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Motivation Theories and Emotions
The theory of intrinsic and extrinsic motives helps explain the presence of fear in motivation. An activity is intrinsically motivating if a person does it voluntarily, without receiving payment or other type of reward.
An activity is extrinsically motivated if it is performed primarily for external reinforcement such as food or money.
Extrinsic motivation is based on the emotions of desire and fear. First, there is a desire for the object of external reinforcement in return for a certain performance. Later, there is a fear of the loss of that object of external reinforcement if the performance is not adequate. This fear can either motivate the person to expend more effort or it can cause the person to be indecisive and catatonic.
Flow is a psychological state coined by positive psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. Flow is a state of elevated…
Csikszentmihalyi, M.; Abuhamdeh, S. & Nakamura, J. (2005), "Flow," in Elliot, A., Handbook of Competence and Motivation, New York: The Guilford Press, pp. 598 -- 698
Metcalfe, J.; Mischel, W. (1999), "A Hot/Cool-System Analysis of Delay of Gratification: Dynamics of Willpower." Psychological Review 6:1, 3-19
Ryan, R.; Deci, E. (2000), "Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions." Contemporary Educational Psychology 25:1, 54-67
Ryan, Richard and Deci, Edward (2000), "Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions." Contemporary Educational Psychology 25:1, 54-67
d.). A need also frequently serves to answer the question motivational psychologists regularly ask as they explore motives that impel the person people to do what he/she does: "hat drives people to do the things they do?" Basic concepts of motive include:
A motive depicts a person's internal state arousing and directing his/her behavior to meet a precise goal and/or objective.
A deficit, a lack of something, contributes to a motive.
Motives vary in amount and type.
Motives evolve from needs: "States of tension within a person, and as need is satisfied, tension is reduced ("Henry Murray's Theory… N.d., Basic Concepts
Section, ¶ 1).
Motives impel the individual to "perceive, think, and act" in particular ways that fulfill his/her need/s (Ibid.).
Henry Murray identified the following "big three motives":
Need for Achievement
Need for Power
Need for Intimacy ("Henry Murray's Theory… N.d., The Big Three Motives
Aggarwal, Deepak, Suneeta Singh, and Ashis K. Chatterjee. "Team building intervention."
Journal of Industrial Relations. Shri Ram Centre for Industrial Relations and Human
Resources. 2007. HighBeam Research. 4 Sep. 2010 .
In that regard, employee motivation in the vocational environment of lending component of financial institutions emphasizes commissions and bonuses which are most consistent with the Vroom/Skinner concept of vocational motivation. In the past, management has also attempted to motivate performance in a manner that is most closely described by Herzberg's Two-Factor Hygiene Theory because high volume is rewarded with bonuses, praise, and advancement opportunity while lower performance is not punished except through the absence of rewards. Management seems to believe that this approach allows the most talented and self-motivated employees to thrive. Generally, that has resulted in a situation where some employees are much more driven than others and some employees approach their positions and nothing more than a source of steady work and paychecks.
Implications of Applying Two Alternative Motivational Theories
elying on certain other motivation theories might not necessarily be beneficial in this environment as relying on others.…
Daft, R. (2005). Management 7th Edition. Mason: Thomson South Western.
George, J.M. & Jones, G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational
Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Robbins, S.P. & Judge, T.A. (2009). Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Guarding against stasis while allowing employees to have a sense of control and mastery are some of the important lessons to be learned from these theories. Still other theories of motivation allow for individual differences in what does or does not motivate the subject: Attribution theory's advocates classify individuals into three general categories: achievers who desire personal recognition, affiliation seekers who value relationships, and power seekers who desire control (Straker, 2010, Acquired needs theory). Each type requires a different motivational strategy on the part of the supervisor to ensure the employee functions at an optimal level.
Huitt, W. (2001). Motivation to learn: An overview. Educational Psychology Interactive.
Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. etrieved February 16, 2010 from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/col/motivation/motivate.html
Straker, David. (2010). Acquired needs theory. Changing minds. etrieved February 16, 2010
Straker, David. (2010). Motivation theory. Changing minds. etrieved February 16, 2010
Huitt, W. (2001). Motivation to learn: An overview. Educational Psychology Interactive.
Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved February 16, 2010 from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/col/motivation/motivate.html
Straker, David. (2010). Acquired needs theory. Changing minds. Retrieved February 16, 2010
ELEVANCE OF MASLOW'S HIEACHY OF NEEDS
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Contemporary elevance of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's hierarchy of needs has represented a theoretical touchstone within the field of organizational management for decades. However, research since this theory was first authored in 1943 has found this model increasingly insufficient in light of what has been learned about human behavior. To better define the strengths and weaknesses of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, this report examines recent research into the ability of this model to predict employee behavior. Based on this analysis, Maslow's model of human motivation needs to be updated to reflect the ability of workers to seek fulfillment of needs largely independent of where they are ordered within the hierarchy. In addition, the influential role of the work and community environment on which needs are most attended to, should also be emphasized more. These conclusions represent more an elaboration…
Eggerth, Donald E. And Flynn, Michael A. (2012). Applying the Theory of Work Adjustment to Latino immigrant workers: An exploratory study. Journal of Career Development, 39(1), 76-98.
Kaklauskas, A., Zavadskas, E.K., Pruskus, V., Vlasenko, A., Bartkiene, L., Paliskiene, R. et al. (2011). Recommended Biometric Stress Management System. Expert Systems with Applications, 38, 14011-14025.
Kenrick, Douglas T., Griskevicius, Vladas, Neuberg, Steven L., and Schaller, Mark. (2010). Renovating the pyramid of needs: Contemporary extensions built upon ancient foundations. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(3), 292-314.
Rego, Armenio, Cunha, Miguel Pina E., and Oliveira, Miguel. (2008). Eupsychia revisited: The role of spiritual leaders. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 48(2), 165-195.
Workplace Motivation Theories:
In the early 1960s, the study of motivation was not considered as a reputable pursuit since it was dominated by behaviorists. These behaviorists argued that motivation is brought by external factors that act as either re-inforcers or punishers. Internal factors resulting in individual motivation were basically regarded as physiological by non-behaviorists. However, in the past few decades, workplace motivation has developed to become a significant topic to an extent that it has been examined by various psychologists and other professionals. These efforts have contributed to the development of theories that act as mechanisms for predicting, describing, and impacting employee motivation. In attempts to explain workplace motivation, these theories focus on cognition, employee needs, and the specific job characteristics. The various workplace motivation theories have been developed to explain job motivation across various job arenas.
Goal Setting Theory and Social Cognitive Theory:
Some of the major examples of…
Latham, G.P. (2006). Workplace motivation: history, theory, research, and practice (1st ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc.
Motivation, Stress, And Communication
Ford motor is a global company dealing with the manufacture of vehicles. It has several offices/manufacturing plants in most parts of the world. For the company to run smoothly and efficiently, its operations are divided into several department headed by several departmental managers. One of the departments am in charge is the Supply Chain Systems Sales department a position I filled as the head of department.
A Supply Chain System Sales Operations Manager is in charge of two broad roles. One of roles concerns supplies while the other deals with sales of their locomotives. These two roles are interlinked in a way that the person in charge must ensures that their sales offices are supplied by their products (vehicles) for sales and shipping of new vehicles to other customers or to their sales offices in countries ford motors has no factory. Sales are an interactive kind…
Champoux, J. (2010). Organizational Behavior: Integrating Individuals, Groups, and Organizations: Taylor and Francis.
Locke, E.A., & Latham, G.P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57, 705-717.
Oldham, G.R., & Hackman, J.R. (2010). Not what it was and not what it will be: The future of job design research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 463-479.
The vertical differentiations are associated with the components of abstraction that permit individuals to determine both their intentions and their behaviors. The horizontal differentiation is associated with different intentions including the completion of the project.
Tubbs and Eckeberg (1991) assert that understanding the intentional model has implications associated with understanding the effects of goal setting. The authors argue that the intentional behavior model explains the cognitive effects of goals which is rarely seen in research pertaining to work motivation. The authors posit that the research is important because it is the first time that research has sought to determine the impact that goals have on people.
Finally Latham and Pinder (2005) discuss Work Motivation Theory and research at the dawn of the twenty-first century. The author point out that interest in motivational theories has not waned since they first begin to surface. According to the authors, work motivation represents a…
Klein J.I. (1990) Feasibility Theory: A Resource Munificence Model of Work motivation and Behavior. Academy of Management Review. 15 (4) pgs. 646-645.
Latham G.P., Pinder, C.C. (2005) Work Motivation Theory and Research at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century. Annual Review of Pyschology. 56: 485-516.
Tubbs M.E., Eckeberg S.E. (1991) Academy of Management Review. 15(1) pgs. 180-199.
One example of this is shown when explaining why people eat, aside for being a basic need; people eat as a form of interaction or in some instances for entertainment. People are motivated to eat because they enjoy doing it with the company of friends and family. Individuals are motivated to eat for other reasons that may include health consideration in particular. Motivation in this aspect is largely attributed to be an internally driven. Each individual has a different motivation in pursuing a certain goal. This motivation is manifested in the human will or volition; some writers see it as the human spirit. In times of difficulty that a person encounters, it is this internal motivation that surfaces which provides the person added strength to weather the storm. For instance, when the body encounters substantial physical and mental stress, the body secretes adrenaline resulting to a situation wherein the individual…
Beck, Robert. (2000) Motivation: Theories and Principles. New Jersey Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Franken, Robert (1998) Human Motivation. New York: Brooks/Core Publishing Company.
Ford, Martin (1992) Motivating Humans. London: Sage Publications.
Houston, John (1985) Motivation. New York: Macmillan Publishing.
Every person who had performed well and met the deadlines was offered a cash bonus at the end of six-month period when performance appraisals were done. However I realized that Sarah was not motivated by this cash reward. She had one child who went to kindergarten and her husband earned well. his meant she needed something other than money to motivate her. his was indeed a challenge since I had no idea how to discover her needs which could enhance her performance and inspire her to meet deadlines.
he first stage was to determine if the job actually suited her aptitude. I spoke to her personally and asked her if she really liked her job. But this was done in a candid manner so she wouldn't know what the real issue was. Sarah talked eagerly about her work and her ideas about the next month's magazine. Studying her resume, I…
This was a very interesting and enlightening survey. I spoke to Sarah and we discussed her various options. I told her that as long as she promised to meet her deadlines, I could allow her to work from home on Tuesdays and Thursdays and she could leave around 1 p.m. provided she guaranteed timely delivery of the work assigned to her. Needless to say, Sarah was thrilled. This is the last time we ever had a problem with her deadline issue. The new reward program motivated her so much that she was putting in extra effort to get everything done on job. The company had no problem with her new schedule and I was finally convinced that a happy employee is a company's best resource.
Ken Smith, Great minds in Management. Oxford University Press, 2005
Both observation and experiment provided the underpinning for Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation. Maslow (1943) posits, “man is a perpetually wanting animal,” leading to the constant striving to fulfill goals (p. 370). If and when anything prevents the fulfillment of a goal—whether the obstacle is internal or external—discomfort or psychopathy can occur (Maslow, 1943). Although Maslow’s original research was conducted decades ago, recent research on motivation and human behavior continues to substantiate Maslow’s core claims. Researchers continue to operationalize Maslow’s definitions of needs and motivation, leading to a strengthening of the original theory and expanded applications in the social sciences. Maslow himself wrote extensively to develop and mature a comprehensive theory of human motivation based on the hierarchy of needs model. The original needs hierarchy consists of five fundamental needs: for physiological comfort and fulfillment, for safety and security, for belongingness, for esteem, and for self-actualization. Although definitions of…
Figure 1 below highlights briefly Hertzberg's two factor theory applications to the Southwest Airlines.
Figure 1: Hertzberg Two Factor Theory
To complete the analysis, the hygiene factors related to dissatisfaction should are considered to be:-
Quality of Supervision
These factors are necessary for the satisfaction of the employees, but will not lead to a motivated police force. Without these factors being present in an appropriate manner, these factors will lead to dissatisfaction, which may negate efforts to motivate the workforce.
The motivation factors include:
esponsibility for task
Interest in the job
Advancement to higher level tasks
Clearly, these factors are more connected with internal forces, and affect Southwest employees in a different way. These factors are the driving force behind motivation, and have been the mandate at Southwest Airlines, which explains the success of the company.
Another related motivational model that…
Gordon, Platt, (2004). "United States: Splitting Roles of CEO and Chairman May Harm Business Performance." Find Articles Publications. Retrieved on March 20, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3715/is_200406/ai_n9455531
Govindarajan, Vijay and Lang, Julie (2002). Southwest Airlines Corporation. Dartmount College: Center for Global Motivation.
Greenberg, J., (2010). Managing Behavior in Organizations, 5th Edition. New York: McGraw Hill Publishers.
Jaffe, Charles, (1991). Moving fast by standing still - Herbert D. Kelleher, Southwest Airlines, Nation's Business. Retrieved on March 21, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1154/is_n10_v79/ai_11319024/print
Motivation Systems for Hospitality Organizations: A Case Study of Motel
Generally speaking, the hospitality industry competes on a global basis by providing food and beverages services as well as accommodations for tourists and travelers. For instance, according to Lucas, "The term hospitality industry serves as an overarching label for businesses whose primary purpose is to offer food, beverage and accommodation for sale on a commercial basis" (2003:3). By contrast, hospitality services are associated activities that take place within the hospitality industry which are provided within different segments of the marketplace. Such hospitality activities are primarily involved with providing food and beverage services for a wide range of institutional operations including educational facilities such as colleges and universities, passenger airline carriers, healthcare and long-term care facilities as well as penitentiaries and jails (Lucas 2003). For the purposes of this study, the focus will be on the hospitality industry and hotels in…
About Motel 6. (2010). Motel 6. [online] available: http://www.motel6.com /about/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
It is also possibly one of the most significant motivational factors among young people. Zuckerman refer to disinhibition as follows. "These who choose to follow a conventional lifestyle might periodically escape by engaging in social drinking..." (Franken, 2001, p. 343). This is an important factor as the desire or need for disinhibition may lead to an addictive patterns of behavior, where the drugs or alcohol supply the required escape from routine and inhibitory factors.
Disinhibition is also strongly related to the conventions of society where the individual may feel hemmed in and confined by the routine and patterns of ordinary life. This can lead to addictive behavior as the use of drugs or substances are motivated by the desire to free one's self and sense of identity and fulfill experiential needs.
The central concept that links al of these motivational theories is that they all can be seen to contribute…
Ammerman, R.T., Ott, P.J., & Tarter, R.E. (Eds.). (1999). Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved December 6, 2007, from Questia database:
How New Practices at Sodexho Align with the Essentials of Performance Management
Performance management, in basic terms, has got to do with an organization's involvement of employees with an aim of enabling them to achieve objectives and, hence, further enhance performance at both the individual and organizational level. Quite a number of changes have taken place at Sodexho since the entry of Ms. ohini Anand, the Senior Vice President and Global Chief Diversity Officer at Sodexho. To what extent do these changes and new practices align with the essentials of performance management?
To begin with, Sodexho has been able to not only define, but also clarify performance expectations. This, as will be indicated below, has been more so the case when it comes to identifying the exact performance expectations of various groups or categories of employees. As Ms. Anand points out, interviewers at Sodexho are trained on cultural…
Sims, R. (2002). Managing Organizational Behavior. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing.
This paper investigates the issue of motivation as it applies to an organizational setting.
The research regarding motivation in the workplace has been a major area of investigation that is of interest to corporate leaders, managers, organizational psychologists, and educators. The issue that this paper will discuss has to do with the particular factors that managers and leaders can address to increase the motivation of their workers to perform as well as to increase the job satisfaction levels of their employees. However, motivation is only one issue regarding increased productivity or increased job satisfaction; we would certainly think that at a basic level an employee would need a certain level of motivation to perform as well as the ability to actually do the job (as it turns out the research is consistent with this type of common-sense thinking). However, the actual types of interventions/activities that can be used…
Argyris, C. 1993, Knowledge for action: a guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.
Chien, J.C. 2013,'Examining Herzberg's Two Factor Theory in a large Chinese chemical fiber company' World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 78, no. 248, pp.1433-1438.
Gneezy, U. And Rustichini, A. 2000, 'Pay enough or don't pay at all', Quarterly Journal of Economics vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 791-810.
Hackman, J.R. And Oldham, G.R. 1980, Work redesign. Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J.
Theory-based information can help organizations to ascertain the most appropriate training and development programs for their employees. In fact, theory-based information helps human resources managers to structure training and development for specific groups of people. The most relevant theories include those that are related to learning, and those that are related to social relations and identity construction.
Learning theories can be based on basic behaviorism, including patterns of reward and punishment that can be used to motivate specific behaviors and discourage undesirable behaviors that detract from inter-group harmony (Duggan, n.d.). However, cognitive theories of learning can be even more helpful for structuring effective employee training programs designed to cultivate specific skills or to increase productivity (Duggan, n.d.).
Theories that focus more on employee engagement, group identity construction, and other sociological factors are also highly relevant in the process of employee training and development. Motivation theory not only informs best practices…
Motivation is the key to materializing energy and getting things accomplished. Organizational relationships require proper motivation from all sides of the relationships. Leaders must be motivated and workers must be motivated as well in order to succeed at any mission. The purpose of this essay is to design an organizational motivation plan that encourages and maintains a high level of performance from the members of the Woo Widget Company. The essay will first describe the need for the plan before introducing key components of the system that intends to increase the productivity and efficiency of the employees at Woo.
Before designing a motivational plan that will work in this environment, it is necessary to reveal some important facts that contribute to the motivating factors of the employees at this organization. WooWoo designs widgets, but the widget that WooWoo makes is a clone of a nationally known widget. Woo sells their…
Amabile, T. (1997). Motivating Creativity in Organizations. California Management Review 40, 1, 1997. Retrieved from http://bear.warrington.ufl.edu/weitz/mar7786/articles/amabile%20ccal%20mgt%20revie w.pdf
Osterloh, M. et al. (2002). The Dynamics of Motivation in New Organizational Forms. International Journal of the Economics of Business, 9,1, 2002; 61-77. Retrieved from http://www.bsfrey.ch/articles/366_02.pdf
Vallerand, R.J. (March 08, 1993). The Academic Motivation Scale: A Measure of Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Amotivation in Education. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 4, 1003-17.
Motivation in Behavior
a) What does Tolman's theory of animal learning tell us about the motivation for human learning?
Unlike John Watson, B.F. Skinner and the other strict behaviorists, or the ussian physiologists like Ivan Pavlov, Edward C. Tolman argued that the behaviorist theory that learning was a matter of stimulus-response (S-) and positive and negative reinforcement was highly simplistic. Although he rejected introspective methods and metaphysics, he increasingly moved away from strict behaviorism into the areas of cognitive psychology. In short, he became a mentalist without actually using that term to describe himself and concluded that all behavior was "purposive" (Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 428). All of his experiments with rats moving through mazes at the University of Berkeley proved to his satisfaction that behavior was actually the dependent variable, with the environment as the independent variable, with mental processes as intervening variables. Tolman summarized this basic theory, which he…
Leaf, J.B. et al. (2010). "Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting and No-No Prompting in Two-Choice Discrimination Learning with Children with Autism." Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, No. 2 (Summer 2010), pp. 215-28.
Lerner, R.M. (2002). Concepts and Theories of Human Development, (3rd ed.) Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Lund, S.K. (2009). "Discrete Trial Instruction in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention" in E.A. Boutot and M. Tincani (eds). Autism Encyclopedia: The Complete Guide to Autism Spectrum Disorders. Prufrock Press, Inc.
Hergenhahn, B.R. (2009). An Introduction to the History of Psychology, (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth
Although his theory is not necessarily incompatible with Maslow and Alderfer's ideas, Herzberg places less emphasis on basic needs, and more upon using higher, internal needs to elicit optimal performance from the individual.
One common objection to theories of human motivation, of course, is that different types of people appear to be motivated by different things. For example, one teacher may choose his or her position because of job security, while another teacher may be more motivated by the idea of changing children's lives. This means that different strategies must be deployed in motivating people within the same organization or within different professions: a salesperson may be motivated by different things than a professor. "According to David McClelland's an individual's specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by one's life experiences. Most of these needs can be classed as either achievement, affiliation, or power" (McClelland's theory of needs,…
Herzberg's Two-Factor theory. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
McClelland's theory of needs. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
Transformation leadership is 'authentic' leadership which "builds genuine trust between leaders and followers." Furthermore transformational leadership "concentrates on terminal values such as integrity and fairness. They see the responsibility for their organization's development and impact on society." (Ibid)
Homig and MacGregor in the work entitled:" Transformational Leadership" state that the following ten 'tenets' are inclusive in the transformational leader's style of leading:
1. Leaders have high moral and ethical values.
2. Leaders express genuine interest in followers.
3. Leaders have an inspirational vision.
4. Genuine trust exists between leaders and led.
5. Followers share leader's values and vision.
6. Leaders and followers perform beyond self-interest.
7. Participatory decision-making is the rule.
8. Innovative thinking and action is expected.
9. Motivation is to do the right thing.
10. Leaders mentor. (nd)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
While all of these theories were valid at some time or in relation to some…
Creating Futures (nd) Online available at http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:k13BWFbu_wIJ:u wfoundation.org/newsletter/June2005/43565Camp NewsletterFI NAL.pdf+Jeffrey+H.+Brotman,+Leadership&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=9
Costco Wholesale Investor Relations (2006) Online http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=83830&p=irol-govBio&ID=13292
Employee Motivation, the Organizational Environment and Productivity (2006) Section 2: Basic Approaches Used to Improve Productivity. Accel Team Online available at http://www.accel-team.com/human_relations/hrels_03_mcgregor.html
Costco -5th Largest Retailer in U.S. And 11th Largest in the World (2006) http://www.customer-service.com/newsletter/126E.aspx
esearch has identified ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck as the most important achievement attributions. The last category focuses on two issues: how motivation gets translated into regulated behavior, and how motivation and cognition are linked.
These theories can provide insights into the leader who is trying to motivate others to follow. It must be understood that no two people are motivated in the same way. For a committee with a small number of members, it may be best to look at each person and define how he or she is best motivated and then put these different individuals into groups and decide what can be the specific motivator for each group. For example, those individuals who are extrinsically motivated may be motivated if they receive some form of gratitude from the principal. In order to determine the particular motivations of these individuals, it may be necessary to talk one-on-one…
Wigfield, a (2002). Motivational Beliefs, Values and Goals. Annual Review of Psychology. 109+.
By experiencing and discussing each point of the theoretical aspects, I did get to know myself better and see both positive and negative sides of my personality. For instance, while discussing Freud's theories, I managed to explain certain emotional manifestations which, up to a point, were not entirely clear. Furthermore, discussions on matters such as child and life span development improved my perception on family relationships and inter-human communication.
A part of the importance of such courses is to better prepare us for the challenges one has to face throughout his lifetime. Although the experiences accumulated in academic preparation do not necessarily ensure a less troublesome road in life, they do offer additional support. Nonetheless, it is vital to create the proper theoretical background which will guide your actions in every situation. For me, the discussions relating to the stress, the pressure and the social tensions existing today have helped…
Boeree, C.G Personality theories. Sigmund Freud. Retrieved 19 September 2006, at http://www.ship.edu/%7Ecgboeree/freud.html
Buresch, T., Eiben, a.E., Nitschke, G., Schut, M.C. Effects of evolutionary and lifetime learning on minds and bodies in an artificial society. Free University Amsterdam. Retrieved 19 September 2006, at http://www.cs.vu.nl/~gusz/papers/2005_cec.pdf#search=%22life%20time%20learning%20importance%22
Conditioning and learning. Retrieved 19 September 2006, at http://psych.fullerton.edu/rlippa/Psych101/outline2.htm
Knowles, M.S. (1962) a History of the adult education movement in the U.S.A., New York: Krieger.
The success, performance, as well as development of an employee are influenced by motivation. There are numerous methods and theories on motivation. McClelland, for instance, in his theory expresses that each employee has specific needs acquired over time based on life's experiences. His theory summarized the needs of people into achievement, power, and affiliation. Different employees get motivated in varying manners therefore a manager should not rely on one motivation technique to serve the entire workforce. This paper will address three motivational methods, and how they would be applied in the workplace.
One motivational method that would reap numerous benefits from the employees and commonly applied in most organizations is rewards. Everyone is familiar with the use of rewards as a motivator since as early as preschool and daycare, rewards such as sticker chart and snacks were given for good behavior. Even later in life rewards still appeal…
Atchison, T.A. (2003). Exposing the myths of employee satisfaction. Healthcare executive. 17(3), pp. 20.
Cummings, L.L., & Elsalmi, A.M. (1968). Empirical research on the bases and correlates of managerial motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 70, pp.127 -- 144.
The theory of motivation has as many various meanings as there are its function and intended the desired outcome for that mater. Motivation can be defined as a psychological element that prompts an organism into deeds focused on a set target or goal. Motivation is said to be the reason driving the action, or that which attaches direction, control and behavior to behavior of an individual (Word Net (2011).
It is considered the as the aspect that prompts, directs and sustains or maintains the target/goal oriented behavior of human beings. In the study of motor response and receptors, motivation is taken as what causes an organism to act or react, be it stepping off a thorn or streaming for the river by the animals to quench their thirst.
Motivation covers a wide range of disciplines from the cognitive, social and the biological drives that initiate behavior. In the day-to-day…
About.com, (2011). What Is Motivation? Retrieved March 18, 2011 from http://psychology.about.com/od/mindex/g/motivation-definition.htm
Word Net, (2011). Definitions of motivation on the Web. Retrieved March 18, 2011 from wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webw
I recently discovered that a female employee was being paid more than I even though we were both hired at the same time. The reason (as I discerned it) was that they had to pay her more because she was needed for a project that required at least one female on the team. However, I was doing most of the work and getting paid less than her. This made me angry, and as I remember it, made her feel guilty. She knew that I was more qualified but that did not matter to the employer, instead I was informed that I should just live with it. Reacting to this situation was a classic response according to the equity theory. I felt less like doing the work, and more apt to take a more casual approach to the project itself. My performance was still okay, but could have been much…
At which point, managers must be able to challenge them on an intellectual level. In many ways, one could argue that the most successful organizations will address these basic needs and will then find a way to continually challenge their employees (at the levels of self-actualization).
Incentives Offered to Employees to keep them Motivated
There are a number of different ways that executives can motivate employees the most obvious is: addressing the basic needs of everyone. Where, employers have to offer benefits that will go above and beyond their competition to include: having generous health insurance, increasing flexibility in how employees plan their schedules, the ability for the staff to prepare for retirement and those little extras that can improve the work environment (such as: health club benefits, employees discounts, company parties along with child care). These different elements are important, because they will address the basic needs of employees.…
Benefits. (2010). Google. Retrieved from: http://www.google.com/international/en/jobs/lifeatgoogle/benefits/index.html#bbb
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved from: http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/maslow/
Bruce, A. (2006). How to Motivate Every Employee. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Kurtus, R. (2001). Basic Principals of Total Quality Management. School for Champions. Retrieved from: ( http://www.school-for-champions.com/tqm/principles.htm
Society also ingrains many values and ideas into its populace, for instance, by gender conditioning. oys are told they should not cry or display feeling while it is okay for a girl to do it. oys are also expected to be tough and aggressive and told from a very young age that they need to be "strong." The worst insult for a little boy generally is that he is acting like a girl. This fact is observed in almost all societies irrespective of geographical location. Parenthood, marital status and involvement in social circles also influence values and attitudes.
Franken defined motivation as a multifaceted phenomenon. (Franken, 1998) He associated motivation as an internal state of need, desire or want that serves to activate or energize behavior as well as to give direction to behavior. Motivation is also defined as a factor that helps people get energized towards attaining a goal…
Ashforth, B., & Humphrey, R. (Emotional labor in service roles: The influence of identity). 1993. Academy of Management Review, 18(88-115).
Franken, R.E. (1998). Human motivation (4th ed.). vrPacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co.
Gove, W.R. (1994). Why We Do What We Do: a Biopsychosocial Theory of Human Motivation. Social Forces, 73.
Jackson, K.M., Mannix, E.A., Peterson, R.S., & Trochim, W.M.K. (2003). A Multi-faceted Approach to Process Conflict. Paper presented at the IACM 15th Annual Conference.
These performance appraisals are usually given to employees by managers. Such appraisals occur once or twice per year, depending upon the industry and the position of the employee. In some cases, performance appraisals are carried out by colleagues. egardless of how feedback is given most organizations recognize it as a legitimate and productive way to judge performance and present employees with ways to improve job performance.
Examples of Employee motivation
According to Neff (2002) the ability to motivate employees is an essential component in creating an organization that is successful. The author points out that the most successful organizations in the world are always succeeding in making certain that job satisfaction and motivation are primary priorities. These organizations have realized that employees who are motivated are also more productive and therefore improve the bottom line. Greater productivity usually leads to greater job satisfaction and ultimately greater customer satisfaction. The author…
Brief, a.P., & Weiss, H.M. (2002). Organizational Behavior: Affect in the Workplace. 279+.
Cameron, J., & Pierce, W.D. (2002). Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: Resolving the Controversy. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.
Kermally, S. (2005). Gurus on Managing People. London: Thorogood.
London, M. (2003). Job Feedback: Giving, Seeking, and Using Feedback for Performance Improvement. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
According to Nolan (2010), the right incentive program can help with this process.
Nolan (2010) reports that a motivated and goal-oriented staff is essential to any optometric practice, since staff / patient interaction accounts for about 70% of the patient's total time in the office. If the staff is not content, patients will not be treated appropriately and will look for eye-care services someplace else. Also, the cost of finding and training new staff members is much more costly than ongoing training and retaining activities. In addition, staff productivity significantly influences a practice's volume. Nolan (2010) therefore recommends a three-part incentive process: The first is to set annual financial goals for the practice, or else the staff will not be motivated to achieve them. In the fourth quarter, establish specific goals in attracting new patients and retaining present ones, revenue-per-patient, eye-wear sales and cash receipts. Second is to schedule a…
Gatlin, R (July 1, 1997) How to effectively reward employees. Industrial Management, 1-4.
Nolan, B. (2005) Reward your staff to build your practice: by setting financial goals for your practice, scheduling productive staff meetings and offering staff-incentive programs, you'll retain your current employees and grow financially. Review of Optometry 142(12) 36+.
Opperman, M. (2007) Give your team a cut: by offering quarterly bonuses based on employee performance, you give your team a strong incentive to succeed -- and help your practice thrive. Veterinary Economics 48(3), 49+.
Schrag, R.L. May I Speak Frankly. Retrieved March 10, 2010. http://mayispeakfrankly.blogspot.com/
Long-Term Employment -- Japanese organizations tend to have longer employee cycles than U.S. companies. Many U.S. companies treat employees as replaceable parts. It is far more cost-effective and efficient to retain expertise than continually retrain. This keeps the knowledge base inside the company. Providing incentives for long-term employment, then, is an essential component of Theory Z
Consensual Decision Making -- hen employees feel that they have input into decisions that affect them, their jobs, and their daily processes, they are more likely to buy into those decisions and support change management.
Individual responsibility -- Moving away from 'the union mentality' and accepting measurement based on individual performance is tough for many Americans, but the balance between the group and the individual's participation actually empowers both.
Slow Evaluation and Promotion -- Rather than taking the short-term approach, as many American company's do, it is about the long-term strategy, not the monthly…
Barney, J. (2004). "An Interview with William Ouchi." Academy of Management
Executives.18 (4): 108-117.
Daft, R. (2004). "Theory Z: Opening the Corporate Door for Participative Management."
Academy of Management Executives. 18 (4): 117-22.
The present study aims to establish a relationship between academic motivation and academic self-efficacy. More specifically we will be looking at whether individuals with high academic self-efficacy possess high intrinsic or high extrinsic motivation levels. A sample of approximately 100 undergraduate students will complete the Academic Motivation Scale, which measures their level of academic motivation as well as their type of motivation, and the College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale to measure their level of academic self-efficacy. It is expected that individuals with high levels of academic self-efficacy will also show high levels of intrinsic academic motivation. These findings are significant in that they would give insight as to the reason students strive toward success, which if known could play a role in the increase in college admission and retention, for if it is known what motivates one to perform well academically, it is thus known what to target as far…
Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior
and Human Decision Processes, 50, 248 -- 287.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York, Freeman.
Carway, K., Tucker, C.M., Reinke, W.M., & Hall, C. (2003). Self-efficacy, goal orientation, and fear of failure as predictors Of school engagement in high school students, Psychology in the School, 40, 417 -- 427.
Embracing the limits of my control will enable me to deal with stress appropriately.
Nonverbal and Cultural Barriers to Communication
It is only when the intended receiver of a message understands the information contained within the message that communication can be regarded effective. The world is today regarded a global village. This effectively means that intercultural communication will continue being even more common going forward. In so many ways, effective communication will enable me to successfully execute the mandate of my new position. Given the multicultural nature of our institution, there exists a significant need for me to explore ways of overcoming cultural barriers to communication. In seeking to overcome the said barriers, I will amongst other things ensure that I understand the receiver's perspective. This will help minimize instances of wrong interpretation. I will also ensure that the message is delivered in a format that can be understood by…
Armstrong, M. (2012). Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice (12th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Page Publishers.
Brain, C. (2002). Advanced Psychology: Applications, Issues & Perspectives. London: Nelson Thornes.
Sims, R.R. (2002). Managing Organizational Behavior. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
" Often, conflicts arise when the individual wants two conflicting things: for example, I have occasionally wanted a long-term committed relationship at the same time as I have wanted to date different people. Avoidance-avoidance conflict is almost the opposite. Using a similar example, I have sometimes not wanted to be alone but simultaneously did not want to deal with being in a committed relationship. Approach-avoidance conflict can perhaps be best explained when I want something that is expensive: I want the item badly but I do not want to have to pay for it or work longer hours in order to pay for it.
Conflict." From Mastering Human Relations 3rd Edition, a Falikowski, 2002. Online at http://webhome.idirect.com/~kehamilt/ipsyconf.html.
Constructive Suggestions Regarding Motivation." Virginia Tech. Online at http://www.ucc.vt.edu/stdysk/motivate.html.
Davidson, et. al. "Emotion: Journal Description." APA Online. Online at http://www.apa.org/journals/emo/description.html.
Goleman, Daniel. "Test Your Emotional IQ." Utne. November-December 1005. Online at…
Conflict." From Mastering Human Relations 3rd Edition, a Falikowski, 2002. Online at http://webhome.idirect.com/~kehamilt/ipsyconf.html .
Constructive Suggestions Regarding Motivation." Virginia Tech. Online at http://www.ucc.vt.edu/stdysk/motivate.html .
Davidson, et. al. "Emotion: Journal Description." APA Online. Online at http://www.apa.org/journals/emo/description.html.
Goleman, Daniel. "Test Your Emotional IQ." Utne. November-December 1005. Online at http://www.utne.com/interact/test_iq.html .
Additionally, those who were in the test group also scored, on average 20% higher on the test when it was graded by the researcher. Though the case study was based on an abnormal psychology case the questions are associated with content (i.e. reading comprehension) and are not expected to be interpretive. The group was also debriefed at the close of the exam and informed of the nature of the exam and the resulting scoring, which was based on participation as apposed to test scores.
This brief research work demonstrates that extrinsic motivation (in an anomalous form) motivates students to achieve success on tests. The balance between intrinsic (results of moderate scores on MSLQ) and extrinsic, the motivation to score high on the exam as an impetus to a higher extra credit score, as apposed to a participation only score motivated those students in the test group to pay closer…
Motivational Theories for Various Employee Groups
The force that initiates certain behavior in a person is also called motivation. Motivational theories have been developed by researchers using various mechanisms like state of mind, basic needs, desires and goals of a person.
Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg)
The two-factor theory was published in 1959 by Herzberg after doing a research on the job attitudes for five years. Two different factors affect job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction, as the theory states. Thus, dissatisfaction and satisfaction should not be measured using the same continuum. The two motivating factors of the theory are motivation and hygiene factors. Motivation factors produce positive satisfaction to an employee, they are mainly intrinsic conditions e.g. responsibility, recognition, challenging work and achievement. Hygiene factors are extrinsic job conditions and absence of these results in job dissatisfaction e.g. working conditions, company policies, pay, supervision, job security, status and fringe benefits Sutaria, 1980()…
Gagne, M., & Deci, E.L. (2005). Self-Determination Theory and Work Motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4), 331-362.
Gratton, L.C. (1980). Analysis of Maslow's Need Hierarchy with Three Social Class Groups. Social Indicators Research, 7(1/4), 463-476.
Shore, T., Sy, T., & Strauss, J. (2006). Leader Responsiveness, Equity Sensitivity, and Employee Attitudes and Behavior. Journal of Business and Psychology, 21(2), 227-241.
Sutaria, R. (1980). Personality, Needs and Two-Factor Theory of Work Motivation. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 16(2), 219-232.
Person " Theories, advantages disadvantages current
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
Prior to discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the current theory/approach used within my workplace, it is necessary to elucidate just what sort of theory is most readily employed. The principle theory used is Theory X in which the management widely views their employees through the Person as Machine model. This theory states that management believes that the laborers are only working for monetary compensation. As such, the former believes that they must readily coerce the latter into being productive. The major disadvantage of the application of this theory is that it makes for an antagonistic, tense work environment. The employers are always monitoring and looking for ways to punish the employees in order to galvanize them into performing better, because "the underlying assumption…is that no worker wants to work" (Landy and Conte, 2013, p. 319). The disadvantage is that there…
Landy, F.J., & Conte, J.M. (2013). Work in the 21st century: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology (4th ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons
Chapter 8: The Motivation to Work
Locke, E.A., & Latham, G.P. (2006). New directions in goal-setting theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(5), 265-268. Retrieved from http://home.ubalt.edu/tmitch/642/Articles%20syllabus/Locke%20et%20al%20New%20dir%20goal%20setting%2006.pdf
Conceptual Framework: Herzberg’s Two-Factor Motivation Theory
The management theorist Frederick Herzberg, writing in the 1950s, conceptualized job satisfaction and motivation as encompassing two dimensions. The first factor pertained to hygiene, which Herzberg defined as essential components of the workplace that were not intrinsically motivating to stimulate the employee to perform at a higher level, but which were still necessary to create a healthy attitude towards work. Hygiene factors include salary, benefits, working conditions, policies, the quality of the supervision, and the quality of interpersonal relations with colleagues. (Syptak, Marsland, & Ulmer, 1999). Motivational factors, however, include the intrinsic rewards of the work itself and the delights of taking on additional responsibilities. “Motivators…create satisfaction by fulfilling individuals' needs for meaning and personal growth” (Syptak, et al., 1999, p.26). It must be stressed the Herzberg believed that hygiene factors must be addressed; employees cannot be expected to endure intolerable conditions and be…
Damij, N., Levnaji?, Z., Rejec Skrt, V., & Suklan, J. (2015). What motivates us for work? PloS one, 10(7), e0132641. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132641
Herzberg’s motivation theory—two factor theory. (2018). Expert Program Management (EPM). Retrieved from: https://expertprogrammanagement.com/2018/04/herzbergs-two-factor-theory/
Juneja, P. (2020). Herzberg’s two factor theory of motivation. Management Study Guide. Retrieved from: https://managementstudyguide.com/herzbergs-theory-motivation.htm
Syptak, J.M., Marsland, D.W., & Ulmer, D. (1999). Job satisfaction: Putting theory into practice. Family Practice Management,6(9):26. Retrieved from: https://www.aafp.org/fpm/1999/1000/p26.html
Uchmanowicz, I., Manulik, S., Lomper, K., Rozensztrauch, A., Zborowska, A., Kolasi?ska, J., & Rosi?czuk, J. (2019). Life satisfaction, job satisfaction, life orientation and occupational burnout among nurses and midwives in medical institutions in Poland: a cross-sectional study. BMJ open, 9(1), e024296. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024296
Organizational Motivation Leadership
Effective and positive leadership is a basic foundation for any administrative institution to yield good results and therefore cause a great impact.
In this study we base our focus on a critical organization which is the infant daycare.
Infant daycare organization
Infant daycare centers are organizations that focus on the welfare of the child by providing care while the parent goes to work or gets engaged in other activities that may not allow the mother of father to be around the child during the day. The state requires that such organizations meet certain standards of safety, health and that the staff should have proper training. These institutions are normally equipped with fun toys and learning materials with the qualified caregivers trying as much as they can to make the life of infants as comfortable as possible. With the many challenges that infants face including having to master…
Bob Whipple, (2012). Leaders Creating Meaning. Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://leadergrow.com/articles/105-leaders-create-meaning
CEO Flow, (2008). CEO Flow, (2008). The Four Rewards of Intrinsic Motivation. Retrieved April 4, 2012 http://www.ceoflow.com/2008/08/the-four-rewards-of-intrinsic-motivation/
David McCelland, (2012). Human Relations Contributors. Retrieved April 4, 2012
Feeling Extremely Motivated
This paper will describe an experience in which I felt extremely motivated. The paper will first provide a description of the experience. This will be followed by a reflection involving multiple perspectives. The experience will then be discussed on a deeper level using motivation concepts and theories. Finally, the paper will discuss how what I learned here can be applied in future experiences. At the end, the main points of the paper are summarized.
I was tasked with developing a report and presenting it to upper management. The report was to explain a project that I had advocated for and that had been greenlighted by upper management six months prior. Now management wanted an update to see how well the project was coming along, where it had succeeded and what it had run up against challenges. To help me develop the report, I needed…
Human esource Management
Two Motivation Strategies
Motivating Minimum Wage Service Workers
The Importance of the Individual
Individual Work to Teamwork
Employers will usually want to maximize the productivity of their employees. Different employers may use different strategies to support and improve productivity. It has been demonstrated by a number of theorists, such as Mayo, Maslow, and Herzberg, that one of the most effective ways of improving employee performance is through the use of motivational strategies (Tohidi, 2011). The aim of this paper is to look at the development of a motivational plan, identify two potential motivational strategies and consider the way that a minimum wage worker may be motivated.
A good motivational plan may allow the employer to motivate employees by supporting high levels of jib satisfaction, which will support positive behavioral traits, including low turnover, high produced and high quality work. For employees…
Cook, Sarah, (2008), The Essential Guide to Employee Engagement: Better Business Performance Through Staff Satisfaction, Kogan Page Publishers
Danish, Rizwan Qaiser; Usman, Ali, (2010), Impact of Reward and Recognition on Job Satisfaction and Motivation: An Empirical Study from Pakistan, International Journal of Business & Management, 5(2), 159-167
Mone, E. M; London, M. (2010), Employee engagement through effective performance management: A practical guide for managers, New York, Routledge.
Tohidi, H, (2011), Teamwork productivity & effectiveness in an organization base on rewards, leadership, training, goals, wage, size, motivation, measurement and information technology, Procedia Computer Science, 3, 1137-1146
Life-span developmental theory offers a guideline for understanding human aging. Primarily, the theory provides explains the regular changes occurring to an individual to death. Theories of the aging process act as frameworks for aligning research findings and observations to deduce significant conclusions. The information is essential because it enhances sequencing in the lifespan hence providing chronological priority to earlier moments and events in an individual's life. Besides, life span theory can be identified as a synchronized integration of different age-based developmental specializations. Evidently, most people hold a perception of being actively engaged in shaping their future. They follow developmental stages that are intelligible in exploring and pursuing long-term goals. I have realized that the lifespan development theory is essential in my realization of timely goals in life as a social worker. In this study, I have elucidated the motivational theory of lifespan development and illustrated how I will incorporate it…
MASLOW'S THOEY VS. HULL'S THEOY
Integrating Two Theories of Motivational Psychology
Maslow Hierarchy of needs vs. Hull's Drive eduction Theory
Motivation is common term, but it is not easily defined. This is due to the many studies, which provide different definitions for the term. While some define it as a set of beliefs, values, interests, others define it as a cognitive decision making process. For this paper, motivation is central to a set of processes, which induce, direct, and maintain actions towards an objective. It is not similar to job performance, but it is a contributor to job performance (Linder, 1980). Motivation is a crucial component in the workplace, which explains why organizations are borrowing concepts from the motivation theories. There are many motivational theories, but they either fall under the content or process categories. Content theories assume that individuals have similar needs, and process theories emphasize the importance of…
Brewer, E.W., & McMahan-Landers, J. (2003). Job satisfaction among industrial and technical teacher educators. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 40(2), 65.
Benson, S.G., & Dundis, S.P. (2003). Understanding and motivating health care employees:
integrating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, training and technology. Journal of nursing management, 11(5), 315-320.
Jensen, R. (2006). Behaviorism, latent learning, and cognitive maps: Needed revisions in introductory psychology textbooks. Behavior analysis fall, 29(2), 187-209.
Herzberg and Blanchards' Theory
Leadership and Motivation
Comparison of Situational Theory against the Two Factor Theory
Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership Model
Leadership / Behavior of the leader
Development Level of the Follower
Steps in the Situational Leadership Strategy
Strengths of the Situational Leadership Strategy
Drawbacks of the Situational Leadership Strategy
Assumptions of Situational Leadership Conditions
Fredrick Herzberg's Theory of Human Motivation
Hygiene Factors of the Two Factor Theory
Hygiene / Maintenance Factors
Motivating Factors of the Two Factor Theory
Limitations of the Two Factor Theory
Contrast between the two theories
What do we mean by leadership? It can be identified as the process through which a person is capable of influencing people's thoughts, attitudes, behavior and making an impact by what they say and how they act. A leader sets out the pattern for others to follow and lead on. A leader may guide his followers…
Akrani, Gaurav. 2010. Fredrick Herzberg's Two Factor Theory -- Motivation Hygiene http://kalyan-city.blogspot.com/2010/06/frederick-herzberg-two-factor-theory.html
Blanchard, Kenneth H. And Hersey, Paul. 1988. Management and Organizational Behavior (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988).
Hersey, Paul. 1984. The Situational Leader (Escondido, CA: Center for Leadership Studies, 1984).
Graeff, Claude L. "The Situational Leadership Theory: A Critical View," Academy of Management Review, vol. 8 (1983), pp. 285-291, and the research summary in Gary Yukl, Leadership in Organizations, Sixth Edition (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2006), pp. 223-225.
Here the marketer tries to project the product as an answer to these conflicts (Consumer Behavior: Chapter 3, 2010).
With motivation having such a major influence on consumption patterns of the customer, there is a strong need to learn about it as part of marketing research. Qualitative methods of observation, focus groups and in-depth interview and analysis are often used to try and understand the hidden motives of a consumer. The level of participation or how interested the consumer was about a product decides the degree of motivation a consumer had to buy a particular product. The foundation of stimulation and the particular situation the consumer is in when they come into contact with the product also determine the level of connection (Consumer Behavior: Chapter 3, 2010).
It could vary in degree, in which the customer's involvement could be at the basic stage which is passive or low. On the…
Baker, Michael J. And Saren, Michael. 2010. "Marketing Theory: A Student Text." Sage
"Consumer Behavior: Chapter 3." 2010. Available at:
Freud, in fact, went as far as defining the energizing force (libido) of humans as sexual in nature (Demartino & Stacey, p. 4).
Like the instinct theory, the drive reduction theory, too, subscribed to the functional significance of actions. The difference, however, is that drive reduction theory suggested that physiological needs, or deficits, instigate behaviors that result in the offset of those needs. Hull, the chief proponent of this theory, hypothesized that "drives" were a motivational characteristic of need states, which result from physiological disequilibrium. Therefore, drives generate energy and instigate behaviors designed to return the organism to a state of equilibrium: "...a common denominator of all primary motivations, whether due to food privation, thermal deviations...the action of sex hormones...." (einer, p. 87-92) Thus, the drive reduction theory explained sexual motivation as a drive, which resulted from a state of physiological imbalance caused by hormones.
The instinct and drive reduction…
Demartino, M.F., & Stacey, C.L. "Understanding Human Motivation." Cleveland, OH:
H. Allen, 1958.
Johnson, K.M. "Human Sexual Motivation." Spring 1997. California State University,
Northridge. Accessed Nov. 21, 2004: http://www.csun.edu/~vcpsy00h/students/sexmotiv.htm
Management Theory vs. Organizational Functions
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is useful for raising awareness of the contribution between job challenge and responsibility in motivating employees toward higher productivity and employee retention. It has also been useful in identifying and assessing customer satisfaction characteristics. Fishbein's Reasoned Action Theory is useful for explaining why particular behaviors are happening and the underlying causes of the behavior. Both theories are useful for identifying problem areas and planning actions for improvement in organizational behaviors.
According to (Bolm, 2012), the Two-factor Theory claims individual perception of satisfaction or dissatisfaction relates to discrete intrinsic and extrinsic variables where a variable can uniquely influence satisfaction or dissatisfaction, but not both. Motivator (intrinsic) factors include achievement, recognition, and responsibility where hygiene (extrinsic) factors include policy, status, and security. Motivator factors, when present, increase job motivation and satisfaction, but, when not present, show no effect. Hygiene factors, when present, show no…
Bolm, J. (2012). Two-factor theory-at the intersection of health care management and patient satisfaction. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res., vol 4, 277-285 Retrieved from http:/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3468274.
Dartey-Baah, K. & . (2011). Application of Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory in assessing and understanding employee motivation at work: A Ghanian Perspective. European Journal of Business and Management 3(9).
Peters, R.M. (2010). Theory of Planned Behavior, Self-Care Motivation, and Blood Pressure Self-Care. Res Theory Nurs Pract, 24(3), 172-186 Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm, nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3728772.
Sukato, N. & . (2009). A Model of Male Consumer Behavior in Buying Skin Care Products in Thailand. ABAC Journal, 29(1), 39-52 Retrieved from http://www.abacjournal.au.edu/2009/jan09/article03_JanApr2009.pdf .
Atkinson states that the scores from one test to the next do not reflect a reliable picture of a person's motivation. All of these specific (and sometimes esoteric) issues raised by Atkinson should become familiar to those HR people searching for talent that will build organizational strength.
Atkinson goes on to explain that there is a lot to be learned when analyzing the "strength of a motive" verses the "behavioral expression" the individual actually shows. In taking the TAT to task, Atkinson points to the fact that, according to TAT's application, every behavioral incident is looked upon as "a discrete and independent incident in the life of an individual" (Atkinson, p. 22). But the TAT presumes - "gratuitously," in Atkinson's view - that differences in personality traits will also manifest themselves in behavior. But using Atkinson's approach ("achievement motivation") helps explain the "variable behavior" that might occur when the individual…
Atkinson, John W. "Motivational determinants of thematic apperception" in Motivation and Personality: Handbook of Thematic Content Analysis, Ed. Charles P. Smith, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 21-48.
Murphy, Steven a. 'Executive Motivation: From the front lines to the boardroom?' International Journal of Police Science & Management 8 (2005): 3.
Spillane, Robert, & Martin, John. Personality and Performance: Foundations for Managerial Psychology. (Sydney: University of New South Wales Press Ltd., 2005).
When will you begin that long journey into yourself? One of the most famous philosophers in history of mankind, Rumi emphasized on exploring or discovering one self. Self-exploration is one of the fundamentals of philosophy. efore contemplating over the wonders of universe, man asked himself the very basic questions about his own existence. Without knowing one's origin and the reason of being born, man cannot shape his beliefs and thus remain directionless. As Aristotle said that the foundation of all wisdom is based on self.
The ideas, beliefs, values and norms of a person originate from his immediate surroundings. Among them, the first encounter is with parents. Parents transmit their own beliefs and values into the child's mind. Later on, siblings, family members and close friends influence a person's self-concept. Gradually, a man's social circle expands and as he becomes able to identify and choose among things,…
Dyer, W.W. (1995). Your Sacred Self: Makin the Decision to be Free. HarperCollins Publishers.
Eccles, J.S. & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational Beliefs, Values and Goals. Annual Review of Psychology. Vol 53, 109-132. The H.W Wilson Company.
Maslow, A.H. (1987). Motivation and Personality. HaperCollins Publishers.
Pasnau, R. (2011). Philosophy of Mind and Human Nature. Epistemology of Life and Human Nature. 348-368.
If the economic/machine and affective/affiliation models are combined then the result would resemble the growth-open system theory of motivation (Cordner, 2013). The term 'open' in this model is meant to imply employees are influenced by their environment, including the environmental factors existing outside the workplace. The term 'growth' indicates that individuals will transition through several levels of need fulfillment depending on whether more basic needs have been met. This 'needs' hierarchy is based on the work of the psychologist Maslow, who proposed the first needs that must be fulfilled are the most basic, such as food, clothing, and shelter. If these needs are being met then an individual will next seek to protect themselves from threats to their physical and psychological health. The subsequent levels, according to Maslow, would be social needs, feeling valued and personal fulfillment, in that order. Since most police officers earn enough to meet their basic…
Cordner, G.W. (2013). Police Administration (8th ed.). New York: Anderson Publishing.
If possible, avoid overcrowding and allow each employee his or her own personal space. If employees are located in close quarters with little or no personal space, tension may easily increase among them.
Perhaps most important to employee motivation is helping individuals believe that the work they are doing is important and that their tasks are meaningful (Herzberg & Hamlin, 1961). Employees should be placed in positions that use their talents and are not set up for failure. Set clear, achievable goals and standards for each position, and make sure employees know what those goals and standards are. Individuals should also receive regular, timely feedback on how they are doing and should feel they are being adequately challenged in their jobs.
Individuals at all levels of the organization should be recognized for achievements on the job. Employees will be more motivated to do their jobs well if they have…
Alshallah, S. (2004). Job satisfaction and motivation: how do we inspire employees? Radiol Manage, 26(2), 47-51.
Herzberg, F., & Hamlin, R.M. (1961). A motivation-hygiene concept of mental health. Ment Hyg, 45, 394-201.
Lindsay, C.A., Marks, E., & Gorlow, L. (1967). The Herzberg Theory: a critique and reformulation. J Appl Psychol, 51(4), 330-339.
Rantz, M.J., Scott, J., & Porter, R. (1996). Employee motivation: new perspectives of the age-old challenge of work motivation. Nurs Forum, 31(3), 29-36.
Motivational Theories / Teamwork
Recommendation to the Director of Highlands on potentially feasible leadership styles: Visionary Leadership Theory and Path-Goal Theory of Leadership.
The Visionary Leadership Theory is based partly on Max Weber's ideas of charisma and transformational leadership. This theory -- when implemented successfully -- creates trust in the leader, a "high commitment to the leader," high levels of "performance among followers," and a high "overall organizational performance" (Kirkpatrick, 2011). The visionary leader must have acute insight into the needs and values of his/her staff. The vision of the leader positively influences and motivates the followers. The visionary leader must have a "long-range vision of what his or her organization should become in ten, twenty, or more years in the future" (Kirkpatrick, p. 1616).
The leader must not only have charisma but also be able to "engage in several rhetorical techniques" that will motivate followers. Those techniques include…
Dyer, W. Gibb, Dyer, Jeffrey H., and Dyer, William G. 2013. Team Building: Proven Strategies for Improving Team Performance. John Wiley & Sons: Santa Barbara, CA.
House, Robert J. 1996. 'Path-Goal Theory of Leadership: Lessons, Legacy, and a Reformulated Theory.' Leadership Quarterly, vol. 7, 323-353.
Kirkpatrick, Shelly A. 2011. 'Visionary Leadership Theory', Encyclopedia of Leadership. SAGE Publications. Retrieved January 26, 2013, from http://knowledge.sagepub.com .
Koontz, Harold, and Weihrich, Heinz. 2006. Essentials of Management. Tata McGraw-Hill Education: Mumbai, India.
Learning, Motivation, Performance of Employees of Public Safety Organizations
The motivation is defined as the intrinsic phenomenon affected four factors: temperament, situation, tool, and goal. Typically, people are motivated to achieve their goals, instincts and necessities, thus, the concept motivation assists people to complete a task, gain a goal as well as achieving a certain degree of success from their job. Thus, the concept motivation explains why some people behaves in a certain way and the reasons for their behaviors. In essence, motivated people are oriented, and energetic in characteristics, which influence their behaviors. From the educational point-of-view, motivation is the polyhedral structure associated with academic achievement and learning, however, employees' motivation is low in the public sector compared with the private organizations. The public safety organizations are the government agencies that include law enforcement agencies, EMS (Emergency Medical Services), rescue squads, and fire departments. The Department of Safety in…
Blanchard, P. N., & Thacker, J. W. (2013). Effective Training Systems, Strategies, and Practices (5th Ed.) ISBN 13:978-0-13-272904-8
Ford, L. (2009). Improving training transfer. Journal of Industrial and Commercial Training, 4, 6-92.
Fortenbery, M.J.A. (2015). Improving Motivation and Productivity of Police Officers. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
Giran, H. Amin, A. & Halim, A. (2014). The Impact of Self-Efficacy towards Training Motivation at Kolej Poly-Tech MARA Kuantan, Malaysia. Asian Social Science; 10(19):69:76.
57, why are metrics, i.e. The choice of what to measure, fair simply because one meets or exceeds a goal?
) The sales people seem to repeatedly confuse "metrics" with "goals" (i.e. "targets"). What do you infer from this? Is there anything you need to foolow up on here?
Tutor is mistaken; the Goals are the Metrics under
"The Impact of Performance-elated Pay
on Motivation and Job Satisfaction of Sales Personnel
in the Computer Industry
with ecommendations to Improve Management Practices"
Case-study of SEMICO INC
The search for better ways to motivate people in the workplace continues unabated, but the search is becoming increasingly complex as an increasing number of theorists weigh in on what factors tend to affect job performance and employee satisfaction. Although no consensus has been forthcoming, the theoretical work that has emerged concerning employee motivation can be divided into three basic…
Chapter 3: Literature Review
Work motivation theories can provide some insight into the issues at JC's Casino. One with explanatory power is Maslow's hierarchy (Huitt, 2007). This hierarchy explains human needs as beginning with the most basic ones, needed to sustain life, and moving up to higher order needs such as self-fulfillment and belonging. The issue with the dealers in particular can be understood here. The dealers are paid better at JCs, but are preferring to work for other casinos anyway. What this says is that wherever they work, they are making enough money to live. So better pay is at this point not equating to a more attractive work environment at JCs. What it says is that people are having other needs, such as esteem and belonging needs, met better by other employers, so much so that they are willing to sacrifice some money to meet those needs.
This of course…
Huitt, W. (2007). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Educational Psychology Interactive. Retrieved March 2, 2016 from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/conation/maslow.html
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Riley, J. (2016). Motivation -- Herzberg (two factor theory). Tutor2U.net. Retrieved March 2, 2016 from http://www.tutor2u.net/business/reference/motivation-herzberg-two-factor-theory
Tsai, Y (2011). Relationship between organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction. BMC Health Services Research. Vol. 11 (2011) 98.
(Reading for the 21st Century: Adolescent Literacy Teaching and Learning Strategies," 2004)
2. Alphabetic Principle-related Skills: This includes: "phonemic awareness, the ability to manipulate the sounds of oral language and phonics and the relationship of letters to sound." (Ibid) Strategies includes instruction" that focuses on high-frequency, sound- spelling relationships." (Ibid)
3. Fluency: This is the ability to read "quickly, accurately and with appropriate expression." (Ibid) Strategies include: "guided oral reading and repeated reading" (Ibid) for improving fluency and comprehension.
4. Vocabulary: The size of the learner's vocabulary is that which leads to "large variations in reading ability." (Ibid) Strategies include "direct [and] explicit instruction and learning from context while reading" (Ibid) for increasing vocabulary among students.
5. Reading Comprehension: This is the most "apparent deficit in students' reading abilities at the secondary level." (Ibid) Strategies include the following:
a) Comprehensive monitoring;
b) Cooperative learning;
d) Story structure;
Davey, Heidi (2006) Motivation and Adolescent and Adult Readers. PowerPoint presentation. Hoffman Estates High School, Northern Illinois University. Online available at http://www.reading.ie/conferences/2006/Motivation%20and%20the%20Adolescent%20Reader.ppt.
Alvermann, Donna E. (2001) Effective Literacy Instruction for Adolescents. National Reading Conference (NRC) position paper - revised. 25 Oct 2001. Online available at http://www.coe.uga.edu/reading/faculty/alvermann/effective2.pdf .
Reading Literacy for the 21st Century (2004) published online and available at http://www.all4ed.org/publications/Reading%20for%2021st%20Century.pdf .
Wigfield, Alan (nd) Motivation for Literacy During Adolescence. Online available at http://www.soe.umich.edu/events/als/downloads/wigfield.pdf .
" (Herbig et al., 563) These motivational priorities, manifesting concretely in such terms as pay rate and personal interest, are relatively common throughout the working world. However, a point of distinction in this discussion may be raised from the fact that different cultures often produce distinct motivational forces. To this extent, the differences that are accounted for betwixt nations and demographics may be seen as directly pertinent to specific cultural realities within each of these contexts. Moreover, as our reading on the subject of significantly culturally divergent nations suggests, "the type of work goals whose pursuit is encouraged and rewarded depend in part on the prevailing cultural value emphasized in society." (Jaw et al., 2) This is consistent with our findings here thus far, including the intrinsic ideals of Maslow, which may be read to suggest that the exact manifestation of work values will be reflected on a larger social…
Becker, Brian & Barry Gerhart. (1996). The Impact of Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance: Progress and Prospect. The Academy of Management Journal, 39(4), 779-801.
Boeree, C. George. (2006). B.F. Skinner. Shippensburg University.
Deci, E.L. & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and self-determination in human behavior. Springer.
Herbig, Paul & Alain Genestre. (1997). International Motivational Differences. Texas A&M International University: Department of Management and Marketing.
Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amount of rewards they receive for their efforts, but also with the relationship of this amount to what their peers receive (amlall, 2004). Adams (1963, 1965) posits that individuals are motivated by the perception of inequality, as measured by "input" and "outcome" ratios in comparison to others. Equity theory draws from multiple empirical theories and is utilized to make predictions about how individuals manage their relationships with others (Huseman, et al., 1987). If equity exists, the individual is at peace with the exchange and therefore not moved to action. If the individual perceives that his or her outcome/input ratio is less than that of a referent individual, then inequity exists, and motivation to restore equity arises (Chhokar et al., 2001).
Perception of inequity
Behavioral response (define)
Individuals may respond by choosing a behavioral response by reducing their inputs…
Byrne D.E., Lindgren H.C. 1971. Psychology: an Introduction to a Behavioral Science.
Wiley: New York.
Drillings M., O'Neil H.F. Jr.
Motivation: Theory and Research. Contributors: - editor,. - author. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Hillsdale, NJ. Publication Year: 1994. Page Number: 14.
Organizational Behavior & Culture
Complete summary of chapter 4
The chapter illustrates that the perception process is based on stages such as stimulation, organization, registration, and interpretation. The individual's acceptance and awareness levels for ascertained stimuli play critical roles in the perception process. The authors add that receptiveness towards certain stimuli remains highly selective in limiting a person's existing personality, motivation, attitude, and beliefs. People select various stimuli that satisfy certain needs (perceptual vigilance) while disregarding stimuli causing perceptual defense (psychological anxiety).
The chapter insists that guidelines facilitate companies in improving their workplaces through the surveying content. The employees can ask questions regarding observable behavior above thoughts and motives. The concept also includes items that are verified independently. The measures also attract behavioral consideration in the recognition of the company's performance. Attitude transformation requires time, determination, and effort to achieve. It is critical to relax expectations of changing an individual's…
Grant, A. (2013). Instead of Monitoring Employees, Try Motivating Them. The Huffington Post. Retrieved on 8th March 2015 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/adam-grant/instead-of-monitoring-emp_b_3869778.html
Porter, E. (2014). Motivating Corporations to Do Good. The New York Times. Retrieved on 8th March 2015 from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/16/business/the-do-good-corporation.html
Healthcare management (Discussion questions)
How do you plan to develop and motivate your team?
One common model of team engagement is Bruce Tuckman's famous delineation of team development called 'forming, norming, storming, and performing' (Chapman 2013) Tuckman believed that all teams go through several stages, gradually attaining independence from the leader, as they become more functional and eventually reach the goals they were originally created to fulfill. However, motivating a team, particularly during the initial, difficult stages of formation can be challenging. It is essential to establish ground rules and goals to create a harmonious team composed of members that are respectful of one another. Ultimately, a team which works well together is the first, most important motivating factor. All of the rhetoric in the world will not create a functional team if this critical interpersonal foundation is not built.
The leader must adjust his or her managerial…
Riley, J. (2012). Motivation theory -- McGregor. Tutor2u. Retrieved from:
Another critical component of motivating a team goes into its composition. Teams should ideally be composed of meshing personality types and there should not be too much overlap in terms of critical skills, to avoid conflicts over positions. Responsibilities should also be established early on to minimize conflict. If conflicts do arise, there should be predetermined methods of dealing with them rather than allowing them to fester. Having constant communication through email and texting, even if only to touch base, also ensures that the project remains 'on track' and gives people a sense of motivation as they are made aware of the benchmarks that have been reached on a regular basis. Two of the greatest motivators are having a sense of genuine enthusiasm about the work that is being done and also a sense that the project is heading in a successful and productive direction. Motivation begins with team formation and must be sustained throughout the project.