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The Metropolitan eport
In 1996, Metropolitan Life Insurance Company produced a series of reports " to bring the opinions of teachers, students and parents to the attention of educators, policymakers and the American public." The fourth report in the series, the Metropolitan Life Survey of the American Teacher 1996: Students Voice Their Opinions on Learning About Multiculturalism,."..assessed students' opinions and interests in learning about multicultural topics." Lou Harris and Associates conducted the nationwide survey. Public school students in grades 7-12 were asked about (1) the availability of multicultural courses, (2) their interest in taking multicultural courses, and (3) the effectiveness of lessons being taught.
The results of the findings were as follows:
Sixty one percent."..of students say their schools offer classes on multiculturalism" (defined in the survey question as."..the history and culture of people who came to the U.S. from different parts of the world, such as Asia, India, Africa…… [Read More]
Multicultural Education and Communication Issue
The concept of multiculturalism refers to the cultural diversity with a given society. In other word, multiculturalism is a policy that promotes diversity as well as institutionalism at an organizational level such as schools, businesses, cities and nations. However, Gary (1994) defines multicultural education as "any set of processes by which schools work with rather than against oppressed groups." (p 1). Multiculturalism education can be defined "as a movement towards providing equal educational opportunities for everyone from different cultural, ethnic, or religious backgrounds." (Celik, 2013 p 1). The propagation of multicultural education started as far back as 1960 during the civil right movements in order to implement a "long standing corrective de facto policy of assimilating minority group into the "melting pot" of dominant American culture" (Gary, 1994 p 1). The assumption towards multicultural education is that American schools should be designed towards cultural enrichments…… [Read More]
On the other hand, Bennett's model has also inspired me to learn more about cultures other than my own, as well as how to be more culturally sensitive. This helps me in terms of mediating between teachers, students, and parents, many of whom are still burdened by prejudice, even if this is benign and not necessarily known to the individuals involved. I have learned to handle this in a subtle rather than overt way, by guiding them towards a better understanding when interacting with each other.
Finally, Nieto's article provided me with some startling facts; although I am aware of the segregation issue in schools, and that it is far from over, I was not aware of the countrywide extent of this, and indeed that there was a backward movement towards segregation during the 1990s. Whereas the other two articles were considerably positive in terms of addressing segregation in a…… [Read More]
The fundamentalist White orientation is one often accounted for and met in everyday life, as well as in the education process. We need not refer to extremist and violent groups, but to the uniformed category with which Howard himself identifies for much of his teenage years, up to the college period. Just as he hadn't met a person who wasn't white until then, similarly we may tend to believe that stating the fact that color makes no difference to us is enough to surpass the fact that we indeed have "a mask of dominance" which we unconsciously wear. In this case, we deny the fact that there are racial differences and would rather follow the line "we are all the same," that is a rejection of diversity rather than understanding it.
The integrationist White orientation believes that a condescending approach is right when approaching racial problems. Howard himself identifies with…… [Read More]
New York City Multicultural Education
Multi-Cultural Education in New York City
Aspirations to be an educator, a teacher in the diversity of the New York City Schools must realize that considerations are school-wide focused on setting out and maintaining as well as assessing effective applications in the administering, educating and teaching methods in a multicultural setting.
New York City is a place full of diversity and is in fact the home to Ellis Island, Lady Liberty whose arms have taken in all ethnic and cultural representations of the rainbow into her harbor throughout the last 228 years and yet it has not changed. The responsibilities and considerations in educating the Americans of today in New York City grows were more ethnically and culturally diverse as the world becomes smaller and smaller.
ench-marks in New York City Schools:
There are eight cultural benchmarks inclusive in multicultural schools that are…… [Read More]
No Child Left Behind Act will affect multicultural education.
Review current reference material.
The No Child Left Behind Act will provide unprecedented changes in the K-12 educational system that will allow all school age children to benefit from the various educational programs available. Children will be provided with a multicultural education that will improve the quality of education overall for children across the country.
On January 8, 2002, President Bush enacted the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, which was the most comprehensive educational reform act since 1965. The act redefines the federal government's role in K-12 education and will help close the performance gap that currently exists between disadvantaged and minority children and their peers.
The Act provides the framework for improving the performance of America's elementary and secondary schools while providing guidelines for ensuring that no child is trapped in a failing school that does not meet…… [Read More]
The purpose of this article is to show how complex multicultural education is. There is much to be learned from studying this, and the roots of it really need to involve a multidisciplinary approach. Without this approach, the goal of multicultural education is never actually realized. Having a framework that can be used to create concepts in this area helps to show that there are many different genres that the research into this area can be involved in, and they all important.
Bennett's main goal in her article is to show that there are many different ways to prepare these types of programs and figure out how best to teach students. Sometimes just rearranging a program that is already in existence is the best idea. Other times, it is necessary to design completely new programs that will do the job as intended. Having an article such as this…… [Read More]
multicultural education exists in my school due to the nature of the demographics that attend the school. The faculty and administration appear all to vary in different cultures as well making the environment very diverse and of a varied background. The school itself is located in one of the most diverse areas in the world in Brooklyn NY. New York city is a cultural melting pot that changes all the time. The proximity of this school to all of the constant cultural development ensures that my school is multicultural.
For some it may seem unique and very strange to have a middle school composed of mostly Chinese Russian and Hispanics students. The faculty is mostly white with other blacks and Hispanics as well. There is a good mixture of culture that resonates in the student's modes of communication, style of dress and physical features. There are also many subtleties in…… [Read More]
multicultural education regarding sensitivity to ethnic and racial differences: "psychologists are encouraged to be aware of their attitudes and work to increase their contact with members of other racial/ethnic groups, building trust in others and increasing their tolerance for others" (Guidelines, APA, 2013: 8). The practice of psychology requires a sense of acute self-awareness. The psychologist cannot necessarily assume that he or she is innately unbiased, given that simply being a part of a specific cultural worldview of any kind carries with it some inherent biases. Psychologists have a responsibility to engage in "efforts to change their attitudes and biases help to prevent those attitudes from detrimentally affecting their relationships with students, research subjects and clients who are racially/ethnically different from them" (Guidelines, APA, 2013: 8).
This sense of acute self-awareness is intimately related to the specialty guidelines issued by the APLS for forensic psychologists, including those related to impartiality…… [Read More]
Multiculturalism in School Curriculm
Over 140 years ago, Lord Acton envisioned an America where each child would be treated equally and there would be no discrimination or major differences in class due to race and culture. Unfortunately, he saw the future incorrectly.
According to Changing America, A Report of the Council of Economic Advisors, "the population of the United States continues to grow increasingly diverse." Hispanics and minority racial groups -- defined as racial and ethnic groups that make up less than 50% of the population and include non-Hispanic blacks, Asians and American Indians have grown faster than the population as a whole. In 1970, these groups together totaled 16% of the population. This percentage grew to 27 in 1998. Continuing on this trend, by 2005 minorities will account for almost half of the U.S. population.
Sadly, however, despite these changing numbers, racial discrimination continues in the United States. According…… [Read More]
As is stated by Bennett "When teachers accept the goal of developing competencies in multiple systems of standards of perceiving, evaluating, believing and doing, it becomes obvious that knowledge about multiple dialects and languages is part of becoming educated" (p. 297).
While neither educators nor parents can magically erase all cultural and ethnic barriers and inequities, any more than they can resolve all of the communication problems created associated with an increasingly diverse classroom, they can achieve significant results by making a conscious and concerted effort to ensure that every student is treated fairly and in a manner that respects rather than ignores their cultural heritage.
Allen, S.F. & Tracy, E.M. (2004) evitalizing the role of home visiting by school social workers. Children and Schools, 26, 197-208
Baker, M.L., Sigmon, J.N., & Nugent, M.E. (2001). Truancy reduction: Keeping students in school. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, 1-14
Bennett, C. (1995). Comprehensive…… [Read More]
Using Power Point: Understanding Diversity answer the below questions
How could prejudice affect a person's ability to learn and work?
Prejudice could affect the person's self-esteem and self-confidence. Teachers and peers might treat the student differently than they would without the prejudice, even if the prejudice is "positive," such as prejudice toward Asian students in a math class. Prejudice might impede a person's ability to learn and work, because it impacts the reactions of both teachers and students.
How important is the issue of diversity in your daily life?
Diversity is hugely important in my daily life. I do not like being in homogeneous places, because they are not reflective of the world at large. The world is diverse, filled with people with differing points-of-view and backgrounds. My views and outlooks change when I interact with different people, and I like that diversity makes me think more critically and…… [Read More]
A group that is, by its very nature, mentally defective, will also easily be viewed as incapable of supporting itself without help - a strain on the larger society. In terms of modern day American society, this could be seen as declaring that African-Americans, and other similarly impoverished and marginalized groups, are likely to remain forever within the care of the social welfare system. Believers in such ideas might easily raise the question - why bother with caring for these people at all? More to the point; however, is the question of whether there is really anything wrong with most of these individuals at all? Clearly, a large part of their "mental disabilities" derive from internal and external assumptions about what it means to be African-American, or a member of some similarly tagged minority group. A multicultural approach to the educational process helps to guarantee that all individuals are ranked…… [Read More]
For some, the discussion of multiculturalism is a theoretical one, with little practical application to their day-to-day behavior. Even when people encounter others from different cultures, ethnocentric ideals may prevent them from really understanding how cultural backgrounds impact their interactions. For classroom teachers, however, multiculturalism is much more than a theoretical concept; it is the framework that helps establish how a teacher can create a classroom environment that is beneficial for all of the students in the classroom. However, establishing a multicultural classroom is not a simplistic process. In order to do so, an educator must consider many factors that relate to development in children. Educators must also think about the different family backgrounds of the students. Finally, teachers have to keep in mind that they may direct their classrooms, but they do not completely control them; the teacher has to play an active role in facilitating the…… [Read More]
One of the best examples of the mentality behind the development of the pedagogy of the oppressed, with regard to education is the evolution of the official restriction of curriculum to that which the African would need to survive in the economy of labor.
A the solutions to the "poor Whites" problem, as was indicated in the Carnegie Commission of Inquiry into Poor Whites in South Africa in 1932, were not bearing the expected fruits of "innate superiority." Thus, Verwoerd emphasized that the African "school must equip him [the African] to meet the demands which the economic life of South Africa will impose on him" (Mbere 1979, 106).The relationship between production and what is learned in schools reproduces unskilled and semiskilled labor power that allows domination and exploitation to occur. According to the CNE policy, Whites were perpetual parents who had to guide their "children," the Africans. This relationship of…… [Read More]
what is multicultural literature? What are the characteristics of quality multicultural literature?
Within the latter part of the twentieth century, a pattern referred to as multiculturalism acquired popularity in American education (Almerico et al., 2006). Gay (1994) within an intensive research of the very commonly used meanings of multicultural literature recognized 13 particular explanations involving the idea and mentioned that a number of factors had been typical out of all definitions for the reason that all of them concur that the content material of multicultural literature ought to include:
Cultural pluralism, ethnic identities, unequal division of resources as well as
Opportunities along with other socio and political issues arising from extended track records of oppression
Multicultural education like a school of thought, a strategy for education transformation, along with a collection of particular subject material within just educational courses. (p. 3)
In her own book, Affirming Diversity, Nieto…… [Read More]
People need look no further than their own homes to see the interdependence of world trade; no further than their neighborhoods to see the results of international migration and multiculturalism; no further than the news to see the causes and effects of global economics, ecology and ethnic conflicts. "While domestic debate continues over the nature of these connections, few can doubt their existence. As these connections increase, educators, utilizing a global model, can provide a context that allows students to analyze and understand the impact of world events" (Baker, 1999).
Multiculturalism and globalism are obviously not unique to the United States. The majority of Western societies are racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse. Ethnic revival movements have come up in a lot of countries including quite a few Western European nations (Banks & Lynch, 1986). This type of revival movement occurs when an ethnic group organizes efforts to attain equality inside…… [Read More]
3. Hispanic, White Communities Forge Ties in Alabama (2003) a UA Center for Public Television and Radi9o Production. Online available at:
4. McDade, Sharon a. (2002) Definition of a Case Study. Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning - North Carolina State. Online available at http://www.ncsu.Edu/fctl/Programs/Instructional- Development/Teaching _Materials / CaseStudies/Materials / Case studyDefintion.pdf# search =%22 CASE%20STUDY % 3A%20DEFINIT ION%20OF %22.
5. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
6. English Language Development and Multicultural Education (2005) University of Alabama. Berkeley University Online available at http://crede.berkeley.edu/tools/directory2-/PDF/esl.pdf#search=%22Alabama%3A%20Elementary%20ESL%20SERVICES%22.
7. English as a Second Language (ESL) (2004) Baldwin County Public Schools; Bay Minette, Alabama. Online available at http://www.bcbe.org/Default.asp?DivisionID='824'&DepartmentID='958'.
8. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
9. Alabama (2006) KYTESOL Newsletter Vol.…… [Read More]
An Analysis of the book "Life in Schools" by Peter McLaren
Peter McLaren is a well-known proponent for enforcing social reform and teaching and discussing about new issues in education and critical theory, which is the critical pedagogy and multicultural education. His extensive works regarding the study of critical pedagogy has already made him popular and well received by students, scholars, and readers who are in line of thinking with Paulo Freire, one of the most famous educational thinkers who revolutionized the way scholars treat the problem of education in the contemporary American society. The book "Life in Schools: An Introduction to Critical Pedagogy in the Foundation of Education," (4th edition), published by Allyn & Bacon, is a reflection of McLaren's belief about the radical change the educational system needed, and the social reform the educational system needs in order relieve the poor, 'oppressed' people from suffering the commercialization…… [Read More]
Multicultural Counseling Competency
A counselor's knowledge, awareness, and skills concerning multicultural differences can have a significant impact on their ability to provide quality care (Penn and Post, 2012, p. 14-17). These multicultural competencies have therefore been recognized by counseling scholars as increasingly important, especially since American society is becoming more ethnically diverse. A recent study examined multicultural competencies among play therapists and found self-perceptions of competency to be independent of training. More recently, Penn and Post (2012) expanded on this finding by attempting to identify the factors that influence a play therapist's perceptions of their multicultural competency.
Penn and Post (2012) surveyed 510 members of the Association of Play Therapy to assess self-reported levels of multicultural competency, then compared these self-reports to records of multicultural training. The first set of findings revealed self-reported multicultural knowledge was inversely correlated with ignorance about the racial issues that minorities face. The second…… [Read More]
Doing activities like making pinatas are fun and instructive and offer relaxed opportunities to discuss what they are learning. They will learn some Spanish words and to delve more deeply into what it means culturally to be Mexican, which could lead to an interest in taking Spanish in high school or college some day.
It should not be ignored that students will get an opportunity to broaden their concepts of what culture actually is and also gain insight into the fact that all cultures celebrate holidays that commemorate important aspects of community life and history. The holiday itself and specifically how it is celebrated is interesting and broadening, but even more important is its reason for being and the events that led to its becoming a holiday.
One of the most difficult things to understand about another culture is its values and the reasoning behind them. The students will be…… [Read More]
" (Geographia) Such a country, therefore, can probably teach the world a valuable lesson on how to achieve unity within diversity. for, after all, it appears that India is a country, which has developed multicultural competence. Thus, I would be interested in understanding how an Indian manages to strike a balance between a national Indian identity and an independent cultural identity.
I am particularly interested in India's management of its cultural diversity because I believe that the development of multicultural competence is going to be a crucial skill in today's increasingly globalized world. In fact, this skill is important from both a career as well as social justice point-of-view: "A multiculturally competent person is aware of and knowledgeable about cultural differences, their own cultural identity, and the history and struggles of marginalized groups. They balance this awareness and knowledge with continuous empathy and curiosity. They also examine how social context,…… [Read More]
Only the radically new perspectives offered by social justice theorists can help create a more egalitarian society. Generalizing about how diversity factors influence student learning becomes not only unnecessary but also harmful. Race is not a biological reality, instead it is a social construct (Baily & Cervero). The color-blind and multicultural perspectives are still widely practiced in adult education. Unfortunately outmoded, those theories generalize the experience of all non-white groups as being Other and therefore inferior.
Overcoming the current problems in adult education involves deep structural changes to adult education. Discovering and refining the "hidden curriculum" is one of the most important steps educators can take (Baily & Cervero). Critical analysis of educational literature can help foster awareness of how white power and privilege are embedded and reinforced continually. As awareness of how inequity is embedded in the fundamental assumptions of academic discourse dawns on students, they will become self-empowered.…… [Read More]
The following facts have been established with regard to preschoolers' cultural understanding, tolerance, influences and attitudes:
• At the early preschool age, kids begin developing definite attitudes with regard to their own ethnic and racial group, and other ethnic/racial groups.
• Toddlers are able to tell if people they interact with are different from themselves, and by the time they reach preschool, they are easily able to grasp negative stereotypes.
• Caregivers' cultures, views and mindsets are readily adopted by preschoolers. Hence, a caregiver's views of other racial and ethnic groups may shape children's attitudes towards racial/ethnic minorities.
• Early childhood instructors may elicit positive attitudes among preschoolers through getting to know and promoting their pupils' diverse cultures.
• Preschoolers may begin stereotyping other cultures if their elders fail to highlight the similarities among human beings (Teaching with a Multicultural Perspective Article).
An issue underlying the existing emphasis of multicultural…… [Read More]
.. have played a large role in defining how Americans interpret citizenship education, the hallmark of social studies, and in informing notions of what is educationally worthwhile as related to citizenships. Ideological difference has, of course been a recurring theme in textbook censorship battles and curriculum dis8utes over the course of this history " Curriculum is described by Croc o as being "an educational tradition providing 'culturally constituted tools for understanding and reforming the world'. (Crocco, 2003-2004)
IV. Vinz: Competing Versions of How to Educate for Cultural Understanding
The work of Ruth Vinz entitled: "Learning the lues: Transcending Essentialist Readings of Cultural Texts" states: "The history of multicultural curricula is a story of competing versions of how to educate for cultural understanding." Vinz notes that instability of meaning and interpretation are only one difficulty that is inherent in attempting to understand different cultures within the society or the educational institution…… [Read More]
Culture and education are inherently linked (Adams, 1992; Gay, 2000, Jones 2004; Wlodkcowski & Ginsberg, 1995 in: Guo and Jamal, 2007) In order to understand impact of diversity in the educational setting, Guo and Jamal write that it appears necessary to "first define some key terms, including culture and cultural diversity. Culture can be defined as a dynamic system of values, beliefs and behaviors that influence how people experience and respond to the world around them. For many, cultural diversity can be referred to as 'distinctions in the lived experiences, and the related perception of and reactions to those experiences that serve to differentiate collective populations from one another." (Marshall, 2002, p. 7)
Culture plays a key role in forming the manner in which students learn and communicate,"…how they relate to other students and instructors, their motivation levels, and their sense of what is worth learning." The extent…… [Read More]
Furthermore, the nature and types of value, such as morals, aesthetics, religion, and metaphysics are the core focal areas for this study. In other words, this field of study is related to ethics and aesthetics. Since all the human beings are different in terms of their backgrounds, thus they even think differently from one another and axiology is the science that examines and analyzes the thinking patterns of the diverse people (Ornstein, Levine, Gutek & Vocke, 2010).
This hypothetical study of values is also vital in education because it promotes the learning of moral rules, principles, ethics and values; hence it leads the individual to gain knowledge related to the good deeds and actions. With the study of axiology, the individual would become cognizant of what is right and wrong, good or bad, ethical and unethical (Ornstein, Levine, Gutek & Vocke, 2010).
Logic is considered the fourth subdivision of philosophy…… [Read More]
Education: Social Foundation
Brown v. The Board of Education (1954) was a landmark ruling that not only marked the beginning of the era of desegregation in the school environment, but also served as a frontal attack on the practice and doctrine of white supremacy in the overall society. Many viewed it as a reprieve for the Black-American community, but as Justice William Douglas revealed in 1971, the de jure segregation ruling in Brown v. Board of Education was more than just a mere reprieve for blacks; it was a direct effort towards integrating the philosophies, policies, and cultures of different communities to make public education accessible to American Indians, Latinos, African-Americans, and Asian-Americans just as it was to whites. As it turns out, however, desegregation of public schools did not even come close to being the one-fits-all solution that many thought would address all the inequality concerns of minorities --…… [Read More]
hat is Multicultural Literacy?
Approaching the subject of multicultural literacy for the first time a student might think it has to do with getting minorities to become literate -- to be able to read and write in English or in their native language. That would be wrong, albeit it is a good goal in terms of bringing all students up to speed in communication skills. hat is important to remember about multicultural literacy is that by the year 2020, an estimated fifty percent of the student population in American public schools will belong "…to an economic, ethnic, racial, religious, and/or social class minority" (Stevens, et al., 2011, p. 32). Teachers and counselors must be fully knowledgeable vis-a-vis the culturally relevant issues that are present when the classroom is diverse, as it clearly is becoming today and will continue to be in the near future as well.
hat Stevens…… [Read More]
Multicultural Resources Report of Internet Sites
Multicultural and diversity issues exist in our day-to-day lives.it is therefore very important to sensitize people and make them aware of these issues and how they can deal with them. The paper is a report on multicultural resources using the internet sites.
Milano, P.J. (1997).The National Forum on People with Differences. Retrieved November 19, 2013 from http://www.yforum.com/
There are so many internet sites that contain information on some aspects of multicultural and diversity issues.one such site is Y? Forum. This is a national forum on people with differences. This site provides a safe place where people candidly discuss tough issues such as stereotypes, racism, religious persecution, gander discrimination, homophobia and other issues pertaining to cultural diversity. This site has an appealing appearance which attracts anyone that visits the site hence they will be able to read through what is contained in the site.it is…… [Read More]
V. Implementation of Multicultural Diversity and Classroom Harmony Creation
Classroom harmony should be relatively easy for the teacher of geography to create since the entire focus of the study of geography are places and locations throughout the world and certainly this is a study subject endlessly graced by potential subjects that have the potential to create understanding and harmony in the classroom.
II. Key Example of How Teaching Subject May be Facilitated
A key example of how teaching geography can be used in facilitation of cultural diversity is the study of world cultures in combination with world locations. For instance, teaching geography on the Western world and specifically on the United States can involve the sharing of knowledge of the many and diverse cultures that together represent the demographics of the United State. Included are African-Americans, native Indians and of many various tribal lineage, as well as the European Caucasian…… [Read More]
The objective of this study is to describe the cultural understanding held of ethnocultural privilege in this society and how this has been observed in relation to oneself and others ands to answer how one holds privilege and what has been observed regarding others who are holders of ethnocultural privilege.
Ethnocultural Privilege Defined
Ethnocultural privilege is a privilege that the individual derives from belonging to a specific ethnic cultural group. This privilege is related in the work of Noel (2010) who states "I must face directly the privilege that my Whiteness, as well as my class and educational level, give me, and must realize the community members are also working though how they see me."
When Equal is Not Always Equal
Parsons (2001) relates that while socioeconomically disadvantages and socioeconomically advantages students, Anglo students and students of color, male students, and female student may have access to equal…… [Read More]
It is important to recognize the many different areas within adult education, and what type of students these areas attract. Ultimately, for the adult education department to be successful, it must attract a wide variety of students, and keep at least some of those students coming back to continue their education in order to be successful. Adult education serves a vital role in the upper education system, and it serves a diverse amount of people, but in most institutions it also has to support itself if not turn a profit, and that is an important aspect to take into consideration. Therefore, classes must be viable to the institution, but to the student, as well, to keep attracting a wide variety of students into the program.
In addition, diverse students could form a major foundation of the program, and so, it pays to understand these diverse learners so administrators and teaching…… [Read More]
Children who possess this curiosity will become adults that are more fully engaged in their world, and that examine their environment for better alternatives; this is the kind of adult that I would like to see eventually emerging form my continued educational practice.
While I see educators more as guides than as authoritarian figures, there does need to be a clear hierarchy established between the teacher and the learner. This does not have to be strictly and explicitly defined, but rather should come more easily from the tone with which the classroom is run and how conflicts are handled when they arise (Gordon & Burch 2003). Simply guiding rather than directly instructing works until it doesn't, in other words, and once that point is reached instructions need to be followed. Even such instances are part of the educational process when it comes to building critical thinkers and careful…… [Read More]
Education in the Community
A major issue currently effecting culture, population, and demographics is that of wealth inequality. As the global economic downturn continues throughout the world, wealth disparity is increasing rapidly. This affects culture, population, and overall demographics in a litany of ways. First, due primarily to lower wages, families are postponing child birth. The uncertainty surrounding the future creates an atmosphere of fear. Families are now waiting until the economic climate becomes more certain before they have their children. Furthermore, the median income for middle class families has plummeted within the last 3 years. The median income for the average American household was roughly $51,000 in 2008. Now the median income is roughly $48,000. This creates problems as families are less apt to spend money are discretionary activities that form the basis of their culture. Holiday spending, for example has yet to reach its 2007 heights. Families are…… [Read More]
7. Must be a good team player.
Looking at the above list, it is apparent that aside from basic OMA knowledge, two competency areas are particularly important in entry-level positions: personal qualities and human relations skills. Personal qualities include characteristics like flexibility, maturity, outgoing and pleasant personality, and strong skills in communication, organization, time management, multitasking, problem solving, and critical analysis. In the category of human relations, multicultural sensitivity, teamwork, and active listening are deemed important.
Slide # 6. The Issues We Face (Common Issues in Multicultural Affairs)
Professionals within multicultural affairs are faced with various issues that fall categorically in the areas of racial identity, and ethnicity, LGBT, religion, and student disability ("Bias incidents," n.d., para. 1; Flowers, L, 2003, Contents, Section 2). Issues that permeate all categories include, harassment, bias incidents and hate crimes.
1. acial Identity and Ethnicity -- culture clashes, racial tension, bias incidents
2. Lesbian,…… [Read More]
Maketing to a multicultual audience -- Stabucks and McDonald's
All businesses today must be multicultual to some extent (Makgosa 2012). The Intenet has opened up new potals to multicultual, multinational consume audiences. Moe foeign nationals in developing nations aspie to imitate the Ameican, consumeist life they see potayed in the moden media. Ameica itself is gowing inceasingly divese, which demands a moe caefully-segmented appoach to maketing. Howeve, this ceates a poblem fo global businesses such as Stabucks and McDonald's. On one hand, the coe foundation of thei business is based upon maketing a paticula type of lifestyle, a lifestyle gounded in an image ooted in Ameicana (o in the case of Stabucks, a vey Ameican vision of a Euopean cafe). The coe poblem of today's multicultual maketing is that changes must be made to addess an inceasingly divese audience: an audience which demands moe than mee tokenism o…… [Read More]
MULTICULTUAL CHILDEN'S BOOKS -- AN ANALYSIS
Multicultural Children's Books -- an Analysis
Multicultural Children's Books -- an Analysis
Children's literature more accurately reflects the many histories that construct nations such as the United States. The perspectives of children's books should be included read for this week's session for continued analysis and interpretation. Multicultural perspectives were excluded in the past for several reasons. One reason is that the cultural perspective that had the most value and was valued at all, was the white American male perspective. This is the perspective of the colonizer. It is typically those who colonize that write the history books and decide which stories are told (and how), and which stories are excluded from memory. The book of focus for the purposes of this paper is Cheyenne Again, about a young Native American boy who is taken from his tribal lands and culture, and very much…… [Read More]
CROSSING COLOR ARRIERS
Ethical and Legal Concerns
Section I of the ACA (2014) Code of Ethics on Resolving Ethical Issues mandates professional counselors to behave ethically and to obey the law. They are fully aware that client welfare and the trust enjoyed by their profession entirely depend on a high level of professional conduct on their part. They adhere faithfully to the ACA Code of Ethics and other applicable codes. They base their solution to an ethical issue or dilemma on the Code, consultation, relevant ethical standards, principles and laws. In cases when ethical responsibilities conflict with established laws, regulations and/or other governing legal authority and no solution is achieved, they may choose to yield to the requirements of these legal authorities (ACA).
Section .1.c. On Respect for Confidentiality obliges counselors to guard all confidential information of both current and future clients (ACA, 2014). They reveal specific information…… [Read More]
http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading-the-international-agenda/education-for-sustainable-development/cultural-diversity / (UNESCO)
This is information about cultural diversity in education, particularly in education for sustainable development found on UNESCO's website. UNESCO is the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and I found the information about education on their website particularly interesting because it addresses education in a global, multicultural environment.
The first important aspect on their website is the institutional framework in which the educational segment operates at UNESCO, which particularly reflects cultural diversity. This is the Johannesburg Declaration, from 2002, which stipulates that "Our rich diversity . . . is our collective strength." Moving from this declaration, it proposes three general principles that link ESD to cultural diversity. These include the fact that the educational process (ESD, as UNESCO refers to it) has to be "locally relevant and culturally appropriate," but also that ESD requires "intercultural understanding."
According to UNESCO, the educational process has…… [Read More]
Education / Unit Plan Review
The goals for the unit incorporate students' understanding about states in the U.S. In terms of multiculturalism. They will demonstrate their knowledge through listening, speaking, reading and writing activities. Students will gain an understanding of different cultures and customs, how they relate to one another, and how the students themselves have a personal identity as members of particular communities. Students conduct research and complete assignments; they will also be encouraged to form their own opinions and empowered to take charge of their own learning with self-monitoring tools.
The teacher can consider the unit successful when students demonstrate engagement in the lessons and produce quality work that results from both interest and understanding. The rubrics and checklists provide students with clear expectations. They know exactly what they are supposed to do and how to do it. If there are many questions about procedures or expected outcomes…… [Read More]
Multicultural Counseling Competency
The development of American society as a multicultural society in the recent years resulted from the numerous incidences of diaspora and migration among individuals who belong to various cultures and societies all over the world. At present, the United States is host country to peoples of various race, ethnicity, worldviews, as well as social class, which include Europeans, Asians, Africans, Hispanic, and Native Americans. The diversity of American society thus necessitates an awareness of the cultural differences among these groups to further understand and tolerate these differences as each group interacts with the other and the whole of American society.
Understanding cultural diversity is indeed imperative for the counselor, who faces the challenge to provide efficient mental health service for an individual who may belong to a culturally-different group other than the white Americans. The hybridization of American society serves as a challenge for multicultural counseling to…… [Read More]
Qualifying for professional certifications should be sought. All of these are ways the counselor can ensure that he or she has sound attitudes and abilities for making good judgments on ethical and multicultural questions.
There are growing resources of culturally-sensitive educational material for use by counselors. It is left to the counselor to pursue this crucial extra dimension on their own, stemming from personal dedication to the professional task. The practitioner must always seek to improve skills and understanding without simply relying on mandates from external organizations. There is a need for continuing education to make sure one is aware of new scientific and professional information and procedures of value to specific client population worked with (e.g., Mexican or Chinese populations). It is crucial to seek out communication with counselors who have greater experience and may help with advice. Also one must consult with counselors whose social and cultural backgrounds…… [Read More]
Multicultural Matrix and Analysis
Multicultural Matrix and Analysis Worksheet
Select and identify six groups in the left-hand column. Complete the matrix.
Write a summary.
Format references consistent with APA guidelines.
What is the group's history in the United States?
What is the group's population in the United States?
What are some attitudes and customs people of this group may practice?
What is something you admire about this group's people, lifestyle, or society?
The Sioux is a group of Native American tribes, related by language, that were based in the Great Plains. In the 1800s, westward expansion and white settlement led the U.S. government to by force remove the Sioux from their native lands onto reservations. Anger over these removals and poor treatment by the federal government ultimately boiled over into armed confrontation, which ended in the Great Sioux War of 1876-77 and the…… [Read More]
The presenting issues evidenced by the client include self-identity and self-esteem issues. In particular the client appears to be confused about which culture she belongs to and which values and behaviors are 'acceptable.' The client may be described as having a 'dual identity' which she is attempting to reconcile to the point where she can be comfortable both with her American home and her traditional Chinese traditional family.
The subject is having difficulty blending her Asian background with her American surroundings. In addition the patient is having a hard time reconciling the very detached manner in which she was raised, that did not allow close bonds to form between her and her dad and mother. There is evidence to suggest that Sally was to some extent physically abused by her mother, and while she presents a rather submissive attitude at home, the person she presents to…… [Read More]
The U.S.A. is known to be a host of people from varied origins like German, Scottish, Italian, Africans and so on hence the mixture of many cultures. This is the same phenomenon with South Africa as portrayed in the novel. There are the Africans, Irish, Dutch (Boers) and the English people among others (Stanford University, n.d).
The two countries also have a shared history of the segregation culture that saw one group of people given lesser preference on the major issues like governance and access to basic amenities. The societal stratification existed within the U.S.A. with the whites presumed to be superior to the rest of the Americans, and the same thing is portrayed in the novel where the whites held higher class than the rest. They were feared as they held the major offices and wealth yet the Africans there were despised, economically down and living in slums by…… [Read More]
They say that east or west home is best am sure everyone can attest to this statement. However circumstances force us to move from our own native land so as to seek some sort of "better life" in a new and strange land. This can pose as a great challenge to the person when it comes to settling in the new strange land. There are however various situations that have been seen where a person easily fits into the new setting ease. This is attributed to the fact that the person possesses some various personal strengths that will enable the person to easily fit and therefore do well both socially and economically.
All these three to be discussed characters have their own strengths that will enable them to survive and do well in the new social setting.
The first character is good at Overcoming a challenges. Being in…… [Read More]
The conflict between Sara and her father mirrors that of Ana and her mother. Reb and Carmen both try to control and manipulate their daughters by appealing to traditional cultural values. Gender is at the heart of their struggle, as gender norms are critical to their old-fashioned worldviews. Interestingly, there are traditionalists in both Bread Givers and in Real Women Have Curves who retain their ethnic identities while promoting gender equality. For example, Ana's grandfather relays a tale about a treasure-filled mountain in Mexico. He tells the tale to a captivated Ana before telling her that he wants Ana to "find her gold" too. Ana's father and grandfather support her academic achievements and want her to take advantage of the scholarship. In Bread Givers, Sara meets another traditional Polish-American. Although Hugo is not Jewish, he and Sara bond over their cultural identity and prove that ethnic pride does not need…… [Read More]
Education and acism
There are many controversial issues related to education and racism, none the least of which is identifying the relationship between racism and student achievement (Constantine, 2002). The aim of this paper will be an examination of what attitudes and beliefs impact a students ability to achieve and succeed in the classroom, as well as an examination of what methods must be adopted to combat racism effectively in the classroom.
acism is an important topic to examine, particularly as more and more school systems within the United States are becoming racially and ethnically diverse (Constantine, 2002). Many teachers, school counselors and even students often feel unequipped to address the needs of students that come from diverse cultural backgrounds (Constantine, 2002). Conflict and chaos in the classroom often results when the needs of racially and ethnically diverse students are ignored.
One critical factor relating to the controversy surrounding racism…… [Read More]
We went in assuming we would be rather homogenous and then found that the dynamic of the group could have broken down as a virtue of differences. Once those differences were noted by myself, the group leader the task became essentially easier, as more time working in the collective was sought by the group and as an individualist, simply had to adapt to this idea and allow for this time.
Within the works of Charles Handy there is also a message that influenced my thinking on this project and its dynamic and communication strategies. Handy stresses that the application of political ideas to company management is inevitable and in particular he stresses that federalism is the concept most likely to be utilized to demonstrate company structure and change. Not only did find this to be true regarding the materials gathered in the project context, HP, but also in the collective…… [Read More]
"The 'White' race was obeying the 'divine command, to subdue and replenish the earth,' as it searched for new and distant lands."
They were proud of their progress.
They believed they were bringing civilization to races and people who would otherwise be primitive heathens. If they couldn't convert them, they killed them. They were destroying "savagery." Houses replaced wigwams. White women replaced Indian squaws. And all of it was done in the name of God. They were really doing it for money, but rationalized the evil of it by calling it progress. This attitude, that whites were a civilizing influence, extended toward the yellow races also.
A chose this section because it is another example of how capitalism lacks a social conscience. The Chinese were brought here for cheap labor and were exploited for profits.
To paraphrase: Annexing California led to bringing Asian workers here to build a transcontinental railroad.…… [Read More]
Culture is commonly understood as a set of shared beliefs, values, goals and other such common ideas practiced by a group. It is an integration of art, architecture, language, food, music, lifestyle, religion and other such facets which are the defining feature of every culture. Amongst the several varying cultures of the world, this paper would focus on the Japanese culture thereby highlighting its practices and also linking it with the traditional psychological theories.
The Japanese culture is a complex system which is seen to go through a number of transformations. The initial establishment had an influence from the Chinese and Korean practices. As a matter of fact, it was the military that actually ruled the country. However, apart from going through several military conquests, instabilities and isolation, the Japanese culture took a new turn under the influence of the Western presence ultimately making Japan the…… [Read More]
However, including progress reports that are not valued (no a and B. Or percentage grades) allow parents to follow a child's learning (assermann 386). This breaks the cycle of rewarding or admonishing children for subjects that may naturally be easy or difficult. Instead of creating situations that may lead to learning-related anxiety, progress reports give parents information while children continue along a natural learning process.
In the case of teachers, those who enjoy traditional structure may find an open style daunting and initially chaotic. However, giving it a chance may be in their best interest. Many of the common struggles that cause burnout in teachers (again, these include behavioral problems, student apathy, etc.) are lessened in the open classroom. Hertzog reports that many teachers are less stressed by this method (530). Additionally, Dunn reports that teachers often regain their occupational focus because for the first time they feel that children…… [Read More]
Multicultural Theories of Psychology
Multicultural Theories of Psychotherapy
Diagnosis, treatment and care of patient and their conditions are greatly influenced by cultural considerations. These actors determine beliefs and values related to health. Yet, these widespread claims about the real value of cultural role in healthcare do not come with sufficient research basis. Psychotherapists have, for a long time emphasized the need to provide multicultural psychotherapy so as to manage and reduce the ethnic and racial disparities in dealing with mental health issues. How multicultural competencies relate with other clinical process measures and treatment results has demonstrated heterogeneity it effect, though (Karen W. Tao & Jesse Owen, 2015). A famous quote by Slavoj Zizek on multi-culturalism deserves a mention here. "For the multiculturalist, white Anglo-Saxon Protestants are prohibited, Italians and Irish get a little respect, blacks are good, native Americans are even better. The further away we go, the more they…… [Read More]
According to the American Psychological Association (APA), multicultural psychology allows us to identify and respond to different needs for particular individuals and groups historically marginalized or disenfranchised within and by psychology based on their ethnic/racial heritage and social group identity or membership.
What is the significance of multicultural psychology?
The impact of multicultural psychology is huge. It helps us to stop attempting to apply a one-size fit all blanket solution to the challenges and ills we face in society. It allows us to understand that cultural differences actually can and do make a difference in how individuals perceive and respond to information and events. We can no longer make the easy assumption that we all think and behave identically; it forces us to have a deeper understanding and a greater appreciation for gender, cultural, class, racial and ethnic differences. The study of multicultural psychology opens our eyes, allowing us to…… [Read More]
Outsourced employees should be limited to filling non-critical areas of need. They should be used to alleviate the load on regular employees, rather than to replace them. They will fill in non-essential positions, leaving full-time employees to fill the more sensitive security roles.
Strategic planning will be an ongoing process, rather than a single event that is a part of the initial phases of the process. Security issues are constantly emerging and evolving. In order to remain an effective deterrent to harm, one must stay informed and keep one's staff informed of the changes that occur. An informed staff will be the most effective in spotting and reporting threats before they become problematic. The strategic security plan will be one of continuous monitoring and improvement. Security audits will be a part of this strategic planning cycle. Training and regular staff briefing will round out the security planning sessions.
Leadership…… [Read More]
cultural bias and/or culturally appropriate interventions.
Burnett, J.A., Hamel, D., & Long, L.L. (2004). Service learning in graduate counselor education: Developing multicultural counseling competency. Journal of Multicultural
Counseling and Development, 32(3), 180-191.
Even the most enthusiastic counseling students are initially limited by their cultural worldview. This article examines ways to enhance the education of graduate students in the field with service-based learning. Service learning integrates classroom learning with community service. The approach merges academic concepts with real-world, hands-on experience early on in the students' career to show the link between theory and practice. Everyone benefits: the student, the persons receiving the service, and the clients of the eventual graduates. The article involves a qualitative study of a single group of students who volunteered at four service agencies serving African-American low-income communities. Although assessing the ultimate effect on the students' practice was not conclusive (the study was not longitudinal…… [Read More]
" And following that experience the class can discuss what acid rain does to the ecosystem and the teacher can show a video of a forest devastated by acid rain, or just photos of depleted forests and dead fish floating on a stream or lake (waters that have been polluted by acid rain).
About this time, students are asked: "here does the acid rain come from?" Let them guess, and talk about it. Then the teacher shows photos of smokestacks belching out clouds of brown sooty looking pollution and explain that once in the atmosphere, the pollutants (they don't need to know the science of precisely what chemicals bond with condensation but they could certainly relate to dirty polluted particles joining with raindrops) return to earth as acid rain. And as an additional part of this curriculum, students should be shown the various products that are produced in the factories…… [Read More]
This emphasis will build culturally sensitive curriculum. (Oakes, Quartz, yan & Lipton, 2000, p. 77) Though the importance of cultural identity, and even the dreaded sources of nationalism, such as independent cultural identity and linguistic heritage must not be ignored in an attempt to universalize education. With some of the world's most influential organizations in a serious bid to establish universal education the goals of the economists may be essentially answered, but educators must take care to make sure that universalization does not include an element of whitewashing that reduces the importance of individual cultural/linguistic heritage.
A directly related to the world's economic needs. Education and the global economy are envisioned as having an interdependent relationship. Competition in the global economy is dependent on the quality of education, whereas the goals of education are dependent on the economy. Under these circumstances, education changes as the requirements of the economy change.…… [Read More]
Klotz 266) the standards of the system have had to rely on standardized accountability curriculum to attempt to make this cooperative concept work. The difficulties are also answered with community emphasis on technology and social growth as well a community involvement in schools and district affairs.
In one of the most poignant addresses to congress, in this case Montana, one of the congressmen demonstrate the fight, in every state for the development of quality schools for Native Americans.
If there is to be a solution to the Indian problem in this country, it will only come about when our educational system provides the knowledge... needed to understand and respect the cultural differences between us and the state helps to preserve and protect their cultural integrity. This is a matter of pride. All of us are proud of our heritage... because we know about our history, our culture and our integrity....Are…… [Read More]