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The Metropolitan eport
In 1996, Metropolitan Life Insurance Company produced a series of reports " to bring the opinions of teachers, students and parents to the attention of educators, policymakers and the American public." The fourth report in the series, the Metropolitan Life Survey of the American Teacher 1996: Students Voice Their Opinions on Learning About Multiculturalism,."..assessed students' opinions and interests in learning about multicultural topics." Lou Harris and Associates conducted the nationwide survey. Public school students in grades 7-12 were asked about (1) the availability of multicultural courses, (2) their interest in taking multicultural courses, and (3) the effectiveness of lessons being taught.
The results of the findings were as follows:
Sixty one percent."..of students say their schools offer classes on multiculturalism" (defined in the survey question as."..the history and culture of people who came to the U.S. from different parts of the world, such as Asia, India, Africa…
Banks and Banks. (2004).Multicultural Education. Learning Point Associations, Naperville, Illinois: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.
Burnett, Gary. (1994) Varieties of multicultural education: an introduction. ERIC Digest 98. Jun 1994. ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education New York NY.
Clark, William a. And Morrison, Peter a. (2003). Mirroring the mosaic: redistricting in a context of cultural pluralism. New York: RAND Corporation publication.
Coballes-Vega, Carmen. (1992). Considerations in teaching culturally diverse children. ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher Education, Washington D.C.
Multicultural Education and Communication Issue
The concept of multiculturalism refers to the cultural diversity with a given society. In other word, multiculturalism is a policy that promotes diversity as well as institutionalism at an organizational level such as schools, businesses, cities and nations. However, Gary (1994) defines multicultural education as "any set of processes by which schools work with rather than against oppressed groups." (p 1). Multiculturalism education can be defined "as a movement towards providing equal educational opportunities for everyone from different cultural, ethnic, or religious backgrounds." (Celik, 2013 p 1). The propagation of multicultural education started as far back as 1960 during the civil right movements in order to implement a "long standing corrective de facto policy of assimilating minority group into the "melting pot" of dominant American culture" (Gary, 1994 p 1). The assumption towards multicultural education is that American schools should be designed towards cultural enrichments…
Banks, J.A. (1994). An introduction to multicultural education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Banks, J.A. (2004). Multicultural education: Historical development, dimensions, and practices. In J.A. Banks & C.A. McGee Banks (Eds.), Handbook of research on multicultural education (2nd ed., pp. 3 -- 29). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Banks, J.A. (2006). Cultural diversity and education (5th Ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Celik, R.(2013). A History of Multicultural Education in the U.S.A.: Origins, Approaches, and Misconceptions. The Online Journal of New Horizons in Education. 2(4).
On the other hand, Bennett's model has also inspired me to learn more about cultures other than my own, as well as how to be more culturally sensitive. This helps me in terms of mediating between teachers, students, and parents, many of whom are still burdened by prejudice, even if this is benign and not necessarily known to the individuals involved. I have learned to handle this in a subtle rather than overt way, by guiding them towards a better understanding when interacting with each other.
Finally, Nieto's article provided me with some startling facts; although I am aware of the segregation issue in schools, and that it is far from over, I was not aware of the countrywide extent of this, and indeed that there was a backward movement towards segregation during the 1990s. Whereas the other two articles were considerably positive in terms of addressing segregation in a…
Bennett, Milton J. (1993). A Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity. Retrieved from http://www.library.wisc.edu/EDVRC/docs/public/pdfs/SEEDReadings/intCulSens.pdf
Gorski, P.C. (2010). The Challenge of Defining "Multicultural Education." Retrieved from http://www.edchange.org/ multicultural/initial.html
Nieto, S.M. (2003, Dec/Jan). Profoundly Multicultural Questions. Educational Leadership, Vol. 60, Iss. 4. Retrieved from http://www.sonoma.edu/users/p/pollack/edu420/Profoundly%20Multicultural%20Questions.pdf
The fundamentalist White orientation is one often accounted for and met in everyday life, as well as in the education process. We need not refer to extremist and violent groups, but to the uniformed category with which Howard himself identifies for much of his teenage years, up to the college period. Just as he hadn't met a person who wasn't white until then, similarly we may tend to believe that stating the fact that color makes no difference to us is enough to surpass the fact that we indeed have "a mask of dominance" which we unconsciously wear. In this case, we deny the fact that there are racial differences and would rather follow the line "we are all the same," that is a rejection of diversity rather than understanding it.
The integrationist White orientation believes that a condescending approach is right when approaching racial problems. Howard himself identifies with…
1. Howard, Gary. "We Can't Teach What We Don't Know: White Teachers, Multicultural Schools." New York Teachers College Press. 1999
2. Howard, Gary. How we are white. Southern Poverty Law Journal, Teaching Tolerance. On the Internet at http://www.enidlee.com/white.htm
3. Review of the book on the Internet at http://halleducation.com/store/books_080773800X_We-Can't-Teach-What-We-Don't-Know-White-Teachers-Multiracial-Schools-Multicultural-Education-Series-New-York-N.Y...html
4. Howard, R. Gary. White Americans in a Multicultural Society: Re-thinking Our Role. Greater Rochester Diversity Council. 1993. Adapted from "Whites in Multicultural Education: Rethinking
New York City Multicultural Education
Multi-Cultural Education in New York City
Aspirations to be an educator, a teacher in the diversity of the New York City Schools must realize that considerations are school-wide focused on setting out and maintaining as well as assessing effective applications in the administering, educating and teaching methods in a multicultural setting.
New York City is a place full of diversity and is in fact the home to Ellis Island, Lady Liberty whose arms have taken in all ethnic and cultural representations of the rainbow into her harbor throughout the last 228 years and yet it has not changed. The responsibilities and considerations in educating the Americans of today in New York City grows were more ethnically and culturally diverse as the world becomes smaller and smaller.
ench-marks in New York City Schools:
There are eight cultural benchmarks inclusive in multicultural schools that are…
Banks, C.A.M. (1997). Parents and teachers: Partners in school reform. In J.A. Banks & C.A.M. Banks (Eds.), Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives (3rd ed.), (pp. 408-426). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Banks, J.A. (1997). Teaching Strategies for Ethnic
Studies (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Banks, J.A. (1999). An Introduction to Multicultural Education (2nd ed.) Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
No Child Left Behind Act will affect multicultural education.
Review current reference material.
The No Child Left Behind Act will provide unprecedented changes in the K-12 educational system that will allow all school age children to benefit from the various educational programs available. Children will be provided with a multicultural education that will improve the quality of education overall for children across the country.
On January 8, 2002, President Bush enacted the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, which was the most comprehensive educational reform act since 1965. The act redefines the federal government's role in K-12 education and will help close the performance gap that currently exists between disadvantaged and minority children and their peers.
The Act provides the framework for improving the performance of America's elementary and secondary schools while providing guidelines for ensuring that no child is trapped in a failing school that does not meet…
http://www.ed.gov .U.S. Department of Education. Executive Summary of No Child Left Behind Act. July, 2002
The purpose of this article is to show how complex multicultural education is. There is much to be learned from studying this, and the roots of it really need to involve a multidisciplinary approach. Without this approach, the goal of multicultural education is never actually realized. Having a framework that can be used to create concepts in this area helps to show that there are many different genres that the research into this area can be involved in, and they all important.
Bennett's main goal in her article is to show that there are many different ways to prepare these types of programs and figure out how best to teach students. Sometimes just rearranging a program that is already in existence is the best idea. Other times, it is necessary to design completely new programs that will do the job as intended. Having an article such as this…
multicultural education exists in my school due to the nature of the demographics that attend the school. The faculty and administration appear all to vary in different cultures as well making the environment very diverse and of a varied background. The school itself is located in one of the most diverse areas in the world in Brooklyn NY. New York city is a cultural melting pot that changes all the time. The proximity of this school to all of the constant cultural development ensures that my school is multicultural.
For some it may seem unique and very strange to have a middle school composed of mostly Chinese Russian and Hispanics students. The faculty is mostly white with other blacks and Hispanics as well. There is a good mixture of culture that resonates in the student's modes of communication, style of dress and physical features. There are also many subtleties in…
multicultural education regarding sensitivity to ethnic and racial differences: "psychologists are encouraged to be aware of their attitudes and work to increase their contact with members of other racial/ethnic groups, building trust in others and increasing their tolerance for others" (Guidelines, APA, 2013: 8). The practice of psychology requires a sense of acute self-awareness. The psychologist cannot necessarily assume that he or she is innately unbiased, given that simply being a part of a specific cultural worldview of any kind carries with it some inherent biases. Psychologists have a responsibility to engage in "efforts to change their attitudes and biases help to prevent those attitudes from detrimentally affecting their relationships with students, research subjects and clients who are racially/ethnically different from them" (Guidelines, APA, 2013: 8).
This sense of acute self-awareness is intimately related to the specialty guidelines issued by the APLS for forensic psychologists, including those related to impartiality…
Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. (2013). APA. Retrieved:
American Psychology-Law Society: Specialty guidelines for forensic psychologists. (2013).
APLS. Retrieved: http://www.ap-ls.org/aboutpsychlaw/SpecialtyGuidelines.php
Multiculturalism in School Curriculm
Over 140 years ago, Lord Acton envisioned an America where each child would be treated equally and there would be no discrimination or major differences in class due to race and culture. Unfortunately, he saw the future incorrectly.
According to Changing America, A Report of the Council of Economic Advisors, "the population of the United States continues to grow increasingly diverse." Hispanics and minority racial groups -- defined as racial and ethnic groups that make up less than 50% of the population and include non-Hispanic blacks, Asians and American Indians have grown faster than the population as a whole. In 1970, these groups together totaled 16% of the population. This percentage grew to 27 in 1998. Continuing on this trend, by 2005 minorities will account for almost half of the U.S. population.
Sadly, however, despite these changing numbers, racial discrimination continues in the United States. According…
American Civil Liberties Union. "Racial Equality." Website visited 6 May 2003. http://www.aclu.org/RacialEquality/RacialEqualityMain.cfm
Changing America: Indicators of Social and Economic Well-Being by Race and Hispanic Origin. (1998) Washington, DC: Council of Economic Advisors for the President's Initiative on Race.
Kull, Steven. (1994). Fighting Poverty in America: A Study of American Public
Attitudes, Washington, DC: Center for Study of Public Attitudes.
As is stated by Bennett "When teachers accept the goal of developing competencies in multiple systems of standards of perceiving, evaluating, believing and doing, it becomes obvious that knowledge about multiple dialects and languages is part of becoming educated" (p. 297).
While neither educators nor parents can magically erase all cultural and ethnic barriers and inequities, any more than they can resolve all of the communication problems created associated with an increasingly diverse classroom, they can achieve significant results by making a conscious and concerted effort to ensure that every student is treated fairly and in a manner that respects rather than ignores their cultural heritage.
Allen, S.F. & Tracy, E.M. (2004) evitalizing the role of home visiting by school social workers. Children and Schools, 26, 197-208
Baker, M.L., Sigmon, J.N., & Nugent, M.E. (2001). Truancy reduction: Keeping students in school. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, 1-14
Bennett, C. (1995). Comprehensive…
Allen, S.F. & Tracy, E.M. (2004) Revitalizing the role of home visiting by school social workers. Children and Schools, 26, 197-208
Baker, M.L., Sigmon, J.N., & Nugent, M.E. (2001). Truancy reduction: Keeping students in school. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, 1-14
Bennett, C. (1995). Comprehensive multicultural education: Theory and practice (3rd ed.). Massachusetts: Allen & Bacon
Goodman, J.F., (1998, December) Moral descriptors and the assessment of children, Journal of Moral Education 27, 475-487
Using Power Point: Understanding Diversity answer the below questions
How could prejudice affect a person's ability to learn and work?
Prejudice could affect the person's self-esteem and self-confidence. Teachers and peers might treat the student differently than they would without the prejudice, even if the prejudice is "positive," such as prejudice toward Asian students in a math class. Prejudice might impede a person's ability to learn and work, because it impacts the reactions of both teachers and students.
How important is the issue of diversity in your daily life?
Diversity is hugely important in my daily life. I do not like being in homogeneous places, because they are not reflective of the world at large. The world is diverse, filled with people with differing points-of-view and backgrounds. My views and outlooks change when I interact with different people, and I like that diversity makes me think more critically and…
A group that is, by its very nature, mentally defective, will also easily be viewed as incapable of supporting itself without help - a strain on the larger society. In terms of modern day American society, this could be seen as declaring that African-Americans, and other similarly impoverished and marginalized groups, are likely to remain forever within the care of the social welfare system. Believers in such ideas might easily raise the question - why bother with caring for these people at all? More to the point; however, is the question of whether there is really anything wrong with most of these individuals at all? Clearly, a large part of their "mental disabilities" derive from internal and external assumptions about what it means to be African-American, or a member of some similarly tagged minority group. A multicultural approach to the educational process helps to guarantee that all individuals are ranked…
Allen, J., & Hermann-Wilmarth, J. (2004). Cultural Construction Zones. Journal of Teacher Education, 55(3), 214+.
Block, P., Balcazar, F., & Keys, C. (2001). From Pathology to Power: Rethinking Race, Poverty and Disability. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 12(1), 18.
For some, the discussion of multiculturalism is a theoretical one, with little practical application to their day-to-day behavior. Even when people encounter others from different cultures, ethnocentric ideals may prevent them from really understanding how cultural backgrounds impact their interactions. For classroom teachers, however, multiculturalism is much more than a theoretical concept; it is the framework that helps establish how a teacher can create a classroom environment that is beneficial for all of the students in the classroom. However, establishing a multicultural classroom is not a simplistic process. In order to do so, an educator must consider many factors that relate to development in children. Educators must also think about the different family backgrounds of the students. Finally, teachers have to keep in mind that they may direct their classrooms, but they do not completely control them; the teacher has to play an active role in facilitating the…
Australia Government Department of Immigration and Citizenship. (2011). The People of Australia: Australia's Multicultural policy. Retrieved September 11, 2013 from Australian Government website: http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/multicultural/pdf_doc/people-of-australia-multicultural-policy-booklet.pdf
Lo Bianco, J. (2010). Multicultural education in Australia: Evolution, compromise, and contest.
Retrieved September 11, 2013 from International Alliance of Leading Educational Institutes website: http://www.intlalliance.org/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/Conference_2010/NP-AU.pdf
Swetnam, L. (2003). Lessons on multicultural education from Australia and the United States,
One of the best examples of the mentality behind the development of the pedagogy of the oppressed, with regard to education is the evolution of the official restriction of curriculum to that which the African would need to survive in the economy of labor.
A the solutions to the "poor Whites" problem, as was indicated in the Carnegie Commission of Inquiry into Poor Whites in South Africa in 1932, were not bearing the expected fruits of "innate superiority." Thus, Verwoerd emphasized that the African "school must equip him [the African] to meet the demands which the economic life of South Africa will impose on him" (Mbere 1979, 106).The relationship between production and what is learned in schools reproduces unskilled and semiskilled labor power that allows domination and exploitation to occur. According to the CNE policy, Whites were perpetual parents who had to guide their "children," the Africans. This relationship of…
Chokshi, M. Carter, C. Gupta, D. Martin, T. & Allen, R. (1995) "Computers and Apartheid"
Computer Science: 201 Final Project: Stanford University Computer Science Department at: http://www-cs-students.stanford.edu/~cale/cs201/index.html .
Hlatshwayo, S.A. (2000). Education and Independence: Education in South Africa, 1658-1988. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Seidman, G. (1999). IS SOUTH AFRICA DIFFERENT? Sociological Comparisons and Theoretical Contributions from the Land of Apartheid. 419.
what is multicultural literature? What are the characteristics of quality multicultural literature?
Within the latter part of the twentieth century, a pattern referred to as multiculturalism acquired popularity in American education (Almerico et al., 2006). Gay (1994) within an intensive research of the very commonly used meanings of multicultural literature recognized 13 particular explanations involving the idea and mentioned that a number of factors had been typical out of all definitions for the reason that all of them concur that the content material of multicultural literature ought to include:
Cultural pluralism, ethnic identities, unequal division of resources as well as
Opportunities along with other socio and political issues arising from extended track records of oppression
Multicultural education like a school of thought, a strategy for education transformation, along with a collection of particular subject material within just educational courses. (p. 3)
In her own book, Affirming Diversity, Nieto…
Almerica et al. 2006:
The authors in this research carried out a content evaluation of children's literature college books to find out the way the phrase multiculturalism had been interpreted within just the perspective of children's literature. They established the way the idea had been outlined, the degree to which various subcultures within the America had been depicted, the quantity of textual content dedicated to every depicted cultural group, and also the quantity of suggested trade books for every group.
• The racial foundation involving the classroom has and also will continue to transform.
People need look no further than their own homes to see the interdependence of world trade; no further than their neighborhoods to see the results of international migration and multiculturalism; no further than the news to see the causes and effects of global economics, ecology and ethnic conflicts. "While domestic debate continues over the nature of these connections, few can doubt their existence. As these connections increase, educators, utilizing a global model, can provide a context that allows students to analyze and understand the impact of world events" (Baker, 1999).
Multiculturalism and globalism are obviously not unique to the United States. The majority of Western societies are racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse. Ethnic revival movements have come up in a lot of countries including quite a few Western European nations (Banks & Lynch, 1986). This type of revival movement occurs when an ethnic group organizes efforts to attain equality inside…
Baker, F.J. (1999). Multicultural vs. global education: Why not two sides of the same coin? Retrieved from http://www.csupomona.edu/~jis/1999/baker.pdf
Cooper, G. (1995). Freire and theology. Studies in the Education of Adults, 27(1), 66.
Global education. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.glob-edu.net/en/global-education/
Global education guidelines. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/nscentre/ge/GE-Guidelines/GEguidelines-web.pdf
3. Hispanic, White Communities Forge Ties in Alabama (2003) a UA Center for Public Television and Radi9o Production. Online available at:
4. McDade, Sharon a. (2002) Definition of a Case Study. Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning - North Carolina State. Online available at http://www.ncsu.Edu/fctl/Programs/Instructional- Development/Teaching _Materials / CaseStudies/Materials / Case studyDefintion.pdf# search =%22 CASE%20STUDY % 3A%20DEFINIT ION%20OF %22.
5. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
6. English Language Development and Multicultural Education (2005) University of Alabama. Berkeley University Online available at http://crede.berkeley.edu/tools/directory2-/PDF/esl.pdf#search=%22Alabama%3A%20Elementary%20ESL%20SERVICES%22.
7. English as a Second Language (ESL) (2004) Baldwin County Public Schools; Bay Minette, Alabama. Online available at http://www.bcbe.org/Default.asp?DivisionID='824'&DepartmentID='958'.
8. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
9. Alabama (2006) KYTESOL Newsletter Vol.…
11. Alabama: Featured Facts (2005) From the SREB Factbook on Higher Education. Online available at http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:Mb3MWbM-0b4J:www.sreb.org/main/EdData/FactBook/2005StateReports/Alabama05.pdf+Alabama+Hispanic+education&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=6
12. Alabama Education Policy Primer: Chapter 2 Achievement (2005) Education Foundation - Online available at; http://www.aplusala.org/primer/ch2.asp
Education for Hispanic Students in the Elementary Schools of Alabama
An Analysis of the book "Life in Schools" by Peter McLaren
Peter McLaren is a well-known proponent for enforcing social reform and teaching and discussing about new issues in education and critical theory, which is the critical pedagogy and multicultural education. His extensive works regarding the study of critical pedagogy has already made him popular and well received by students, scholars, and readers who are in line of thinking with Paulo Freire, one of the most famous educational thinkers who revolutionized the way scholars treat the problem of education in the contemporary American society. The book "Life in Schools: An Introduction to Critical Pedagogy in the Foundation of Education," (4th edition), published by Allyn & Bacon, is a reflection of McLaren's belief about the radical change the educational system needed, and the social reform the educational system needs in order relieve the poor, 'oppressed' people from suffering the commercialization…
Multicultural Counseling Competency
A counselor's knowledge, awareness, and skills concerning multicultural differences can have a significant impact on their ability to provide quality care (Penn and Post, 2012, p. 14-17). These multicultural competencies have therefore been recognized by counseling scholars as increasingly important, especially since American society is becoming more ethnically diverse. A recent study examined multicultural competencies among play therapists and found self-perceptions of competency to be independent of training. More recently, Penn and Post (2012) expanded on this finding by attempting to identify the factors that influence a play therapist's perceptions of their multicultural competency.
Penn and Post (2012) surveyed 510 members of the Association of Play Therapy to assess self-reported levels of multicultural competency, then compared these self-reports to records of multicultural training. The first set of findings revealed self-reported multicultural knowledge was inversely correlated with ignorance about the racial issues that minorities face. The second…
Penn, Saundra L. And Post, Phyllis B. (2012). Investigating various dimensions of play therapists' self-reported multicultural counseling competence. International Journal of Play Therapy, 21(1), 14-29.
Doing activities like making pinatas are fun and instructive and offer relaxed opportunities to discuss what they are learning. They will learn some Spanish words and to delve more deeply into what it means culturally to be Mexican, which could lead to an interest in taking Spanish in high school or college some day.
It should not be ignored that students will get an opportunity to broaden their concepts of what culture actually is and also gain insight into the fact that all cultures celebrate holidays that commemorate important aspects of community life and history. The holiday itself and specifically how it is celebrated is interesting and broadening, but even more important is its reason for being and the events that led to its becoming a holiday.
One of the most difficult things to understand about another culture is its values and the reasoning behind them. The students will be…
Bowman, B. (1994). Cultural diversity and academic achievement. From Urban Education Monography Series, Chicago: NCREL.
Fogelman, E. (1995). Conscience and courage. New York: Anchor.
Hanley, M.S. (2002). The scope of multicultural education. From New Horizons for Learning. Seattle: New Horizons for Learning.
Hilliard, A. & Pine, G. (1990). Rx for racism: Imperatives for America's schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 593-600.
" (Geographia) Such a country, therefore, can probably teach the world a valuable lesson on how to achieve unity within diversity. for, after all, it appears that India is a country, which has developed multicultural competence. Thus, I would be interested in understanding how an Indian manages to strike a balance between a national Indian identity and an independent cultural identity.
I am particularly interested in India's management of its cultural diversity because I believe that the development of multicultural competence is going to be a crucial skill in today's increasingly globalized world. In fact, this skill is important from both a career as well as social justice point-of-view: "A multiculturally competent person is aware of and knowledgeable about cultural differences, their own cultural identity, and the history and struggles of marginalized groups. They balance this awareness and knowledge with continuous empathy and curiosity. They also examine how social context,…
Geographia. "India." Accessed Nov. 27, 2004: http://www.geographia.com/india/
Morales, a.H. "Multicultural Education & Human Relations." Accessed Nov. 27, 2004: http://www.soemadison.wisc.edu/eas/multicultural/multiculturaled-101.htm
The Quotations Page. Accessed Nov. 27, 2004:
Only the radically new perspectives offered by social justice theorists can help create a more egalitarian society. Generalizing about how diversity factors influence student learning becomes not only unnecessary but also harmful. Race is not a biological reality, instead it is a social construct (Baily & Cervero). The color-blind and multicultural perspectives are still widely practiced in adult education. Unfortunately outmoded, those theories generalize the experience of all non-white groups as being Other and therefore inferior.
Overcoming the current problems in adult education involves deep structural changes to adult education. Discovering and refining the "hidden curriculum" is one of the most important steps educators can take (Baily & Cervero). Critical analysis of educational literature can help foster awareness of how white power and privilege are embedded and reinforced continually. As awareness of how inequity is embedded in the fundamental assumptions of academic discourse dawns on students, they will become self-empowered.…
The following facts have been established with regard to preschoolers' cultural understanding, tolerance, influences and attitudes:
• At the early preschool age, kids begin developing definite attitudes with regard to their own ethnic and racial group, and other ethnic/racial groups.
• Toddlers are able to tell if people they interact with are different from themselves, and by the time they reach preschool, they are easily able to grasp negative stereotypes.
• Caregivers' cultures, views and mindsets are readily adopted by preschoolers. Hence, a caregiver's views of other racial and ethnic groups may shape children's attitudes towards racial/ethnic minorities.
• Early childhood instructors may elicit positive attitudes among preschoolers through getting to know and promoting their pupils' diverse cultures.
• Preschoolers may begin stereotyping other cultures if their elders fail to highlight the similarities among human beings (Teaching with a Multicultural Perspective Article).
An issue underlying the existing emphasis of multicultural…
.. have played a large role in defining how Americans interpret citizenship education, the hallmark of social studies, and in informing notions of what is educationally worthwhile as related to citizenships. Ideological difference has, of course been a recurring theme in textbook censorship battles and curriculum dis8utes over the course of this history " Curriculum is described by Croc o as being "an educational tradition providing 'culturally constituted tools for understanding and reforming the world'. (Crocco, 2003-2004)
IV. Vinz: Competing Versions of How to Educate for Cultural Understanding
The work of Ruth Vinz entitled: "Learning the lues: Transcending Essentialist Readings of Cultural Texts" states: "The history of multicultural curricula is a story of competing versions of how to educate for cultural understanding." Vinz notes that instability of meaning and interpretation are only one difficulty that is inherent in attempting to understand different cultures within the society or the educational institution…
Gary B. Nash (1992) "The Great Multicultural Debate" in Contention (1992) 274
Diane Ravitch, (1990)"Multiculturalism: E. Pluribus Plures," the American Scholar (59, no.3, Summer 1990) 291
Vinz, Ruth (1994) Learning the Blues: Transcending Essentialist Readings of Cultural Texts. Teachers College, Columbia University.
Taking Sides (nd) Part I. Classical Issues in Race and Ethnicity. Online available at (http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:-6YtjadxV38J:www.miedvied.com/3P/Taking%2520Sides.rtf+MULTICULTURAL+CURRICULUM:+Nash+(1992),+Ravitch+(1990)&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=67
Culture and education are inherently linked (Adams, 1992; Gay, 2000, Jones 2004; Wlodkcowski & Ginsberg, 1995 in: Guo and Jamal, 2007) In order to understand impact of diversity in the educational setting, Guo and Jamal write that it appears necessary to "first define some key terms, including culture and cultural diversity. Culture can be defined as a dynamic system of values, beliefs and behaviors that influence how people experience and respond to the world around them. For many, cultural diversity can be referred to as 'distinctions in the lived experiences, and the related perception of and reactions to those experiences that serve to differentiate collective populations from one another." (Marshall, 2002, p. 7)
Culture plays a key role in forming the manner in which students learn and communicate,"…how they relate to other students and instructors, their motivation levels, and their sense of what is worth learning." The extent…
Adams, M. (1992). Cultural inclusion in the American college classroom. In L.L.B. Border & N.V. Chism (Eds.), Teaching for diversity. New Dire
Banks (Eds.), Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives (pp. 229-250). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Banks, C.A.M. (2005). Improving multicultural education: Lessons from the intergroup education movement. New York: Teachers College Press.
Banks, J.A. (1997b). Approaches to multicultural curricular reform. In J.A. Banks & C.A.M.
Furthermore, the nature and types of value, such as morals, aesthetics, religion, and metaphysics are the core focal areas for this study. In other words, this field of study is related to ethics and aesthetics. Since all the human beings are different in terms of their backgrounds, thus they even think differently from one another and axiology is the science that examines and analyzes the thinking patterns of the diverse people (Ornstein, Levine, Gutek & Vocke, 2010).
This hypothetical study of values is also vital in education because it promotes the learning of moral rules, principles, ethics and values; hence it leads the individual to gain knowledge related to the good deeds and actions. With the study of axiology, the individual would become cognizant of what is right and wrong, good or bad, ethical and unethical (Ornstein, Levine, Gutek & Vocke, 2010).
Logic is considered the fourth subdivision of philosophy…
Ornstein, a.C., Levine, D.U., Gutek, G.L., Vocke, D.E. (2010). Foundations of Education, 11th Edition, Cengage Learning, Canada.
Vang (2010). An Educational Psychology of Methods in Multicultural Education, Volume 6 of Educational Psychology, Peter Lang, New York.
Education: Social Foundation
Brown v. The Board of Education (1954) was a landmark ruling that not only marked the beginning of the era of desegregation in the school environment, but also served as a frontal attack on the practice and doctrine of white supremacy in the overall society. Many viewed it as a reprieve for the Black-American community, but as Justice William Douglas revealed in 1971, the de jure segregation ruling in Brown v. Board of Education was more than just a mere reprieve for blacks; it was a direct effort towards integrating the philosophies, policies, and cultures of different communities to make public education accessible to American Indians, Latinos, African-Americans, and Asian-Americans just as it was to whites. As it turns out, however, desegregation of public schools did not even come close to being the one-fits-all solution that many thought would address all the inequality concerns of minorities --…
Benton, M.A. (2001). Challenges African-Americans Face at Predominantly White Institutions. Colorado State University. Retrieved 28 January 2015 from http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/SAHE/JOURNAL2/2001/Challenges.htm
Boland, P. (2013). Catholic Education in the 21st Century. Journal of Catholic Education, 3(4), 508-520.
India Country Today Media Network. (2011). Foundation Helps Native American Students Overcome Education Challenges. India Country Today Media Network. Retrieved 28 January 2015 from http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/11/30/foundation-helps-native-american-students-overcome-education-challenges-65093
Krogstad, J.M. (2012). One in four Native Americans and Alaska Natives are Living in Poverty. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 28 January 2015 from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/06/13/1-in-4-native-americans-and-alaska-natives-are-living-in-poverty/
hat is Multicultural Literacy?
Approaching the subject of multicultural literacy for the first time a student might think it has to do with getting minorities to become literate -- to be able to read and write in English or in their native language. That would be wrong, albeit it is a good goal in terms of bringing all students up to speed in communication skills. hat is important to remember about multicultural literacy is that by the year 2020, an estimated fifty percent of the student population in American public schools will belong "…to an economic, ethnic, racial, religious, and/or social class minority" (Stevens, et al., 2011, p. 32). Teachers and counselors must be fully knowledgeable vis-a-vis the culturally relevant issues that are present when the classroom is diverse, as it clearly is becoming today and will continue to be in the near future as well.
Authors and Artists for Young Adults. (2001). Diego Rivera. Retrieved October 16, 2012,
Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. (2006). W.E.B. Du Bois. Retrieved October 15, 2012, from Gale Biography in Context.
Stevens, Elizabeth Years, and Brown, Rachel. (2011). Lessons Learned from the Holocaust:
Blogging to Teach Critical Multicultural Literacy. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 44(1), 31-51.
Multicultural Resources Report of Internet Sites
Multicultural and diversity issues exist in our day-to-day lives.it is therefore very important to sensitize people and make them aware of these issues and how they can deal with them. The paper is a report on multicultural resources using the internet sites.
Milano, P.J. (1997).The National Forum on People with Differences. Retrieved November 19, 2013 from http://www.yforum.com/
There are so many internet sites that contain information on some aspects of multicultural and diversity issues.one such site is Y? Forum. This is a national forum on people with differences. This site provides a safe place where people candidly discuss tough issues such as stereotypes, racism, religious persecution, gander discrimination, homophobia and other issues pertaining to cultural diversity. This site has an appealing appearance which attracts anyone that visits the site hence they will be able to read through what is contained in the site.it is…
American Counseling Association is another site that contains information on multiculturalism and diversity.it sis easy to navigate through the site as everything is clearly indicated on the webpage. There is an icon for the homepage, knowledge center and browse by topic. Therefore whatever topic one wants to access is easily available.it therefore makes it easy for anyone visiting the site to maneuver and get exactly what they want and they are looking for. There are also some links to social media such as Facebook and twitter on the top most side of the site. This enables one to share the site with other people and hence it becomes very easy for information sharing .there is even an option to join this site and continue learning in the process. This is very good as it will enable those people who join the site to learn and get their questions answered in every possible way (American Counseling Association, 2013).
Curators of the University of Missouri, (2011). Diversity and Multiculturalism. Retrieved November 19, 2013 from http://diversity.missouri.edu/learn/researchers/diversity-multiculturalism.php
This is yet another site that contains information on diversity. There are various diversity researches that are listed on the site with their names, their research description and contact information. This is very useful as it gives one a guideline on the available research that has been conducted on this topic and how it was handled.one also has the access to contact information of those who carried out this research and hence can do a follow-up if they have any questions to be answered. These research topics give the viewers of the site a guideline on the available
V. Implementation of Multicultural Diversity and Classroom Harmony Creation
Classroom harmony should be relatively easy for the teacher of geography to create since the entire focus of the study of geography are places and locations throughout the world and certainly this is a study subject endlessly graced by potential subjects that have the potential to create understanding and harmony in the classroom.
II. Key Example of How Teaching Subject May be Facilitated
A key example of how teaching geography can be used in facilitation of cultural diversity is the study of world cultures in combination with world locations. For instance, teaching geography on the Western world and specifically on the United States can involve the sharing of knowledge of the many and diverse cultures that together represent the demographics of the United State. Included are African-Americans, native Indians and of many various tribal lineage, as well as the European Caucasian…
Clark, Marie and Drudy, Sheelagh (2006) Teaching for Diversity, Social Justice and Global Awareness. European Journal of Teacher Education. Vol. 28, No.3. 3 Aug 2006.
Abu-Saad, Ismael (2004) Separate and Unequal: The Role of the State Educational System in Maintaining the Subordination of Israel's Palestinian Arab Citizens. Social Identities. Vol. 10. No. 1. Carfax Publishing. Taylor & Francis Group.
Liederman, Molokotos (2009) Religious Diversity in Schools: the Muslim Headscarf Controversy and Beyond. Social Compass, 2000; 47; 367. Sage Publications.
Dehyle, Donna (nd) Navajo Youth and Anglo Racism. Harvard Educational Review.
The objective of this study is to describe the cultural understanding held of ethnocultural privilege in this society and how this has been observed in relation to oneself and others ands to answer how one holds privilege and what has been observed regarding others who are holders of ethnocultural privilege.
Ethnocultural Privilege Defined
Ethnocultural privilege is a privilege that the individual derives from belonging to a specific ethnic cultural group. This privilege is related in the work of Noel (2010) who states "I must face directly the privilege that my Whiteness, as well as my class and educational level, give me, and must realize the community members are also working though how they see me."
When Equal is Not Always Equal
Parsons (2001) relates that while socioeconomically disadvantages and socioeconomically advantages students, Anglo students and students of color, male students, and female student may have access to equal…
Noel, J. (2010) A Critical Interrogation of Privilege, Race, Class, and Power in a University Faculty -- Urban Community Relationship. Urban Rev (2010) 42:210 -- 220. Retrieved from: [HIDDEN]
Parsons, EC (2001) Using Power and Caring to Mediate White Male Privilege, Equality, and Equity in an Urban Elementary Classroom: Implications for Teacher Preparation. The Urban Review, Vol. 33, No. 4, December 2001. Retrieved from: [HIDDEN]
Steele, CM (1997) A Threat in the Air How Stereotypes Shape Intellectual Identity and Performance. Stanford University. June 1997. American Psychologist. Retrieved from
It is important to recognize the many different areas within adult education, and what type of students these areas attract. Ultimately, for the adult education department to be successful, it must attract a wide variety of students, and keep at least some of those students coming back to continue their education in order to be successful. Adult education serves a vital role in the upper education system, and it serves a diverse amount of people, but in most institutions it also has to support itself if not turn a profit, and that is an important aspect to take into consideration. Therefore, classes must be viable to the institution, but to the student, as well, to keep attracting a wide variety of students into the program.
In addition, diverse students could form a major foundation of the program, and so, it pays to understand these diverse learners so administrators and teaching…
Education in the Community
A major issue currently effecting culture, population, and demographics is that of wealth inequality. As the global economic downturn continues throughout the world, wealth disparity is increasing rapidly. This affects culture, population, and overall demographics in a litany of ways. First, due primarily to lower wages, families are postponing child birth. The uncertainty surrounding the future creates an atmosphere of fear. Families are now waiting until the economic climate becomes more certain before they have their children. Furthermore, the median income for middle class families has plummeted within the last 3 years. The median income for the average American household was roughly $51,000 in 2008. Now the median income is roughly $48,000. This creates problems as families are less apt to spend money are discretionary activities that form the basis of their culture. Holiday spending, for example has yet to reach its 2007 heights. Families are…
1) "Employment Situation Summary." U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Web. 14 July 2011. .
2) Rice Culture of China." China.org.cn - China News, Weather, Business, Travel & Language Courses. Web. 14 July 2011. .
3) "History of American Agriculture - Farm Machinery and Technology." Inventors. Web. 14 July 2011. .
4) Breaden, M.C. (2008, Feb 6), "Teacher-Quality Gap Examined Worldwide," Education Week, Feb. 6, 2008. Education Trust,
Children who possess this curiosity will become adults that are more fully engaged in their world, and that examine their environment for better alternatives; this is the kind of adult that I would like to see eventually emerging form my continued educational practice.
While I see educators more as guides than as authoritarian figures, there does need to be a clear hierarchy established between the teacher and the learner. This does not have to be strictly and explicitly defined, but rather should come more easily from the tone with which the classroom is run and how conflicts are handled when they arise (Gordon & Burch 2003). Simply guiding rather than directly instructing works until it doesn't, in other words, and once that point is reached instructions need to be followed. Even such instances are part of the educational process when it comes to building critical thinkers and careful…
Applebaum, P. (2002). Multicultural and diversity education Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Davis-Seaver, J. & Davis, E. (2000). Critical thinking in young children. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.
Gordon, T. & Nurch, N. (2003). Teacher effectiveness training. New York: Random House.
Winch, C. (2006). Education, autonomy and critical thinking. New York: Routledge.
7. Must be a good team player.
Looking at the above list, it is apparent that aside from basic OMA knowledge, two competency areas are particularly important in entry-level positions: personal qualities and human relations skills. Personal qualities include characteristics like flexibility, maturity, outgoing and pleasant personality, and strong skills in communication, organization, time management, multitasking, problem solving, and critical analysis. In the category of human relations, multicultural sensitivity, teamwork, and active listening are deemed important.
Slide # 6. The Issues We Face (Common Issues in Multicultural Affairs)
Professionals within multicultural affairs are faced with various issues that fall categorically in the areas of racial identity, and ethnicity, LGBT, religion, and student disability ("Bias incidents," n.d., para. 1; Flowers, L, 2003, Contents, Section 2). Issues that permeate all categories include, harassment, bias incidents and hate crimes.
1. acial Identity and Ethnicity -- culture clashes, racial tension, bias incidents
1. A complex mission (n.d.). In Mission of the Office for Multicultural Affairs. Retrieved Sept. 17, 2009, from http://www.calvin.edu/admin/provost/multicultural/mission.htm
2. Barrett, W. (2003). Information technology in student affairs. In S.R. Komives, & D.B. Woodard, Jr. (Eds.), Student services: A handbook for the profession (4th ed., pp. 379 -- 396). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved Sept. 17, 2009, from http://www.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=l9eUK5qBWlgC&oi=fnd&pg=PR15&dq=Information+Technology+in+student+services&ots=XLg6zWzMn7&sig=PDlwDD-i_VQAKMGa_9e1wzh1lUU#v=onepage&q=Information%20Technology%20in%20student%20services&f=false
3. Basic Job Qualifications (n.d.). Retrieved Sept. 17, 2009, from http://maf.dept.uncg.edu/docs/OMAassistant.pdf
4. Bias Incident/Hate Crime. Retrieved Sept. 19, 2009, from http://www.rwu.edu/about/administration/publicsafety/biashatecrime/
Maketing to a multicultual audience -- Stabucks and McDonald's
All businesses today must be multicultual to some extent (Makgosa 2012). The Intenet has opened up new potals to multicultual, multinational consume audiences. Moe foeign nationals in developing nations aspie to imitate the Ameican, consumeist life they see potayed in the moden media. Ameica itself is gowing inceasingly divese, which demands a moe caefully-segmented appoach to maketing. Howeve, this ceates a poblem fo global businesses such as Stabucks and McDonald's. On one hand, the coe foundation of thei business is based upon maketing a paticula type of lifestyle, a lifestyle gounded in an image ooted in Ameicana (o in the case of Stabucks, a vey Ameican vision of a Euopean cafe). The coe poblem of today's multicultual maketing is that changes must be made to addess an inceasingly divese audience: an audience which demands moe than mee tokenism o…
Palacios, S. (2011). Multicultural is the wave of the future. Ad Age. Retrieved:
Patterson, P.G., Scott, J., & Uncles, M.D. (2010). How the local competition defeated a global brand: The case of Starbucks. Australasian Marketing Journal, 18(1), 41-47.
Starbucks: Japan's highest-rated coffee chain. (2009). What Japan Thinks.
MULTICULTUAL CHILDEN'S BOOKS -- AN ANALYSIS
Multicultural Children's Books -- an Analysis
Multicultural Children's Books -- an Analysis
Children's literature more accurately reflects the many histories that construct nations such as the United States. The perspectives of children's books should be included read for this week's session for continued analysis and interpretation. Multicultural perspectives were excluded in the past for several reasons. One reason is that the cultural perspective that had the most value and was valued at all, was the white American male perspective. This is the perspective of the colonizer. It is typically those who colonize that write the history books and decide which stories are told (and how), and which stories are excluded from memory. The book of focus for the purposes of this paper is Cheyenne Again, about a young Native American boy who is taken from his tribal lands and culture, and very much…
Arellano, J. (2011). The Use of Multicultural Literature in Elementary Classrooms: Teaching Acceptance and Understanding of Different Races, Ethnicities, and Cultures. University of Wisconsin, Stout: Print.
Bunting, E. (2002). Cheyenne Again. Sandpiper: Print.
Ryan, T. (2006). Multicultural Children's Literature: A Discourse Analysis. Pacific University, Forest Grove, OR. Print.
Sage Publications. (nd). Chapter 1 -- Introduction to Multicultural Children's Literature. Web, Available from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/34101_Chapter1.pdf . 2013 January 25.
CROSSING COLOR ARRIERS
Ethical and Legal Concerns
Section I of the ACA (2014) Code of Ethics on Resolving Ethical Issues mandates professional counselors to behave ethically and to obey the law. They are fully aware that client welfare and the trust enjoyed by their profession entirely depend on a high level of professional conduct on their part. They adhere faithfully to the ACA Code of Ethics and other applicable codes. They base their solution to an ethical issue or dilemma on the Code, consultation, relevant ethical standards, principles and laws. In cases when ethical responsibilities conflict with established laws, regulations and/or other governing legal authority and no solution is achieved, they may choose to yield to the requirements of these legal authorities (ACA).
Section .1.c. On Respect for Confidentiality obliges counselors to guard all confidential information of both current and future clients (ACA, 2014). They reveal specific information…
ACA (2014). ACA Code of Ethics. ACA Governing Council. Retrieved on March 29,
2014 from http://www.counseling.org/Resources/aca-code-of-ethics.pdf
DeTrude, J. (2001). The supervision process: complications and concerns. Professional Issues in Counseling: Sam Houston State University. Retrieved on March 30, 2014
http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading-the-international-agenda/education-for-sustainable-development/cultural-diversity / (UNESCO)
This is information about cultural diversity in education, particularly in education for sustainable development found on UNESCO's website. UNESCO is the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and I found the information about education on their website particularly interesting because it addresses education in a global, multicultural environment.
The first important aspect on their website is the institutional framework in which the educational segment operates at UNESCO, which particularly reflects cultural diversity. This is the Johannesburg Declaration, from 2002, which stipulates that "Our rich diversity . . . is our collective strength." Moving from this declaration, it proposes three general principles that link ESD to cultural diversity. These include the fact that the educational process (ESD, as UNESCO refers to it) has to be "locally relevant and culturally appropriate," but also that ESD requires "intercultural understanding."
According to UNESCO, the educational process has…
Education / Unit Plan Review
The goals for the unit incorporate students' understanding about states in the U.S. In terms of multiculturalism. They will demonstrate their knowledge through listening, speaking, reading and writing activities. Students will gain an understanding of different cultures and customs, how they relate to one another, and how the students themselves have a personal identity as members of particular communities. Students conduct research and complete assignments; they will also be encouraged to form their own opinions and empowered to take charge of their own learning with self-monitoring tools.
The teacher can consider the unit successful when students demonstrate engagement in the lessons and produce quality work that results from both interest and understanding. The rubrics and checklists provide students with clear expectations. They know exactly what they are supposed to do and how to do it. If there are many questions about procedures or expected outcomes…
Multicultural Counseling Competency
The development of American society as a multicultural society in the recent years resulted from the numerous incidences of diaspora and migration among individuals who belong to various cultures and societies all over the world. At present, the United States is host country to peoples of various race, ethnicity, worldviews, as well as social class, which include Europeans, Asians, Africans, Hispanic, and Native Americans. The diversity of American society thus necessitates an awareness of the cultural differences among these groups to further understand and tolerate these differences as each group interacts with the other and the whole of American society.
Understanding cultural diversity is indeed imperative for the counselor, who faces the challenge to provide efficient mental health service for an individual who may belong to a culturally-different group other than the white Americans. The hybridization of American society serves as a challenge for multicultural counseling to…
Arredondo, P. (2004). "Multicultural counseling competencies=ethical practice." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, Vol. 26, Issue 1.
Baruth, L. And M. Manning. (1999). Multicultural counseling and psychotherapy: a lifespan perspective. NJ: Prentice Hall.
Constantine, M. (2001). "Multicultural training, theoretical orientation, empathy, and multicultural case conceptualization ability in counselors." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, Vol. 23, Issue 4.
Liu, W. And D. Clay. (2002). "Multicultural counseling competencies: guidelines in working with children and adolescents." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, Vol. 24, Issue 2.
Qualifying for professional certifications should be sought. All of these are ways the counselor can ensure that he or she has sound attitudes and abilities for making good judgments on ethical and multicultural questions.
There are growing resources of culturally-sensitive educational material for use by counselors. It is left to the counselor to pursue this crucial extra dimension on their own, stemming from personal dedication to the professional task. The practitioner must always seek to improve skills and understanding without simply relying on mandates from external organizations. There is a need for continuing education to make sure one is aware of new scientific and professional information and procedures of value to specific client population worked with (e.g., Mexican or Chinese populations). It is crucial to seek out communication with counselors who have greater experience and may help with advice. Also one must consult with counselors whose social and cultural backgrounds…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA Code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
Garcia, J.G., Cartwright, B., Winston, S., & Borzuchowska, B. (2003). "A transcultural integrative model for ethical decision making in counseling. (Practice & Theory)." Journal of Counseling and Development. 2003. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from accessmylibrary: http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-106027116/transcultural-integrative-model-ethical.html
Gielen, U.P, Draguns, J.G., & Fish, J.M. (2008). Principles of multicultural counseling and therapy. New York: Routledge.
Pedersen, Paul. (1994). A Handbook for developing multicultural awareness. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Multicultural Matrix and Analysis
Multicultural Matrix and Analysis Worksheet
Select and identify six groups in the left-hand column. Complete the matrix.
Write a summary.
Format references consistent with APA guidelines.
What is the group's history in the United States?
What is the group's population in the United States?
What are some attitudes and customs people of this group may practice?
What is something you admire about this group's people, lifestyle, or society?
The Sioux is a group of Native American tribes, related by language, that were based in the Great Plains. In the 1800s, westward expansion and white settlement led the U.S. government to by force remove the Sioux from their native lands onto reservations. Anger over these removals and poor treatment by the federal government ultimately boiled over into armed confrontation, which ended in the Great Sioux War of 1876-77 and the…
Sioux. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/sioux
Black History. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory
African-American Voices. (2007). Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20080507214116/http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/black_voices/voices_display.cfm?id=23
The Story Of Hispanics In The Americas. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://history-world.org/hispanics.htm
The presenting issues evidenced by the client include self-identity and self-esteem issues. In particular the client appears to be confused about which culture she belongs to and which values and behaviors are 'acceptable.' The client may be described as having a 'dual identity' which she is attempting to reconcile to the point where she can be comfortable both with her American home and her traditional Chinese traditional family.
The subject is having difficulty blending her Asian background with her American surroundings. In addition the patient is having a hard time reconciling the very detached manner in which she was raised, that did not allow close bonds to form between her and her dad and mother. There is evidence to suggest that Sally was to some extent physically abused by her mother, and while she presents a rather submissive attitude at home, the person she presents to…
Arredondo, P., Toporek, R., Brown, S.P., Jones, J., Locke, D.C., Sanche, J. & Stadler, H.
(1996). "Operationalization of the multicultural counseling competencies." Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development 24: 42-78
Hargrow, A. (2001). "Racial identity development: The case of Mr. X, an African
American." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 23: 222-228
The U.S.A. is known to be a host of people from varied origins like German, Scottish, Italian, Africans and so on hence the mixture of many cultures. This is the same phenomenon with South Africa as portrayed in the novel. There are the Africans, Irish, Dutch (Boers) and the English people among others (Stanford University, n.d).
The two countries also have a shared history of the segregation culture that saw one group of people given lesser preference on the major issues like governance and access to basic amenities. The societal stratification existed within the U.S.A. with the whites presumed to be superior to the rest of the Americans, and the same thing is portrayed in the novel where the whites held higher class than the rest. They were feared as they held the major offices and wealth yet the Africans there were despised, economically down and living in slums by…
Kwintesential, (2012). USA - Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette. Retrieved June 10, 2012 from http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/usa.html
Peter Abrahams, (1989). Mine Boy. Heinemann.
Prima Birungi, (2010). Mine Boy (by Peter Abrahams). Retrieved June 10, 2012 from http://www.africabookclub.com/?p=853
South Africa Tours and Travel, (2012). Brief history of Apartheid in South Africa. Retrieved June 10, 2012 from http://www.south-africa-tours-and-travel.com/apartheid.html
They say that east or west home is best am sure everyone can attest to this statement. However circumstances force us to move from our own native land so as to seek some sort of "better life" in a new and strange land. This can pose as a great challenge to the person when it comes to settling in the new strange land. There are however various situations that have been seen where a person easily fits into the new setting ease. This is attributed to the fact that the person possesses some various personal strengths that will enable the person to easily fit and therefore do well both socially and economically.
All these three to be discussed characters have their own strengths that will enable them to survive and do well in the new social setting.
The first character is good at Overcoming a challenges. Being in…
The Gallup Organization, (2000). StrengthsQuest. Retrieved February 21, 2013 from http://www.monroecc.edu/depts/StrengthsQuest/documents/2008-10-24QuickReference.pdf
Succeed Socially, (2013). How to Make Friends And Get a Social Life. Retrieved February 21, 2013 from http://www.succeedsocially.com/sociallife
Demand Media, Inc. (2013). How to Overcome Challenges in Your Life. Retrieved February 21, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/how_5058456_overcome-challenges-life.html
The conflict between Sara and her father mirrors that of Ana and her mother. Reb and Carmen both try to control and manipulate their daughters by appealing to traditional cultural values. Gender is at the heart of their struggle, as gender norms are critical to their old-fashioned worldviews. Interestingly, there are traditionalists in both Bread Givers and in Real Women Have Curves who retain their ethnic identities while promoting gender equality. For example, Ana's grandfather relays a tale about a treasure-filled mountain in Mexico. He tells the tale to a captivated Ana before telling her that he wants Ana to "find her gold" too. Ana's father and grandfather support her academic achievements and want her to take advantage of the scholarship. In Bread Givers, Sara meets another traditional Polish-American. Although Hugo is not Jewish, he and Sara bond over their cultural identity and prove that ethnic pride does not need…
Education and acism
There are many controversial issues related to education and racism, none the least of which is identifying the relationship between racism and student achievement (Constantine, 2002). The aim of this paper will be an examination of what attitudes and beliefs impact a students ability to achieve and succeed in the classroom, as well as an examination of what methods must be adopted to combat racism effectively in the classroom.
acism is an important topic to examine, particularly as more and more school systems within the United States are becoming racially and ethnically diverse (Constantine, 2002). Many teachers, school counselors and even students often feel unequipped to address the needs of students that come from diverse cultural backgrounds (Constantine, 2002). Conflict and chaos in the classroom often results when the needs of racially and ethnically diverse students are ignored.
One critical factor relating to the controversy surrounding racism…
Constantine, M.G. (2002). Racism attitudes, white racial identity attitudes and multicultural counseling competence in school counselor trainees. Counselor Education and Supervision, 41(3)162.
Donaldson, K.B. (1996). Through students' eyes: Combating racism in United States schools. Westport: Praeger.
Sue, D.W., Arrendondo, P. & McDavis, R.J. (1992). "Multicultural counseling competencies and standards: A call to the profession." Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 20: 64-68.
We went in assuming we would be rather homogenous and then found that the dynamic of the group could have broken down as a virtue of differences. Once those differences were noted by myself, the group leader the task became essentially easier, as more time working in the collective was sought by the group and as an individualist, simply had to adapt to this idea and allow for this time.
Within the works of Charles Handy there is also a message that influenced my thinking on this project and its dynamic and communication strategies. Handy stresses that the application of political ideas to company management is inevitable and in particular he stresses that federalism is the concept most likely to be utilized to demonstrate company structure and change. Not only did find this to be true regarding the materials gathered in the project context, HP, but also in the collective…
ITIM International Website "Geert Hofstede" Accessed January 7, 2008 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/
Ledwith, S. & Seymour, D. (December 2001) Home and Away: Preparing Students for Multicultural Management. International Journal of Human resource Management, (12) 8, 1292-1312.
Tomlinson F. & Egan, S. (2002) Organizational Sensemaking in a Culturally Diverse Setting: Limits to the 'Valuing Diversity' Discourse. Management Learning, (33) 1, 79-97.
"The 'White' race was obeying the 'divine command, to subdue and replenish the earth,' as it searched for new and distant lands."
They were proud of their progress.
They believed they were bringing civilization to races and people who would otherwise be primitive heathens. If they couldn't convert them, they killed them. They were destroying "savagery." Houses replaced wigwams. White women replaced Indian squaws. And all of it was done in the name of God. They were really doing it for money, but rationalized the evil of it by calling it progress. This attitude, that whites were a civilizing influence, extended toward the yellow races also.
A chose this section because it is another example of how capitalism lacks a social conscience. The Chinese were brought here for cheap labor and were exploited for profits.
To paraphrase: Annexing California led to bringing Asian workers here to build a transcontinental railroad.…
Culture is commonly understood as a set of shared beliefs, values, goals and other such common ideas practiced by a group. It is an integration of art, architecture, language, food, music, lifestyle, religion and other such facets which are the defining feature of every culture. Amongst the several varying cultures of the world, this paper would focus on the Japanese culture thereby highlighting its practices and also linking it with the traditional psychological theories.
The Japanese culture is a complex system which is seen to go through a number of transformations. The initial establishment had an influence from the Chinese and Korean practices. As a matter of fact, it was the military that actually ruled the country. However, apart from going through several military conquests, instabilities and isolation, the Japanese culture took a new turn under the influence of the Western presence ultimately making Japan the…
Berg M. (2011). Racism in the Modern World: Historical Perspectives on Cultural Transfer and Adaptation. Berghahn Books. USA.
James B. (2005). Asian Culture Brief: Japan, National Technical Assistance Center, Vol. 2, No. 6. Hawaii.
Immigration Bureau (2005). Statistics for Foreign Residents in Japan. Ministry of Justice. Japan Immigration Association
Ritts, V. (2000). Culture and aging. Retrieved on 7th September, 2011, from http://users.stlcc.edu/vritts/aging.html#top.
However, including progress reports that are not valued (no a and B. Or percentage grades) allow parents to follow a child's learning (assermann 386). This breaks the cycle of rewarding or admonishing children for subjects that may naturally be easy or difficult. Instead of creating situations that may lead to learning-related anxiety, progress reports give parents information while children continue along a natural learning process.
In the case of teachers, those who enjoy traditional structure may find an open style daunting and initially chaotic. However, giving it a chance may be in their best interest. Many of the common struggles that cause burnout in teachers (again, these include behavioral problems, student apathy, etc.) are lessened in the open classroom. Hertzog reports that many teachers are less stressed by this method (530). Additionally, Dunn reports that teachers often regain their occupational focus because for the first time they feel that children…
Brown, Monica R. "Educating All Students: Creating Culturally Responsive Teachers, Classrooms, and Schools." Intervention in School & Clinic 43.1 (2007): 57-62.
Cuban, Larry. "The Open Classroom: Schools Without Walls Became All the Rage During the Early 1970s. Were They Just Another Fad?" Education Next 4.2 (2004): 68-71.
Dunn, Mary Anna. "Staying the Course of Open Education." Educational Leadership 57.7 (2000): 20-24.
Heimlich, Joe E., and Emmalou Norland. "Teaching Style: Where Are We Now?" New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 93 (2002): 17-25.
Multicultural Theories of Psychology
Multicultural Theories of Psychotherapy
Diagnosis, treatment and care of patient and their conditions are greatly influenced by cultural considerations. These actors determine beliefs and values related to health. Yet, these widespread claims about the real value of cultural role in healthcare do not come with sufficient research basis. Psychotherapists have, for a long time emphasized the need to provide multicultural psychotherapy so as to manage and reduce the ethnic and racial disparities in dealing with mental health issues. How multicultural competencies relate with other clinical process measures and treatment results has demonstrated heterogeneity it effect, though (Karen W. Tao & Jesse Owen, 2015). A famous quote by Slavoj Zizek on multi-culturalism deserves a mention here. "For the multiculturalist, white Anglo-Saxon Protestants are prohibited, Italians and Irish get a little respect, blacks are good, native Americans are even better. The further away we go, the more they…
FIVE IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING COMPETENCIES. (2014, July 29). Retrieved from Delaware Valley University: http://www.delval.edu/blog/five-important-aspects-of-multicultural-counseling-competencies
Jairo N. Fuertes, Peggy Brady-Amoon, Navneet Thind, & Tiffany Chang. (2015). The Therapy Relationship in Multicultural Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Bulletin.
Jesse Owen, Mark M. Leach, & Bruce Wampold. (2011). Multicultural Approaches in Psychotherapy: A Rejoinder. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 22-26.
Karen W. Tao, & Jesse Owen. (2015). A Meta-Analysis of Multicultural Competencies and Psychotherapy Process and Outcome. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 337-350.
According to the American Psychological Association (APA), multicultural psychology allows us to identify and respond to different needs for particular individuals and groups historically marginalized or disenfranchised within and by psychology based on their ethnic/racial heritage and social group identity or membership.
What is the significance of multicultural psychology?
The impact of multicultural psychology is huge. It helps us to stop attempting to apply a one-size fit all blanket solution to the challenges and ills we face in society. It allows us to understand that cultural differences actually can and do make a difference in how individuals perceive and respond to information and events. We can no longer make the easy assumption that we all think and behave identically; it forces us to have a deeper understanding and a greater appreciation for gender, cultural, class, racial and ethnic differences. The study of multicultural psychology opens our eyes, allowing us to…
Outsourced employees should be limited to filling non-critical areas of need. They should be used to alleviate the load on regular employees, rather than to replace them. They will fill in non-essential positions, leaving full-time employees to fill the more sensitive security roles.
Strategic planning will be an ongoing process, rather than a single event that is a part of the initial phases of the process. Security issues are constantly emerging and evolving. In order to remain an effective deterrent to harm, one must stay informed and keep one's staff informed of the changes that occur. An informed staff will be the most effective in spotting and reporting threats before they become problematic. The strategic security plan will be one of continuous monitoring and improvement. Security audits will be a part of this strategic planning cycle. Training and regular staff briefing will round out the security planning sessions.
Boeree, G. (2006). Abraham Maslow. Personality Theories. Retrieved September 18, 2007 at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html .
A www.informaworld.com http://www.articlestree.com/management/personnel-management-to-hrm-maslow-s-theory-tx307537.html.
Overseas Security Advisory Council (2007) Guidelines for American Enterprises abroad, OSAC Publication, World wide 1 Jun 2005, Chapter 1 through chapter 7..
Te, H. (n.d.). Attitude toward the self. Retrieved September 18, 2007 at http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Den/5908/values/attitude.html.
cultural bias and/or culturally appropriate interventions.
Burnett, J.A., Hamel, D., & Long, L.L. (2004). Service learning in graduate counselor education: Developing multicultural counseling competency. Journal of Multicultural
Counseling and Development, 32(3), 180-191.
Even the most enthusiastic counseling students are initially limited by their cultural worldview. This article examines ways to enhance the education of graduate students in the field with service-based learning. Service learning integrates classroom learning with community service. The approach merges academic concepts with real-world, hands-on experience early on in the students' career to show the link between theory and practice. Everyone benefits: the student, the persons receiving the service, and the clients of the eventual graduates. The article involves a qualitative study of a single group of students who volunteered at four service agencies serving African-American low-income communities. Although assessing the ultimate effect on the students' practice was not conclusive (the study was not longitudinal…
" And following that experience the class can discuss what acid rain does to the ecosystem and the teacher can show a video of a forest devastated by acid rain, or just photos of depleted forests and dead fish floating on a stream or lake (waters that have been polluted by acid rain).
About this time, students are asked: "here does the acid rain come from?" Let them guess, and talk about it. Then the teacher shows photos of smokestacks belching out clouds of brown sooty looking pollution and explain that once in the atmosphere, the pollutants (they don't need to know the science of precisely what chemicals bond with condensation but they could certainly relate to dirty polluted particles joining with raindrops) return to earth as acid rain. And as an additional part of this curriculum, students should be shown the various products that are produced in the factories…
Chappell, Tracey. (2008). Getting serious about inclusive curriculum for special education.
Primary & Middle Years Educator, 6(2), five pages.
EdChange. (2008). Curriculum Reform: Steps Toward Multicultural Curriculum
Transformation. Retrieved June 21, 2009, from http://www.edchange.org/ multicultural/curriculum/steps.html.
Klotz 266) the standards of the system have had to rely on standardized accountability curriculum to attempt to make this cooperative concept work. The difficulties are also answered with community emphasis on technology and social growth as well a community involvement in schools and district affairs.
In one of the most poignant addresses to congress, in this case Montana, one of the congressmen demonstrate the fight, in every state for the development of quality schools for Native Americans.
If there is to be a solution to the Indian problem in this country, it will only come about when our educational system provides the knowledge... needed to understand and respect the cultural differences between us and the state helps to preserve and protect their cultural integrity. This is a matter of pride. All of us are proud of our heritage... because we know about our history, our culture and our integrity....Are…
Juneau, Denise, and Mandy Smoker Broaddus. "And Still the Waters Flow: The Legacy of Indian Education in Montana it Took 34 Years, Extraordinary Perseverance, and a Series of Legislative and Legal Efforts before the Advocates of Indian Education for All Would Finally See Its Implementation in Montana's Classrooms. Ms. Juneau and Ms. Broaddus Chronicle the Law's Tortuous History." Phi Delta Kappan 88.3 (2006): 193.
Klotz, Irving M. "Multicultural Perspectives in Science Education: One Prescription for Failure." Phi Delta Kappan 75.3 (1993): 266.
Mitchell, Bruce M., and Robert E. Salsbury. Encyclopedia of Multicultural Education. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.
Roscoe, Will. The Zuni Man-Woman. 1st ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991.
.." (Fluker, 2006). According to research, 90% of faculty and 75% of students enrolled in doctoral religious studies programs in the United States and Canada are Caucasian (American Academy of eligion, 2003). Fluker argues (and rightfully so), "Without racial and ethnic diversity, schools fail to create a positive institutional climate in which students from all backgrounds can succeed. Without racial and ethnic diversity, students fail to meet and learn from role models and mentors they can emulate in their own vocations. Without racial and ethnic diversity, students of all races fail to learn how to relate to the diverse world in which they will live and work after graduation..."
The fourth article "Education Groups Push for Greater Diversity in Teaching Force" defends the fact that "a lack of racial and cultural diversity among teachers is hurting the chances of success for minority students..." (Cox, Matthews & Associates, 2004). esearch suggests…
Cherwitz, R.A. (2004). Capitalizing on unintended consequences: Lessons on diversity from Texas (Reality Check). Peer Review 6 (3), 33-36.
Fluker, S.W. (2006). Diversity delayed, excellence denied. Diverse Issues in Higher Education, 23 (4), 59-60.
Noteworthy News (2004). Education groups push for greater diversity in teaching force. Black Issues in Higher Education, 21(21), 14-15.
Valentin, S. (2006). Addressing diversity in teacher education programs