the judgments that accountants should be making based on morality and ethical values, whether the accountant is working for a multinational corporation or for a small business with only half a dozen employees.
Accounting Students and Moral Decision-Making
Deborah Leitsch writes in the Journal of Business Ethics that auditors are…
Brown-Liburd, Helen L., and Porco, Barbara M. (2011). It's What's Outside that Counts:
Do Extracurricular Experiences Affect the Cognitive Moral Development of Undergraduate Accounting Students? Issues in Accounting Education, 26(2), 439-454.
Cooper, Barry J., Leung, Philomena, Dellaportas, Steven, Jackling, Beverley, and Wong,
Grace. (2008). Ethics Education for Accounting Students -- a Toolkit Approach.
Death Penalty Is Wrong
It is often suggested that morality comes from a venerated source - from reason, or from God (Wheatley & Haidt, 2005). Judgments on the basis of morals are important, complex, and intuitive. Moral judgments thus become particularly fertile foundations of motivated reasoning (Ditto, Pizarro, & Tannenbaum, 2009). In view of this respected observation, we chose to develop a broad-based questionnaire based on morality institutional regimens. This has been necessitated as Morality does not have the same rigors as that of logical and reasoning assiduity. The essence of Morality and post hoc deliberations are relative and affect combined societal percepts. There has always been a quandary about the rights of a person when posited in opposition to another. "The consensus view in moral psychology has been that morality is first and foremost about protecting individuals"-- (Graham, Haidt, & Nosek, 2009). Thus, quandaries arise out of morality being…
Right from the times of Plato in the fourth century B.C., philosophers have been intrigued by the dilemma faced by humans between logic and emotion. Emotions have been seen as conceptual errors leading to difficult conditions created by affectual feelings of morality. The model presented in support of such an understanding makes use of the affectations of reasoning of one person, A, on the intuition of another, B whose judgment, consequently in turn affects the intuition of A, thereby becoming a self-feeding mechanism leading to a social acceptance that, as noted earlier is swayed by motivated or manipulated machinations. This is a rationalist model of moral judgment, in which moral judgement is thought to result from moral reasoning (Haidt, 2001). This strategy is perhaps the most persuasive of all three adopted strategies. The audience is made to ponder over what is being presented. It employs facts, statistical data, and authorities, i.e. this approach is fact-based. Logos refers to appeal which is based on reason or logic. Documents that are distributed by corporations or companies are logos-guided, as are scholarly documents. Logos (plural: logoi) refers to rational appeal or its simulation; the word 'logic' stems from 'logos'. Normally, it is used for describing facts or figures to support the topic of the speaker. Logos appeals tend to enhance ethos, as this information makes the individual speaking appear prepared and knowledgeable to the audience (Henning, 1998).
Rationality and logic are greatly valued in the present society, and this kind of strategy for persuasion is more privileged compared to an appeal to the speaker's character or the audience's emotions. However, scientific reasoning and formal logic are not usually apt for the general audience; thus, a dependence on more rhetorical kinds of reasoning should be made (Edlund & Pomona). In particular, an eliciting situation affects senses and by consequence morality that in turn has an effect on the reasoning (or the lack of it) an individual carries, which is the fore bearer of judgement in the rationalist model of judgement
This strategy is opposed by the hypothesis put forward, where moral reasoning does not cause moral judgement; rather, it is an after effect generated when a judgment has been made (Haidt, 2001).. Implying that, the reverse sequence holds
.." And "The probability that my peers would undertake the same action is...." It is the difference in the responses given to these two questions, as captured on a seven point Likert scale, that is the measure of the social desirability response bias. (Tyson: 1992; Cohen et al.: 1995, 1996, 2001).
Many studies have been done on the role and correlation between moral development and ethical decision making as it applies to various professionals. A majority of these research studies have found that such things as gender, education, age and taking ethics courses in school have some affect on one's moral reasoning developments (Armstrong: 1993; Elm, Kennedy & Lawton: 2001; Jones & Hiltebeitel: 1995; Ponemon & Glazer: 1990; Shaub: 1994). However, many studies have also found exactly the opposite, in that no significant relationship exists. (Ma & Chan: 1987; Rogers & Smith: 2001; Thorne, Massey & Magnan: 2003).
Weber, J., & Glyptis, S.M. (2000). Measuring the impact of a business ethics course and community service experience on students' values and opinions. Teaching Business Ethics, 4, 341-358.
Weber, J., & Green, S. (1991). Principled Moral Reasoning: Is it a Viable Approach to Promote Ethical Integrity? Journal of Business Ethics, 10(5), 325-333.
Wynd, W.R., & Mager, J. (1989). The business and society course: Does it change student attitudes? Journal of Business Ethics, 8(6), 486-491.
evolution in Egypt_
Modern citizens hardly make decisions in a social vacuum. This underscore the role social media plays in determining decisions that people make. Social media influences what modern citizens know and how they feel about it. It therefore plays an integral role in influencing the masses. Trends in groups start after one person has taken a stand. This person's stand then influences others creating a cascade effect (Krebs, 2006). Cascades and numbers are integral in unconventional warfare like the revolution that was experienced in Egypt. In today's world users of social networks readily use information received from search network. A person will most likely be drawn into a stand that has been taken by his family members, neighbors, and casual acquaintances. Groups in social networks are easily influenced by the behavior of their members, key opinion leaders, as well as those with connections with them. These groups, opinion…
Aziz, M.A. & Hussein, Y. (2002). The President, the Son, and the Military: Succession in Egypt.
Arab Studies Journal, 9(10), 73 -- 88.
Gladwell, M. (2002). Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. New York:
Back Bay Books.
Controversy occurs when an advertisement presents various elements that can be considered delicate or going beyond the limits of common sense or ethics through themselves or through the manner in which they are presented (contextualized). Who decides upon the controversial dimension of an advertisement shown on TV? On the one side there are the authorities which have the job to monitor the TV advertisements and decide whether they obey or not the legislation in the filed. On the other hand, there is the public opinion which reacts when the situation demands it. Sometimes, depending on the intensity of the reaction of the public opinion, the authorities intervene as well.
It can be stated that usually the people creating the advertisements that are to be shown on TV know what they are doing. In this case one can do nothing but wonder if controversy is good for businesses on a long-term…
Advertising, Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia, Retrieved January 20, 2007 from web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advertising
Controversy, Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia, Retrieved January 20, 2007 from web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Controversy
Controversial Television Advertising, Retrieved January 20, 2007 from web site: http://www.advertising-guide.net/controversial-television-advertising.html
Myers, Jack, Controversial TV series are endangered species, Retrieved January 20, 2007 from web site:
" This is a fallacy because it assumes facts not in evidence and makes a statement that appears to be factual when it is opinion.
7 State one argument made by the author. Each additional execution appears to deter between three and 18 murders. While opponents of capital punishment allege that it is unfairly used against frican-mericans, each additional execution deters the murder of 1.5 frican-mericans. Further moratoria, commuted sentences, and death row removals appear to increase the incidence of murder
8 Identify the premises and conclusion of the argument. Premise = legal execution has positive effects; conclusion: continued use of capital punishment will save lives.
9 Is the author's argument valid or invalid, sound or unsound, strong or weak? Explain how you determined this. uthor's arguments are sound and strong, using selective data to prove case, using academics and law enforcement information to appeal to audience.
10 Does the…
American Civil Liberties Union. (2004). "Capital Punishment Should be Abolished." In T. Roleff, ed., Opposing Viewpoints: Criminal Justice. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
1 Identify the principal issue presented by the source. The death penalty is not administered fairly; studies have found that the defendant's race, geographic location, and economic status greatly influence whether or not capital punishment is imposed.
2 Identify any examples of bias presented by the
Changing Attitudes Regarding Same-Sex Marriages
Even in today's modern, permissive society, many people are still jolted by the idea of same-sex marriage. However, throughout history, regardless of whether or not society encouraged it, gay and lesbian couples have been living with one another for centuries. The only difference today is that gays and lesbians are now demanding the same rights as heterosexuals, including the government's recognition of their relationships.
With official recognition, gay and lesbian couples would have the right to all economic and family-oriented privileges as heterosexual couples have. For example, surviving gay partners would have the right to obtain pension and Social Security payments. And gays and lesbians would be able to include their partners in their health insurance packages.
However, many state and national agencies still have old-fashioned attitudes toward same-sex marriages. For example, the New Jersey Family Policy Council believes that the institution of marriage would…
Page, Jeffrey. (July 2, 2002). Recognition for same-sex marriages. The Record.
Romanceopedia. (2003). Examining the Issue. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.romanceopedia.com/A-SameSexMarriages.html .
Physician-assisted suicide, or physician-assisted death, refers to “the process that allows terminally ill adults to request from their physician, receive from their pharmacist, and take a lethal dose of medication to end their life,” (Death with Dignity, n.d.). Although seemingly similar to euthanasia, physician-assisted death is different in that it tends to refer to situations where the patient does not act with autonomy. Physician-assisted death is still controversial and is illegal in most states. However, Oregon, Washington, Vermont, California, and Colorado have legalized physician-assisted death, and several other states have pending legislation to do so as of 2018 (Quill & Sussman, 2018). The medical community itself is divided on the practice of physician-assisted death. Arguments for physician-assisted death include the rights of patients to self-determination. Arguments against physician-assisted death include the obligation of the physician to heal, not kill, the potential for ambiguous situations where there is some risk…
Morals and Ethical Theory
Morals & Ethical Theory
The objective of this study is to read pages 1 -- 26 of Stephen D. Hales work entitled "This Is Philosophy" and to answer the questions of:
(1) Is morality just what God tells me to do? (Divine Command Theory);
(2) Is morality just my own personal code? (Egoism); and (3) Is morality just how society says we should act? (Moral Relativism) This study will state one reason why each theory is agreed with and one reason why is theory is not agreed with.
Is Morality Just hat God Tells Me To Do?
(Divine Command Theory)
According to Hales, morality could be based on an authority who commands individuals on their moral duties and who serves as an enforcer of these principles since the individual "without a lawgiver, a rulers to lay down the moral law" is simply "adrift with no deeper…
Dobrin, A. (2012) Moral Relativism: Its Limit. Am I Right? How to Live Ethically. Psychology Today. Retrieved from: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/am-i-right/201204/moral-relativism-its-limit
Ethical Egoism (nd) Drury Education. Retrieved from: http://www2.drury.edu/cpanza/egoism.pdf
Kreeft, P. A Refutation of Moral Relativism -- Transcription. (nd) Retrieved from: http://www.peterkreeft.com/audio/05_relativism/relativism_transcription.htm#3
Rachels, J. (n.d.) Egoism and Moral Scepticism. In: Exploring Ethics. An Introductory Anthology. (ed) Steven M. Cahn. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from: http://www.oup.com/us/companion.websites/9780195342000/student_resources/partone/chapter7/
Can person skeptical, limits? Is doubt? Does a person obligation ethical moral reasoning examining beliefs. Are beliefs possessed challenged shown false? How skeptic respond claim a belief doubted? Identify specific belief present response skeptic.
Philosophical skepticism: Its limits
Some philosophers have asserted that it is impossible to know anything and adopt a position of radical skepticism. "Philosophical skepticism attempts to render doubtful every member of a class of propositions that we think falls within our ken" (Klein 2011). An example of philosophical skepticism is manifested in Descartes' Meditations in which the philosopher begins by doubting everything. How does he know, Descartes asks, that the world is not a dream? It is widely accepted that persons may be subject to delusions and cannot accurately perceive reality, but what is to assure us this is not true of the entire world? "Visual experience is in fact notoriously unreliable about certain matters.…
Grosen, P. (n.d.) Cartesian skepticism. Princeton University. Retrieved:
Kemerling, Garth. (2011). Hume: Epistemology. Philosophy Pages. Retrieved:
He also goes to have lunch with the counselor at least 2 a week.
Assessments of the Student
Some assessments that were used on Marcus were ATMS practices
Some of the other ways that are being used are pullouts with the interventionist so that they could push him back up to speed so that he could have been ready for the major testing that was coming up
Please add any other problem that you think he could possibly have .
The child was able to take be tested in the Task Reading area. (Not good at all will be attending the next session of tutoring so that he could attempt it again)
His reading rate is down also please make up other issues of academic's
Connection to Theory
Make up this info
Make this up I am Hispanic also and I worked with students…
Ca's agument also addesses the limits of the ange of unethical business conduct. Specifically, many unethical business pactices do not necessaily involve deception, pe se. The case of "legally" selling ca keys to ca thieves is an example of that. In fact, thee ae many instances of decidedly unethical deception in business that ae not illegal and that do not involve lying, necessaily. A stong agument could be made that the use of paid celebity endoses of consume poducts is unethical fo at least two easons. Fist, paid celebity endoses do not necessaily use the poducts they ecommend to consumes; they ente contacts to ead scipts and the law pemits those scipts to be vey libeal in tems of liteal accuacy, if not necessaily tuth. Second, the entie concept may be unethical pecisely because it takes advantage of human social psychology to follow o emulate well-known individuals. Simila foms of…
references is not unethical because it produces no harm.
Meanwhile, other types of business deception are as unethical as cheating in poker. Concealing the material truth about a product or about the details of a business arrangement to induce another entity to do something he would not do with full awareness is unethical deception and is analogous to playing with an extra card that is not part of the deck. Examples of that principle would include concealing major repairs to a vehicle offered for sale and a dishonest answer to a direct question asking whether the vehicle had ever suffered major damage.
Carr's argument also addresses the limits of the range of unethical business conduct. Specifically, many unethical business practices do not necessarily involve deception, per se. The case of "legally" selling car keys to car thieves is an example of that. In fact, there are many instances of decidedly unethical deception in business that are not illegal and that do not involve lying, necessarily. A strong argument could be made that the use of paid celebrity endorsers of consumer products is unethical for at least two reasons. First, paid celebrity endorsers do not necessarily use the products they recommend to consumers; they enter contracts to read scripts and the law permits those scripts to be very liberal in terms of literal accuracy, if not necessarily truth. Second, the entire concept may be unethical precisely because it takes advantage of human social psychology to follow or emulate well-known individuals. Similar forms of advertising actually are illegal, such as subliminal messaging, although it is not clear why the latter is any "worse" or more unethical to consumers than the former approach.
In that regard, Carr's comparison of unethical poker strategies that are not part of the game (such as distracting opponents) also have analogs in business. For example, it may not be illegal to bombard a competitor with paperwork for strategic purposes to distract them, but it is unethical just the same as distracting poker opponents. Law firms, and corporate litigants battling opponents with tighter budgets in particular, do this all the time, precisely because they know that it increases the legal work (and the expense associated with it) and can result in a settlement earlier than allowing the opposing party to keep legal fees down. It is unethical but legal and does not involve explicit lies.
Ultimately, lying in business is illegal and unethical in some cases; it is legal but unethical in others; and it is legal and not necessarily unethical in still others. The analogy with legal bluffing in poker, legal but unethical distraction in poker, and outright cheating in poker holds up logically.
Hoffman and Moore (2004) recommend training and communication as part of the implementation plan to improve ethical behavior. As part of the resolution process when facing ethical dilemmas, retraining on ethical standards and practices, legal ramifications, regulatory compliance/guidelines and code of conduct are imperative. Therefore, even if other values are not considered, at least the most important ones will be considered during the problem-solving process.
I strongly believe in the ethical leadership skills of my immediate supervisor. As we all know, great leadership does not occur in a vacuum. Very often, it is by observing admirable leaders that people learn to become good leaders in their own right. Therefore I have a spent some observing the most inspirational leader in my selected organization: my boss. He knows when to delegate and when to take control; he knows how to motivate employees through a balance of reward and reprimand; and…
Baker, T.L., & Hunt, T.G. (2003). An exploratory investigation into the effects of team composition on moral orientation. Journal of Managerial Issues, 15 (4), 106-119.
BSR - Business for Social Responsibility (2003) Overview of corporate responsibility, Retrieved from http://www.dcp.ufl.edu/ckibert/Poland/MiscMaterials/CSR-Overview-bsr.htm
Forte, a. (2005). Locus of control and the moral reasoning of managers. Journal of Business Ethics, 58, (3)65-77.
Frank, R.H. (1996) What price the moral high ground? Southern Economic Journal, 63 (1),1-3
Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical framework. The consequences of an action are more important than the motivations behind the action or the action itself. An action has "utility" if it serves the greatest good. The basic principle of utilitarianism is creating the greatest good for the greatest number of people, or the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. The ethics of utilitarianism differ from ethical egoism in that the individual may make a sacrifice for the common good because it is the aggregate of happiness/goodness that matters, not maximizing individual happiness. Central to utilitarianism is the belief that all people are inherently equal and of equal consideration when making ethical decisions (p. 55). John Stuart Mill outlined the core tenets of utilitarianism, which became a fundamental component of Enlightenment political philosophy. Another utilitarian philosopher, Jeremy Bentham, proposed a happiness calculus that can be used to more rigorously apply…
MacKinnon, Barbara and Fiala, Andrew. Ethics. 8th edition. Cengage.
Utilitarianism is one of the most common forms of moral reasoning. ooted in normative ethics, the notion of utilitarianism essentially asserts that an action is morally right if it maximizes utility or happiness for everyone (West, 2004). In other words, as long as a course of action generates the greatest benefit for everyone affected, then the means utilized to generate the benefits (such as coercion, manipulation, or lies) do not matter -- what matters is the end, not the means. This moral principle is commonly applied in various spheres including personal decisions, business, and public policy.
The notion of utility ethics can be ideally applicable in the case of Airxyz. Choosing Opting to voluntarily ground its fleet would be the most appropriate course of action for not only the airline, but also the general publicpublic. The public uses airlines to move quickly and conveniently move from one location…
West, H. R. (2003). An Introduction to Mill's Utilitarian Ethics. Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press.
West, H. (2004). An introduction to Mill's utilitarian ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.