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Her letters to Franklin belie a thoughtful introspection that Franklin seems incapable of entirely. It is Franklin who is oblivious to the role of father. Eva is expected to take control of all nurturing activities in the family, leaving daddy to be playtime manager. Kevin likely loses respect for his father, who becomes so completely distant emotionally as to never assume an ounce of responsibility for his son's behavior. Eva, on the other hand, is like Atlas bearing the weight of the world on her shoulder. Kevin is serving time, but so too is Eva.
e Need to Talk About Kevin therefore highlights key feminist theories of motherhood. Motherhood has become the province of patriarchy, as Adrienne Rich points out in Of oman Born. Midwives, roles fulfilled my females, have been steadily replaced by physicians, a role unfortunately filled primarily by men. hen men are in control of women's bodies,…
Adrienne Rich, Of Woman Born W.W. Norton & Company, 1995.
Molly Ladd-Taylor Mother-Work: Women, Child Welfare, and the State, 1890-1930. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.
Schmadeke, Steve. 'Bad mothering' lawsuit dismissed. Chicago Tribune. 28 Aug 2011. Retrieved online: http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2011-08-28/news/chi-bad-mothering-lawsuit-dismissed-20110828_1_mothering-emotional-distress-lawsuit
Shriver, Lionel. We Need to Talk About Kevin. Harper Collins, 2004.
While in "Who's the Boss ?" one of the most important aspects of the female character in terms of establishing a personal life was the relationship with the male character with her children, in modern sitcoms, this is not the main case anymore. By comparison, in "The Gilmore Girls," the personal life of Lorelai is by no means influenced by the personal preferences of her daughter. Furthermore, in deciding to have a personal life, the character of Lorelai did not consider choosing a "father" for her child, therefore, the nature of the relationships her character established was not related to creating a family environment for her daughter. Therefore, it can be visible the fact that the perceptions on family and the need for a traditional family have changed in real life and these are reflected in sitcoms as well.
Another aspect that can be noted in comparing 80s sitcoms on…
Rabinovitz, L. (1989) Sitcoms and single moms. Representation of Feminism on American TV. Cinema Journal. Vol 29, no 1, Autumn, pg. 3-19.
Single Mother guide. (2012). Single Mother Statistics. Online at http://singlemotherguide.com/single-mother-statistics/#footnote_0_13
Mercy Otis Warren "wrestled valiantly throughout her life with the problem of finding time for writing and reflection," Kerber explains on page 256. Warren had four children and a "large, elegant household," and while recognizing that the claims on her time - verses her own desire to write - presented no simple answer for her. That said, Kerber claims that Warren took the issues of republican motherhood "more seriously" than "virtually any other woman of her generation."
What are some of those republican motherhood issues that Warren took so seriously? For one thing, Warren envied unmarried women who, she said, were "...free from those constant interruptions that necessarily occupy the mind of the wife, the mother, and the mistress" (Kerber 256). That said, it was apparent that not only did Warren spend a bit of time being envious of those who didn't have as much domestic work to do as…
The fantasies of motherhood mask the true experience women go through in bringing up children. Wee pictures of happy Moms, smiling and holding their angelic babies and their husbands constantly supporting them, in magazine covers, tabloids, movies, and even documentaries. But once a woman embarks on a path of motherhood, she realizes that it involves "morning sickness" that lasts days and nights, mental stress, disruptions of daily life, sacrifices on jobs and private life, and much more. Then comes the excruciating pain of labor, followed by months of recovery, more pain and nausea, sleepless nights, thousands of diaper changes, mood changes, constant disruptions of breakfasts and lunches and dinners -- not to mention frustrations in the face of baby crying because of colic or reflux, quarrels with the spouse because of the couple's inability to fix these problems easily and quickly -- as had been the case before the beginning…
Shante represented herself (falsely) as Dr. Roxanne Shanteb, a psychologist with a graduate degree from Cornell University. In reality, she attended only a portion of one semester at Marymount Manhattan College. She had claimed to have attended Cornell under a different name because of a domestic violence situation but never provided any evidence to suggest that she actually attended the university.
Lauren Hill provides a much more positive and legitimate image of urban motherhood and community consciousness. She has been actively involved in charitable organizations and causes and is a recipient of a 1996 award by Essence magazine for her involvement in various initiatives such as founding the Refugee Project, for supporting voter registration efforts in Harlem, and for helping to build clean water wells in Kenya and Uganda. Ultimately, all four of these female artists have contributed to the empowerment of females with respect to overcoming male…
Other female Hip Hop artists besides Queen Latifah have also presented conflicting personal contributions toward the cause of female empowerment, mainly because they chose to do so in a fraudulent manner instead of honestly. For example,
Shante represented herself (falsely) as Dr. Roxanne Shanteb, a psychologist with a graduate degree from Cornell University. In reality, she attended only a portion of one semester at Marymount Manhattan College. She had claimed to have attended Cornell under a different name because of a domestic violence situation but never provided any evidence to suggest that she actually attended the university.
Lauren Hill provides a much more positive and legitimate image of urban motherhood and community consciousness. She has been actively involved in charitable organizations and causes and is a recipient of a 1996 award by Essence magazine for her involvement in various initiatives such as founding the Refugee Project, for supporting voter registration efforts in Harlem, and for helping to build clean water wells in Kenya and Uganda. Ultimately, all four of these female artists have contributed to the empowerment of females with respect to overcoming male subjugation in the Hip Hop genre as well as in the reality of urban communities. For this, they all deserve commendation regardless of their own troubles and imperfections.
In today's culture it is sometimes easy to forget the progress women have made in regards to determining their own future, personal freedom, and changing the definition of their societal roles. Women can run for president, take charge of multi-billion dollar corporations, decide to pursue (or not) motherhood; modern culture embraces feminism and a woman's right to choose. The freedom women have today is inherited through a long series of struggles, women slowly breaking down barriers. Kate Chopin is an early advocate for altering the role of women in society. The Awakening is an honest portrayal of an 18th century women dissatisfied with her life, and more urgently trapped by the constraints of society. Chopin demonstrates to her contemporaries that women are not defined by the societal expectations, some women can and do want more than motherhood and wifehood. This paper will argue that Chopin believed that women were…
1297). Another study referenced by Correll in the article claims that female consultants are rated "less competent" when described as being "a mother" than women who have no children at home. In our culture, Correll continues, fathers are not discriminated against because "…understandings of what it means to be a good father are not seen in our culture as incompatible with…what it takes to be a good worker" (p. 1298). But when women are mothers, they are seen as less "committed" than women without children.
Brown, Alan S. "Study: Women Are Putting Family Before athematics." echanical
Engineering 131.5 (2009): 10-12.
In this article two Cornell University professors conducted a study by researching "400 studies and analyses of women in math-related professions"; the results of their research shows that twice as many women as men "drop out of math-intensive careers, including engineering" Brown, 2009). Why do women leave engineering and math-intensive…
Mason, Mary Ann, and Ekman, Eve Mason. Mothers on the Fast Track: How a New
Generation Can Balance Family and Careers. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
In this book, the authors present -- in a positive light -- a wide swath of issues that face working mothers, but the sum and substance is that "Mothers who persist do remarkably well" (p. 53). In fact, mothers with children "under six" earned more "and were promoted more quickly than women without children." Indeed, "successful mothers get the workplace to work for them," the authors report (p. 54). They get the work done well and completely, but they do it in a different time frame than men. One reason female lawyers and corporate executives who are also mothers succeed, the book explains, is that they have "the ability to say no" (p. 54). They refuse evening meetings, and to stay strong mothers in corporate positions have "physical stamina, an ambitious nature, and just plain luck" (p. 53).
Motherhood conjures up images of a plump round female body surrounded by plump round babes playing about at feet while another suckles at breast, much as one sees in Victorian paintings. It is a common belief that bottle-feeding is a modern phenomenon, and although most images of motherhood do depict breastfeeding, it seems even in the Victorian era and earlier, substitutes for nursing babies was not uncommon.
The horn, which was commonly used as a drinking vessel for adults during the Middle Ages, was used to feed infants by tying a soft leather scrap to it to make a teat (History pp). In 17th Century Europe, leather or wood feeding bottles were used, then later pewter bottles and pap boats, most of which were flask shaped with screw on tops to form a hard round nipple (History pp).
Over the next four hundred years, the materials and design…
The History of Baby Feeding
Stacey's inner-monologues, which make up a majority of the narrative, illustrate how cut off she has become from intimate and meaningful relationships with those around her. Unable to speak in more than superficial terms with her husband, Mac, and facing a distant relationship with her sons and eldest daughter, Stacey only truly reveals herself through conversations with two-year-old Jen, who is non-verbal and thus unlikely to either interrupt or challenge her mother's rantings. Left with no one to talk to, Stacey has no choice but to retreat into memory and fantasy and her conversations with the God she is no longer certain that she believes in.
The cumulative effect of her isolation is that Stacey no longer recognizes herself. She is certainly not the vibrant teenager that she distantly remembers, nor is she the patient example of motherhood that she sees on television or in the lives of other women…
Laurence, Margaret. The Fire Dwellers. Toronto: New Canadian Library, 1988.
Mother Who Never Was
The story being covered in this report was written by Lisa Buchanan and is entitled The Mother Who Never Was. The story centers on a woman who became pregnant and gave her child up for adoption at the age of eighteen. The actual narration and depiction of the story zeros in on the feelings, thoughts, actions and experiences she is going through nowadays given that the time that has passed since that fateful day. To be sure, Anna's motherly pangs and thoughts are still present even though she is not raising her birth daughter. However, the situation is obviously a lot more complex and involves a lot more people than just her and her daughter. Indeed, while the main character is the birth mother of child, Anna gave her up for adoption and she still greatly regrets that decision.
It becomes quite obvious from the…
Different Types of Mothers: A Classification EssayThe idea of motherhood is one of the most sentimentalized and celebrated roles in many cultures. But the definition of motherhood is often contested. Some classify motherhood as the individual who gives birth to a new human being. But there are also adoptive mothers, who bear the primary responsibility for caring for the child. Some figures may like a mother to a child, whether it be grandparents, teachers, or even a father assuming a single parent role. Mothers can parent singly, with a father or another mother, or simply take on a caretaker role. Foster mothers may temporarily take on a mothering role. While there are biological, psychological, and social ways to classify motherhood, precisely how to do so remains hotly debated.From a purely biological perspective, a mother is an individual who provides 23 chromosomes to the child, according to The Hemophilia, von Willebrand…
Li, Pamela. “4 Types of Parenting Styles and Their Effects On The Child.” Parenting for Brain. https://www.parentingforbrain.com/4-baumrind-parenting-styles/
The Hemophilia, von Willebrand disease, and Platelet Disorders Handbook. https://www.hog.org/handbook/section/2/basic-genetics
" Emecheta uses metaphors, similes and allusions with appropriate timing and tone in this book, and the image of a puppet certainly brings to mind a person being controlled, manipulated, made to comply instantly with any movement of the controlling hand. In this case Ego seems at the end of her rope -- the puppet has fallen nearly to the floor and is dangling helplessly.
The Emecheta images and metaphors are sometimes obvious, as this one is, but always effective. The reader is clearly aware of Ego's initial identity, and Ego's swift feet of lightness and intensity running in the misty darkness, presents a fluid sensation -- a hoped for escape. She is running towards a new identity and when she hits the gravel road the color is of blood and water and she runs like this will be her duty forever, like someone is following her. The image of…
Derrickson, Teresa. "Class, Culture, and the Colonial Context: the Status of Women in Buchi Emecheta's The Joys of Motherhood. International Fiction Review 29.12 (2002):
Emecheta, Buchi. The Joys of Motherhood. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1994.
Fishburn, Katherine. Reading Buchi Emecheta: Cross-Cultural Conversations. Santa Barbara,
Gender Identity/Male-Female Roles and Power Relationship. In a discussionof characters from "The Awakening" by Despite the fact that there are numerous differences existent in the novels The Awakening by Kate Chopin, Light in August by illiam Faulkner, and Their Eyes ere atching God by Zora Neale Hurston, there are some poignant similarities between these three works of literature. They were all written in the years directly preceding or occurring subsequent to the arrival of the 20th century, and they all deal with issues related to race (albeit extremely indirectly in Chopin's book). Moreover, all of these pieces chronicle definite challenges presented to women due to notions of gender and society that were pressing during this historical epoch. Some of the more salient issues affecting women during this time period, such as marriage and motherhood and the degree of autonomy (or dearth thereof) women had in living their lives is explored…
Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. Project Gutenberg. Web. 2006. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/160/160-h/160-h.htm
Hurston, Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching God. New York: Harper Collins. 1937. Print.
Faulkner, William. Light in August. New York: Vintage. 1972. Print.
A also consider that a proper legislation should protect the surrogate mother, in order to avoid situations in which her rights would not be respected. Therefore, she should be paid her medical expenses and, as a sort of benefit for her act, she should be granted a free medical insurance and the right to free medical analyses. Moreover, the legislation should stipulate that the surrogate mother should be of the same nationality - American in this case - as the future parents, in order to avoid situations as those which occurred in the Indian women case, who have thought to have been abused, a thing they have accepted because of their poor material status.
All in all, it seems that gestational surrogacy is not among the best surrogacy practice, and this is because of the ethnic, legal and cultural misunderstandings it might generate. In addition, I consider it should be…
Ciccarrelli, John K., and Janice C. Ciccarrelli. "The Legal Aspects of Parental Rights in Assisted." Journal of Social Issues 61 (2005): 127-137. Tufts Library. 17 Mar. 2007.
Baker, Brenda M. "A Case for Permitting Altruistic Surrogacy." Hypatia. Bloomington 11.2 (1996): 34. Alt-Press Watch. Tufts Library. 17 Mar. 2007. http://proquest.umi.com.ezproxy.library.tufts.edu/pqdweb?did=9766076&sid=1&Fmt=3&clien tId=28972&RQT=309&VName=PQD>.
Ciccarrelli, Janice C., and Linda J. Beckman. "Navigating Rough Waters: an Overview of Psychological Aspects of Surrogacy." Journal of Social Issues 61 (2005): 21-43. Tufts Library. 17 Mar. 2007.
Douglas, Carol Anne. "Women as Wombs." Off Our Backs Jan. 1994: 12. Alt-Press Watch. Tufts Library. 17 Mar. 2007, at http://proquest.umi.com.ezproxy.library.tufts.edu/pqdweb?did=592569041&sid=11&Fmt=3&clientId=28972&RQT=309&VName=PQD .
As such, she fails to address the central problem of feminism in the Pontellier perspective, namely the impossibility of female individuality and independence in a patriarchal world. It is only in isolation that Edna can find any happiness, and she must make this isolation more and more complete in order to maintain her happiness, as the patriarchy has a means of encroaching on all populated areas, and Wollstonecraft's feminism does not offer an alternative to this need to escape humanity.
A final snort of disgust might be distinctly heard from Edna Pontellier upon her reading of this line of Wollstonecraft's, afterwards she might likely have flung the text aside (or into the fireplace, depending on the season): "Pleasure is the business of woman's life, according to the present modification of society" (ch. 4, par. 10). What Wollstonecraft means is that women are thought to be so fragile, so emotional, and…
Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. 1899. University of Virginia E-Text Center. Accessed 28 May 2012. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/ChoAwak.html
Hammer, Colleen. To Be Equal or Not to Be Equal: The Struggle for Women's Rights as Argued by Mary Wollstonecraft and Christina Rossetti. UCC [working paper].
Heilmann, Ann. The Awakening and New Woman cition.
Horner, Avril. Kate Chopin, choice and modernism.
Chimpanzees and gorillas can be taught human sign language, and sign with one another even without humans present. (MMMC, 2002) They argue that to use intelligence and compassion as a sliding scale of the right to life would cause many humans to be justified out of existence.
However, even if one accepts that too many animals are experimented upon, and researchers should use other means, it is similarly hard to justify the elimination of all animal experimentation, altogether, as this would have meant the end of such recent drug developments in AIDS research, as well as more questionable animal tests, as for instance, the use of rabbits in cosmetic testing, for which there are acceptable substitutes that do not require animals.
Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php
BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q &…
Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php
BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q & A: Cloned Embryos." BBC Official Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3481159.stm
Bird, Gloria W. And Sporkowuski, Michael J. (1992) Taking Sides. The Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc. Guilford, CT.
CNN.com. (Feb 12, 2004)" Scientists 'cloned human embryos' CNN News Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.cnn.com/2004/HEALTH/02/12/science.clone/
Outcomes that are used to shed light on these changes
Popenoe (1993) has grave concerns that the family has whittled down to a barely functional unit that will, in turn, produce malfunctioning children and, consequently, a malfunctioning society.
Popenoe's evidence to this extent is the significant increase in divorce since the1960s and the significant slump of childbirth since that same year. These circumstances are due to the changing sex roles, where woman has entered the marketplace and is loath to risk her career. Changes (according to Popenoe) are also due to the fact that both individuals have ceased to become parents in the familiar sense and instead focus on themselves and their careers. Their children suffer as a result, and the nuclear family, as was, becomes non-existent.
Budin and England (2001), however, attribute decline of population and interest in marriage to penalty that women bear with each and every children…
Goldin, C. (2004) The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family ANNALS, AAPSS, 596
Popenoe, D. (1993). American family decline, 1960-1990. Journ. Of Marriage and Family, 55, 527-555.
How this evidence is used in support of the arguments
Studies have shown that the mean maternal age of motherhood has been increasing since 1980, which although may suit many modern careers and life styles, it puts women at a greater risk of declining fertility. The fundamental manifestation of ovarian aging is not just because of a decrease in the number of oocytes, but also because of a decline in its quality. Moreover, women of advanced maternal age are at a greater risk of developing aneuploidy in embryos. This contributes to their inability to bear a child by increasing both implantation loss and pregnancy failure. (Judy et al., 2012)
In Vitro Fertilization, IVF is one of the forms of assisted reproductive technology that enhances the chances of conception. In IVF, ovaries are stimulated to produce mature oocytes which are retrieved transvaginally under sonographic guidance. Oocyte retrieval is normally an outpatient procedure, performed with adequate analgesia. The sperm and…
Adewumi, A., Etti, E., Tayo, A., Rabiyu, K., Akindele, R., Ottun, T., & Akinlusi, F. (2012). Factors associated with acceptability of child adoption as a management option for infertility among women in a developing country. International Journal of Women's Health, 5, 365-372. doi: Pubmed
Bauer, U. (2011, Nov). 2009 assisted reproductive technology. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/art/ART2009/PDF/ART_2009_Full.pdf
Echols, D.W. (2010, Feburary 19). The effects of oklahoma city law on surrogate motherhood and child custody. Retrieved from http://family-law.lawyers.com/child-custody/blogs/archives/3994-The-Effects-of-Oklahoma-City-Law-on-Surrogate-Motherhood-and-Child-Custody.html
Goldberg, J.M., Falcone, T., & Attran, M. (2007). In vitro fertilization update. Cleaveland Journal of Medicine, 74(5), 329-338. doi: 10.3949/ccjm.74.5.329
Thomas (1997) presents and interesting, but somewhat flawed, qualitative study of disablism as it applies to attitudes towards mothers or soon to be mothers with disabilities. Thomas draws on data from in-depth interviews with 17 disabled mothers or disabled to be mothers. She makes her presentation and describes the manifestation of disablism applied to these women in terms of three themes that she admittedly subjectively chose: (1) the struggles, both personal and those placed on them from others regarding the risk of giving birth to children that may suffer disabilities themselves due to the medications the mothers take or due to genetic deformities; (2) doubts from others about their being able to adequately parent their children given their disability (the good mother theme); and (3) the experience of receiving unwanted help and from others due to their disabilities (fueled by the perception of their being inadequate mothers). The problem here…
Bassey, M. (1981). Pedagogic research: on the relative merits of search for generalisation and study of single events. Oxford Review of Education, 7, 73-93.
Thomas, C. (1997). The baby and the bath water: Disabled women and motherhood in social context. Sociology of Health & Illness, 19 (5), 622-643.
Yin, R.K. (1994) Case study research: design and methods (2nd Edition). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Why I Selected This Person
For this project, I am writing a letter to my future daughter or daughter-in-law. The reason why I chose this person as the recipient of my letter is that the biggest theme in the letter is motherhood. I did not have a good relationship with my mother, and do not want my daughter to go through the same things I went through as a child and adolescent. I want my future daughter to know that I had her with the full commitment and dedication it takes to raise a child, rather than giving birth simply because of social pressures to get pregnant. The issues raised in this letter will be about abortion, which I hope will encourage my future daughter to reconsider her choices, be open about her sexual behavior, and never be afraid if she was in trouble and needed me to…
Fredrickson, Barbara L. And Roberts, Tomi-Ann. "Objectification Theory." Psychology of Women Quarterly. Vol 21, 1997.
Gillespie, Rosemary. "Childfree and Feminine: Understanding the Gender Identity of Voluntarily Childless Women." Gender and Society. Volume 17, No. 1, 2003.
Mercurio, Andrea E. And Landry, Laura J. "Self-objectification and well-being: The Impact of self-objectification on women's overall sense of self-worth and life satisfaction. Sex Roles. Vol. 2008, No. 58, 2008.
Poran, Maya A. "The Politics of Projection: Body Image, Social Pressures, and the Misrepresentation of Young Black Women." Sex Roles. Vol. 55, 2006.
Jacobs and Bouvard
History and social science is interesting in and of itself but also when the reader understands the cultural perspective of that population. Much historical discourse centers on the culture clash that occurs when an indigenous population is conquered by an oppressive regime. Many of the texts that come from a cultural perspective discuss this conflict. For the native peoples, a psychological debate occurs whether to hold onto their own historical culture or to allow themselves to be assimilated into the empirical culture. The texts that result highlight this question, but also make it understood that there is no clear answer. Part of the individual person will undoubtedly feel some desire to associate themselves with the majority in order to prevent themselves from being labeled as something other or outside of the norm. Yet, the other part of that same person will feel at least partially pulled towards…
Bouvard, Marguerite Guzman. Revolutionizing Motherhood: the Mothers of the Plaza De Mayo.
Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1997. Print.
Jacobs, Margaret D. White Mother to a Dark Race: Settler Colonialism, Maternalism, and the Removal of Indigenous Children in the American West and Australia, 1880-1940. Lincoln: University of Nebraska, 2009. Print.
Lost Sparrow. Small Handful, 2011.
In asking him to stay with her and their family, she was practically betraying her country. Demeter cares for the earth in a way that no other gods did. She was actively involved with mortal affairs. However, she also cared for own, her daughter. She does what she feels what she must do in an act of revenge. These women demonstrate the complexity of the female in any era. Even in ancient texts, we see the female figure associated with the typical womanly things such as motherhood and fertility but she is also given characteristics that are strong, powerful, and dangerous. What these myths tell us about the role of the female is that it is constantly changing. The female is complex and while she will always associated with fertility, she should never be relegated to an inferior role. While we often see mythology as wild with fantastical elements, we…
Bullfinch, Thomas. Bulfinch's Mythology. New York: Random House Publishing. 1979.
Hesiod. Theogony. Perseus Digital Online Library. Information Retrieved August 7, 2009.
interview of a woman that is more than 40 years old and belongs to a generation different than mine. It analyzes and provides a reflection of the woman's life experiences and beliefs. The main focus of the interview is to evaluate the impact of belief systems and socio-economic structures in her life as well as any resistance to these factors. The reflection also examines the impact of ideologies, cultural factors, social structures, and economics on the interviewee as a female. In addition, the process of through which she negotiates these factors and opportunities and limitations in her life are also discussed.
Brief Summary of the Interviewee
I interviewed Rebecca Mintz who is a dynamic, highly accomplished, and renowned business woman in her community. Mintz is famous for her dedication to social work and community development through which she has made major contributions towards improving the livelihoods of young women in…
She epitomizes pragmatic reality, and by so doing, in a certain manner assumes tangible metaphysical form. ather than being apart and indistinct from humans, the Lady has become absorbed in the Mexican culture and has become such an endearing figure precisely due to the fact that she is seen as part of their suffering and as corporal liberal embodied in incorporeal form that is part of -- the essence of -- their very being. In that way, she is more animate than inanimate and possesses enduring capacity.
Part II. Major theological themes that can be infered from the works of Jeanette odriguez and Nancy Pineda-Madrid on Our Lady of Guadalupe
Various replicative theological themes can be inferred from the works of these authors. The essay elaborates on them.
Mary's relationship to the American-Mexican woman, i.e. As symbol that is stereotyped by a supercilious, dominating majority, but that appears…
Pena, M. (1995). Our Lady of Guadalupe: Faith and Empowerment among Mexican-American Women Gender and Society, 9, 32-47.
Pena, M. & Frehill, L.M. (1998). Latina religious practice: Analyzing cultural dimensions in measures of religiosity. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 37, 620-629
Pineda-Madrid, N. (March 2005). Interpreting Our Lady of Guadalupe: Mediating the Christian Mystery of Redemption. Graduate Theological Seminary, Berkeley, CA,
Pineda-Madrid, N. (2008). On Mysticism, Latinas/os, and the Journey: A Reflection in Conversation with Mary Engel, Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, 24, 178-183.
She is the Good Samaritan whose attention to the victim robbed and abandoned by the roadside earned him a place in biblical history. Amy does not falter when called to aid and abet a fugitive slave, or touch a mutilated black woman, or bring new black life into the world. She drags Sethe back to life, using spider-webs to ease her back, massaging circulation into her damaged feet, and delivering her baby. Proactive Christianity provides the tension that undercuts passive emulation and dissimulation. Amy's religion is eminently present, representing her sense of urgency and agency. Sethe owes her life to Amy, who is irreversibly linked to black life, both through her own suffering and through her surname, Denver, which the grateful Sethe gives to her newborn daughter. " (Iyasere, 179)
The commentaries made by Amy Denver are also very significant: first, her call on Jesus: " Come here Jesus" when…
Iyasere, Solomon O. Understanding Toni Morrison's Beloved and Sula: Selected Essays and Criticism of the Works by the Nobel-Prize Winning author,
Philadelphia: Whitson Publishing, 2000
Morrison, Toni. Beloved. New York: Random House, 2001
Representations of omen
The concept of slavery in America has engendered a great deal of scholarship. During the four decades following reconstruction, despite the hopes of the liberals in the North, the position of the Negro in America declined. After President Lincoln's assassination and the resulting malaise and economic awakening of war costs, much of the political and social control in the South was returned to the white supremacists. Blacks were left at the mercy of ex-slaveholders and former Confederates, as the United States government adopted a laissez-faire policy regarding the "Negro problem" in the South. The era of Jim Crow brought to the American Negro disfranchisement, social, educational and occupational discrimination, mass mob violence, murder, and lynching. Under a sort of peonage, black people were deprived of their civil and human rights and reduced to a status of quasi-slavery or "second-class" citizenship (Foner). Strict legal segregation of public facilities…
Douglass, F. The Anti-Slavery Movement. Rochester, NH: Lee, Man and Company, 1855. Print.
Douglass, F. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Boston, MA:
Harvard University Press, 2005. Print.
Elliott, M. Color Blind Justice. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.
Yonndio thirties" Tillie Olsen. Introduction Linda ray Pratt. Full citation heading- author, title, place publication, publisher, date, number pages. 1- The reviewer gives a clear concise summary content book
Olsen, Tillie. Yonnondio from the thirties. Bison, 2004.
Yonnondio from the thirties details the struggles of a Colorado-based mining family during the first half of the 20th century. Jim Holbrook is an alcoholic who abuses his wife Anna. They have many children, including the main protagonist of the novel, Mazie. Eventually the family moves to South Dakota where they establish a farm and briefly enjoy prosperity. However, the family still remains mired in debt, and when Anna becomes pregnant again, her marriage to Jim begins to even more rapidly dissolve. The family is forced to move to the city of Omaha. Conditions are far worse in an urban environment because of the poor health of the air, water, and closeness of…
Coiner, Constance. "Tillie Olsen." From Better Red: The Writing and Resistance of Tillie Olsen
and Meridel Le Sueur. New York: Oxford UP, 1995. http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/m_r/olsen/life.htm
Olsen, Tillie. Yonnondio from the thirties. Bison, 2004
Gender Politics and the Nation
The historical development of the nation has impacted the ability of women to participate in contemporary politics by reinforcing gender roles in the public sphere. Traditionally, the exclusion women from the international community was linked to ideas of gender roles and today, these ideas continue to exclude women from international politics.
Traditionally, colonialism was driven by the Enlightenment ideal of using reason to obtain goals, a view that also saw females as irrational and emotional. Enloe notes, "Perhaps international politics has been impervious to feminist ideas precisely because for so many centuries in so many cultures it has been thought of as a typically 'masculine' sphere of life" (4).
Enloe argues that the status of diplomatic wives is tied closely to ideas of women as loyal supporters of their men, who were busy at the business of international relations. This view clearly shows the pervasiveness…
Enloe, Cynthia. 2001. Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics Updated Edition with a New Preface. University of California Press.
Women's History Questions
After reading the introductory texts, how has your understanding of women's history changed? What did you think women's history was before your enrolled in the course and compare that to how these historians define women's history? Do you agree or disagree with them?
Do women benefit from the American Revolution?
In developing your answer, recognize there is no single "woman" that encompasses all women in America. As a result, you must be sure to fully defend why your examples demonstrate the benefits or detriments of the Revolution for women.
The results of the American Revolution created a situation in which the treatment of individuals as property was challenged. The treatment of individuals as property carried real ramifications for women. One salient example is the freedom to use your power is a slave owner to coerce women into sexual relationships against their will. Many minority women that were…
In Maternal Thinking: Towards a Politics of Peace, Sarah Ruddick uses mothering as a metaphor for political maturation. The argument remains potently ironic, as Ruddick vehemently denies that motherhood decries militarism and in fact claims just the opposite. "Maternal thinking is often militarist," because of the biologically programed function of motherhood as the state of readiness to protect the offspring (Ruddick 136). Ruddick's concept of peace is unique because peace is not framed as the absence of war. This of course makes Ruddick an ironic realist. Gandhi's organized civil disobedience is a form of militarism that is grounded in peace politics. It is paradoxically possible to be both peaceful and militaristic. Doing so is, according to Ruddick, the only means by which to have a transformative politics of peace.
Moreover, Ruddick claims that rationalism has its limits, and that mothering allows for a more nuanced and practical approach. This…
Ruddick, Sara. Maternal Thinking. Boston: Beacon, 1995.
Either way the reality is that the two works demonstrate that ultimately motherhood is work and doing it effectively while concurrently chasing career goals and challenges is even more work. Though this issue is played down to some extent as the mother (while her daughter is in her body) is allowed to ignore and remake some of the obligations of her frantic career and social world, the works are congruent in that the conflict for working mothers is an essential one, often creating lighthearted conflicts and genre-based statements about the stress that the conflict can create in a women's life. In other words, having it all takes a significant toll on self, and each mother is depicted as seeking resolution that is found then through the reintroduction of childlike needs and freedoms, that help her realize what is really important and what needs to be paid attention to, i.e. family.…
Carroll, Noel. "Two Comic Plot Structures." The Monist 88.1 (2005): 154.
Freaky Friday Motion Picture, Disney 1976.
Freaky Friday Motion Picture, Disney 2003.
Keller, Alexandra. "From Stella Dallas to Lila Lipscomb: Reading Real Motherhood through Reel Motherhood." West Virginia University Philological Papers (2005): 1.
Human beings are manifest as male and female. The long absence of a female deity has resulted in the repression of the female energy as subordinate and less important than that of the male. However, Woodman's suggestion of the Goddess Kali and Shearer's suggestion of Themis could serve as bases for reconciliation within the self and between the genders on a collective level.
Ann Shearer (in Huskinson, 2008, p. 49) notes that Themis provides a point of reconciliation between the male and the female. Her name means "right order," and she represents the relationship of the human with the divine. As a Titan, she predates the split between the male and female and represents the healthy psychological being. Indeed, the author compares her with Jung's concept of the "Self," where an instinctual psychological being is present, where the male and female aspect are in harmony with each other. As archetype,…
Austin, Sue. (2003, 22 Nov.). Women's Aggressive Fantasies: A Feminist Post-Jungian Hermeneutic. The Jung Page. Retrieved from http://www.cgjungpage.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=75&Itemid=40
Shearer, Ann. (2008). The myth of Themis and Jung's concept of the Self. In dreaming the myth onwards: new directions in Jungian therapy and thought edited by Lucy Huskinson. New York: Routledge.
Woodman, M. And Dickinson, E. (1996). Dancing in the Flames: The Dark Goddess in the Transformation of Consciousness.
Both motherhood and marriage can constrain the individual identities of females. Females are subject to seduction by their husbands, and then enslaved into a life of submission. Liberation is possible in the mind only. The mother in "Day Star" builds fantasy "palaces" and craves some kind of space away from her everyday life -- even if that space is purely empty. The wife in "Paper Matches" rebels inwardly at the gender norms that permit the men to play while the women work.
As feminist poems, both decry the institutionalization of gender norms and roles. While women may have the choice of whether or not to enter into a traditional heterosexual marriage, the options outside of motherhood are rather limited. Although a more uplifting poem might depict a woman who never got married or had children, both Jiles and Dover critique the gender roles that dominate traditional heterosexual relationships.
atherine de Medicis and Her Florentine Friends was written by De Lamar Jensen and published in July 1978. Like the other two authors presented here, Jensen adopts the line of scientific objectivity in treating the image of atherine de Medicis free of the controversies of the legend and based on reliable historic sources. Like atherine rowford, a few decades later, he will take the personality out of the extraordinary circumstances of mysterious circumstances and put her in the context of historic reality, much less spectacular, but also much more appropriate for a scientific attempt to restore her image and place her in the right lines of history. Jensen presents the much blamed Italian origins of the queen as having also plaid a positive role for the history of France: "When france needed money to help finance the costly civil wars, atherine took great pains to remind osimo of their…
Catherine Crawford, "Catherine de Medicis and the Performance of Political Motherhood," the Sixteenth Century Journal, Vol. 31, No. 3 (Autumn, 2000): 655
N.M. Sutherland. "Catherine de Medici: The Legend of the Wicked Italian Woman." The Sixteenth Century Journal, Vol. 9, No. 2, France in the Sixteenth Century (Jul., 1978):47-48
De Lamar Jensen. "Catherine de Medicis and Her Florentine Friends." The Sixteenth Century Journal, Vol. 9, No. 2, France in the Sixteenth Century (Jul., 1978): 73
Deyo's commentary represents the type of attitude that forced women to conform to standards that while they are not demeaning, they are not for every female. Chopin knew that some women were not designed to be mothers and wives and she knew that there was absolutely nothing wrong with this assertion. Chopin and Edna were women out of time, living with others that could not accept the fact that a woman could be single and happy. Edna's death is seen as pathetic but what critics fail to understand about her death is that it proved to be the only acceptable way of life for Edna. All other options had been exhausted and the duty of wife and mother was simply unacceptable because it created more anxiety than anyone on the Pontellier family could bear. Edna knew that her future was bleak and she knew that a depressed, disassociated mother was…
Deyo, C.L. "The Newest Books." Critical Essays on Kate Chopin. 1996. GALE Resource
Database. Information Retrieved May 13, 2009.
Chopin, Kate. The Awakening and Other Short Stories. New York: Bantam Books. 1988.
Parini, Jay, ed. American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies. New York: Charles
A view of this event captures an incredible sea of worshippers flowing like a human river in the footsteps of the prophet Mohammed, who it is said arrived at this spot some 1400 years ago to pay homage to Abraham.
The role of the woman as it is understood through the ritual reenactments are quite different from the unequal stance which is often assumed of Muslim women today, with Hagar and Ishmael given tribute as well. Exiled to the dessert valley that would become Mecca, Hagar would give birth to the numerous Arab peoples, and would be enabled to do so by the salvation of the angel Gabriel. In many ways, this story parallels the matriarchal role of the Madonna to Christianity, who was likewise guided by an angel in a time of crisis. Islam tells that Gabriel was sent down to bring water to Hagar in the desert in…
Pakistan: Hounour Killings of Girls and Women. Amnesty International.Online at http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/engASA330181999
Al-Uthaimeen, S.M.A. (2006). How to perform the ritiuals of Hajj and Umrah. Princeton University. Online at http://www.princeton.edu/~humcomp/hajjguide.html
BBC. (June 2003). Pakistan's Sharia Law Is Criticized. BBC News. Online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/2958316.stm .
omen struggles in EL
The rights of women in society have always been a topic shrouded in a great deal of discussion. In many ways women are still struggling for equality within society and will likely continue to struggle for some years to come. The purpose of this discussion is to focus on how this theme of women's rights has informed English Literature and the manner in which it has been expressed including those thing that have changed and those things that have remained constant. More specifically the research will focus on women's rights in English literature from the Romantic Age until the 21st century.
The Romantic Age
In the real of English literature the Romantic age (1789-1830) was an extremely important time because it marked a new birth in the type literature that was written and the manner in which readers were exposed to the literature. As it pertains…
Bronte, Charlotte. (1847) Jane Eyre. London, England: Smith, Elder & Co
Rich, A. (1995) Of Woman Born - Motherhood As Experience And Institution
Showalter, E. (1982). A literature of their own. Princeton University Press
Woolf. V. (1989) A Room of Ones Own.
Parenting then and now: effects of social forces on diminished role of parenting to healthy child development
In the book, "Oneness and separateness: from infant to individual," Louise Kaplan presented her analysis of the changes that occurred in the past century regarding the role of parenting in child development. In it, she centered her discussion on the vital role that mothers play in helping a child be developed in a healthy manner. One of the most important point that she put across was the importance of biological roots as the factor that 'tempers' the strong, yet sometimes, unhealthy influence that forces in the society have over an individual's development.
Kaplan identified these social forces as the 'educational, political, economic, and religious institutions,' forces that promote the "postindustrial mentality," which she defined as "a mentality that locates a person's most significant activity outside the home and therefore questions the…
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…
Beauvoir, Simone de, and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.pp. lv, 786
Eisenstein, Zillah R. The Radical Future of Liberal Feminism. The Northeastern Series in Feminist Theory. Northeastern University Press ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986.pp. xi, 260
Engels, Fredrick. "The Development of Utopian Socialism." Trans. Lafargue, Paul. Marx/Engels Selected Works. Revue Socialiste. Ed. Basgen, Brian. Vol. 3. New York: Progress Publishers, 1880. 95-151.
Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State. 1894. Retrieved April 10, 2003 from. http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1884-Family/
The Home Office website was also a good source of informstion in this regard. A very good article that shed light on the more negative view of Holloway prison as well as units in other prisons was Getting it right? Services for pregnant women, new mothers, and babies in prison. An extremely useful report that deals specifically with Holloway prison was REPORT ON AN UNANNOUNCED FOLLOW-UP INSPECTION OF HM PRISON HOLLOWAY 11 -- 15 December 2000
Y HM INSPECTORATE OF PRISONS. This report provide some telling and insightful data that invaluable in terms of assessing the value and function of the mother and baby units in this prison.
4. Theoretical aspects
There are many theoretical aspects that pertain to the issue of mother and child units at a prison such as Holloway. In general terms, and from a criminological perspective, there is the view that units of this kind are…
Burrell I. Jail baby units reviewed 1998 [Online] Available at: By
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/jail-baby-units-reviewed-1189057.html [Accessed 2 April, 2010].
Female Prisoners [Online] Available at: http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/adviceandsupport/prison_life/femaleprisoners / [Accessed 3 April, 2010].
Holloway [Online] Available at: http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/prisoninformation/locateaprison/prison.asp?id=454,15,2,15,454,0 [Accessed 3 April, 2010].
She is probably keen on abandoning her family as a form of escapism. Instead of directly confronting the core issues, she would prefer to jump ship and swim to a new shore. The trouble is that once Doris reaches any new shore, her same beliefs and value systems remain a part of who she is. I would aim to change her self-concept, beliefs, and value systems in a way that helped my client.
If Doris has been taught that a woman's role is in the home, and that marriages succeed via submission to the husband, then we have a lot of work to do. Doris does not believe these things and yet she feels trapped by the ideology handed down to her by her parents. This internal conflict raging within Doris is the root cause of many of her problems.
A person-centered approach to therapy will help Doris explore all…
Breast pumping techniques.
Introduction to Internet and print resources for new mothers.
Introduction to social networking and support groups for new mothers in her area.
Teaching Strategies Used and ationale
The teacher and learner will have a high degree of privacy in the hospital room during the teaching project. Therefore, lessons on breastfeeding will be comfortable and cause little embarrassment for the learner. Having privacy will help the learner feel relaxed and willing to breastfeed in front of the teacher. Also, the private setting will help the learner express her emotions.
Having determined that the learner prefers to observe and then act, the teaching strategies used for the project will include demonstrations and imitation. The learner's positive attitude directly suggests her high level of motivation to learn. Also, her cultural background and tendency to be compliant with hospital standards and procedures imply that the learner is likely to be highly…
American Academy of Family Physicians (2008). Breastfeeding: How to pump and store your breast milk. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/women/pregnancy/birth/828.html
American College of Healthcare Executives (nd). Using adult lifelong learning concepts. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://www.ache.org/pgfd/lifelong.cfm
Baby Center Medical Advisory Board (2006). Postpartum exercise: Is your body ready? BabyCenter.com. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://www.babycenter.com/0_postpartum-exercise-is-your-body-ready_196.bc
Beger, D. & Cook, S.A. (1998). Postpartum teaching priorities: the viewpoints of nurses and mothers. Journal of Obstetric and Gynecological Neonatal Nursing. Mar-Apr;27(2):161-8. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9549701
When pushed too far, when too greatly damaged, when the soul has been taken away, when the resilience is gone, all that is left is the act of birth, the cold and empty soul, and a generalized feeling of resentment and anger coming from mother and directed at life and history and the self. Faulkner's Addie's rotting body is an act of revenge, Eva's burning of her son is an act of insanity, both seek the harm of those closest to them, because their disappointment in life is so profound, and they are so utterly trapped in their surroundings, that being a good and wholesome person, being a healthy, nurturing mother, is simply no longer possible. This, then, is the nature of the South for both authors, and it is that nature which tells us that until the bodies are buried, and the souls put to rest, and the corrupted…
Davis, Anita Price. Toni Morrison's Sula. New York: Research and EducationAssociates, 1999.
Faulkner, William. As I Lay Dying. New York: Penguin, 1982.
Morrison, Toni. Sula. New York: Vintage, 2004.
Baldanzi, Jessica & Schlabach, Kyle. What Remains?: (De)Composing and (Re)Covering American Identity in "As I Lay Dying." The Journal of the Midwest Modern Language Association, Vol. 36, No. 1, Thinking Post-Identity (Spring, 2003), pp. 38-55.
The host is particularly sensitive to issues related to class, and urged her guests and audience members to think hard about the way social class impacts opportunity. On the other hand, many audience members nodded in sympathy at the genuine desire to bear a child. Motherhood does, in fact, link women together regardless of their social backgrounds. As most of Winfrey's audience members are female, few were not unaffected by the topic. The audience members selected to participate in the question-and-answer sessions asked a range of questions related to their personal experiences with trying to have children. "Wombs for Rent" called into question the notion that motherhood is a right -- or even a duty.
Winfrey rarely gets religious. However, the Oprah Winfrey Show can be undeniably New Age. The word "spiritual" is tossed around a lot. Recent episodes have been relatively mundane, though. For instance, an episode on interior…
Rank. "But, Nora darling, you're dancing as if your life depended on it!...This is sheer madness - stop, I tell you!...I'd never have believed it - you've forgotten everything I taught you" (Ibsen 204). Torvald must now take her in hand and re-teach the wild Italian dance, the tarantella.
The choice of this particular dance by Ibsen is a stroke of genius as it aptly illustrates the nature of the situation arising within Nora. The dance derives from an Italian belief that the only way to purge the poison of the tarantula was to dance wildly and dance the poison out of the body. "The tarantella is an expression of fear bordering to madness and a sensuous zest for life that also operates as a regenerative process" (Rekdal 168). ithin Nora in this dance, the audience sees the fear and madness, but the scene also foreshadows the zest for real…
Drake, David B. "Ibsen's a Doll House." Explicator. Fall 1994, Vol. 53, Issue 1, 32.
Ebscohost. Academic Search Premier. 16 March 2007. http://web110.epnet.com.
Gilman, Richard. The Making of Modern Drama. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1974.
Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll's House and Other Plays. Trans. Peter Watts. New York:
" It said that an expanding range of adult parenting arrangements and the growing disconnection between marriage and children. The report believed that it would be wise to examine the events, which have been happening. Canada recently stood at the forefront of Western nations in instituting radical changes in family law. The U.S.A. seemed to be taking the same direction (Cere).
The dominant stand among legal elites, including the two groups, which wrote the two reports, was that the family law should not aim at protecting the rights of children to grow up with their own, married parents (Cere 2005). Instead, it should protect and promote a concept called "family diversity." The stand drew from the belief that societies flourished when people of different backgrounds lived and worked together. The authors of the reports argued that society would be better off with all kinds of families co-existing and viewed as…
Buckley, William. F. Does Marriage Matter? National Review: National Review, Inc., December 22, 2003
Cere, Daniel. Love and Marriage. Public Interest: The National Affairs, Inc., Spring 2005
Hoffnung, Michele. Wanting it All: Career, Marriage and Motherhood During Colle Educated Women's 20s. Sex Roles: a Journal of research: Plenum Publishing Corporation, May 2004
News and Society. Cohabitation Not Equal to Marriage: Vanier Study Reports. Community Action: Community Action Publishers, October 26, 2005
After a literature review of existing studies on the subject, "we have clear indications that breast-feeding helps prevent an extra incident of gastrointestinal illness in some kids -- an unpleasant few days of diarrhea or vomiting, but rarely life-threatening in developed countries" noted Hana osin in a controversial article in The Atlantic (osin 2009). Despite graphic public advertisements that link breast-feeding with putting a child at great medical risk, the evidence is less certain than one might assume. Although breast-feeding has been credited with everything from improving babies' IQs to preventing obesity, the ability to prevent these conditions with breast-feeding remains uncertain, particularly when women's economic status is taken into consideration when evaluating the studies (osin 2009).
Cultural biases against trusting a woman to actively make choices about how they will be mothers may have more to do with the censure of women who choose to discount so-called common wisdom…
Baram, Marcus. (2006). Moms-to-be get mixed message about drinking. ABC News.
Retrieved June 30, 2011 at http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=2654849&page=1
Hanley, J.J. (2002). Refrigerator mothers. PBS: POV. Retrieved June 30, 2011 at http://www.pbs.org/pov/refrigeratormothers/interview.php
Italy launches cocktail glass poster. (2011). The Telegraph. Retrieved June 30, 2011 at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/italy/7764241/Italy-launches-foetus-in-cocktail-glass-poster-to-stop-women-drinking.html
Similarities and Separation in Two Sorry Women
It is impossible to discuss the nature of femininity or what it means to be a woman without some discussion on child bearing and rearing. While modern feminist movements have rejected the notion that child bearing abilities should define women's roles in culture or society, the fact is that it is this physical capability that has defined women's roles in many cultures and still does in many remaining cultures. Literature has often explored what these shifts in individual and societal perception mean and what the personal implications are for women, and Karen Van Der Zee's A Secret Sorrow and Gayle Godwin's "A Sorrowful Woman" are two prime examples. These stories both explore what motherhood and the capability to bear children means to a modern (or at least semi-modern) woman, showing that the personal nature of the self and of maternal instincts can…
Sally bounces her six-month-old boy on her knee while she responds enthusiastically to my questions. At twenty-six she is a relatively young mother; however, Sally had her first child when she was only eighteen.
A wasn't using any birth control at the time," she tells me. "I was really worried that I wouldn't be able to support my kid without dropping out of college, but I made it! Joey here wasn't an accident," she tells me frankly. "I thought the relationship was going to last, but you know how these things go."
Many of the single mothers I interviewed for this study shared similar sentiments: most of expected their relationships with men would last and that they could form a "big, happy family." Their disillusionment has made some of them stronger, others bitter and mistrusting of members of the opposite sex. Sally is of the former camp; her lively…
Medical Misunderstandings and Gender:
“The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman
“The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman is a brief psychological study of a woman slowly going mad over the course of an imposed rest cure, prescribed by her physician-husband. The story illustrates the extent to which limited knowledge of the female psyche and a refusal to treat women as intelligent, independent beings ironically produces the types of behaviors the psychological treatment of the era was supposed to prevent. Both women and men are guilty of limiting women’s voices when women attempt to escape the conventional confines of motherhood and domesticity. Although the main character’s love of reading and writing is a constant and sustaining force in her life, she is denied it when it is assumed her illness is due to her refusal to conform to conventional roles.
As noted by history professor Hilary Marland, “The Yellow Wallpaper”…
Coker's article (published in a very conservative magazine in England) "reflected unease among some of his colleagues" about that new course at LSEP. Moreover, Coker disputes that fact that there is a female alternative to male behavior and Coker insists that "Whether they love or hate humanity, feminists seem unable to look it in the face" (Smith quoting Coker, p. 58).
If feminists are right about the female nature being more peaceful and "less aggressive" than men, then women pose a "far greater danger than men…" to the world and to international relations Coker continued. It was a less aggressive attitude toward international relations that "prevented us from deterring Hitler," Coker went on, referencing (without naming) Neville Chamberlain, England's Prime Minister who reportedly appeased Hitler rather than take a strong stand against the Third Reich.
On page 58 Steve Smith explains that in cases where feminine concerns are being…
Carpenter, R. Charli, 2005, 'Women, Children, and Other Vulnerable Groups: Gender, Strategic Frames and the Protection of Civilians as a Transnational Issue', International Studies Quarterly, vol. 49, 295-334.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke, 1995, Women and War, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Goldstein, Joshua S., 2003, War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hooper, Charlotte, 2001, Manly States: Masculinities, International Relations, and Gender Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.
y contrast, this was not found to be true for the Colombian couples. Instead, their level of relationship satisfaction was predicted by having a similar level of expressiveness between spouses, irrespective of whether the level was high, medium, or low (Ingoldsby, 1980). Likewise, Colombian women and men were determined to be are equally likely to say what they feel and to express themselves at the same level as North American males. In the United States, female spouses are typically significantly more expressive as a group than are their male counterparts (Ingoldsby, 1980).
In a significant recent paper, ailey (2006) focuses on biotechnological discoveries in birth control methods that offered women greater power to choose the timing of childbearing. This power may have translated into higher investments in education and increased labor force participation of women. In an excellent paper, among other things, Goldin (1995) focused on technological International Research Journal…
Aptekar, L. (1990). "How Ethnic Differences Within a Culture Influence Child
Rearing: The Case of Colombian Street Children." Journal of Comparative
Family Studies 21(1):67 -- 79.
Balakrishnan, R. (1976). "Determinants of Female Age at Marriage in Rural and Semi-Urban Areas of Four Latin American Countries." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 7(2):167 -- 173.
In fact, over two million more families lived below the poverty line at the time of Murray's research than they had a decade before he published -- and this estimate may have even been conservative (Murray 1994, pp. 133). egardless of the intentions behind American social policy and the welfare reform JFK called for that Murray alludes to in the chapter's opening, it is obvious that all such policies are failing and evening worsening the situation.
In Losing Ground: American Social Policy 1950-1980, Charles Murray argues quite compellingly from a consequentialist perspective that social policy in this country is in massive need of reform. In the chapter dealing with the American family, as in much of the rest of his book, Murray basically implies if not outright states that racism and sexism have become institutionalized and monetized, and that this trend has been increasing in recent decades despite efforts to…
Murray, C. (1994). Losing ground: American social policy 1950-1980. New York: Basic Books.
An even older mythological source for the reverence of compassionate maternal figures, however, comes out of the culture in which Mother Theresa practiced, rather than from the Christian tradition she lived by. This is the figure of Durga, one of the many incarnations of Kali, the Mother Goddess of the Hindu religion.
Alternatively, Kali and the many other forms of the goddess are seen as emanating from Durga (Rajhans, par. 3). According to this view, Durga is supreme power of the Supreme Being, the force of all creation, preservation, and destruction of the world (Rajhans, par. 1). This latter element does not fit with Mother Theresa, but the first two are essential qualities that she possessed and portrayed, and which were the primary foundations of her mythological status. This also illustrates the complexity of Hindu mythological and religious figures; at times, the separate functions of the Mother Goddess are seen…
Abrams, Irwin. "Mother Theresa: Biography." Nobelprize.org. Accessed 10 March 2009. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1979/teresa-bio.html
Bierlein, J.F. Parallel Myths. New York: Random House, 1994.
Campbell, Joseph. The Power of Myth. New York: Anchor Books, 1991.
Kennedy, Dan. "In Gloucester, a Murky Clarification." Media Nation. Accessed 10 March 2009. http://medianation.blogspot.com/2008/06/in-gloucester-murky-clarification.html
omen's Lives After American Revolution
hereas the American Revolution has had a significant on people living in the thirteenth American colonies in general, it was also responsible for generating change in domains that appeared to have nothing in common with it. Previous to the ar of Independence, most women in the colonies were relatively accustomed with being discriminated on a daily basis. The American Revolution, however, played a major role in changing the way that women in the colonies behaved, as it presented them with the concept of freedom as being one of the most important values that one could uphold. Thus, ever since the American Revolutionary ar women in the U.S. took on new ideas and engaged in a process that was meant to gradually improve their social status. The American Civil ar was also essential in assisting women in experiencing progress, as, similar to African-Americans, they acknowledged the…
Cherniavsky, Eva Sentimental Discourses and the Imitation of Motherhood in 19th-Century America Sentimental Discourses and the Imitation of Motherhood in 19th-Century America (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1995)
Cogliano, Francis D. Revolutionary America, 1763-1815: A Political History (London: Routledge, 2000)
Martin, Wendy "Women and the American Revolution," Early American Literature11.3 (1976): 322
At the high end of the economic spectrum, Reddy can waffle back and forth about whether she wishes to stay home with her children or not simply because she can afford to make that choice. Her ability to maintain a roof over her head and food in her children's stomachs does not depend on whether she has employment or not, and her childcare concerns are confined mainly to the difficulty one has in finding a good nanny. Although it may be unintentional, many of Pearson's best commentaries on motherhood are illustrated through Reddy's relationship with her nanny in that her casual dismissal of her nanny's history and individuality speaks to an inherent power imbalance rooted in class and gender bias. Reddy has the luxury of coming home from a hard day at work to find her children already fed and put to bed; her biggest concern is dealing with a…
Pearson, Allison. I Don't Know How She Does It. New York: Knopf, 2002.
"Perspectives on Parenthood and Working of Female Athletic Trainers in the Secondary School and Collegiate Settings"
Scholarly Research Critique
The study completed by Kahanov, Loebsack, Masucci, & Roberts (20100 focused on female athletic trainers as this demographic is currently underrepresented in the collegiate setting. Family and parenting obligations are posited to possibly play a role in this underrepresentation. The stated objective of the study was to examine female athletic trainers' perspectives on parenting and working in secondary and collegiate employment settings.
The design of the study was a quantitative cross sectional study completed via online survey. A total of 1,000 non-student certified female athletic trainers who were currently members of the National Athletic Trainers' Associations were the participants in the study. Researchers maintain that the original survey was developed to assess participants perceptions related to career and motherhood responsibilities. Data and analysis used in the survey were descriptive statistics…
Kahanov, L., Loebsack, A., Masucci, M., & Roberts, J. (2010). Perspectives on parenthood and working of female athletic trainers in the secondary and collegiate settings. Journal of Athletic Training, 45(5), 456-466.
Many individuals have trouble accepting mothers as artists, as they are inclined to consider stereotypes when taking into account the traditional role of the mother. By doing so, they automatically think of people like Mann as having to focus on a series of choirs that have traditionally been associated with her position. By being an artist a mother would presumably be less able to perform a series of basic tasks and would thus make it impossible for her children to develop properly. "hen an artist uses her children as subject matter, her motherhood is all too readily there and is thereby perverted by the child-like narcissism that we associate with the creative act." (Mavor 27)
The reality is that the social order is not ready to handle a mother trying to be an artist, especially when she uses her children with the purpose of putting across her messages. Some have…
Attwood, Feona, Campbell, Vincent, Hunter, I.Q., and Lockyer, Sharon, "Controversial Images: Media Representations on the Edge," (Palgrave Macmillan, 07.12.2012)
Auping, Michael, "Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth: 110," (Third Millennium Information Ltd., 2002)
Fletscher, Jane, Newton, Kate, Fehily, Catherine, IRIS the Women's Photography Project, "I Spy: Representations of Childhood," (I.B.Tauris, 04.11.2000-125 pagini)
Freud, Sigmund, "Beyond the Pleasure Principle," Retrieved April 30, 2013, from the Bartleby Website: http://www.bartleby.com/276/2.html
For example, the 1984 British government committee report suggested that "it is inconsistent with human dignity that a woman should use her uterus for financial profit and treat it as an incubator for someone else's child," in part because this threatens to undermine the traditional belief in an inviolable mother-child bond.
Opponents who criticize commercial surrogacy from this perspective frequently attempt to differentiate between commercial surrogacy and "altruistic" surrogacy, in which a surrogate carries a child without a fee, but this distinction is merely nominal, because the lack of an explicit payment structure does not make the decision to become a surrogate any less transactional, and furthermore, the potential for exploitation exists in either case.
Before considering how the law actually treats surrogacy, then, it is becoming clear that a general prohibition on commercial surrogacy represents a kind of undue restriction on the personal and financial autonomy of women, because…
BERKHOUT, S.G., 2008. Buns in the Oven: Objectification, Surrogacy, and Women's
Autonomy. Social Theory and Practice,34(1), pp. 95-117.
BRINSDEN, P.R., APPLETON, T.C., MURRAY, E., HUSSEIN, M. And AL, E., 2000.
Treatment by in vitro fertilisation with surrogacy: Experience of one British centre.
Freudian and Jungian Dream Analysis:
Infidelity in "All the Little Loved Ones" by Dilys Rose
"All the Little Loved Ones" by Dilys Rose clearly functions as an introverted type of art form based upon its structure and presentation: it is a stream-of-consciousness narration whereby the mother of several small children talks about her life directly to the reader. Little happens in the short story on a physical level and the details she narrates are mundane. The primary plot point of the story is the narrator's contemplation of an affair with a man she has met in a park where she takes her children. The children enjoy the swings; she enjoys the outdoor freedom and the idea of something that liberates her from the chains of motherhood. Yet it is unclear whether this liberation is real or imagined: Rose suggests that it does not matter, and that this type of suburban…
"C.G. Jung's theory of types." Transpersonal Science. [17 Nov 2013]
Cherry, Kendra. "Archetypes." [17 Nov 2013]