104+ documents containing “morphine”.
At this stage, the drug produces no more depressive effects. Morphine has different effects at various concentrations
The depressive curve is used to show the bad effect of morphine.
It shows the concenrtaion of morphine over time before it becomes toxic to the user. The margin of safety should be large to avoid toxicity / poisoning.
What is a margin of safety?
It is the distance between the desired effect and the toxic effect. Shibamoto and Bjeldanes (2009) defined safety as the freedom from danger.
Why is a bigger margin of safety better than a small one?
A bigger margin of safety is better since it will mean that the drug user would niot easily or accidentally experience the toxic effects of the drug.
Explain why each of the lines flatline at the top and why the second line also flatlines to begin with.
The flat lines that are observed on top of the analgesic and depressive….
Beach, HD (1957).Morphine addiction in ratsCanadian Journal of Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie, Vol 11(2), Jun 1957, 104-112.
Jaffe JH, Martin WR. In: Gilman AG et al. (Eds).(1990) Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed. New York: Pergamon Press, 1990, pp 485-521
Mucha, H and Kalan, RF (1981)Naloxone prevention of morphine LDR curve flattening associated with high-dose tolerance
Martin WR, Fraser HF (1961). "A comparative study of physiological and subjective effects of heroin and morphine administered intravenously in postaddicts." Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 133: 388 -- 99. PMID 13767429. http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=13767429 .
ISSUES WITH MORPHINE
The importance of the proper management of pain in a patient with a terminal illness cannot be overstated (roglio, 2008). Pain may not be the most common among the symptoms at the end-of-life stage, but it is what patients and their families fear the most. Unrelieved pain reduces the quality of life and of joy in what remains of that life. It triggers anxiety, depression, loss of hope and the sense of usefulness and worth and also obstructs important decision-making efforts. Family members want the final moments of their departing loved one to as peaceful and comfortable as possible. That is as far as possible from the pain of the approaching end. Pharmacotherapy is still the major approach to the management of pain at this stage of life. Opioids are the main category of painkillers used for such patients because of these painkillers' strength, their accompanying capability….
Broglio, K. (2008). Pain management and terminal illness. Vol 8 # 4, Practical Pain
Management: Vertical Health. Retrieved on March 13, 2015 from http://www.practicalpainmanagement.com/resources/hospice/pain-management-terminal-illness
Fine, R.L. (2007). Ethical and practical issues with opioids in life-limiting illnesses.
Vol. 20 # 1, Journal in the Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center:
ANtoher common result of taking the drug would be higher blood pressure (obviously the intent based on the question) but also anxiety (due to the higher blood pressure if it goes too high), chest pain, tingling/pricking (also due to the blood pressure change) and so forth.
2. When monkeys with Kluver-Bucy syndrome pick up lighted matches and snakes, we do not know whether they are displaying an emotional deficit or an inability to identify the object. What kind of research method might help answer this question?
erhaps the best way to decipher that is to use both the objects that the monkeys should not generally be picking up and then comparing it to more docile and inanimate objects such as wood blocks. If the monkeys interact with the objects in much the same manner regardless of the objects in question, there's a good chance that the composition or safety (or lack….
Perhaps the best way to decipher that is to use both the objects that the monkeys should not generally be picking up and then comparing it to more docile and inanimate objects such as wood blocks. If the monkeys interact with the objects in much the same manner regardless of the objects in question, there's a good chance that the composition or safety (or lack thereof) of the objects is probably not of any concern. Either the monkeys don't care or they don't have the mental faculties to care in the first place.
3. Certain unusual aspects of brain structure were observed in the brain of Albert Einstein ( M.C. Diamond, Scheibel, Murphy, & Harvey, 1985; Witelson, Kigar, & Harvey, 1999). One interpretation is that he was born with certain specialized brain features that encouraged his scientific and intellectual abilities. What is an alternative interpretation?
There is certainly much to be said of genetics informing whether or not a person is intellectually gifted. However, I would diverge from the statement above in one major way. Many people that are autistic, have Down's syndrome and other neurological or brain disorders like ADD/ADHD often have high amounts of raw intelligence. However, this does not mean that the will use it or even that they CAN use those faculties. Through third-party and medical interventions, this potential may be realized. The point is that not all mental acuity born into a person will be used or that it can be used and it's ultimately up to the person to use the gifts they have. Just because a person has good intellectual gifts does not mean they will be biologically or mentally guided by their own brain to use those gifts. Also, even people that are not born with high raw intelligence can get very far through strong education and diligent use of the resources that they do have and possess at any given time even if it's not at birth through physiology.
It was a love-hate situation, and he would be madly kissing her and letting her stir his carnal urges one moment, and the next he would loudly protest and pull away. So from that standpoint, Eben was changed after the death of the baby. He was not changed in a truly intelligent heart-felt way, but in a kind of acceptance that this is how it is (the current cliche, "It is what it is," fits in here perfectly). For Eben, it feels good to have sex with her, and anyway, being hateful and spiteful of his father, this incestuous affair with his father's wife is another way to get back at him.
The bottom line is that even before they are both punished for the crime of murder (not the crime of incest) Eben's naivete in terms of relationships is disgustingly obvious; he returns to Abbie after having bolted away….
American Decades. "Eugene O'Neill." Retrieved May 29, 2012, from Gale Biography.
Contemporary Authors Online. "Eugene (Gladstone) O'Neill." Retrieved May 29, 2012, from Gale Biography.
Mahfouz, Safi Mahmoud. "Tragic passion, romantic eloquence, and betrayal in Eugene O'Neill's
Desire Under the Elms." Studies in Literature and Language, 1.3 (2010): 1-12.
With regard to the medication administration itself, in a life saving circumstance, which this clearly is not the weight of the potential for depression of respiration and cardiac status is clearly indicated, yet it would seem unethical under these circumstances, if the review of the documentation proves its validity and clearly indicates the patients wishes, to deny at least the smallest dosage (2mg) of ordered Morphine to reduce the pain and potentially allow the patient to regain calm, which will clearly improve his status with regard to short-term treatment.
If the fear of doing harm, drives every medical decision, based on the extreme notion that all patients can be saved under all circumstances then bioethical decisions are futile. The observations and communications of others in the immediate vicinity to care, including the family, other nurses, support staff and most importantly the orders of the doctor to administer palliative care for….
Andre, J. (2002). Bioethics as Practice. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Forsythe, C.D. (2005). Protecting Unconscious, Medically-Dependent Persons after Wendland & Schiavo. Constitutional Commentary, 22(3), 475.
Mantz, a. (2002). Do Not Resuscitate Decision-Making: Ohio's Do Not Resuscitate Law Should Be Amended to Include a Mature Minor's Right to Initiate a DNR Order. Journal of Law and Health, 17(2), 359.
Saunders, D.E. (2003). Removing the Mask. The Hastings Center Report, 33(2), 12.
As a new graduate of six months working night shift on a small cancer unit, I am faced with a dilemma. Mr. V has been in and out of the unit several times over the last few months. He has liver cancer and has gone through several episodes of chemotherapy. His wife has been staying with him since his admission. There are two RN's on this unit.
Mr.V recently joined the hospice program. His current admission is for pain control with orders to start a morphine drip to be regulated for pain control.
The only set parameters indicated by hospital policy are to decrease the drip when respirations are less than twelve breaths per minute. Mr. V has requested that the drip be increased several times during my shift. Even though he does not appear to be in any discomfort, I increase the drip. On my final round of the shift, Mr.….
Strevy, S.S. Myths & facts about pain. RN, 42-45. 1998, February.
C. Junkerman and D. Schiedermayer, Practical Ethics for Students, Interns, and Residents, 2nd Ed, Frederick, MD: University Publishing Group, 1998.
American Nurses Association. Code for Nurses With Interpretive Statements. Kansas City, MO: the Association. 1985.
Strevy, S.S. (1998, February). Myths & facts about pain. RN, 42-45.
Euthanasia Is Illegal
Euthanasia otherwise known as assisted suicide refers to the painless extermination of a patient suffering from terminal illnesses or painful or incurable disease. According to Cavan & Dolan, euthanasia is the practice or act of permitting the death of hopelessly injured or sick individuals in a painless means for the purpose of mercy (Cavan & Dolan 12). The techniques used in euthanasia induce numerous artifacts such as shifts in regional brain chemistry, liver metabolism and epinephrine levels causing death. Advocates of euthanasia trust that sparing a patient needless suffering or pain is a good thing. If an individual is hopelessly hurt or ill with no hope of ever getting well, if such a person is in an unending and unbearable pain and cannot experience the things that make life meaningful, the best option for such patients is euthanasia. Euthanasia raises questions on morals, legal and essence of….
Baird, R. Caring for the Dying: critical issues at the edge of life. New York: Prometeus Books 2003, pp.117
Cavan, Seasmus, Dolan, Sean. Euthanasia: The Debate over the right to die. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Oct 1, 2000.
Cohen-Almagor, R. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: The policy and practice of mercy killing. Netherlands: Springer, Aug 3, 2004.
Devettere, Raymond. Practical decision making in health care ethics: Cases and concepts. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press, 2009.
Multisystem Failure in a Geriatric Patient
Multisystem Failure in a Geriatric
eflect on your analysis of the geriatric patient in multisystem failure by doing the following:
Explain key immediate assessments you should make that would help assess the patient's homeostasis, oxygenation, and level of pain.
There are various diagnoses undertaken in assessing the patient's homeostasis, oxygenation, and level of pain. The immediate objective that nurses prioritize on is checking the patient's vital symptoms. Vital symptoms form the baseline of the assessment by providing significant information that illustrates whether the most essential organs function as required.
The assessment may involve checking the health status of the patient in the laboratory (Kane, 2004). In the laboratory, there is an assessment of the patient's capillary tube, urine test and blood pressure. When there is simultaneous malfunctioning of the body organs, nurses refer to this condition as multiple organ dysfunction (MODs).
Multiple organ dysfunction is a condition that alters the….
Esteban, A., Anzueto, A., Frutos-Vivar, F., Alia, I., Ely, E.W., Brochard, L., et al. (2004).
Outcome of older patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Intensive Care
Medicine, 30(4), 639 -- 646. Evidence Level IV: Nonexperimental Study.
Happ, M.B., Baumann, B.M., Sawicki, J., Tate, J.A., George, E.L., & Barnato, A.E. (2010).
Nursing Case Study
The first concern is that Mrs. Baker is taking a new drug that has side effects such as she is experiencing. Although the other high blood pressure medication has similar side effects (Drugs.com, 2012), she has been taking it for a long period of time and should not be experiencing as much difficulty. It seems germane to ask her how long she has been taking the hydrochlorothiazide though. One of the first thoughts is how well do the two medications work together, which is something her doctor understands, and if she can have an increase in side effects because of the increase in medication. The second question the symptoms, especially the fact that she seemed "confused and beside herself" on the phone, is to determine if there are other symptoms of stroke. Her breathing difficulties could be a symptom of the medication, and so could the confusion, but….
young, most of us do not think about making a conscious decision to die. e look forward to years of long and healthy life, and if death ever seems appealing it is as an antidote to depression. It does not often, if ever, occur to us that there will be a time when we look forward to the "good death" promised by euthanasia.
But it is inevitable that for many of us there will come a time in our lives when suicide may indeed seem appealing because we are fighting a losing battle against a certainly fatal disease that fills our remaining days with pain and despair. In such a position many of us may wish to have our doctors help us die by prescribing for us drugs that when we ourselves take them will prove to be fatal. Or we may wish that other people should have this option….
Callahan, Daniel, "Good Strategies and Bad: Opposing physician-assisted suicide," Commonweal, December 3, 1999, sec1. 7+.
Cassel, Christine K. "AMA Guidelines for Caring for Patients in the Last Phase of Life.," CQ Researcher 7 (1997): 774. ( http://www.ama-assn.org/sci-pubs/amnews/amn_97/edit0721.htm )
Humphrey, Derek. Euthanasia: Essays and Briefings on the Right to Die. Los Angeles: Hemlock Society, 1991. http://deathwithdignity.org/euth_us2htm .
Orric, Sarah. "House Judiciary Committee Rationale." Congressional Digest 77 (1998); 263-264.
Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.
Social issue: Drug abuse
The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number of receptors….
Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.
Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:
Patient Overview -- Mr. C. is a 52-year-old business executive with indigestion that an entire roll of TUMS did not help. Initially he blamed this on his lunchtime pizza, but his staff convinced him to go to the E where he presented epigastric pain. An EKG was done indicating ST segment elevation. Additionally, the pain remained unrelieved after three sublingual nitroglycerine tablets. Three doses of morphine sulfate given intravenously relieved the pain enough for a transfer to the cardiac unit. Mr. C's skin is clammy and cool; he has inspiratory crackles, temp of 98.6, 120 pulse, and respiration 24, BP 90/62. The Cardiac monitor showed sinus rhythm with occasional premature ventricular contractions (PVCS). Labs showed elevated isoenzymes, topponis, creatin kinase myocardial bound, and lactic acid dehydrogenase. We find out also that Mr. C has been having dental pain for the past 48 hours.
Part 1 -- The ST segment is….
ST Elevation. (2012). Family Practice Notebook. Retrieved from: http://www.fpnotebook.com/cv/exam/StElvtn.htm
Dains, J., et al. (2012). Advanced Health Assessment & Clinical Diagnosis in Primary Care.
St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.
Hudson, K. (2012). Congestive Heart Failure. DynamicNursingEducation.com. Retrieved from: http://dynamicnursingeducation.com/class.php?class_id=130&pid=23
drug use and abuse in the United States and presents differing approaches that are used (or proposed) to get a handle on the problem. There is no doubt that the drug abuse issue is not new and it is not being reduced by any significant amount. This paper presents statistics and scholarly research articles that delve into various aspects of the drug abuse issue in the United States, with particular emphasis on drugs that are abused in eastern Kentucky and generally in the Appalachian communities.
History of Drug Use & Availability
The history of illegal drug use in the United States goes back to the 19th Century, according to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). The DEA has a Museum in Arlington, Virginia, that illustrates the history of drug discoveries, drug use, and drug abuse through the years. The DEA reports that morphine, heroin, and cocaine were "discovered" in the 19th….
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2008). Drugs and Crime Facts / Drug Use / Youth. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://bjs.ojp.usdog.gov.
Drug Enforcement Agency. (2012). Illegal Drugs in America: A Modern History. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://www.deamuseum.org .
Grant, Judith. (2007). Rural women's stories of recovery from addition. Addiction Research and Theory, 15(5), 521-541.
Havens, Jennifer R., Oser, Carrie B., and Leukefeld, Carl G. (2011). Injection risk behaviors
Gonadectomy alters the magnitude of CCS and ICS analgesia and alters the relationship between the gender-specific effects observed in sham-treated rats. Castration significantly decreased the magnitude of CCS analgesia on the tail-flick and jump tests, and the magnitude of ICS analgesia on the jump test. Indeed castration reduced the magnitude of CCS and ICS analgesia in males to that observed for sham-treated female rats.
Given the multitude of CNS substrates and systems underlying both opioid and stress analgesia, and the likelihood that only a little differ amid sexes, we could rationally expect to come across sex differences in opioid analgesic efficacy in some occasions, depending solely on the nature of the ache incentive and opioid involved, as outlined earlier. It is important to also note that sex differences are no defined to opioid drugs in analgesia. Furthermore, commencement of endogenous pain inhibitory mechanisms in reaction to stress also produces magnitudes….
Islam, Anita K., Madeline L. Cooper, and Richard J. Bodnar. "Interactions among Aging, Gender, and Gonadectomy Effects Upon Morphine Antinociception in Rats." Physiology and Behavior 54 (1993): 45-53. Print.
Romero, Maria-Teresa, et al. "Gender-Specific and Gonadectomy-Specific Effects Upon Swim Analgesia: Role of Steroid Replacement Therapy." Physiology and Behavior 44 (1988): 257-65. Print.
Romero, Maria-Teresa, et al. "Modulation of Gender-Specific Effects Upon Swim Analgesia in Gonadectomized Rats." Physiology and Behavior 40 (1987): 39-45. Print.
Drugs on the Economy
History of drugs in the United States
How drugs affect the United States Economy both positively and negatively
How decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stand to lessen the burden on tax-payers
Wonder drugs like morphine, heroine, and cocaine to mention but a few pose a lot of problems to the entire American society. Americans have had to grapple with the deleterious effects of drug abuse and addiction. estrictions were imposed at the beginning of the 20th Century through domestic and overseas law enforcement to contain the drugs epidemic. Such enforcements were initiated to limit opium and cocoa crops (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2012). This term paper seeks to give a brief history of drugs in the United States of America and subsequently outline how drug use affects the American economy both positively and negatively. The paper also endeavors to list how decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stands to lessen the….
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011). Prisoners in 2010 (revised). Retrieved June 22, 2012 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=2230
Drug Enforcement Administration. (2012). Illegal drugs in America: A modern
History. Retrieved June 22, from http://www.deamuseum.org /museum_ida.html
Easton, S. (2009). Legalize Marijuana for Tax Revenue. Retrieved June 22, from http://www.businessweek.com/debateroom/archives/2010/03/legalize_mariju.html
Sports - Drugs
At this stage, the drug produces no more depressive effects. Morphine has different effects at various concentrations The depressive curve is used to show the bad effect of morphine. It…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Nursing ISSUES WITH MORPHINE The importance of the proper management of pain in a patient with a terminal illness cannot be overstated (roglio, 2008). Pain may not be the most…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
ANtoher common result of taking the drug would be higher blood pressure (obviously the intent based on the question) but also anxiety (due to the higher blood pressure…Read Full Paper ❯
It was a love-hate situation, and he would be madly kissing her and letting her stir his carnal urges one moment, and the next he would loudly protest…Read Full Paper ❯
With regard to the medication administration itself, in a life saving circumstance, which this clearly is not the weight of the potential for depression of respiration and cardiac…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Ethics As a new graduate of six months working night shift on a small cancer unit, I am faced with a dilemma. Mr. V has been in and out of…Read Full Paper ❯
Death and Dying (general)
Euthanasia Is Illegal Euthanasia otherwise known as assisted suicide refers to the painless extermination of a patient suffering from terminal illnesses or painful or incurable disease. According to Cavan…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Multisystem Failure in a Geriatric Patient Multisystem Failure in a Geriatric eflect on your analysis of the geriatric patient in multisystem failure by doing the following: Explain key immediate assessments you should…Read Full Paper ❯
Nursing Case Study The first concern is that Mrs. Baker is taking a new drug that has side effects such as she is experiencing. Although the other high blood pressure…Read Full Paper ❯
Death and Dying (general)
young, most of us do not think about making a conscious decision to die. e look forward to years of long and healthy life, and if death ever…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment. Social…Read Full Paper ❯
Patient Overview -- Mr. C. is a 52-year-old business executive with indigestion that an entire roll of TUMS did not help. Initially he blamed this on his lunchtime…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
drug use and abuse in the United States and presents differing approaches that are used (or proposed) to get a handle on the problem. There is no doubt…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
Gonadectomy alters the magnitude of CCS and ICS analgesia and alters the relationship between the gender-specific effects observed in sham-treated rats. Castration significantly decreased the magnitude of CCS…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Drugs on the Economy History of drugs in the United States How drugs affect the United States Economy both positively and negatively How decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stand to lessen…Read Full Paper ❯